Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft aesa component

  1. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment has shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This second report presents the status of the ongoing research as reported by the principal investigators at the second annual AESA Program meeting in May 1992: Laboratory studies are probing the mechanism responsible for many of the heterogeneous reactions that occur on stratospheric particles. Understanding how the atmosphere redistributes aircraft exhaust is critical to our knowing where the perturbed air will go and for how long it will remain in the stratosphere. The assessment of fleet effects is dependent on the ability to develop scenarios which correctly simulate fleet operations.

  2. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  3. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A third program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A third report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP) is presented. Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment showed that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This third report marks the midpoint of the program and presents the status of the ongoing research on the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere as reported at the third annual AESA Program meeting in June 1993. The focus of the program is on predicted atmospheric changes resulting from projected HSCT emissions. Topics reported on cover how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements, and exhaust plume/aircraft wake vortex interactions.

  4. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  6. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  7. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  8. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  9. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  10. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  12. Flow Forming of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Canada 1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA jean.Savoie@pwc.ca ABSTRACT Aircraft engine components are often an assembly of...1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  13. Monitoring Integrity Of Composite Aircraft Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Shu Shing; Chen, Kuan-Luen; Kuo, An-Yu; Riccardella, Peter C.; Mucciardi, Anthony N.; Andrews, Robert J.; Grady, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    System developed that monitors integrity of composite-material structural components of aircraft in service. Includes strain gauges and accelerometers installed permanently in components to monitor vibrations, microprocessor-based data-acquisition system to process outputs of these vibration sensors, and desktop computer to analyze acquired data. By automating significant part of inspection process, system reduces amount of time needed for inspection and cost of inspection equipment. Contributes to safety by giving timely warning of hidden flaws that necessitate early, detailed inspection of critical components to determine whether components should be replaced immediately.

  14. Lifecycle Information of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    commercial aircraft, the industry generated a number of potential RFID-based applications for airlines, air- freight carriers, aircraft maintenance and...adoption of RFID technologies to track serially controlled items requires careful planning and design. Data overload and data noise also affect the...performance of RFID systems. Data overload results from continuously scanning the RFID tags within reader range and sending the repeated information

  15. Corrosion Preventative Compounds (CPCs) Effect on Aircraft Electrical Wiring Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    degrade certain types of elastomers . • are susceptible to entrapping contaminants. CPC Effect on Aircraft Electrical Wiring Components...early 1980’s on many Navy aircraft. The Navy’s standard wire type. M5086/2-20 c Polyvinyl chloride, polyamide jacket, glass fiber braid (PVC/glass...connector type does not have a wire sealing grommet, so the same type of frictional forces from the elastomer are not encountered. 4.2.2

  16. Potential of Computed Tomography for inspection of aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Azevedo, S.G.; Martz, H.E.; Schneberk, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) using penetrating radiation (x- or gamma-rays) can be used in a number of aircraft applications. This technique results in 3D volumetric attenuation data that is related to density and effective atomic number. CT is a transmission scanning method that must allow complete access to both sides of the object under inspection; the radiation source and detection systems must surround the object. This normally precludes the inspection of some large or planar (large aspect ratio) parts of the aircraft. However, we are pursuing recent limited-data techniques using object model information to obtain useful data from the partial information acquired. As illustrative examples, we describe how CT was instrumental in the analysis of particular aircraft components. These include fuselage panels, single crystal turbine blades, and aluminumlithium composites. These tests were performed by the members of the Nondestructive Evaluation Section at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where we have been actively working in CT research and development. The aerospace applications can represent various phases of the design, manufacture, assembly, test, and retirement of various components and assemblies.

  17. Computerized ultrasonic test inspection enhancement system for aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parent, R. G.

    Attention is given to the computerized ultrasonic test inspection enhancement (CUTIE) system which was designed to meet the following program goals: (1) automation of the inspection technique and evaluation of the discontinuities for aircraft components while maintaining reasonable implementation costs and reducing the overall inspection costs; and (2) design of a system which would allow for easy modification so that new concepts could be implemented. The system's ultrasonic test bridge, C-scan recorder, computer control, and ultrasonic flaw detector are described. Consideration is also given to the concurrent development of an eight element array transducer (for increasing the inspection rate) and a high-speed data acquisition system (for signature analysis).

  18. Nde of Bonded Aluminum Components on Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, Daniel J.; Hsu, David K.; Foreman, Cory; Wendt, Scott; Kreitinger, Nicholas A.; Steffes, Gary J.

    2008-02-01

    Bonded aluminum structures have been commonly used on aircraft for many years, and many of these applications include flight control surfaces. These bonded structures can be made up of aluminum face sheets adhesively bonded to a central honeycomb core, or they could also be composed of machined components that are bonded in a tongue-in-groove type manner called Grid-Lock. Nondestructive Inspection (NDI) methods of bonded aluminum structures usually involve the detection of skin-to-core disbonds, core buckling and damage caused by impacts. In the case of Grid-Lock, NDI techniques are focused on the detection of failures in the tongue-in-groove adhesive joint. Three nondestructive inspection methods were applied to honeycomb sandwich structures and Grid-Lock panels. The three methods were computer aided tap test (CATT), air-coupled ultrasonic testing (ACUT), and mechanical impedance analysis (MIA). The honeycomb structures tested consisted of structural panels and flight control surfaces from various aircraft. The Grid-Lock samples tested are laboratory specimens that simulate various defects. Experimental results and comparisons from each of these methods and samples will be presented.

  19. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  20. Techno-economic requirements for composite aircraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Ray

    1993-01-01

    The primary reason for use of composites is to save structural weight. A well designed composite aircraft structure will usually save 25-30 percent of a well designed metal structure. The weight savings then translates into improved performance of the aircraft in measures of greater payload, increased flying range or improved efficiency - less use of fuel. Composite materials offer technical advantages. Key technical advantages that composites offer are high stiffness, tailored strength capability, fatigue resistance, and corrosion resistance. Low thermal expansion properties produce dimensionally stable structures over a wide range of temperature. Specialty resin 'char' forming characteristics in a fire environment offer potential fire barrier application and safer aircraft. The materials and processes of composite fabrication offer the potential for lower cost structures in the near future. The application of composite materials to aircraft are discussed.

  1. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  2. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  3. Analytical Techniques for Aromatic Components in Aircraft Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-10-01

    IN AIRCRAFT FUELS J . Scott Warner Richard P. Kenan Battelle Columbus Laboratories 505 King Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 DTIC October 1979 ELECTE JUL...1979. Dr. J . Scott Warner, Battelle’s Columbus Laboratories, was the Principal Investigator for the program and had the primary responsibility for

  4. Optimal Aircraft Control Upset Recovery With and Without Component Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W.; Moerder, Daniel D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of recovering sustainable nondescending (safe) flight in a transport aircraft after one or more of its control effectors fail. Such recovery can be a challenging goal for many transport aircraft currently in the operational fleet for two reasons. First, they have very little redundancy in their means of generating control forces and moments. These aircraft have, as primary control surfaces, a single rudder and pairwise elevators and aileron/spoiler units that provide yaw, pitch, and roll moments with sufficient bandwidth to be used in stabilizing and maneuvering the airframe. Beyond this, throttling the engines can provide additional moments, but on a much slower time scale. Other aerodynamic surfaces, such as leading and trailing edge flaps, are only intended to be placed in a position and left, and are, hence, very slow-moving. Because of this, loss of a primary control surface strongly degrades the controllability of the vehicle, particularly when the failed effector becomes stuck in a non-neutral position where it exerts a disturbance moment that must be countered by the remaining operating effectors. The second challenge in recovering safe flight is that these vehicles are not agile, nor can they tolerate large accelerations. This is of special importance when, at the outset of the recovery maneuver, the aircraft is flying toward the ground, as is frequently the case when there are major control hardware failures. Recovery of safe flight is examined in this paper in the context of trajectory optimization. For a particular transport aircraft, and a failure scenario inspired by an historical air disaster, recovery scenarios are calculated with and without control surface failures, to bring the aircraft to safe flight from the adverse flight condition that it had assumed, apparently as a result of contact with a vortex from a larger aircraft's wake. An effort has been made to represent relevant airframe dynamics, acceleration limits

  5. Behavior Of Aircraft Components Under Crash-Type Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents overview of research involving use of concepts of aircraft elements and substructures not necessarily designed or optimized with respect to energy-absorption or crash-loading considerations. Experimental and analytical data presented in report indicate some general trends in failure behaviors of class of composite-material structures including individual fuselage frames, skeleton subfloors with stringers and floor beams but without skin covering, and subfloors with skin added to frame/stringer arrangement.

  6. Managing Life-Cycle Information of Aircraft Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    starting to implement Product Life Cycle Management ( PLM ), a closed-loop system that encompasses internationally standardized data-exchange technology...aircraft have much to gain from the use of tracking technologies in support of a PLM system. To investigate how efficiencies can be attained in the...missing the card. The problem stems from the lack of reliability of the card-based system. Moving to an automated PLM system would address these

  7. Generation of a multi-component aircraft grid system using NGP and Begger

    SciTech Connect

    Lijewski, L.E.; Belk, D.M.

    1996-12-31

    Generation of a multiple component aircraft grid system is presented. A hybrid system of blocked and overset grids axe generated using NGP and overlap communications established with the Beggar code. Techniques for gridding wing-flap and fuselage-flap gap regions axe discussed. Steady-state subsonic flow solutions are presented.

  8. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  9. Laser beam brazing of car body and aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Haferkamp, H.; Kreutzburg, K.

    1994-12-31

    At present, when brazing car body components for the automotive industry, manual flame brazing is mostly used. The advantage of brazing as compared to welding, is the lower hardness of the braze metal, making postmachining easier. But manual flame brazing also shows several main disadvantages, such as pores within the seam and a high thermal influence on the workpiece. Therefore, investigations on laser beam brazing concerning the reduction of the technological and economical disadvantages of the flame brazing process were carried out. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys is also a main topic of this presentation. The fundamental research in brazing mild steel was done on lap joints. The investigations about brazing mild steel and aluminum alloys have demonstrated that it is possible to braze these metals using laser beam radiation. Laser beam brazing of 3-dimensional mild steel components requires a special program for the brazing sequence, and new specifications in design and fabrication. But comparing seams made by laser beam brazing to manual flame brazing show that there are advantages to using the automated laser process. Laser beam brazing of aluminum alloys makes it possible to join metals with poor brazeability, although brazing conditions lead to a slight melting of the gap sides.

  10. Defense Suppliers: Factors Affecting U.S. Titanium Aircraft Component Manufacturers’ Market Share of DOD Business

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    DEFENSE SUPPLIERS Factors Affecting U.S. Titanium Aircraft Component Manufacturers’ Market Share of DOD Business...Report to Congressional Committees July 2013 GAO-13-539 United States Government Accountability Office Report Documentation Page Form...COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Defense Suppliers: Factors Affecting U.S. Titanium Aircraft Component Manufacturers’ Market

  11. Utilization of CAD/CAE for concurrent design of structural aircraft components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of installing the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy telescope (named SOFIA) into an aircraft for NASA astronomy studies is investigated using CAD/CAE equipment to either design or supply data for every facet of design engineering. The aircraft selected for the platform was a Boeing 747, chosen on the basis of its ability to meet the flight profiles required for the given mission and payload. CAD models of the fuselage of two of the aircraft models studied (747-200 and 747 SP) were developed, and models for the component parts of the telescope and subsystems were developed by the various concurrent engineering groups of the SOFIA program, to determine the requirements for the cavity opening and for design configuration. It is noted that, by developing a plan to use CAD/CAE for concurrent engineering at the beginning of the study, it was possible to produce results in about two-thirds of the time required using traditional methods.

  12. Analytical and experimental investigation of aircraft metal structures reinforced with filamentary composites. Phase 3: Major component development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryson, L. L.; Mccarty, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations, performed to establish the feasibility of reinforcing metal aircraft structures with advanced filamentary composites, are reported. Aluminum-boron-epoxy and titanium-boron-epoxy were used in the design and manufacture of three major structural components. The components were representative of subsonic aircraft fuselage and window belt panels and supersonic aircraft compression panels. Both unidirectional and multidirectional reinforcement concepts were employed. Blade penetration, axial compression, and inplane shear tests were conducted. Composite reinforced structural components designed to realistic airframe structural criteria demonstrated the potential for significant weight savings while maintaining strength, stability, and damage containment properties of all metal components designed to meet the same criteria.

  13. Development and characterization of fatigue resistant Aramid reinforced aluminium laminates (ARALL) for fatigue Critical aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaiser, M. H.; Umar, S.; Nauman, S.

    2014-06-01

    The structural weight of an aircraft has always been a controlling parameter that governs its fuel efficiency and transport capacity. In pursuit of achieving light-weight aircraft structures, high design stress levels have to be adopted and materials with high specific strength such as Aluminum etc. are to be deployed. However, an extensive spectrum of fatigue load exists at the aircraft wings and other aerodynamic components that may cause initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks and concludes in a catastrophic rupture. Fatigue is therefore the limiting design parameter in such cases and materials with high fatigue resistance are then required. A major improvement in the fatigue behavior was observed by laminating Kevlar fibers with Aluminum using epoxy. ARALL (Aramid Reinforced ALuminum Laminates) is a fatigue resistant hybrid composite that consists of layers of thin high strength aluminum alloy sheets surface bonded with aramid fibers. The intact aramid fibers tie up the fatigue cracks, thus reducing the stress intensity factor at the crack tip as a result of which the fatigue properties of can be enhanced with orders of magnitude as compared to monolithic high strength Aluminum alloy sheets. Significant amount of weight savings can be achieved in fatigue critical components in comparison with the traditional materials used in aircraft.

  14. Fatigue failure of metal components as a factor in civil aircraft accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holshouser, W. L.; Mayner, R. D.

    1972-01-01

    A review of records maintained by the National Transportation Safety Board showed that 16,054 civil aviation accidents occurred in the United States during the 3-year period ending December 31, 1969. Material failure was an important factor in the cause of 942 of these accidents. Fatigue was identified as the mode of the material failures associated with the cause of 155 accidents and in many other accidents the records indicated that fatigue failures might have been involved. There were 27 fatal accidents and 157 fatalities in accidents in which fatigue failures of metal components were definitely identified. Fatigue failures associated with accidents occurred most frequently in landing-gear components, followed in order by powerplant, propeller, and structural components in fixed-wing aircraft and tail-rotor and main-rotor components in rotorcraft. In a study of 230 laboratory reports on failed components associated with the cause of accidents, fatigue was identified as the mode of failure in more than 60 percent of the failed components. The most frequently identified cause of fatigue, as well as most other types of material failures, was improper maintenance (including inadequate inspection). Fabrication defects, design deficiencies, defective material, and abnormal service damage also caused many fatigue failures. Four case histories of major accidents are included in the paper as illustrations of some of the factors invovled in fatigue failures of aircraft components.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  16. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  17. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  18. Observing Supercells with Unmanned Aircraft: Results from the UAS Component of VORTEX-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, A. L.; Argrow, B.; Frew, E.

    2010-12-01

    In the second Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment (VORTEX-2) autonomous unmanned aircraft were used for the first time to collect in-situ observations in close proximity to supercells. The use of unmanned aircraft to collect data significant to stormscale research has long been recognized. However, collecting these data requires aircraft operation beyond the visual line of sight of the controller which necessitates aircraft autonomy. An autonomous unmanned aircraft requires a significantly more complex command and control system and elicits more scrutiny by airspace regulatory agencies. Therefore, while the potential utility of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS, the unmanned aircraft along with the communications and logistics infrastructure required for their operation) for stormscale research may be obvious, the engineering and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome for their use are significant. Surmounting these engineering and regulatory hurdles was the principal objective of the UAS component of VORTEX-2. Regulatory hurdles prevented UAS operations in the first year of VORTEX-2. However, the Federal Aviation Administration (tasked with regulating all UAS operations) granted the UAS group certificates of authorization (CoA) to fly for all of year-2 over northeast CO, southwest NE, and northwest KS. The majority of the engineering hurdles involved the communication system necessary to 1) command and control the aircraft through its on-board autopilot and 2) direct ground-based vehicles required to remain compliant with FAA regulations. Testing during both year-1 and -2 yielded a robust communication system. Lessons learned from interactions with the FAA along with an overview of the communication system will be presented at the conference. Scientifically, the UAS in VORTEX-2 was tasked with collecting in-situ observations of the temperature and moisture above the surface across the rear flank gust front (RFGF) and within the rear

  19. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  20. Installation and through-life operation issues for fiber optic components and systems in aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Henry; Proudley, Geoff; Charlton, D. Wez; Kazemi, Alex A.

