Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft air conditioning

  1. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  2. Prediction of air temperature in the aircraft cabin under different operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volavý, F.; Fišer, J.; Nöske, I.

    2013-04-01

    This paper deals with the prediction of the air temperature in the aircraft cabin by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics. The simulations are performed on the CFD model which is based on geometry and cabin interior arrangement of the Flight Test Facility (FTF) located at Fraunhofer IBP, Germany. The experimental test flights under three different cabin temperatures were done in FTF and the various data were gathered during these flights. Air temperature in the cabin was measured on probes located near feet, torso and head of each passenger and also surface temperature and air temperature distributed from inlets were measured. The data were firstly analysed in order to obtain boundary conditions for cabin surfaces and inlets. Then the results of air temperature from the simulations were compared with measured data. The suitability and accuracy of the CFD approach for temperature prediction is discussed.

  3. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  4. Comparison of Satellite and Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Microphysical Properties in Icing Conditions During ATREC/AIRS-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2004-01-01

    Satellites are ideal for continuous monitoring of aircraft icing conditions in many situations over extensive areas. The satellite imager data are used to diagnose a number of cloud properties that can be used to develop icing intensity indices. Developing and validating these indices requires comparison with objective "cloud truth" data in addition to conventional pilot reports (PIREPS) of icing conditions. Minnis et al. examined the relationships between PIREPS icing and satellite-derived cloud properties. The Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) and the second Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS-II) field programs were conducted over the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada during late 2003 and early 2004. The aircraft and surface measurements are concerned primarily with the icing characteristics of clouds and, thus, are ideal for providing some validation information for the satellite remote sensing product. This paper starts the process of comparing cloud properties and icing indices derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) with the aircraft in situ measurements of several cloud properties during campaigns and some of the The comparisons include cloud phase, particle size, icing intensity, base and top altitudes, temperatures, and liquid water path. The results of this study are crucial for developing a more reliable and objective icing product from satellite data. This icing product, currently being derived from GOES data over the USA, is an important complement to more conventional products based on forecasts, and PIREPS.

  5. Using memory for prior aircraft events to detect conflicts under conditions of proactive air traffic control and with concurrent task requirements.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Vanessa K; Loft, Shayne

    2016-06-01

    In 2 experiments we examined the impact of memory for prior events on conflict detection in simulated air traffic control under conditions where individuals proactively controlled aircraft and completed concurrent tasks. Individuals were faster to detect conflicts that had repeatedly been presented during training (positive transfer). Bayesian statistics indicated strong evidence for the null hypothesis that conflict detection was not impaired for events that resembled an aircraft pair that had repeatedly come close to conflicting during training. This is likely because aircraft altitude (the feature manipulated between training and test) was attended to by participants when proactively controlling aircraft. In contrast, a minor change to the relative position of a repeated nonconflicting aircraft pair moderately impaired conflict detection (negative transfer). There was strong evidence for the null hypothesis that positive transfer was not impacted by dividing participant attention, which suggests that part of the information retrieved regarding prior aircraft events was perceptual (the new aircraft pair "looked" like a conflict based on familiarity). These findings extend the effects previously reported by Loft, Humphreys, and Neal (2004), answering the recent strong and unanimous calls across the psychological science discipline to formally establish the robustness and generality of previously published effects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  7. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    A series of fundamental problems related to jet engine air pollution and combustion were examined. These include soot formation and oxidation, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions mechanisms, pollutant dispension, flow and combustion characteristics of the NASA swirl can combustor, fuel atomization and fuel-air mixing processes, fuel spray drop velocity and size measurement, ignition and blowout. A summary of this work, and a bibliography of 41 theses and publications which describe this work, with abstracts, is included.

  8. Indoor air quality: recommendations relevant to aircraft passenger cabins.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    1998-07-01

    To evaluate the human component of aircraft cabin air quality the effects of respiration of a resting adult on air quality in an enclosed space are estimated using standard equations. Results are illustrated for different air volumes per person, with zero air exchange, and with various air change rates. Calculated ventilation rates required to achieve a specified air quality for a wide range of conditions based on theory agree to within 2% of the requirements determined using a standard empirical formula. These calculations quantitatively confirm that the air changes per hour per person necessary for ventilation of an enclosed space vary inversely with the volume of the enclosed space. However, they also establish that the ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an enclosed space with a resting adult remains the same regardless of the volume of the enclosed space. Concentration equilibria resulting from the interaction of the respiration of a resting adult with various ventilation conditions are compared with the rated air exchange rates of samples of current passenger aircraft, both with and without air recirculation capability. Aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations calculated from the published ventilation ratings are found to be intermediate to these sets of results obtained by actual measurement. These findings are used to arrive at recommendations for aircraft builders and operators to help improve aircraft cabin air quality at minimum cost. Passenger responses are suggested to help improve their comfort and decrease their exposure to disease transmission, particularly on long flights.

  9. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  10. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  11. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, the owners of a downed aircraft shall remove the aircraft...

  12. Air-sampling inlet contamination by aircraft emissions on the NASA CV-990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, E. P.; Vedder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    Results of an experimental investigation of the contamination of air sampling inlets by aircraft emissions from the NASA CV-990 research aircraft are presented. This four-engine jet aircraft is a NASA facility used for many different atmospheric and meteorological experiments, as well as for developing spacecraft instrumentation for remote measurements. Our investigations were performed to provide information on which to base the selection of sampling locations for a series of multi-instrument missions for measuring tropospheric trace gases. The major source of contamination is the exhaust from the jet engines, which generate many of the same gases that are of interest in atmospheric chemistry, as well as other gases that may interfere with sampling measurements. The engine exhaust contains these gases in mixing ratios many orders of magnitude greater than those that occur in the clean atmosphere which the missions seek to quantify. Pressurized samples of air were collected simultaneously from a scoop located forward of the engines to represent clean air and from other multiport scoops at various aft positions on the aircraft. The air samples were analyzed in the laboratory by gas chromatography for carbon monoxide, an abundant combustion by-product. Data are presented for various scoop locations under various flight conditions.

  13. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  14. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  15. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  16. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  17. 36 CFR 2.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery. 2... RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) The following are prohibited: (1) Operating or using aircraft on lands or waters other than at locations designated pursuant...

  18. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  19. Manx: Close air support aircraft preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amy, Annie; Crone, David; Hendrickson, Heidi; Willis, Randy; Silva, Vince

    1991-01-01

    The Manx is a twin engine, twin tailed, single seat close air support design proposal for the 1991 Team Student Design Competition. It blends advanced technologies into a lightweight, high performance design with the following features: High sensitivity (rugged, easily maintained, with night/adverse weather capability); Highly maneuverable (negative static margin, forward swept wing, canard, and advanced avionics result in enhanced aircraft agility); and Highly versatile (design flexibility allows the Manx to contribute to a truly integrated ground team capable of rapid deployment from forward sites).

  20. Air regenerating and conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grishayenkov, B. G.

    1975-01-01

    Various physicochemical methods of regenerating and conditioning air for spacecraft are described with emphasis on conditions which affect efficiency of the system. Life support systems used in closed, hermetically sealed environments are discussed with references to actual application in the Soviet Soyuz and Voskhod manned spacecraft. Temperature and humidity control, removal of carbon dioxide, oxygen regeneration, and removal of bacteria and viruses are among the factors considered.

  1. 32 CFR 855.7 - Conditions for use of Air Force airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force airfields. 855.7 Section 855.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits §...