    2012-06-01

    Installation of fiber optic communication systems on aircraft is very challenging, particularly in military fighters requiring tight confinement. The issues to be addressed include developing an installation approach compatible with maintenance and through-life support whilst having affordable upfront costs. This applies both to the passive harness components (cable and connectors) and to active transceivers. In this paper we discuss the challenges for cable, connector, and transceiver installations and the system implications for civil and military platforms. This paper further demonstrates how an innovative approach to sub-system testing can help to de-risk technology by simulating installation environments in the laboratory and verifying through-life performance. Furthermore, testing of fiber optic cable in the laboratory with prototype components, representative cable lengths, routing and number of connector breaks, and even harness abuse is elaborated upon. A technique was devised using the BAE Systems Optical System and Component Assessment Rig (OSCAR) to evaluate through life operation. This report also shows prototype testing for typical fiber optic harnesses (during build) and the environmental conditions faced on aerospace platforms. Transceiver installation options (integrated onto processor boards, use of daughter PCBs, active connectors and active cables) are discussed and sub-system test setups are described. Results show how test data is used to assess subsystems: passive components have been tested over the -55 °C to +125 °C temperature range and active components over the -40 °C to +80 °C region. In addition, Gigabit Ethernet data is shown operating over the representative hardware with the results tabulated and shown in this paper. The implications for anticipated aircraft installations are summarized.

  1. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  2. Tone burst eddy current thermography for estimation of corrosion defects in aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libin, M. N.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Krishnamurthy, C. V.; Engelbart, Roger

    2012-05-01

    Tone Burst Eddy Current Thermography (TBET) technique was used for the evaluation of corrosion type damage in Aluminum plate like structures. Both flat and curved components were considered. The effect of the parameters affecting the eddy current generation of head in the metal, including excitation frequency, electrical conductivity, standoff distances, etc were considered in optimizing the heat generation. The thermal diffusivity and thickness of the metal structure were considered while selecting the detection of the signal using a thermal sensitive IR Camera. The experiments were conducted using test samples that had simulated defects with different wall thickness losses. The experiments were supported by a multiphysics 3D Finite Element Model (FEM) using COMSOL. The results were compared with the experimental results. It was determined that this technique has some advantages for the inspection aircraft structural components compared to other modalities, particularly in curved regions.

  3. Extension of service life of rigid transfer lines /SMDC/. [explosive components for aircraft escape systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Kayser, E. G.; Schimmel, M. L.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a life evaluation program on rigid explosive transfer lines, which are used to initiate aircraft emergency crew escape functions, are presented in order to provide quantitative information on rigid explosive transfer lines which can contribute to responsible, conservative, service life determinations. The program involved the development of a test methodology, testing of the three types of transfer lines in use in the U.S., testing of these lines following a repeat of the thermal test conducted in the original qualification, and conducting a degradation investigation. Results from the testing of more than 800 components showed that rigid explosive transfer lines were not affected by age, service, or a repeat of the thermal qualification tests on full-service lines. The explosive degradation limits were approximated and the mechanisms examined. It is concluded that the service lives of rigid explosive transfer lines should be considered for extension in order to provide cost savings and increased system reliability.

  4. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alva, T.; Henkel, J.; Johnson, R.; Carll, B.; Jackson, A.; Mosesian, B.; Brozovic, R.; Obrien, R.; Eudaily, R.

    1982-01-01

    This is the final report of technical work conducted during the fourth phase of a multiphase program having the objective of the design, development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component manufactured in a production environment at a cost competitive with those of its metal counterpart, and at a weight savings of at least 20 percent. The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes front and rear spars. During Phase 4 of the program, production quality tooling was designed and manufactured to produce three sets of covers, ribs, spars, miscellaneous parts, and subassemblies to assemble three complete ACVF units. Recurring and nonrecurring cost data were compiled and documented in the updated producibility/design to cost plan. Nondestruct inspections, quality control tests, and quality acceptance tests were performed in accordance with the quality assurance plan and the structural integrity control plan. Records were maintained to provide traceability of material and parts throughout the manufacturing development phase. It was also determined that additional tooling would not be required to support the current and projected L-1011 production rate.

  5. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer in composite bodies with application to de-icing of aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, D. F. K.

    1983-11-01

    Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

  6. Development of an annoyance model based upon elementary auditory sensations for steady-state aircraft interior noise containing tonal components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angerer, James R.; Mccurdy, David A.; Erickson, Richard A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop a noise annoyance model, superior to those already in use, for evaluating passenger response to sounds containing tonal components which may be heard within current and future commercial aircraft. The sound spectra investigated ranged from those being experienced by passengers on board turbofan powered aircraft now in service to those cabin noise spectra passengers may experience within advanced propeller-driven aircraft of the future. A total of 240 sounds were tested in this experiment. Sixty-six of these 240 sounds were steady state, while the other 174 varied temporally due to tonal beating. Here, the entire experiment is described, but the analysis is limited to those responses elicited by the 66 steady-state sounds.

  7. Compton imaging tomography for nondestructive evaluation of large multilayer aircraft components and structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanov, Volodymyr; Grubsky, Victor; Zahiri, Feraidoon

    2017-02-01

    We present a novel NDT/NDE tool for non-contact, single-sided 3D inspection of aerospace components, based on Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) technique, which is applicable to large, non-uniform, and/or multilayer structures made of composites or lightweight metals. CIT is based on the registration of Compton-scattered X-rays, and permits the reconstruction of the full 3D (tomographic) image of the inspected objects. Unlike conventional computerized tomography (CT), CIT requires only single-sided access to objects, and therefore can be applied to large structures without their disassembly. The developed tool provides accurate detection, identification, and precise 3D localizations and measurements of any possible internal and surface defects (corrosions, cracks, voids, delaminations, porosity, and inclusions), and also disbonds, core and skin defects, and intrusion of foreign fluids (e.g., fresh and salt water, oil) inside of honeycomb sandwich structures. The NDE capabilities of the system were successfully demonstrated on various aerospace structure samples provided by several major aerospace companies. Such a CIT-based tool can detect and localize individual internal defects with dimensions about 1-2 mm3, and honeycomb disbond defects less than 6 mm by 6 mm area with the variations in the thickness of the adhesive by 100 m. Current maximum scanning speed of aircraft/spacecraft structures is about 5-8 min/ft2 (50-80 min/m2).

  8. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development and flight evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component is presented. The recommended concept for the covers is graphite-epoxy hats bonded to a graphite-epoxy skin. The hat flare-out has been eliminated, instead the hat is continuous into the joint. The recommended concept for the spars is graphite-epoxy caps and a hybrid of Kevlar-49 and graphite-epoxy in the spar web. The spar cap, spar web stiffeners for attaching the ribs, and intermediate stiffeners are planned to be fabricated as a unit. Access hole in the web will be reinforced with a donut type, zero degree graphite-epoxy wound reinforcement. The miniwich design concept in the upper three ribs originally proposed is changed to a graphite-epoxy stiffened solid laminate design concept. The recommended configuration for the lower seven ribs remains as graphite-epoxy caps with aluminum cruciform diagonals. The indicated weight saving for the current advanced composite vertical fin configuration is 20.2% including a 24 lb growth allowance. The project production cost saving is approximately 1% based on a cumulative average of 250 aircraft and including only material, production labor, and quality assurance costs.

  9. Creep-fatigue interaction in aircraft gas turbine components by simulation and testing at scaled temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabour, Mohammad Hossein

    Advanced gas turbine engines, which use hot section airfoil cooling, present a wide range of design problems. The frequencies of applied loads and the natural frequencies of the blade also are important since they have significant effects on failure of the component due to fatigue phenomenon. Due to high temperature environment the thermal creep and fatigue are quite severe. One-dimensional creep model, using ANSYS has been formulated in order to predict the creep life of a gas turbine engine blade. Innovative mathematical models for the prediction of the operating life of aircraft components, specifically gas turbine blades, which are subjected to creep-fatigue at high temperatures, are proposed. The components are modeled by FEM, mathematically, and using similitude principles. Three models have been suggested and evaluated numerically and experimentally. Using FEM method for natural frequencies causes phenomena such as curve veering which is studied in more detail. The simulation studies on the life-limiting modes of failure, as well as estimating the expected lifetime of the blade, using the proposed models have been carried out. Although the scale model approach has been used for quite some time, the thermal scaling has been used in this study for the first time. The only thermal studies in literature using scaling for structures is by NASA in which materials of both the prototype and the model are the same, but in the present study materials also are different. The finite element method is employed to model the structure. Because of stress redistribution due to the creep process, it is necessary to include a full inelastic creep step in the finite element formulation. Otherwise over-conservative creep life predictions will be estimated if only the initial elastic stresses are considered. The experimental investigations are carried out in order to validate the models. The main contributions in the thesis are: (1) Using similitude theory for life prediction of

  10. The Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft: a First Program Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prather, Michael J.; Wesoky, Howard L.; Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Douglass, Anne R.; Turco, Richard P.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Schmeltekopf, Arthur L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies have indicated that, with sufficient technology development, high speed civil transport aircraft could be economically competitive with long haul subsonic aircraft. However, uncertainty about atmospheric pollution, along with community noise and sonic boom, continues to be a major concern; and this is addressed in the planned 6 yr HSRP begun in 1990. Building on NASA's research in atmospheric science and emissions reduction, the AESA studies particularly emphasizing stratospheric ozone effects. Because it will not be possible to directly measure the impact of an HSCT aircraft fleet on the atmosphere, the only means of assessment will be prediction. The process of establishing credibility for the predicted effects will likely be complex and involve continued model development and testing against climatological patterns. Lab simulation of heterogeneous chemistry and other effects will continue to be used to improve the current models.

  11. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond; Schkolnik, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS)-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  12. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  13. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  14. Impact of broad-specification fuels on future jet aircraft. [engine components and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effects that broad specification fuels have on airframe and engine components were discussed along with the improvements in component technology required to use broad specification fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, maintainability, or safety.

  15. Characterization of aircraft deicer and anti-icer components and toxicity in airport snowbanks and snowmelt runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.; Sheesley, R.J.; Failey, G.G.; Cancilla, Devon A.

    2006-01-01

    Snowbank samples were collected from snowbanks within a medium-sized airport for four years to characterize aircraft deicer and anti-icer (ADAF) components and toxicity. Concentrations of ADAF components varied with median glycol concentrations from individual sampling periods ranging from 65 to 5940 mg/L. Glycol content in snowbanks ranged from 0.17 to 11.4% of that applied to aircraft. Glycol, a freezing point depressant, was selectively removed during melt periods before snow and ice resulting in lower glycol concentrations after melt periods. Concentrations of ADAF components in airport runoff were similar during periods of snowmelt as compared to active ADAF application periods; however, due to the long duration of snowmelt events, greater masses of glycol were transported during snowmelt events. Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEO), selected APEO degradation products, and 4- and 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole were detected in snowbank samples and airport snowmelt. Concentrations of APEO parent products were greater in snowbank samples than in runoff samples. Relative abundance of APEO degradation products increased in the downstream direction from the snowbank to the outfalls and the receiving stream with respect to APEO parent compounds and glycol. Toxicity in Microtox assays remained in snowbanks after most glycol had been removed during melt periods. Increased toxicity in airport snowbanks as compared to other urban snowbanks was not explained by additional combustion or fuel contribution in airport snow. Organic markers suggest ADAF additives as a possible explanation for this increased toxicity. Results indicate that glycol cannot be used as a surrogate for fate and transport of other ADAF components. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  16. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  17. Failure behavior of generic metallic and composite aircraft structural components under crash loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Robinson, Martha P.

    1990-01-01

    Failure behavior results are presented from crash dynamics research using concepts of aircraft elements and substructure not necessarily designed or optimized for energy absorption or crash loading considerations. To achieve desired new designs incorporating improved energy absorption capabilities often requires an understanding of how more conventional designs behave under crash loadings. Experimental and analytical data are presented which indicate some general trends in the failure behavior of a class of composite structures including individual fuselage frames, skeleton subfloors with stringers and floor beams without skin covering, and subfloors with skin added to the frame-stringer arrangement. Although the behavior is complex, a strong similarity in the static/dynamic failure behavior among these structures is illustrated through photographs of the experimental results and through analytical data of generic composite structural models.

  18. Vibration-based damage detection in an aircraft wing scaled model using principal component analysis and pattern recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trendafilova, I.; Cartmell, M. P.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2008-06-01

    This study deals with vibration-based fault detection in structures and suggests a viable methodology based on principal component analysis (PCA) and a simple pattern recognition (PR) method. The frequency response functions (FRFs) of the healthy and the damaged structure are used as initial data. A PR procedure based on the nearest neighbour principle is applied to recognise between the categories of the damaged and the healthy wing data. A modified PCA method is suggested here, which not only reduces the dimensionality of the FRFs but in addition makes the PCA transformed data from the two categories more differentiable. It is applied to selected frequency bands of FRFs which permits the reduction of the PCA transformed FRFs to two new variables, which are used as damage features. In this study, the methodology is developed and demonstrated using the vibration response of a scaled aircraft wing simulated by a finite element (FE) model. The suggested damage detection methodology is based purely on the analysis of the vibration response of the structure. This makes it quite generic and permits its potential development and application for measured vibration data from real aircraft wings as well as for other real and complex structures.

  19. Flight service evaluation of an advanced composite empennage component on commercial transport aircraft. Phase 1: Engineering development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ary, A.; Axtell, C.; Fogg, L.; Jackson, A.; James, A. M.; Mosesian, B.; Vanderwier, J.; Vanhamersveld, J.

    1976-01-01

    The empennage component selected for this program is the vertical fin box of the L-1011 aircraft. The box structure extends from the fuselage production joint to the tip rib and includes the front and rear spars. Various design options were evaluated to arrive at a configuration which would offer the highest potential for satisfying program objectives. The preferred configuration selected consists of a hat-stiffened cover with molded integrally stiffened spars, aluminum trussed composite ribs, and composite miniwich web ribs with integrally molded caps. Material screening tests were performed to select an advanced composite material system for the Advanced Composite Vertical Fin (ACFV) that would meet the program requirements from the standpoint of quality, reproducibility, and cost. Preliminary weight and cost analysis were made, targets established, and tracking plans developed. These include FAA certification, ancillary test program, quality control, and structural integrity control plans.

  20. Unique failure behavior of metal/composite aircraft structural components under crash type loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.

    1990-01-01

    Failure behavior results are presented on some of the crash dynamics research conducted with concepts of aircraft elements and substructure which have not necessarily been designed or optimized for energy absorption or crash loading considerations. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities often requires an understanding of how more conventional designs behave under crash type loadings. Experimental and analytical data are presented which indicate some general trends in the failure behavior of a class of composite structures which include individual fuselage frames, skeleton subfloors with stringers and floor beams but without skin covering, and subfloors with skin added to the frame-stringer arrangement. Although the behavior is complex, a strong similarity in the static/dynamic failure behavior among these structures is illustrated through photographs of the experimental results and through analytical data of generic composite structural models. It is believed that the thread of similarity in behavior is telling the designer and dynamists a great deal about what to expect in the crash behavior of these structures and can guide designs for improving the energy absorption and crash behavior of such structures.

  1. A Program to Improve the Triangulated Surface Mesh Quality Along Aircraft Component Intersections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for improving the quality of unstructured triangulated surface meshes in the vicinity of component intersections. The method relies solely on point removal and edge swapping for improving the triangulations. It can be applied to any lifting surface component such as a wing, canard or horizontal tail component intersected with a fuselage, or it can be applied to a pylon that is intersected with a wing, fuselage or nacelle. The lifting surfaces or pylon are assumed to be aligned in the axial direction with closed trailing edges. The method currently maintains salient edges only at leading and trailing edges of the wing or pylon component. This method should work well for any shape of fuselage that is free of salient edges at the intersection. The method has been successfully demonstrated on a total of 125 different test cases that include both blunt and sharp wing leading edges. The code is targeted for use in the automated environment of numerical optimization where geometric perturbations to individual components can be critical to the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle. Histograms of triangle aspect ratios are reported to assess the quality of the triangles attached to the intersection curves before and after application of the program. Large improvements to the quality of the triangulations were obtained for the 125 test cases; the quality was sufficient for use with an automated tetrahedral mesh generation program that is used as part of an aerodynamic shape optimization method.

  2. Advanced Technology Components for Model GTP305-2 Aircraft Auxiliary Power System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-01

    ified cold air component test rig, as shown in Figure 106. The radial turbine rotor was overhung on a double spring-loaded, hydrodynamically mounted...radial-axial turbine stage is characterized by an integrally ,- cast turbine rotor and a cast exhaust duct assembly. The Inte- grated Components Assembly... Rotor 83 3.4.9 Axial Turbine Aero/Mech Optimization 106 3.4.10 Axial Turbine Stator ill 3.4.11 Axial Turbine Rotor 124 3.4.14 Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

  3. Structural Diagnostics of CFRP Composite Aircraft Components by Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Built-In Piezoelectric Transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Matt, Howard M.

    2006-01-01

    To monitor in-flight damage and reduce life-cycle costs associated with CFRP composite aircraft, an autonomous built-in structural health monitoring (SHM) system is preferred over conventional maintenance routines and schedules. This thesis investigates the use of ultrasonic guided waves and piezoelectric transducers for the identification and localization of damage/defects occurring within critical components of CFRP composite aircraft wings, mainly the wing skin-to-spar joints. The guided wave approach for structural diagnostics was demonstrated by the dual application of active and passive monitoring techniques. For active interrogation, the guided wave propagation problem was initially studied numerically by a semi-analytical finite element method, which accounts for viscoelastic damping, in order to identify ideal mode-frequency combinations sensitive to damage occurring within CFRP bonded joints. Active guided wave tests across three representative wing skin-to-spar joints at ambient temperature were then conducted using attached Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) transducers. Results from these experiments demonstrate the importance of intelligent feature extraction for improving the sensitivity to damage. To address the widely neglected effects of temperature on guided wave base damage identification, analytical and experimental analyses were performed to characterize the influence of temperature on guided wave signal features. In addition, statistically-robust detection of simulated damage in a CFRP bonded joint was successfully achieved under changing temperature conditions through a dimensionally-low, multivariate statistical outlier analysis. The response of piezoceramic patches and MFC transducers to ultrasonic Rayleigh and Lamb wave fields was analytically derived and experimentally validated. This theory is useful for designing sensors which possess optimal sensitivity toward a given mode-frequency combination or for predicting the frequency dependent

  4. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer in composite bodies with application to de-icing of aircraft components. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, D. F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

  5. NDE to assess the effectiveness of boron-epoxy repairs to complex-shaped aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, C. M.; Burke, S. K.

    1999-12-01

    This paper presents the results of recent DSTO research to develop NDE for crack monitoring under boron reinforcement/repairs adhesively bonded to curved surfaces. Experimental results are given for the application of a range of innovative eddy-current and ultrasonic techniques to reinforced curved surfaces in both F-18 aileron hinges and bulkheads. The presence of curved surfaces made the application of conventional ultrasonics techniques difficult, due to the resulting complex wave propagation paths in the composite/substrate combination and the difficulty of maintaining probe coupling. However, a novel ultrasonic technique was developed which successfully detected very small cracks. The curved surfaces also complicated the application of eddy-current testing, particularly in terms of controlling probe lift-off. The paper addresses the effect of variations in lift-off in detail, particularly in relation to their effect on the sensitivity of eddy-current techniques as applied to bonded repairs on curved surfaces. Possible solutions to this lift-off problem are discussed. Finally, the paper discusses directions for future research on NDE for bonded repairs to complex-shaped components.

  6. Kinetic Metallization. Repair of IVD Al Coatings and Mg Alloys Aircraft Components Using Portable Kinetic Metallization Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number...aircraft carriers & depots Environmentally sustainable Meets Navy JTP-2003 Portable system & Handheld spray gun Robotic deployment for OEM Applications...Problem - Field & Depot Repair of Damaged IVD-Al & Mg Alloys NADEP Facilities PEO(T) F/A-18, EA-18G PMA -271 E-6B

  7. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  8. Behavior of composite/metal aircraft structural elements and components under crash type loads: What are they telling us

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1990-01-01

    Failure behavior results are presented from crash dynamics research using concepts of aircraft elements and substructure not necessarily designed or optimized for energy absorption or crash loading considerations. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities often requires an understanding of how more conventional designs behave under crash loadings. Experimental and analytical data are presented which indicate some general trends in the failure behavior of a class of composite structures which include individual fuselage frames, skeleton subfloors with stringers and floor beams but without skin covering, and subfloors with skin added to the frame-stringer arrangement. Although the behavior is complex, a strong similarity in the static and dynamic failure behavior among these structures is illustrated through photographs of the experimental results and through analytical data of generic composite structural models. It is believed that the similarity in behavior is giving the designer and dynamists much information about what to expect in the crash behavior of these structures and can guide designs for improving the energy absorption and crash behavior of such structures.

  9. Behavior of composite/metal aircraft structural elements and components under crash type loads - What are they telling us?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, Huey D.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Fasanella, Edwin L.

    1990-01-01

    Failure behavior results are presented from crash dynamics research using concepts of aircraft elements and substructure not necessarily designed or optimized for energy absorption or crash loading considerations. To achieve desired new designs which incorporate improved energy absorption capabilities often requires an understanding of how more conventional designs behave under crash loadings. Experimental and analytical data are presented which indicate some general trends in the failure behavior of a class of composite structures which include individual fuselage frames, skeleton subfloors with stringers and floor beams but without skin covering, and subfloors with skin added to the frame-stringer arrangement. Although the behavior is complex, a strong similarity in the static and dynamic failure behavior among these structures is illustrated through photographs of the experimental results and through analytical data of generic composite structural models. It is believed that the similarity in behavior is giving the designer and dynamists much information about what to expect in the crash behavior of these structures and can guide designs for improving the energy absorption and crash behavior of such structures.

  10. A flexible computer aid for conceptual design based on constraint propagation and component-modeling. [of aircraft in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    The Rubber Airplane program, which combines two symbolic processing techniques with a component-based database of design knowledge, is proposed as a computer aid for conceptual design. Using object-oriented programming, programs are organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, and using constraint propagation, declarative statements designate mathematical relationships among all the equation variables. It is found that the additional level of organizational structure resulting from the arrangement of the design information in terms of design components provides greater flexibility and convenience.

  11. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  12. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  13. Advanced manufacturing development of a composite empennage component for L-1011 aircraft. Phase 3: Production readiness verification testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A.; Sandifer, J.; Sandorff, P.; Vancleave, R.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-two specimens of each of two key structural elements of the Advance Composite Vertical Fin (ACVF) were fabricated and tested. One element represented the front spar at the fuselage attachment area and the other element represented the cover at the fuselage joint area. Ten specimens of each element were selected for static testing. The coefficient of variation resulting from the tests was 3.28 percent for the ten cover specimens and 6.11 percent for the ten spar specimens, which compare well with metallic structures. The remaining twelve cover and twelve spar specimens were durability tested in environmental chambers which permitted the temperature and humidity environment to be cycled as well as the applied loads. Results of the durability tests indicated that such components will survive the service environment.

  14. Effect of noise reducing components on nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft coupled with vortex shedding and freeplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eret, Petr; Kennedy, John; Bennett, Gareth J.

    2015-10-01

    In the pursuit of quieter aircraft, significant effort has been dedicated to airframe noise identification and reduction. The landing gear is one of the main sources of airframe noise on approach. The addition of noise abatement technologies such as fairings or wheel hub caps is usually considered to be the simplest solution to reduce this noise. After touchdown, noise abatement components can potentially affect the inherently nonlinear and dynamically complex behaviour (shimmy) of landing gear. Moreover, fairings can influence the aerodynamic load on the system and interact with the mechanical freeplay in the torque link. This paper presents a numerical study of nose landing gear stability for a mid-size aircraft with low noise solutions, which are modelled by an increase of the relevant model structural parameters to address a hypothetical effect of additional fairings and wheel hub caps. The study shows that the wheel hub caps are not a threat to stability. A fairing has a destabilising effect due to the increased moment of inertia of the strut and a stabilising effect due to the increased torsional stiffness of the strut. As the torsional stiffness is dependent on the method of attachment, in situations where the fairing increases the torsional inertia with little increase to the torsional stiffness, a net destabilising effect can result. Alternatively, it is possible that for the case that if the fairing were to increase equally both the torsional stiffness and the moment of inertia of the strut, then their effects could be mutually negated. However, it has been found here that for small and simple fairings, typical of current landing gear noise abatement design, their implementation will not affect the dynamics and stability of the system in an operational range (Fz ≤ 50 000 N, V ≤ 100 m/s). This generalisation is strictly dependent on size and installation methods. The aerodynamic load, which would be influenced by the presence of fairings, was modelled

  15. China’s Aircraft Carrier Dilemma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    nothing developed from them. Empresa Nacional Bazán, which merged with Astilleros Españoles S.A. (AESA) to form Navantia in 2000, reportedly attempted...acquisition and lengthy refurbishing seem to contradict the stated intention of its original buyer, Macao’s Agencia Turisticae Diversoes Chong Lot Limitada

  16. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  17. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  18. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  19. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  1. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  2. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  3. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  4. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  5. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT's) on a universal airline network.Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT's. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  6. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  7. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  8. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  9. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  10. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  11. 14 CFR 121.163 - Aircraft proving tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft proving tests. 121.163 Section 121... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.163 Aircraft proving...) Alterations to the aircraft or its components that materially affect flight characteristics. (e)...

  12. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  13. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  14. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  15. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  16. Application of fracture mechanics and half-cycle method to the prediction of fatigue life of B-52 aircraft pylon components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, W. L.; Carter, A. L.; Totton, W. W.; Ficke, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Stress intensity levels at various parts of the NASA B-52 carrier aircraft pylon were examined for the case when the pylon store was the space shuttle solid rocket booster drop test vehicle. Eight critical stress points were selected for the pylon fatigue analysis. Using fracture mechanics and the half-cycle theory (directly or indirectly) for the calculations of fatigue-crack growth ,the remaining fatigue life (number of flights left) was estimated for each critical part. It was found that the two rear hooks had relatively short fatigue life and that the front hook had the shortest fatigue life of all the parts analyzed. The rest of the pylon parts were found to be noncritical because of their extremely long fatigue life associated with the low operational stress levels.

  17. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  18. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  19. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  20. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  1. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  2. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  3. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  4. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  5. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  6. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  7. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont...IATA member airlines at $100 million based on 1976 operations. Thus the numbers are large, but detailed analyses on specific aircraft types, in known...demonstrate this in any quantitative way with accurate figures. Better information is required on the cost of corrosion, together with analyses of the

  8. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  9. Trajectory Control for Very Flexible Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-30

    total airspeed and the classic aircraft longitudinal , lateral, and vertical velocity components are u positive out the nose, v positive out the right...wing flexibility is a secondary and minimal contribution to aircraft longitudinal motion. Using this assumption and the previous assumptions of

  10. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  11. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  12. Smart Sensor System for NDE or Corrosion in Aging Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Y.; Marzwell, N.; Osegueda, R.; Ferregut, C.

    1998-01-01

    The extension of the operation life of military and civilian aircraft rather than replacing them with new ones is increasing the probability of aircraft component failure as a result of aging. Aircraft that already have endured a long srvice life of more than 40 years are now being considered for another 40 years of service.

  13. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  14. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  15. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  16. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  17. NASA's Aircraft Icing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  18. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  19. A parametric analysis of transport aircraft system weights and costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    In determining unit and operating costs for advanced aircraft, it has been found that by having first-order weight and performance approximations for the aircraft systems and structural components, a step increase in cost prediction accuracy results. This paper presents first-order approximation equations for these systems and components. These equations were developed from data for most current jet transports, and they have been ordered to use a minimum number of performance parameters such as aircraft style, number of passengers, empty and gross weight, cargo load, and operating range. A NASA Ames Research Center aircraft cost program has been used to compare calculated and actual weights for the same aircraft. Good aircraft cost correlation is shown to exist between calculated first-order and actual aircraft weight data.

  20. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  2. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  3. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of certain aspects of the evaluation of the fireworthiness of transport aircraft interiors. First, it addresses the key materials question concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled fire. Second, it examines some technical opportunities that are available today through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably by expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Cost and risk benefits still remain to be determined.

  6. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  7. Lightning as an Aircraft Hazard: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning lightning strikes as an aircraft hazard. Aircraft designs to prevent or withstand lightning strikes, statistics on lightning strikes of aircraft, detection of strikes, remote monitoring and detection of lightning, initiation of lightning strikes by aircraft, effects of lightning strikes on aircraft structural and electronic components, modeling, and simulation of lightning strikes on aircraft are discussed. Remote detection of storms with regard to aircraft safety are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Composite structures for commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vosteen, L. F.

    1978-01-01

    The development of graphite-epoxy composite structures for use on commercial transport aircraft is considered. Six components, three secondary structures, and three primary structures, are presently under development. The six components are described along with some of the key features of the composite designs and their projected weight savings.

  9. Aircraft and Engine Development Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Control in Flight * Integrated Inlet- engine * Power/weight Exceeds Unity F-lll * Advanced Engines * Augmented Turbofan * High Turbine Temperature...residence times). Also, fabrication of a small scale "hot" engine with rotating components such as compressors and turbines with cooled blades , is...capabil- ities are essential to meet the needs of current and projected aircraft and engine programs. The required free jet nozzles should be capable of

  10. Static Aeroelasticity in Combat Aircraft.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    aircraft design. Fuselage flexibility is, in general , a secondary consideration. The relatively high density of this structural component, designed to...representation of the structure. An effective beam representation of the total panel stiffness is generally applicable and appropriate for these needs and...loading effect Is to produce zero wing lift, but a large leading-edge-up wing torque. Aeroelastically, a significant wing lift is generated as the

  11. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E.

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers.

  12. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  13. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  14. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  15. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  16. Rapid Parameterization Schemes for Aircraft Shape Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2012-01-01

    A rapid shape parameterization tool called PROTEUS is developed for aircraft shape optimization. This tool can be applied directly to any aircraft geometry that has been defined in PLOT3D format, with the restriction that each aircraft component must be defined by only one data block. PROTEUS has eight types of parameterization schemes: planform, wing surface, twist, body surface, body scaling, body camber line, shifting/scaling, and linear morphing. These parametric schemes can be applied to two types of components: wing-type surfaces (e.g., wing, canard, horizontal tail, vertical tail, and pylon) and body-type surfaces (e.g., fuselage, pod, and nacelle). These schemes permit the easy setup of commonly used shape modification methods, and each customized parametric scheme can be applied to the same type of component for any configuration. This paper explains the mathematics for these parametric schemes and uses two supersonic configurations to demonstrate the application of these schemes.

  17. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  18. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    work demonstrates the development of a probabilistic corrosion failure model using survival analysis methods and techniques. Using a parsimonious approach, the coefficients of a Cox proportional hazards model were derived from a set of environmental, geographical and operational predictor variables. To determine if the variables satisfied the proportional hazard assumption, numerous statistical tests were performed---such as the equivalence tests of the log rank, Wilcoxon, Peto-Peto and Fleming-Harrington---and graphical plots generated such as observed-versus-expected plots and log(-log) survival curves. Finally, in a paradigm enhancement to current design methodologies, this dissertation place sets survival analysis modeling in the context of an emerging holistic structural integrity philosophy. While traditional aircraft design and life prediction methodologies consider only the cyclic fatigue domain without consideration to the environmental or unique operating spectrum that aircraft may fly in, a holistic approach considers the cradle-to-grave driving forces in the life of a component, such as corrosion assisted crack nucleation in a material. This dissertation, which uses real-world failure data obtained from structural aircraft components, is poised to narrow the cradle-to-grave loop and provide holistic feedback in the understanding of aircraft structural system failures.

  19. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  20. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  1. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  2. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  3. Simulating the ARES Aircraft in the Mars Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, P. Sean; Croom, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Langley proposed the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) of Mars science mission in response to the NASA Office of Space Science 2002 Mars Scout Opportunity. The science-driven mission proposal began with trade studies and determined that a rocket powered aircraft was the best suited platform to complete the ARES science objectives. A high fidelity six degree of freedom flight simulation was required to provide credible evidence that the aircraft design fulfilled mission objectives and to support the aircraft design process by providing performance evaluations. The aircraft was initially modeled using the aero, propulsion, and flight control system components of other aircraft models. As the proposed aircraft design evolved, the borrowed components were replaced with new models. This allowed performance evaluations to be performed as the design was maturing. Basic autopilot features were also developed for the ARES aircraft model. Altitude hold and track hold modes allowed different mission scenarios to be evaluated for both science merit and aircraft performance. Platform stability and data rate requirements were identified for each of the instruments and the aircraft performance was evaluated against those requirements. The results of the simulation evaluations indicate that the ARES design and mission profiles are sound and meet the science objectives.

  4. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.91 Section 33.91 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system...

  5. 14 CFR 33.91 - Engine system and component tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engine system and component tests. 33.91... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.91 Engine system and component tests. (a) For those systems or components that cannot be adequately substantiated in...

  6. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  7. Component-specific modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for the second year effort of a 3-year program to develop methodology for component specific modeling of aircraft engine hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models; (2) geometry model generators; (3) remeshing; (4) specialty 3-D inelastic stuctural analysis; (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies; (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis; (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  8. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  9. The 737 aircraft flammability testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bricker, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    The FAA requested approximately 20 component and full-scale tests in a 737 fuselage to provide validation data or indicate changes that need to be made to a fire math model (Dayton Aircraft Cabin Fire Model) developed for the FAA. Some preliminary tests were conducted to evaluate the adequacy of planned instrumentation. The objectives of the program were met in that it was verified that propagation of a fire could be determined from the sequential response of thermocouples located on a test specimen(such as a seat), and continuous weighing of the specimen during the test was accomplished. Two differenct techniques for measuring smoke density were found to be comparable.

  10. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  11. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  12. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  13. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  14. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  15. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  16. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.

  17. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  18. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  19. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  20. Component-specific modeling. [jet engine hot section components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.; Maffeo, R. J.; Tipton, M. T.; Weber, G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments are described for a 3 year program to develop methodology for component-specific modeling of aircraft hot section components (turbine blades, turbine vanes, and burner liners). These accomplishments include: (1) engine thermodynamic and mission models, (2) geometry model generators, (3) remeshing, (4) specialty three-dimensional inelastic structural analysis, (5) computationally efficient solvers, (6) adaptive solution strategies, (7) engine performance parameters/component response variables decomposition and synthesis, (8) integrated software architecture and development, and (9) validation cases for software developed.

  1. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  2. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  3. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  4. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  5. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  6. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  7. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  8. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  9. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  10. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  11. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  12. Structural weight analysis of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    The weights of major structural components of hypersonic, liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft are estimated and discussed. The major components are the body structure, body thermal protection system tankage and wing structure. The method of estimating body structure weight is presented in detail while the weights of the other components are estimated by methods given in referenced papers. Two nominal vehicle concepts are considered. The advanced concept employs a wing-body configuration and hot structure with a nonintegral tank, while the potential concept employs an all body configuration and cold, integral pillow tankage structure. Characteristics of these two concepts are discussed and parametric data relating their weight fractions to variations in vehicle shape and size design criteria and mission requirements, and structural arrangement are presented. Although the potential concept is shown to have a weight advantage over the advanced, it involves more design uncertainties since it is farther removed in design from existing aircraft.

  13. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  14. CFD for applications to aircraft aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1989-01-01

    Strong interactions of structures and fluids are common in many engineering environments. Such interactions can give rise to physically important phenomena such as those occurring for aircraft due to aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity can significantly influence the safe performance of aircraft. At present exact methods are available for making aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for complex flows containing shock waves, vortices and flow separations, computational methods are still under development. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur due to the interaction of these complex flows with flexible aircraft components such as wings. For example, aircraft with highly swept wings experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations. Correct understanding of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires direct coupling of fluids and structural equations. Here, a summary is presented of the development of such coupled methods and applications to aeroelasticity since about 1978 to present. The successful use of the transonic small perturbation theory (TSP) coupled with structures is discussed. This served as a major stepping stone for the current stage of aeroelasticity using computational fluid dynamics. The need for the use of more exact Euler/Navier-Stokes (ENS) equations for aeroelastic problems is explained. The current development of unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic procedures based on the ENS equations are discussed. Aeroelastic results computed using both TSP and ENS equations are discussed.

  15. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  17. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  18. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R. M.

    1985-05-28

    Aircraft engine exhaust is mixed with air and fuel and recombusted. Air is drawn into the secondary combustion chamber from suction surfaces on wings. Exhaust of the secondary combustion chamber is blown over wing and fuselage surfaces.

  19. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  20. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  1. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  2. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  3. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  4. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  5. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    advancing and applying technology to predict, evaluate , and improve combat survivability of US flight vehicles. John graduated from the University of...support for most of the aircraft and anti-aircraft programs conducted to date under LFT&E statutory requirements. A number of these test and evaluation ...initiatives to improve the state-of-the-art of LFT&E, to place greater emphasis on the evaluation of human casualties, to integrate Battle Damage

  6. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  7. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  8. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  9. Structural Health Monitoring of AN Aircraft Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickens, T.; Schulz, M.; Sundaresan, M.; Ghoshal, A.; Naser, A. S.; Reichmeider, R.

    2003-03-01

    A major concern with ageing aircraft is the deterioration of structural components in the form of fatigue cracks at fastener holes, loose rivets and debonding of joints. These faults in conjunction with corrosion can lead to multiple-site damage and pose a hazard to flight. Developing a simple vibration-based method of damage detection for monitoring ageing structures is considered in this paper. The method is intended to detect damage during operation of the vehicle before the damage can propagate and cause catastrophic failure of aircraft components. It is typical that only a limited number of sensors could be used on the structure and damage can occur anywhere on the surface or inside the structure. The research performed was to investigate use of the chirp vibration responses of an aircraft wing tip to detect, locate and approximately quantify damage. The technique uses four piezoelectric patches alternatively as actuators and sensors to send and receive vibration diagnostic signals.Loosening of selected screws simulated damage to the wing tip. The results obtained from the testing led to the concept of a sensor tape to detect damage at joints in an aircraft structure.

  10. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  11. Flight Tests of the KO-1 Aircraft at Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jong-Kwang; Kim, Whan-Woo

    The KO-1 aircraft which has the functionality of tactical observation, was successfully developed in August of 2004 in South Korea. It is important for the KO-1 aircraft to achieve successful missions at nighttime as well as during daytime. The aircraft, equipped with interior and exterior lighting systems and lighting control panel modified from those of the KT-1 basic trainer, provides improved safety, operational effectiveness, and situational awareness during operation at night when used with night-vision goggles (NVGs). KO-1 is the first domestic aircraft that utilizes the night-vision imaging system (NVIS) technology in Korea. KO-1 NVIS was developed with the goal of defining the components of NVIS and establishing test and evaluation procedures for both the subsystems and main system. In this paper, we present the establishment of a KO-1 NVIS lighting system, NVIS component development, and representative ground and flight test results.

  12. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  13. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  15. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  16. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  17. Fiber-Optic Circuits For Aircraft Engine Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Walter L.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes environmental effects which impact the design of interfaces to fiber-optic sensors and data buses in aircraft engine controls. Emphasis is placed on selection of components and designs which maintain their performance and reliability in the harsh environment of an electronics enclosure mounted on a modern aircraft turbine engine. Particular attention is given to the effects of temperature on electro-optical component and system performance. The main conclusion is that electro-optical interfaces to a variety of fiber-optic systems can be installed in an engine-mounted control if the designs and components are selected after careful analysis of the effects of the engine environment.

  18. Visions of the Future: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is investing continually in improving civil aviation. Hybridization of aircraft propulsion is one aspect of a technology suite which will transform future aircraft. In this context, hybrid propulsion is considered a combination of traditional gas turbine propulsion and electric drive enabled propulsion. This technology suite includes elements of propulsion and airframe integration, parallel hybrid shaft power, turbo-electric generation, electric drive systems, component development, materials development and system integration at multiple levels.

  19. Application of LCR Waves to Inspect Aircraft Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    answer two main questions: Can Lcr method give the information required when used to inspect stresses in aircraft structural metallic components? Can we... strength (MPa) 114 c. Development of the inspection system. The system is basically the same for both, metal and composite applications. It was...COVERED (From - To) 15 Apr 2010 to 14 Apr 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Application of LCR Waves to Inspect Aircraft Structures 5a

  20. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  1. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  2. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  3. Aircraft Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The helicopter pictured is the twin-turbine S-76, produced by Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Technologies, Stratford, Connecticut. It is the first transport helicopter ever dey n e d purely as a commercial vehicle rather than an adaptation of a military design. Being built in large numbers for customers in 16 countries, the S-76 is intended for offshore oil rig support, executive transportation and general utility service. The craft carries 12 passengers plus a crew of two and has a range of more than 450 miles-yet it weighs less than 10,000 pounds. Significant weight reduction was achieved by use of composite materials, which are generally lighter but stronger than conventional aircraft materials. NASA composite technology played a part in development of the S-76. Under contract with NASA's Langley Research Center, Sikorsky Aircraft designed and flight-tested a helicopter airframe of advanced composite materials.

  4. Fiber optical sensors for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechstedt, Ralf D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper selected fiber optical point sensors that are of potential interest for deployment in aircraft are discussed. The operating principles together with recent measurement results are described. Examples include a high-temperature combined pressure and temperature sensor for engine health, hydraulics and landing gear monitoring, an ultra-high sensitive pressure sensor for oil, pneumatic and fluid aero systems applications and a combined acceleration and temperature sensor for condition monitoring of rotating components.

  5. Identifying tacit strategies in aircraft maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Charles M.; Heidorn, P. B.

    1991-01-01

    Two machine-learning methods are presently used to characterize the avoidance strategies used by skilled pilots in simulated aircraft encounters, and a general framework for the characterization of the strategic components of skilled behavior via qualitative representation of situations and responses is presented. Descriptions of pilot maneuvers that were 'conceptually equivalent' were ascertained by a concept-learning algorithm in conjunction with a classifier system that employed a generic algorithm; satisficing and 'buggy' strategies were thereby revealed.

  6. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. Intercomparison results for FIFE flux aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. I.; Grossman, R. L.; Kelly, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Three atmospheric research aircraft were used to explore the atmospheric boundary layer during FIFE: the National Research Council of Canada Twin Otter, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) King Air, and the University of Wyoming King Air. The aircraft were used to measure the mean and turbulent structure of the boundary layer and its variation with height, time, and space. These measurements are important to FIFE because they are being used to scale up point surface observations to landscape scales and because they can be used to relate satellite radiance measurements to boundary layer processes. Because the aircraft were used in coordinated flight patterns to investigate changes within and between intensive field campaigns, wing-to-wing intercomparisons were made so that measurements from one aircraft could be related to another. Intercomparisons were flown on 4 days in 1987 and 3 days in 1989. The eddy correlation measurements of the mixed layer fluxes of moisture and sensible heat were of particular interest to FIFE. Sensible heat fluxes agreed within 15 W/sq m and moisture fluxes agreed within 21 W/sq m. Mean wind component differences were within 1.0 m/s, air temperature within 0.3 C, and mixing ratio within 2 g/kg. Standard deviations showed similar good agreement, with mean differences generally less than 0.1 m/s for the wind components and 0.03 C for potential temperature. Intercomparisons between the NCAR King Air and the Twin Otter showed better agreement in 1989 than in 1987. Overall, the results suggest that data from the FIFE boundary layer aircraft will need little correction to account for instrument biases and spurious fluctuations.

  8. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  9. Atmospheric Electricity - Aircraft Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    flux may leak inside the aircraft through apertures such as windows , radomes. canopies, seams, and joints. Other fields may arise inside the aircraft...fields of other origins are considered. The third type of c-"pling involves electric fields passing directly through aper- tures, such as windows or...Transistors Microwave Diodes Low Power Transistors 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Damage Constant. K Damage Constant. K Figure 29 - Ranges

  10. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  11. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  12. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  13. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  14. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  15. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  16. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  17. Design integration and noise studies for jet STOL aircraft. Task 7C: Augmentor wing cruise blowing valveless system. Volume 2: Small-scale development testing of augmentor wing critical ducting components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnels, J. N.; Gupfa, A.

    1973-01-01

    Augmentor wing ducting system studies conducted on a valveless system configuration that provides cruise thrust from the augmentor nozzles have shown that most of the duct system pressure loss would occur in the strut-wing duct y-junction and the wing duct-augmentor lobe nozzles. These components were selected for development testing over a range of duct Mach numbers and pressure ratios to provide a technical basis for predicting installed wing thrust loading and for evaluating design wing loading of a particular wing aspect ratios. The flow characteristics of ducting components with relatively high pressure loss coefficients were investigated. The turbulent pressure fluctuations associated with flows at high Mach numbers were analyzed to evaluate potential duct fatigue problems.

  18. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  19. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  20. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    number MC2A Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft MC2A-X Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft Experiment MIDS Multifunctional Information and...reconnaissance (ISR) fleet. The MMA is alternately designated as the Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft (MC2A) as indicated in this text. Figure

  1. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  2. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  3. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  4. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  5. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  6. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  7. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  8. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  9. Aircraft Wheel Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    responsible for a significant amount of aircraft dam - age. Many such wheel failures have been catastrophic, resulting in a sudden loss of tire inflation...Fatigue Crack Growth," Fatigue and Fracture in Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 10, 419-428, 1987. Cox, B. N., Pardee , W., and Morris, W. L

  10. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 23 on Guide to the Measurement of the Transient Performance of Aircraft Turbine Engines and Components (Guide pour la mesure des performances en transitoire des turbomachines Aeronautiques et de leurs composants)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    measurement of pressures, temperatures, flows , component geometry including rotational speed and clearances, thnist, torque, and the use of the...Definitions of Measurcincnl Systems 4-1 4.2 Pressure 4-14 4.3 Temperature 4-6« 4.4 Flow 4-108 4.5 Geometry 4-170 4.6 Thrust and Torque 4-214 4.7...information on pressure, temper*- ture. fuel and air flow , geometry , fore« and lonpie, and control system panmeten. Generally a uniform format has

  11. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  12. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  13. Using an A-10 Aircraft for Airborne measurements of TGFs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Christian, Hugh, J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Grove, J. Eric; Chektman, Alexandre; Jonsson, Haflidi; Detwiler, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Plans are underway to convert an A-10 combat attack aircraft into a research aircraft for thunderstorm research. This aircraft would be configured and instrumented for flights into large, convective thunderstorms. It would have the capabilities of higher altitude performance and protection for thunderstorm conditions that exceed those of aircraft now in use for this research. One area of investigation for this aircraft would be terrestrial gamma ]ray flashes (TGFs), building on the pioneering observations made by the Airborne Detector for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) project several years ago. A new and important component of the planned investigations are the continuous, detailed correlations of TGFs with the electric fields near the aircraft, as well as detailed measurements of nearby lightning discharges. Together, the x-and gamma-radiation environments, the electric field measurements, and the lightning observations (all measured on microsecond timescales) should provide new insights into this TGF production mechanism. The A -10 aircraft is currently being modified for thunderstorm research. It is anticipated that the initial test flights for this role will begin next year.

  14. Towards Prognostics for Electronics Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar; Celaya, Jose R.; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2013-01-01

    Electronics components have an increasingly critical role in avionics systems and in the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research field as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management information. This paper focuses on a prognostics application for electronics components within avionics systems, and in particular its application to an Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). This application utilizes the remaining useful life prediction, accomplished by employing the particle filter framework, leveraging data from accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. These tests induced thermal-electrical overstresses by applying thermal cycling to the IGBT devices. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  15. Recent NASA progress in composites. [application to spacecraft and aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The application of composites in aerospace vehicle structures is reviewed. Research and technology program results and specific applications to space vehicles, aircraft engines, and aircraft and helicopter structures are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is given to flight service evaluation programs that are or will be accumulating substantial experience with secondary and primary structural components on military and commercial aircraft to increase confidence in their use.

  16. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  17. Commercial Aircraft Integrated Vehicle Health Management Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon Monica; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Leone, Karen M.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Thomas, Megan A.

    2010-01-01

    Statistical data and literature from academia, industry, and other government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to establish requirements for fixture work in detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation for IVHM related hardware and software. Around 15 to 20 percent of commercial aircraft accidents between 1988 and 2003 involved inalftfnctions or failures of some aircraft system or component. Engine and landing gear failures/malfunctions dominate both accidents and incidents. The IVI vl Project research technologies were found to map to the Joint Planning and Development Office's National Research and Development Plan (RDP) as well as the Safety Working Group's National Aviation Safety Strategic. Plan (NASSP). Future directions in Aviation Technology as related to IVHlvl were identified by reviewing papers from three conferences across a five year time span. A total of twenty-one trend groups in propulsion, aeronautics and aircraft categories were compiled. Current and ftiture directions of IVHM related technologies were gathered and classified according to eight categories: measurement and inspection, sensors, sensor management, detection, component and subsystem monitoring, diagnosis, prognosis, and mitigation.

  18. Parallel Aircraft Trajectory Optimization with Analytic Derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falck, Robert D.; Gray, Justin S.; Naylor, Bret

    2016-01-01

    Trajectory optimization is an integral component for the design of aerospace vehicles, but emerging aircraft technologies have introduced new demands on trajectory analysis that current tools are not well suited to address. Designing aircraft with technologies such as hybrid electric propulsion and morphing wings requires consideration of the operational behavior as well as the physical design characteristics of the aircraft. The addition of operational variables can dramatically increase the number of design variables which motivates the use of gradient based optimization with analytic derivatives to solve the larger optimization problems. In this work we develop an aircraft trajectory analysis tool using a Legendre-Gauss-Lobatto based collocation scheme, providing analytic derivatives via the OpenMDAO multidisciplinary optimization framework. This collocation method uses an implicit time integration scheme that provides a high degree of sparsity and thus several potential options for parallelization. The performance of the new implementation was investigated via a series of single and multi-trajectory optimizations using a combination of parallel computing and constraint aggregation. The computational performance results show that in order to take full advantage of the sparsity in the problem it is vital to parallelize both the non-linear analysis evaluations and the derivative computations themselves. The constraint aggregation results showed a significant numerical challenge due to difficulty in achieving tight convergence tolerances. Overall, the results demonstrate the value of applying analytic derivatives to trajectory optimization problems and lay the foundation for future application of this collocation based method to the design of aircraft with where operational scheduling of technologies is key to achieving good performance.

  19. A review of the analytical simulation of aircraft crash dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Carden, Huey D.; Boitnott, Richard L.; Hayduk, Robert J.

    1990-01-01

    A large number of full scale tests of general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and one unique air-to-ground controlled impact of a transport aircraft were performed. Additionally, research was also conducted on seat dynamic performance, load-limiting seats, load limiting subfloor designs, and emergency-locator-transmitters (ELTs). Computer programs were developed to provide designers with methods for predicting accelerations, velocities, and displacements of collapsing structure and for estimating the human response to crash loads. The results of full scale aircraft and component tests were used to verify and guide the development of analytical simulation tools and to demonstrate impact load attenuating concepts. Analytical simulation of metal and composite aircraft crash dynamics are addressed. Finite element models are examined to determine their degree of corroboration by experimental data and to reveal deficiencies requiring further development.

  20. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  1. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  2. Aircraft family design using enhanced collaborative optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Brian Douglas

    Significant progress has been made toward the development of multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methods that are well-suited to practical large-scale design problems. However, opportunities exist for further progress. This thesis describes the development of enhanced collaborative optimization (ECO), a new decomposition-based MDO method. To support the development effort, the thesis offers a detailed comparison of two existing MDO methods: collaborative optimization (CO) and analytical target cascading (ATC). This aids in clarifying their function and capabilities, and it provides inspiration for the development of ECO. The ECO method offers several significant contributions. First, it enhances communication between disciplinary design teams while retaining the low-order coupling between them. Second, it provides disciplinary design teams with more authority over the design process. Third, it resolves several troubling computational inefficiencies that are associated with CO. As a result, ECO provides significant computational savings (relative to CO) for the test cases and practical design problems described in this thesis. New aircraft development projects seldom focus on a single set of mission requirements. Rather, a family of aircraft is designed, with each family member tailored to a different set of requirements. This thesis illustrates the application of decomposition-based MDO methods to aircraft family design. This represents a new application area, since MDO methods have traditionally been applied to multidisciplinary problems. ECO offers aircraft family design the same benefits that it affords to multidisciplinary design problems. Namely, it simplifies analysis integration, it provides a means to manage problem complexity, and it enables concurrent design of all family members. In support of aircraft family design, this thesis introduces a new wing structural model with sufficient fidelity to capture the tradeoffs associated with component

  3. High voltage design guide. Volume 4: Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, W. G.

    1983-01-01

    This report supplies the theoretical background and design techniques needed by an engineer who is designing electrical insulation for high-voltage, high-power components, equipment, and systems for aircraft. A literature survey and abundant bibliography identify references that provide further data on the subjects of partial discharges, corona, field theory and plotting, voids and processes for applying insulation. Both gaseous and solid insulations are treated. Cryogenic and liquid design notes are included. Tests and test equipment for high voltage insulation and equipment are defined. Requirements of test plans and procedures for high-voltage, high-power equipment are identified and illustrated by examples. Suggestions for high-voltage specifications are provided. Very few of the Military and Government specifications deal with system voltages above 10kV, thus most aircraft high-voltage specifications will have to be derived from the power industry specifications and standards produced by ASTM, IEEE, and NEMA.

  4. Aircraft noise descriptor and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Juichi

    The methods and indices used in Japan to evaluate aircraft noise and the government-enforced countermeasures are discussed. The ECPNL descriptor was modified so as to make the new descriptor, WECPNL', approximately equivalent to Lden, and the noise contours were calculated for each airport in Japan. The government enforced the policy of land purchase within the WECPNL' of 85, and the houses within the value of 75 were declared as needing insulation. The noise descriptor Leq or Ldn has been used to describe human responses to various kinds of noises. However, a single value descriptor was found to have a limit of applicability, because the human response is not a linear function of a sound level. Another defect of the descriptor is a failure to represent the human response adequately for a small number of flights. It is noted that the house vibration caused by low-frequency components of aircraft noise cannot yet be evaluated.

  5. Aircraft propeller induced structure-borne noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, James F.

    1989-01-01

    A laboratory-based test apparatus employing components typical of aircraft construction was developed that would allow the study of structure-borne noise transmission due to propeller induced wake/vortex excitation of in-wake structural appendages. The test apparatus was employed to evaluate several aircraft installation effects (power plant placement, engine/nacelle mass loading, and wing/fuselage attachment methods) and several structural response modifications for structure-borne noise control (the use of wing blocking mass/fuel, wing damping treaments, and tuned mechanical dampers). Most important was the development of in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection techniques using a combination of ground-based frequency response function testing and in-flight structural response measurement. Propeller wake/vortex excitation simulation techniques for improved ground-based testing were also developed to support the in-flight structure-borne noise transmission detection development.

  6. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  7. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  8. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  9. Aircraft Survivability. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) Short Course was held 17-20 May at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. 52 students attended the...Postgraduate School where he earned his MBA in Financial Management. Jimmy earned his BS in General Science from the United States Naval Academy...Answering these questions requires credible threat models supported by high -fidelity test characterizations of the MANPADS missile threat. Based on

  10. X-29: Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary look at the Ames Dryden Flight Research Center in the context of the X-29 aircraft is provided. The uses of the X-29's 30 deg forward swept wing are examined. The video highlights the historical development of the forward swept wing, and its unique blend of speed, agility, and slow flight potential. The central optimization of the wing, the forward canard, and the rear flaps by an onboard flight computer is also described.

  11. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Survivability Program Office SUMMER 2011 craShworthineSS & personnel casualties Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint...and stroking seats. The knowledge gained from studying Vietnam crash data was consolidated into the Crash Survival Design Guide (CSDG), which

  12. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  13. Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    also influence the formation of streamers. If electrons are swept away from the electrode surface , additional electrons must leave the surface , if...presented. The dielectric materials to be used in the proposed solutions are discussed. In order to simulate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a nuclear...structure. Therefore, the flashover to ground of the aircraft structure (at the point of the sharp projection) depends on the amplitude and pulse shape of the

  14. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  15. An Analysis of Aviation Maintenance Operations and Supporting Costs, and Cost Capturing Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-04

    ABBREVIATIONS ACES Aviation Cost Evaluation System AESA Active Electronically Scanned Array AFAST Aviation Financial Analysis Support Tool AIMD Aircraft...the Secretary of Defense SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force, Financial Management SUF Suffix TEC Type Equipment Code TD Technical Directive TOC... Array (AESA), was installed and its demand placed on the GCU in 2005 compared to the current utilization. The utilization change is illustrated by

  16. Aviation Maintenance Technology. General. G102 Fundamentals of Aircraft Maintenance. Instructor Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    These instructor materials for an aviation maintenance technology course contain four instructional modules. The modules cover the following topics: identifying basic components of aircraft, performing aircraft cleaning and corrosion control, interpreting blueprints and drawing sketches, identifying structural materials, and performing basic…

  17. Computer program to predict noise of general aviation aircraft: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. A.; Barton, C. K.; Kisner, L. S.; Lyon, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    Program NOISE predicts General Aviation Aircraft far-field noise levels at FAA FAR Part 36 certification conditions. It will also predict near-field and cabin noise levels for turboprop aircraft and static engine component far-field noise levels.

  18. 41 CFR 102-36.340 - What must we do when disposing of excess aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information on the SF 120: (1) Manufacturer, date of manufacture, model, serial number. (2) Major components missing from the aircraft, such as engines, electronics. (3) Whether or not the: (i) Aircraft is operational; (ii) Data plate is available; (iii) Historical and maintenance records are available;...

  19. Comprehensive Analysis of Two Downburst-Related Aircraft Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, J.; Parks, E. K.; Bach, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Although downbursts have been identified as the major cause of a number of aircraft takeoff and landing accidents, only the 1985 Dallas/Fort Worth (DFW) and the more recent (July 1994) Charlotte, North Carolina, landing accidents provided sufficient onboard recorded data to perform a comprehensive analysis of the downburst phenomenon. The first step in the present analysis was the determination of the downburst wind components. Once the wind components and their gradients were determined, the degrading effect of the wind environment on the airplane's performance was calculated. This wind-shear-induced aircraft performance degradation, sometimes called the F-factor, was broken down into two components F(sub 1) and F(sub 2), representing the effect of the horizontal wind gradient and the vertical wind velocity, respectively. In both the DFW and Charlotte cases, F(sub 1) was found to be the dominant causal factor of the accident. Next, the aircraft in the two cases were mathematically modeled using the longitudinal equations of motion and the appropriate aerodynamic parameters. Based on the aircraft model and the determined winds, the aircraft response to the recorded pilot inputs showed good agreement with the onboard recordings. Finally, various landing abort strategies were studied. It was concluded that the most acceptable landing abort strategy from both an analytical and pilot's standpoint was to hold constant nose-up pitch attitude while operating at maximum engine thrust.

  20. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  1. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  2. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  3. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  4. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  5. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  6. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  9. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  10. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  11. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    the aircraft is mounted on a structure that enables the viewing angle (aspect) presented to the radar to be varied. For each aircraft type, the RCS...environment; there are no spurious reflections from the ground or from the supporting structure ; and the effects of propeller rotation, small aircraft...motions due to c-ntrol action or atmospheric turbulence, and structural deflections due to inertial and aerodynamic loading, are properly represented

  12. Reducing costs in aircraft: The metals affordability initiative consortium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rick; Evans, Daniel

    2000-03-01

    Emerging metallic materials, processing, and manufacturing technologies offer an important opportunity to meet current aircraft-airframe and jet-engine affordability goals, due to their inherent low material costs and excellent producibility characteristics. But to successfully meet systems goals within this new affordability-driven scenario, a consolidation ofindustry and military-agency development resources and technology-implementation activities is necessary to positively impact the military-aircraft production and sustainment infrastructure. To address this need, a consortium of aircraft and engine manufacturers and key material-and engine manufacturers and key material-and component-supplier companies has been formed to identify critical affordable metal technologies, develop a strategic roadmap for accelerated development and insertion of these technologies, and oversee execution of development activities by integrated industry teams. the goal of the Metals Affordability Initiative is to reduce the cost of metallic components by 50 percent while accelerating the implementation time.

  13. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  14. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  15. Effect of power system technology and mission requirements on high altitude long endurance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis was performed to determine how various power system components and mission requirements affect the sizing of a solar powered long endurance aircraft. The aircraft power system consists of photovoltaic cells and a regenerative fuel cell. Various characteristics of these components, such as PV cell type, PV cell mass, PV cell efficiency, fuel cell efficiency, and fuel cell specific mass, were varied to determine what effect they had on the aircraft sizing for a given mission. Mission parameters, such as time of year, flight altitude, flight latitude, and payload mass and power, were also altered to determine how mission constraints affect the aircraft sizing. An aircraft analysis method which determines the aircraft configuration, aspect ratio, wing area, and total mass, for maximum endurance or minimum required power based on the stated power system and mission parameters is presented. The results indicate that, for the power system, the greatest benefit can be gained by increasing the fuel cell specific energy. Mission requirements also substantially affect the aircraft size. By limiting the time of year the aircraft is required to fly at high northern or southern latitudes, a significant reduction in aircraft size or increase in payload capacity can be achieved.

  16. Finite element methods for the nonlinear motion of flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Victor P.

    Conventional strategies in aeroelasticity and flight dynamics for studying aircraft involve making broad assumptions based more on analytical or computational convenience rather than on physical reality. Typically in aeroelastic analyses, the study of the interaction between aircraft flexibility and aerodynamic forces, the aircraft or structural component in question is constrained in a way that is not representative of realistic flight conditions. In flight dynamics, the study of the maneuvering of aircraft, it is common to consider the vehicle as perfectly rigid. In both disciplines it is well known that such contrivances can produce incorrect results. To address these shortcomings, a finite element formulation is developed for analyzing the dynamics of flexible aircraft undergoing arbitrarily large rotation and translation. The formulation is derived in a set of body-attached axes, a frame of reference conducive to analyzing the motion and control of aircraft, and considers the structure as a whole. Several implementation issues are addressed and mitigated, including finite element interpolating functions, the use of eigenvectors as the basis for nonlinear deformation, inclusion of geometrically nonlinear effects in the strain energy, and enforcement of kinematic constraints. Numerical examples illustrate the capabilities of the latter two aspects, and a free-flying aeroelastic model problem demonstrates the overall potential of the proposed formulation. The development is approached in a general way so that the methodology can be applied to any structure that may be modeled by finite elements.

  17. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  18. Aircraft Electromagnetic Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    subsystems (fig ire 1. 1-4). If uncontrolled, it appears as radio tones, static, or 400-Hz hum on the passenger entertainment systems. It can show up as...lavatories; galleys; and video entertainment : These are the well-known hallmarks of a commercial transport aircraft (figure 2.1-1). The necessary control of...19 ligh nt o Maagm ete CRuotrotl Reore rv Engines ComputeSystemo IRU EICAS -9 ~Contro R~ Airplane Fiur 2.t 1-1 ElcroiiEgne C nto Om~uLOW _W IndRANGEn

  19. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  20. Aircraft propeller control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  1. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, David A.

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  2. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  3. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  4. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Phase/Quadrature Versus Time Display 52 55 Alarm Region on an Impedance-Plane Display 53 56 Video Subsystem 55 57 Video-Processing Computer 56 58...The robot was demonstrated on a DC-9 nose section during the 1994 Air Transport Association (ATA) NDT Forum hosted by the FAA’s Aging Aircraft NDI...The stabilizer bridge can travel a maximum distance of 15 inches (38 cm) along the spine assembly, and the stroke of the bridge’s lead screw assembly

  5. Optics in aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  6. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  7. Assessment of NASA's Aircraft Noise Prediction Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahl, Milo D. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    A goal of NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the improvement of aircraft noise prediction. This document provides an assessment, conducted from 2006 to 2009, on the current state of the art for aircraft noise prediction by carefully analyzing the results from prediction tools and from the experimental databases to determine errors and uncertainties and compare results to validate the predictions. The error analysis is included for both the predictions and the experimental data and helps identify where improvements are required. This study is restricted to prediction methods and databases developed or sponsored by NASA, although in many cases they represent the current state of the art for industry. The present document begins with an introduction giving a general background for and a discussion on the process of this assessment followed by eight chapters covering topics at both the system and the component levels. The topic areas, each with multiple contributors, are aircraft system noise, engine system noise, airframe noise, fan noise, liner physics, duct acoustics, jet noise, and propulsion airframe aeroacoustics.

  8. 76 FR 18376 - Airworthiness Directives; CPAC, Inc. (Type Certificate Formerly Held by Commander Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... that the system operates with ease, smoothness, and positiveness appropriate to its function. Note.... Subject (d) Joint Aircraft System Component (JASC)/Air Transport Association (ATA) of America Code...

  9. Overview of Propulsion Systems for a Mars Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.

  10. NASA's Aeroacoustic Tools and Methods for Analysis of Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Lopes, Leonard V.; Burley, Casey L.

    2015-01-01

    Aircraft community noise is a significant concern due to continued growth in air traffic, increasingly stringent environmental goals, and operational limitations imposed by airport authorities. The ability to quantify aircraft noise at the source and ultimately at observers is required to develop low noise aircraft designs and flight procedures. Predicting noise at the source, accounting for scattering and propagation through the atmosphere to the observer, and assessing the perception and impact on a community requires physics-based aeroacoustics tools. Along with the analyses for aero-performance, weights and fuel burn, these tools can provide the acoustic component for aircraft MDAO (Multidisciplinary Design Analysis and Optimization). Over the last decade significant progress has been made in advancing the aeroacoustic tools such that acoustic analyses can now be performed during the design process. One major and enabling advance has been the development of the system noise framework known as Aircraft NOise Prediction Program2 (ANOPP2). ANOPP2 is NASA's aeroacoustic toolset and is designed to facilitate the combination of acoustic approaches of varying fidelity for the analysis of noise from conventional and unconventional aircraft. The toolset includes a framework that integrates noise prediction and propagation methods into a unified system for use within general aircraft analysis software. This includes acoustic analyses, signal processing and interfaces that allow for the assessment of perception of noise on a community. ANOPP2's capability to incorporate medium fidelity shielding predictions and wind tunnel experiments into a design environment is presented. An assessment of noise from a conventional and Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft using medium fidelity scattering methods combined with noise measurements from a model-scale HWB recently placed in NASA's 14x22 wind tunnel are presented. The results are in the form of community noise metrics and

  11. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR PC BLEND 2 AIRCRAFT RADOME DEPAINTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the life cycle assessment on a potential replacement solvent blend for aircraft radome depainting at the Oklahoma City Air Logistics Center at Tinker Air Force Base. The life cycle assessment is composed of three separate but interrelated components: life cy...

  12. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  13. Aircraft gas turbine materials and processes.

    PubMed

    Kear, B H; Thompson, E R

    1980-05-23

    Materials and processing innovations that have been incorporated into the manufacture of critical components for high-performance aircraft gas turbine engines are described. The materials of interest are the nickel- and cobalt-base superalloys for turbine and burner sections of the engine, and titanium alloys and composites for compressor and fan sections of the engine. Advanced processing methods considered include directional solidification, hot isostatic pressing, superplastic foring, directional recrystallization, and diffusion brazing. Future trends in gas turbine technology are discussed in terms of materials availability, substitution, and further advances in air-cooled hardware.

  14. Hot Surface Ignition Tests of Aircraft Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    commionly f~und in aircraft engine components, JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H-5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic fluids and Mil-L-7808 lubricating oil , were tested in...4 and JP-8 fuels and Nil-L-7808 lubricating oil ) using an air- heated bleed-air du:t in a high realism test article. First, tests were conducted on a...JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H.- 5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic "J.,tids and Mil-L-7806 lubricating oil were injected as spray or streuins clto various

  15. Development of the Aerosonde Robotic Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    command center at Norfolk. Figure 3. Soundings of temperature , humidity, and meridional and zonal wind components obtained by the Aerosonde on 24 February...AircraftTM Standard Instrumentation Temperature , Pressure, Humidity, Wind 3 Vaisala RSS901 Sondes ɘ.1oC, ɘ.2 hPa, ɚ% Humidity, Proprietary wind ɘ.5...a moderate northwesterly flow of 5- 10 ms-1 and, relatively warm temperatures of 1-2oC. Once inside the operations region (circle in Fig. 2), a

  16. Low-Cost Composite Materials and Structures for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deo, Ravi B.; Starnes, James H., Jr.; Holzwarth, Richard C.

    2003-01-01

    A survey of current applications of composite materials and structures in military, transport and General Aviation aircraft is presented to assess the maturity of composites technology, and the payoffs realized. The results of the survey show that performance requirements and the potential to reduce life cycle costs for military aircraft and direct operating costs for transport aircraft are the main reasons for the selection of composite materials for current aircraft applications. Initial acquisition costs of composite airframe components are affected by high material costs and complex certification tests which appear to discourage the widespread use of composite materials for aircraft applications. Material suppliers have performed very well to date in developing resin matrix and fiber systems for improved mechanical, durability and damage tolerance performance. The next challenge for material suppliers is to reduce material costs and to develop materials that are suitable for simplified and inexpensive manufacturing processes. The focus of airframe manufacturers should be on the development of structural designs that reduce assembly costs by the use of large-scale integration of airframe components with unitized structures and manufacturing processes that minimize excessive manual labor.

  17. Airborne asbestos exposure during light aircraft brake replacement.

    PubMed

    Blake, Charles L; Johnson, Giffe T; Harbison, Raymond D

    2009-08-01

    Asbestos containing materials are a component of many vehicle brake systems, including those found in some light aircraft. To characterize the asbestos exposure that results from the installation and maintenance of these components, an aircraft fitted with asbestos containing brake pads had brake changes performed while both area and personal air samples were taken. The brake changing process took place in a closed, unventilated aircraft hanger and all operations were performed according to the manufacturer's recommended procedure. Personal air samples did not detect any measurable amount of asbestos fibers during the brake changing or subsequent cleanup procedures. Analysis of personal samples (n=9) using phase contrast microscopy indicated airborne fiber concentrations at or below 0.003f/ml as 8-h time weighted averages (TWAs) and less than 0.069f/ml averaged over 28-30min sampling periods. Airborne chrysotile fibers were detected by two area air samples with fiber concentrations remaining at or below 0.0013f/ml over an 8-h TWA. These results indicate that normal brake changing work practices on aircraft with asbestos containing brake pads does not produce a harmful level of asbestos exposure for aircraft mechanics.

  18. Advances in Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Aircraft Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the advances that have been made in stress analyses of cracked aircraft components, in the understanding of the fatigue and fatigue-crack growth process, and in the prediction of residual strength of complex aircraft structures with widespread fatigue damage. Finite-element analyses of cracked structures are now used to determine accurate stress-intensity factors for cracks at structural details. Observations of small-crack behavior at open and rivet-loaded holes and the development of small-crack theory has lead to the prediction of stress-life behavior for components with stress concentrations under aircraft spectrum loading. Fatigue-crack growth under simulated aircraft spectra can now be predicted with the crack-closure concept. Residual strength of cracked panels with severe out-of-plane deformations (buckling) in the presence of stiffeners and multiple-site damage can be predicted with advanced elastic-plastic finite-element analyses and the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA) fracture criterion. These advances are helping to assure continued safety of aircraft structures.

  19. Acoustic guide for noise-transmission testing of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, Rimas (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    Selective testing of aircraft or other vehicular components without requiring disassembly of the vehicle or components was accomplished by using a portable guide apparatus. The device consists of a broadband noise source, a guide to direct the acoustic energy, soft sealing insulation to seal the guide to the noise source and to the vehicle component, and noise measurement microphones, both outside the vehicle at the acoustic guide output and inside the vehicle to receive attenuated sound. By directing acoustic energy only to selected components of a vehicle via the acoustic guide, it is possible to test a specific component, such as a door or window, without picking up extraneous noise which may be transmitted to the vehicle interior through other components or structure. This effect is achieved because no acoustic energy strikes the vehicle exterior except at the selected component. Also, since the test component remains attached to the vehicle, component dynamics with vehicle frame are not altered.

  20. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  1. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  2. Aircraft roll steering command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft roll command signals are generated as a function of the Microwave Landing System based azimuth, groundtrack, groundspeed and azimuth rate or range distance input parameters. On initial approach, roll command signals are inhibited until a minimum roll command requirement is met. As the aircraft approaches the centerline of the runway, the system reverts to a linear track control.

  3. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  4. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  5. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  6. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  7. Policy Options for the Aircraft Turbine Engine Component Improvement Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    should also investigate competing CIP tasks or functions within a CIP engine program ( FADEC fuel control for the F404 or accelerated mission testing...AH- I) Some. commercial coenhlp. pnmanly derived T55 (0,147) (tom military programs. Army discontinued CIP T63 (OHA6 OH-SI) for som older engines for...Army did not fund CIP and T55 (CH-47) company did proceed with improved commercial derivatives. T63 (OH-6, OH-58) T700 has CIP and also commercial

  8. Structural analysis of ultra-high speed aircraft structural components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenzen, K. H.; Siegel, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The buckling characteristics of a hypersonic beaded skin panel were investigated under pure compression with boundary conditions similar to those found in a wing mounted condition. The primary phases of analysis reported include: (1) experimental testing of the panel to failure; (2) finite element structural analysis of the beaded panel with the computer program NASTRAN; and (3) summary of the semiclassical buckling equations for the beaded panel under purely compressive loads. A comparison of each of the analysis methods is also included.

  9. Analytical Techniques for Aromatic Components in Aircraft Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    alkyltetrahydro- quinolines, alkyltetrahydroisoquinolines, and a tetrahydroacridine. The pyridines and anilines with identical molecular weights were...distinct. For example, Compounds 28 and 29 (in Table 15) which are both C4-pyridines and which have identical GC retention times elute in HPLC Fzactions 10...pyridines and which have identical GC retention times elute in HPLC Fractions 11 and 3, respectively, and have the distinctly different mass spectra

  10. Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation: Performance Characterization of Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Coraor, Lee

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here is a part of NASA's Synthetic Vision System (SVS) project for the development of a High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (HSCT). One of the components of the SVS is a module for detection of potential obstacles in the aircraft's flight path by analyzing the images captured by an on-board camera in real-time. Design of such a module includes the selection and characterization of robust, reliable, and fast techniques and their implementation for execution in real-time. This report describes the results of our research in realizing such a design. It is organized into three parts. Part I. Data modeling and camera characterization; Part II. Algorithms for detecting airborne obstacles; and Part III. Real time implementation of obstacle detection algorithms on the Datacube MaxPCI architecture. A list of publications resulting from this grant as well as a list of relevant publications resulting from prior NASA grants on this topic are presented.

  11. Deployment of a wireless corrosion monitoring system for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demo, J.; Andrews, C.; Friedersdorf, F.; Morgan, A.; Jostes, L.

    With its extremely negative effects on critical military assets, corrosion continues to be one of the top maintenance cost drivers for the Department of Defense. As of 2010, an estimated $22.9B was required to cover the costs associated with corrosion in the DoD annually. Proper management of corrosion on high value military assets such as aircraft can significantly reduce costs associated with maintenance, component removal, and aircraft availability. This paper will discuss the design, validation, and deployment of a wireless, flight qualified corrosion monitoring system as well as analysis of data collected during field trials.

  12. Performance Characterization of Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Coraor, Lee; Gandhi, Tarak; Hartman, Kerry; Yang, Mau-Tsuen

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here is a part of NASA's Synthetic Vision System (SVS) project for the development of a High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (HSCT). One of the components of the SVS is a module for detection of potential obstacles in the aircraft's flight path by analyzing the images captured by an on-board camera in real-time. Design of such a module includes the selection and characterization of robust, reliable, and fast techniques and their implementation for execution in real-time. This report describes the results of our research in realizing such a design.

  13. Geologic interpretation of HCMM and aircraft thermal data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Progress on the Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) follow-on study is reported. Numerous image products for geologic interpretation of both HCMM and aircraft thermal data were produced. These include, among others, various combinations of the thermal data with LANDSAT and SEASAT data. The combined data sets were displayed using simple color composites, principal component color composites and black and white images, and hue, saturation intensity color composites. Algorithms for incorporating both atmospheric and elevation data simultaneously into the digital processing for creation of quantitatively correct thermal inertia images, are in the final development stage. A field trip to Death Valley was undertaken to field check the aircraft and HCMM data.

  14. Navier-Stokes computations useful in aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.

    1990-01-01

    Large scale Navier-Stokes computations about aircraft components as well as reasonably complete aircraft configurations are presented and discussed. Speed and memory requirements are described for various general problem classes, which in some cases are already being used in the industrial design environment. Recent computed results, with experimental comparisons when available, are included to highlight the presentation. Finally, prospects for the future are described and recommendations for areas of concentrated research are indicated. The future of Navier-Stokes computations is seen to be rapidly expanding across a broad front of applications, which includes the entire subsonic-to-hypersonic speed regime.

  15. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  16. Optimum Aircraft Rescue Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    10 x 106 17 - 4PH -1075 Ftu = 165,000 F = 150,000ty Fsy 90,000 Fbry = 150,000 E = 29 x 106 K 52F.,:: . * .:.:., . . .,.:. .°F2 . 2 3 3.2.5 3 X{ Body...lbs/in2 s A 2 x (.52-.252) 7 M.S. =100,000 (.5 _ 1 =+2.0 (high) 17 - 4PH ; F = 100,000 lbs/in 2 25,000s Bearing Stress -- Both Pieces fb *7363~ 19,634... SHEET Test 8 Date: 16 November 1983 Start Time: 10: 17 End Time: Test Engineer: Ed LeMaster Test Description Aircraft: Router Testing on Canopy Material

  17. Tilt rotor aircraft aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Smith, Charles A.; Maisel, Martin D.; Brieger, John T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the state of knowledge and the needed improvement in noise methodology and measurements for tilt rotor aircraft. Similarities and differences between tilt rotor aeroacoustic conditions and helicopter and propeller experience are identified. A discussion of the possible principal noise mechanisms throughout the flight envelope shows a need for further experimental and analytical investigations to develop an adequate understanding of the important sources and influencing factors. Existing experimental data from flight tests suggest terminal area noise reduction by operating within certain portions of the conversion flight envelope. Prediction methods are found to provide approximate indications only for low frequency harmonic and broadband noise for several of the tilt rotor's operating conditions. The acoustic effects of the hover case 'fountain' flow are pronounced and need further research. Impulsive noise and high frequency harmonic noise remain problems, as on helicopters, pending major improvements in wake, unsteady aerodynamics, and acoustics methodology.

  18. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  19. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  20. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  1. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  2. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  3. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  4. Structural analysis of Aircraft fuselage splice joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udaya Prakash, R.; Kumar, G. Raj; Vijayanandh, R.; Senthil Kumar, M.; Ramganesh, T.

    2016-09-01

    In Aviation sector, composite materials and its application to each component are one of the prime factors of consideration due to the high strength to weight ratio, design flexibility and non-corrosive so that the composite materials are widely used in the low weight constructions and also it can be treated as a suitable alternative to metals. The objective of this paper is to estimate and compare the suitability of a composite skin joint in an aircraft fuselage with different joints by simulating the displacement, normal stress, vonmises stress and shear stress with the help of numerical solution methods. The reference Z-stringer component of this paper is modeled by CATIA and numerical simulation is carried out by ANSYS has been used for splice joint presents in the aircraft fuselage with three combinations of joints such as riveted joint, bonded joint and hybrid joint. Nowadays the stringers are using to avoid buckling of fuselage skin, it has joined together by rivets and they are connected end to end by splice joint. Design and static analysis of three-dimensional models of joints such as bonded, riveted and hybrid are carried out and results are compared.

  5. Monitoring Aircraft Motion at Airports by LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, C.; Jozkow, G.; Koppanyi, Z.; Young, S.; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving sensor performance, combined with better affordability, provides better object space observability, resulting in new applications. Remote sensing systems are primarily concerned with acquiring data of the static components of our environment, such as the topographic surface of the earth, transportation infrastructure, city models, etc. Observing the dynamic component of the object space is still rather rare in the geospatial application field; vehicle extraction and traffic flow monitoring are a few examples of using remote sensing to detect and model moving objects. Deploying a network of inexpensive LiDAR sensors along taxiways and runways can provide both geometrically and temporally rich geospatial data that aircraft body can be extracted from the point cloud, and then, based on consecutive point clouds motion parameters can be estimated. Acquiring accurate aircraft trajectory data is essential to improve aviation safety at airports. This paper reports about the initial experiences obtained by using a network of four Velodyne VLP- 16 sensors to acquire data along a runway segment.

  6. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  7. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  8. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  9. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  10. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  12. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  13. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  14. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  15. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  16. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  17. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  18. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  19. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  20. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  1. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  2. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  3. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  4. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  5. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  6. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  7. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  8. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  9. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  10. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  11. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  12. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  13. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  16. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  17. Diagnostics and Active Control of Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    This project deals with developing advanced methods for investigating and controlling interior noise in aircraft. The work concentrates on developing and applying the techniques of Near Field Acoustic Holography (NAH) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the aircraft interior noise dynamic problem. This involves investigating the current state of the art, developing new techniques and then applying them to the particular problem being studied. The knowledge gained under the first part of the project was then used to develop and apply new, advanced noise control techniques for reducing interior noise. A new fully active control approach based on the PCA was developed and implemented on a test cylinder. Finally an active-passive approach based on tunable vibration absorbers was to be developed and analytically applied to a range of test structures from simple plates to aircraft fuselages.

  18. Interior noise levels of two propeller-driven light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Mayes, W. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relationships between aircraft operating conditions and interior noise and the degree to which ground testing can be used in lieu of flight testing for performing interior noise research were studied. The results show that the noise inside light aircraft is strongly influenced by the rotational speed of the engine and propeller. Both the overall noise and low frequency spectra levels were observed to decrease with increasing high speed rpm operations during flight. This phenomenon and its significance is not presently understood. Comparison of spectra obtained in flight with spectra obtained on the ground suggests that identification of frequency components and relative amplitude of propeller and engine noise sources may be evaluated on stationary aircraft.

  19. Systems Analysis Initiated for All-Electric Aircraft Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohout, Lisa L.

    2003-01-01

    A multidisciplinary effort is underway at the NASA Glenn Research Center to develop concepts for revolutionary, nontraditional fuel cell power and propulsion systems for aircraft applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fuel cells as a power source for electric propulsion as well as an auxiliary power unit to substantially reduce or eliminate environmentally harmful emissions. A systems analysis effort was initiated to assess potential concepts in an effort to identify those configurations with the highest payoff potential. Among the technologies under consideration are advanced proton exchange membrane (PEM) and solid oxide fuel cells, alternative fuels and fuel processing, and fuel storage. Prior to this effort, the majority of fuel cell analysis done at Glenn was done for space applications. Because of this, a new suite of models was developed. These models include the hydrogen-air PEM fuel cell; internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell; balance-of-plant components (compressor, humidifier, separator, and heat exchangers); compressed gas, cryogenic, and liquid fuel storage tanks; and gas turbine/generator models for hybrid system applications. Initial mass, volume, and performance estimates of a variety of PEM systems operating on hydrogen and reformate have been completed for a baseline general aviation aircraft. Solid oxide/turbine hybrid systems are being analyzed. In conjunction with the analysis efforts, a joint effort has been initiated with Glenn s Computer Services Division to integrate fuel cell stack and component models with the visualization environment that supports the GRUVE lab, Glenn s virtual reality facility. The objective of this work is to provide an environment to assist engineers in the integration of fuel cell propulsion systems into aircraft and provide a better understanding of the interaction between system components and the resulting effect on the overall design and performance of the aircraft. Initially, three

  20. RTJ-303: Variable geometry, oblique wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antaran, Albert; Belete, Hailu; Dryzmkowski, Mark; Higgins, James; Klenk, Alan; Rienecker, Lisa

    1992-01-01

    This document is a preliminary design of a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) named the RTJ-303. It is a 300 passenger, Mach 1.6 transport with a range of 5000 nautical miles. It features four mixed-flow turbofan engines, variable geometry oblique wing, with conventional tail-aft control surfaces. The preliminary cost analysis for a production of 300 aircraft shows that flyaway cost would be 183 million dollars (1992) per aircraft. The aircraft uses standard jet fuel and requires no special materials to handle aerodynamic heating in flight because the stagnation temperatures are approximately 130 degrees Fahrenheit in the supersonic cruise condition. It should be stressed that this aircraft could be built with today's technology and does not rely on vague and uncertain assumptions of technology advances. Included in this report are sections discussing the details of the preliminary design sequence including the mission to be performed, operational and performance constraints, the aircraft configuration and the tradeoffs of the final choice, wing design, a detailed fuselage design, empennage design, sizing of tail geometry, and selection of control surfaces, a discussion on propulsion system/inlet choice and their position on the aircraft, landing gear design including a look at tire selection, tip-over criterion, pavement loading, and retraction kinematics, structures design including load determination, and materials selection, aircraft performance, a look at stability and handling qualities, systems layout including location of key components, operations requirements maintenance characteristics, a preliminary cost analysis, and conclusions made regarding the design, and recommendations for further study.

  1. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  2. Can advanced technology improve future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Snow, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The short-haul service abandoned by the trunk and local airlines is being picked up by the commuter airlines using small turboprop-powered aircraft. Most of the existing small transport aircraft currently available represent a relatively old technology level. However, several manufacturers have initiated the development of new or improved commuter transport aircraft. These aircraft are relatively conservative in terms of technology. An examination is conducted of advanced technology to identify those technologies that, if developed, would provide the largest improvements for future generations of these aircraft. Attention is given to commuter aircraft operating cost, aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion, aircraft systems, and technology integration. It is found that advanced technology can improve future commuter aircraft and that the largest of these improvements will come from the synergistic combination of technological advances in all of the aircraft disciplines. The most important goals are related to improved fuel efficiency and increased aircraft productivity.

  3. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  4. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  5. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  6. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  7. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  8. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  9. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  10. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  11. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  12. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  13. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  14. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  15. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  16. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  17. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  18. Advanced supersonic cruise aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Driver, C.

    1977-01-01

    A multidiscipline approach is taken to the application of the latest technology to supersonic cruise aircraft concept definition, and current problem areas are identified. Particular attention is given to the performance of the AST-100 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle with emphasis on aerodynamic characteristics, noise and chemical emission, and mission analysis. A recently developed aircraft sizing and performance computer program was used to determine allowable wing loading and takeoff gross weight sensitivity to structural weight reduction.

  19. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  20. X-29 - views of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. In this 29-second film clip the camera pans along the aircraft from nose to tail and then air-to-air as the shot sweeps from beside the X-29 around to the front.

  1. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  2. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  3. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  4. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  5. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  6. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National...

  7. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  8. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R.

    1980-07-29

    An aircraft pollution reducing propulsion airfoil system comprising a wing having upper and lower surfaces comprising wing skin plates extending longitudinally on the wing and being spaced one from another in chordwise directions, spars extending into the wing between the surfaces, stringer ducts extending along internal sides of the wing surfaces, the stringers having relatively rigid surface-supporting structure and having outward directed openings extending across the wing surfaces, interrupting the wing surfaces between edges of the wing skin plates, the ducts thereby forming stringer structural elements supporting the wing skin plates, the outward directed openings of the stringer ducts being arranged perpendicularly to the wing surfaces in a leading portion of the wing and tangential to the wing surfaces in a trailing portion of the wing surfaces, suction means connected to the stringer ducts with perpendicular opening for drawing gas into the ducts through those openings and blowing means connected to the ducts with tangential openings for flowing gas out of the tangential openings, combustion means connected to the suction means and to the blowing meanas for accelerating gas through the means.

  9. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  10. Aircraft noise synthesis system: Version 4 user instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A modified version of the Aircraft Noise Synthesis System with improved directivity and tonal content modeling has been developed. The synthesis system is used to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics such as duration or tonal content are independently varied while the remaining characteristics such as broadband content are held constant. The modified version of the system provides improved modeling of noise directivity patterns and an increased number of pure tone components. User instructions for the modified version of the synthesis system are provided.

  11. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  12. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  13. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  14. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  15. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  16. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  17. INFORMATION: Audit Report on The Office of Secure Transportation DC-9 Aircraft Refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Secure Transportation (OST) maintains a fleet of seven aircraft to transport sensitive items, equipment and security personnel. Based on increasing requirements for transporting components and security personnel, OST decided to add a heavy transport aircraft to meet the Department's weapons surety and emergency response missions. In 2004, as a replacement following the sale of a portion of its fleet, OST acquired a DC-9 cargo aircraft that had been excessed by the U.S. military. Prior to integrating the DC-9 into its fleet, NNSA ordered a refurbishment of the aircraft. This refurbishment project was to permit the aircraft to be certified to civil air standards so that it could transport passengers for site visits, training and other travel. The NNSA Service Center (Service Center) awarded a contract for the refurbishment of the aircraft in December 2004. In recent years, the Office of Inspector General has addressed a number of issues relating to the Department's aircraft management activities and services. As part of our ongoing review process and because of the national security importance of its fleet of aircraft, we conducted this review to determine whether OST had an effective and efficient aviation management program.

  18. Measurements of neutron radiation in aircraft.

    PubMed

    Vuković, B; Poje, M; Varga, M; Radolić, V; Miklavcić, I; Faj, D; Stanić, D; Planinić, J

    2010-12-01

    Radiation environment is a complex mixture of charged particles of the solar and galactic origin, as well as of secondary particles created in an interaction of galactic cosmic particles with the nuclei of the Earth's atmosphere. A radiation field at aircraft altitude consists of different types of particles, mainly photons, electrons, positrons and neutrons, with a large energy range. In order to measure a neutron component of the cosmic radiation, we investigated a few combinations of a track etch detector (CR-39, LR-115) with a plastic converter or boron foil. Detector calibration was performed on neutrons coming from the nuclear reactor, as well as in the CERN-EU high-energy Reference Field (CERF) facility. From November 2007 to September 2008, the neutron dose equivalent was measured by the track detectors during five aircraft flights, in the north geographical latitude from 21° to 58°; the respective average dose rate, determined by using the D-4 detector (CR-39/B), was Ḣ(n)=5.9 μSv/h. The photon dose rate, measured by the electronic dosimeter RAD-60 SE, had the average value of Ḣ(f)=1.4 μSv/h.

  19. Temporal Characterization of Aircraft Noise Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2004-01-01

    Current aircraft source noise prediction tools yield time-independent frequency spectra as functions of directivity angle. Realistic evaluation and human assessment of aircraft fly-over noise require the temporal characteristics of the noise signature. The purpose of the current study is to analyze empirical data from broadband jet and tonal fan noise sources and to provide the temporal information required for prediction-based synthesis. Noise sources included a one-tenth-scale engine exhaust nozzle and a one-fifth scale scale turbofan engine. A methodology was developed to characterize the low frequency fluctuations employing the Short Time Fourier Transform in a MATLAB computing environment. It was shown that a trade-off is necessary between frequency and time resolution in the acoustic spectrogram. The procedure requires careful evaluation and selection of the data analysis parameters, including the data sampling frequency, Fourier Transform window size, associated time period and frequency resolution, and time period window overlap. Low frequency fluctuations were applied to the synthesis of broadband noise with the resulting records sounding virtually indistinguishable from the measured data in initial subjective evaluations. Amplitude fluctuations of blade passage frequency (BPF) harmonics were successfully characterized for conditions equivalent to take-off and approach. Data demonstrated that the fifth harmonic of the BPF varied more in frequency than the BPF itself and exhibited larger amplitude fluctuations over the duration of the time record. Frequency fluctuations were found to be not perceptible in the current characterization of tonal components.

  20. Intelligent Control Approaches for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; KrishnaKumar, K.; Soloway, Don; Kaneshige, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied under the Intelligent Flight Control (IFC) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main objective of the intelligent flight control program is to develop the next generation of flight controllers for the purpose of automatically compensating for a broad spectrum of damaged or malfunctioning aircraft components and to reduce control law development cost and time. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller and (b) an adaptive critic-based dynamic inverse controller. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) Match flying qualities of modern fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) Improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) Achieve consistent handling qualities across the flight envelope and for different aircraft configurations. Results obtained so far demonstrate the potential for improving handling qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  1. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  2. Evaluation of a Damage Accumulation Monitoring System as an Individual Aircraft Tracking Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Report MONITORING SYSTEM AS AN INDIVIDUAL 9 1 (1- -20, AIRCRAFT TRACKING CONCEPT •. PERFORMINS ODG. RLpoy "UMmeR NOR 82- 58 7. AUJTNH)R(’q) -S CONTRACT OR...LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS (Continued) FIGURE PAGE 17 Major IAT and Force Management Data Item Classes 89 18 Comparison of Individual Aircraft Crack...months or years at which time the critical crack length will be reached. L The full fatigue life of the aircraft or component (either based on test or

  3. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft.

  4. Principal Component Analysis for Enhancement of Infrared Spectra Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haney, Ricky Lance

    The issue of air quality within the aircraft cabin is receiving increasing attention from both pilot and flight attendant unions. This is due to exposure events caused by poor air quality that in some cases may have contained toxic oil components due to bleed air that flows from outside the aircraft and then through the engines into the aircraft cabin. Significant short and long-term medical issues for aircraft crew have been attributed to exposure. The need for air quality monitoring is especially evident in the fact that currently within an aircraft there are no sensors to monitor the air quality and potentially harmful gas levels (detect-to-warn sensors), much less systems to monitor and purify the air (detect-to-treat sensors) within the aircraft cabin. The specific purpose of this research is to utilize a mathematical technique called principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with principal component regression (PCR) and proportionality constant calculations (PCC) to simplify complex, multi-component infrared (IR) spectra data sets into a reduced data set used for determination of the concentrations of the individual components. Use of PCA can significantly simplify data analysis as well as improve the ability to determine concentrations of individual target species in gas mixtures where significant band overlap occurs in the IR spectrum region. Application of this analytical numerical technique to IR spectrum analysis is important in improving performance of commercial sensors that airlines and aircraft manufacturers could potentially use in an aircraft cabin environment for multi-gas component monitoring. The approach of this research is two-fold, consisting of a PCA application to compare simulation and experimental results with the corresponding PCR and PCC to determine quantitatively the component concentrations within a mixture. The experimental data sets consist of both two and three component systems that could potentially be present as air

  5. Multi-aircraft dynamics, navigation and operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houck, Sharon Wester

    Air traffic control stands on the brink of a revolution. Fifty years from now, we will look back and marvel that we ever flew by radio beacons and radar alone, much as we now marvel that early aviation pioneers flew by chronometer and compass alone. The microprocessor, satellite navigation systems, and air-to-air data links are the technical keys to this revolution. Many airports are near or at capacity now for at least portions of the day, making it clear that major increases in airport capacity will be required in order to support the projected growth in air traffic. This can be accomplished by adding airports, adding runways at existing airports, or increasing the capacity of the existing runways. Technology that allows use of ultra closely spaced (750 ft to 2500 ft) parallel approaches would greatly reduce the environmental impact of airport capacity increases. This research tackles the problem of multi aircraft dynamics, navigation, and operation, specifically in the terminal area, and presents new findings on how ultra closely spaced parallel approaches may be accomplished. The underlying approach considers how multiple aircraft are flown in visual conditions, where spacing criteria is much less stringent, and then uses this data to study the critical parameters for collision avoidance during an ultra closely spaced parallel approach. Also included is experimental and analytical investigations on advanced guidance systems that are critical components of precision approaches. Together, these investigations form a novel approach to the design and analysis of parallel approaches for runways spaced less than 2500 ft apart. This research has concluded that it is technically feasible to reduce the required runway spacing during simultaneous instrument approaches to less than the current minimum of 3400 ft with the use of advanced navigation systems while maintaining the currently accepted levels of safety. On a smooth day with both pilots flying a tunnel

  6. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine

  7. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams

  8. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  9. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft is steered to it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel wait to attach a hoist to the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, which arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high

  11. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in it's hangar at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following its arrival on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  12. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft arrival at Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA and McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) personnel remove protective covers from the newly arrived NASA/McDonnell Douglas Corporation X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft. It arrived at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on July 2, 1996. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1

  13. Real-Time Minimization of Tracking Error for Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha; Kaneshige, John T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Kulkarni, Nilesh V.; Burken, John

    2013-01-01

    This technology presents a novel, stable, discrete-time adaptive law for flight control in a Direct adaptive control (DAC) framework. Where errors are not present, the original control design has been tuned for optimal performance. Adaptive control works towards achieving nominal performance whenever the design has modeling uncertainties/errors or when the vehicle suffers substantial flight configuration change. The baseline controller uses dynamic inversion with proportional-integral augmentation. On-line adaptation of this control law is achieved by providing a parameterized augmentation signal to a dynamic inversion block. The parameters of this augmentation signal are updated to achieve the nominal desired error dynamics. If the system senses that at least one aircraft component is experiencing an excursion and the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, then the neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft operation may be changed.

  14. Integrated Software Health Management for Aircraft GN and C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mengshoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft rely heavily on dependable operation of many safety-critical software components. Despite careful design, verification and validation (V&V), on-board software can fail with disastrous consequences if it encounters problematic software/hardware interaction or must operate in an unexpected environment. We are using a Bayesian approach to monitor the software and its behavior during operation and provide up-to-date information about the health of the software and its components. The powerful reasoning mechanism provided by our model-based Bayesian approach makes reliable diagnosis of the root causes possible and minimizes the number of false alarms. Compilation of the Bayesian model into compact arithmetic circuits makes SWHM feasible even on platforms with limited CPU power. We show initial results of SWHM on a small simulator of an embedded aircraft software system, where software and sensor faults can be injected.

  15. Prognostics for Electronics Components of Avionics Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Celaya, Jose R.; Saha, Bhaskar; Wysocki, Philip F.; Goebel, Kai F.

    2009-01-01

    Electronics components have and increasingly critical role in avionics systems and for the development of future aircraft systems. Prognostics of such components is becoming a very important research filed as a result of the need to provide aircraft systems with system level health management. This paper reports on a prognostics application for electronics components of avionics systems, in particular, its application to the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT). The remaining useful life prediction for the IGBT is based on the particle filter framework, leveraging data from an accelerated aging tests on IGBTs. The accelerated aging test provided thermal-electrical overstress by applying thermal cycling to the device. In-situ state monitoring, including measurements of the steady-state voltages and currents, electrical transients, and thermal transients are recorded and used as potential precursors of failure.

  16. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49/epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after three years' service, and found to be performing satisfactorily. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft, including sandwich and solid laminate wing-body panels, and 150 C service aft engine fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  17. Correction of Doppler Rada Data for Aircraft Motion Using Surface Measurements and Recursive Least-Squares Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S.; Haddad, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Observations of Doppler velocity of hydrometeors form airborne Doppler weather radars normally contains a component due to the aircraft motion. Accurate hydrometeor velocity measurements thus require correction by subtracting this velocity from the observed velocity.

  18. Modeling aircraft noise induced sleep disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, Sarah M.

    One of the primary impacts of aircraft noise on a community is its disruption of sleep. Aircraft noise increases the time to fall asleep, the number of awakenings, and decreases the amount of rapid eye movement and slow wave sleep. Understanding these changes in sleep may be important as they could increase the risk for developing next-day effects such as sleepiness and reduced performance and long-term health effects such as cardiovascular disease. There are models that have been developed to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. However, most of these models only predict the percentage of the population that is awakened. Markov and nonlinear dynamic models have been developed to predict an individual's sleep structure during the night. However, both of these models have limitations. The Markov model only accounts for whether an aircraft event occurred not the noise level or other sound characteristics of the event that may affect the degree of disturbance. The nonlinear dynamic models were developed to describe normal sleep regulation and do not have a noise effects component. In addition, the nonlinear dynamic models have slow dynamics which make it difficult to predict short duration awakenings which occur both spontaneously and as a result of nighttime noise exposure. The purpose of this research was to examine these sleep structure models to determine how they could be altered to predict the effect of aircraft noise on sleep. Different approaches for adding a noise level dependence to the Markov Model was explored and the modified model was validated by comparing predictions to behavioral awakening data. In order to determine how to add faster dynamics to the nonlinear dynamic sleep models it was necessary to have a more detailed sleep stage classification than was available from visual scoring of sleep data. An automatic sleep stage classification algorithm was developed which extracts different features of polysomnography data including the

  19. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  20. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  1. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  2. NASA's aircraft icing technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA' Aircraft Icing Technology program is aimed at developing innovative technologies for safe and efficient flight into forecasted icing. The program addresses the needs of all aircraft classes and supports both commercial and military applications. The program is guided by three key strategic objectives: (1) numerically simulate an aircraft's response to an in-flight icing encounter, (2) provide improved experimental icing simulation facilities and testing techniques, and (3) offer innovative approaches to ice protection. Our research focuses on topics that directly support stated industry needs, and we work closely with industry to assure a rapid and smooth transfer of technology. This paper presents selected results that illustrate progress towards the three strategic objectives, and it provides a comprehensive list of references on the NASA icing program.

  3. Metallurgical analysis of fractured F-27 aircraft landing gear

    SciTech Connect

    Witherell, C.E.

    1987-12-15

    The Materials Division of LLNL's Chemistry and Materials Science Department was asked to conduct a study of a fractured component of the main (starboard) landing gear on the F-27 aircraft (N768RL). The purpose of the study was to determine from metallurgical evidence the probable failure mode, its cause, and contribution to the recent landing incident at Livermore. 21 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Effects of Structural Flexibility on Aircraft-Engine Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis extends technique for design of widely used type of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines, in which rubber mounting pads located in plane behind center of gravity of enginepropeller combination. New analysis treats problem in statics. Results of simple approach useful in providing equations for design of vibrationisolating mounts. Equations applicable in usual situation in which engine-mount structure itself relatively light and placed between large mass of engine and other heavy components of airplane.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE POSITION INSIDE A SMALL AIRCRAFT ON THE COSMIC-RADIATION-INDUCED DOSE.

    PubMed

    Prado, A C M; Pazianotto, M T; Gonçalez, O L; Dos Santos, L R; Caldeira, A D; Pereira, H H C; Hubert, G; Federico, C A

    2017-01-23

    This article report the measurements on-board a small aircraft at the same altitude and around the same geographic coordinates. The measurements of Ambient Dose Equivalent Rate (H*(10)) were performed in several positions inside the aircraft, close and far from the pilot location and the discrimination between neutron and non-neutron components. The results show that the neutrons are attenuated close to fuel depots and the non-neutron component appears to have the opposite behavior inside the aircraft. These experimental results are also confronted with results from Monte Carlo simulation, obtained with the MCNPX code, using a simplified model of the Learjet-type aircraft and a modeling of the standard atmosphere, which reproduces the real energy and angular distribution of the particles. The Monte Carlo simulation agreed with the experimental measurements and shows that the total H*(10) presents small variation (around 1%) between the positions inside aircraft, although the neutron spectra present significant variations.

  6. Battery component

    SciTech Connect

    Goebel, F.; Batson, D.C.; Miserendino, A.J.; Boyle, G.

    1988-03-15

    A mechanical component for reserve type electrochemical batteries having cylindrical porous members is described comprising a disc having: (i) circular grooves in one flat side for accepting the porous members; and (ii) at least one radial channel in the opposite flat side in fluid communication with the grooves.

  7. WAVDRAG- ZERO-LIFT WAVE DRAG OF COMPLEX AIRCRAFT CONFIGURATIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craidon, C. B.

    1994-01-01

    WAVDRAG calculates the supersonic zero-lift wave drag of complex aircraft configurations. The numerical model of an aircraft is used throughout the design process from concept to manufacturing. WAVDRAG incorporates extended geometric input capabilities to permit use of a more accurate mathematical model. With WAVDRAG, the engineer can define aircraft components as fusiform or nonfusiform in terms of non-intersecting contours in any direction or more traditional parallel contours. In addition, laterally asymmetric configurations can be simulated. The calculations in WAVDRAG are based on Whitcomb's area-rule computation of equivalent-bodies, with modifications for supersonic speed. Instead of using a single equivalent-body, WAVDRAG calculates a series of equivalent-bodies, one for each roll angle. The total aircraft configuration wave drag is the integrated average of the equivalent-body wave drags through the full roll range of 360 degrees. WAVDRAG currently accepts up to 30 user-defined components containing a maximum of 50 contours as geometric input. Each contour contains a maximum of 50 points. The Mach number, angle-of-attack, and coordinates of angle-of-attack rotation are also input. The program warns of any fusiform-body line segments having a slope larger than the Mach angle. WAVDRAG calculates total drag and the wave-drag coefficient of the specified aircraft configuration. WAVDRAG is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC CYBER 170 series computer with a central memory requirement of approximately 63K (octal) of 60 bit words. This program was developed in 1983.

  8. Correlation of forebody pressures and aircraft yawing moments on the X-29A aircraft at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Landers, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    In-flight pressure distributions at four fuselage stations on the forebody of the X-29A aircraft have been reported at angles of attack from 15 to 66 deg and at Mach numbers from 0.22 to 0.60. At angles of attack of 20 deg and higher, vortices shed from the nose strake caused suction peaks in the pressure distributions that generally increased in magnitude with angle of attack. Above 30 deg-angle of attack, the forebody pressure distributions became asymmetrical at the most forward station, while they remained nearly symmetrical until 50 to 55 deg-angle of attack for the aft stations. Between 59 to 66 deg-angle of attack, the asymmetry of the pressure distributions changed direction. Yawing moments for the forebody alone were obtained by integrating the forebody pressure distributions. At 45 deg-angle of attack, the aircraft yaws to the right and at 50 deg and higher, the aircraft yaws to the left. The forebody yawing moments correlated well with the aircraft left yawing moment at an angle of attack of 50 deg or higher. At a 45 deg-angle of attack, the forebody yawing moments did not correlate well with the aircraft yawing moment, but it is suggested that this was due to asymmetric pressures on the cockpit region of the fuselage which was not instrumented. The forebody was also shown to provide a positive component of directional stability of the aircraft at angles of attack of 25 deg or higher. A Mach number effect was noted at angles of attack of 30 deg or higher at the station where the nose strake was present. At this station, the suction peaks in the pressure distributions at the highest Mach number were reduced and much more symmetrical as compared to the lower Mach number pressure distributions.

  9. Rapid Prototyping of an Aircraft Model in an Object-Oriented Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, P. Sean

    2003-01-01

    A team was created to participate in the Mars Scout Opportunity. Trade studies determined that an aircraft provided the best opportunity to complete the science objectives of the team. A high fidelity six degree of freedom flight simulation was required to provide credible evidence that the aircraft design fulfilled mission objectives and to support the aircraft design process by providing performance evaluations. The team created the simulation using the Langley Standard Real-Time Simulation in C++ (LaSRS++) application framework. A rapid prototyping approach was necessary because the team had only three months to both develop the aircraft simulation model and evaluate aircraft performance as the design and mission parameters matured. The design of LaSRS++ enabled rapid-prototyping in several ways. First, the framework allowed component models to be designed, implemented, unit-tested, and integrated quickly. Next, the framework provides a highly reusable infrastructure that allowed developers to maximize code reuse while concentrating on aircraft and mission specific features. Finally, the framework reduces risk by providing reusable components that allow developers to build a quality product with a compressed testing cycle that relies heavily on unit testing of new components.

  10. Aircraft energy efficiency. Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Six advanced technology development projects that could cut fuel consumption of future civil air transports by as much as 50 percent are highlighted. These include improved engine components, better engine design, thin short blades for turboprop aircaft using composite primary structures for weight reduction, the use of supercritical wings, higher aspect ratio, and winglets for improved aerodynamics active controls and laminar flow control. The time span of each of the six efforts and NASA's expected expenditures are also discussed.

  11. Aircraft energy efficiency. Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Six advanced technology development projects that could cut fuel consumption of future civil air transports by as much as 50 percent are highlighted. These include improved engine components; better engine design; thin short blades for turboprop aircaft; using composite primary structures for weight reduction; the use of supercritical wings, higher aspect ratio, and winglets for improved aerodynamics; active controls; and laminar flow control. The time span of each of the six efforts and NASA's expected expenditures are also discussed.

  12. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  13. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  14. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  16. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  17. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  18. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  19. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  20. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  1. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

  2. Physical Bases of Aircraft Icing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    conditions, it is changed the sensitivity of aircraft to icing, appear now ta6Ks as, for example, about the icing of helicopters or internal icing in jet ... jet aviation led to the need to specially examine qua~tioas of aircraft icing at high flight speeds. This is made in V cndptwir of present monograph...A. M. Yaglom were reported by it at seminax in tut Geophysical institute of the AS USSR, but they were not puisa in press/ printing . ENOFOOTNOTE. The

  3. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  4. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  5. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  6. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  7. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  8. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  9. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  10. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  11. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft... reporting requirements with regard to aircraft accidents or incidents, found at paragraph (a)(10) of section...: 1. Government-wide rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the...

  12. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  13. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  14. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  15. 14 CFR 25.994 - Fuel system components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system components. 25.994 Section 25.994 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System Components § 25.994 Fuel...

  16. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  17. 2007 Kneller Lecture, AESA Getting Lost: Social Science and/as Philosophy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lather, Patti

    2009-01-01

    This article probes how philosophical structures are immanent in empirical work and how philosophy might be understood when it is within the precincts of science. My interest is in both opening philosophy to disruption by a science that knows itself as inside history and opening science to the costs of its inability to tolerate the necessary lack…

  18. Quiet aircraft design and operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aircraft noise technology to the design and operation of aircraft is discussed. Areas of discussion include the setting of target airplane noise levels, operational considerations and their effect on noise, and the sequencing and timing of the design and development process. Primary emphasis is placed on commercial transport aircraft of the type operated by major airlines. Additionally, noise control engineering of other types of aircraft is briefly discussed.

  19. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  20. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  1. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  2. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  3. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  4. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  5. 14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47... AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.51 Triennial aircraft... occurred within the preceding 36 calendar months, the holder of each Certificate of Aircraft...

  6. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  7. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  8. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  9. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  10. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  11. Sensing Horizontal Heading in Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowdin, K. T.

    1986-01-01

    Modified gyroscopic system indicates geographic heading even in nearly vertical flight. Gyroscopes and gimbals of system assume this configuration when aircraft has pitched into vertical dive. Outer roll gimbal fixed with respect to aircraft frame in this orientation. Now, azimuth signal in modified system indicates what aircraft heading would be if it were to resume level flight from climb or dive.

  12. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  13. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  14. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  15. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with...

  16. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  17. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  18. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  19. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  20. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  1. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  2. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  3. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  5. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  6. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  7. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  8. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  9. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  10. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  11. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  12. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  13. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  14. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  15. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  17. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  18. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.117 Aircraft speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below...

  19. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...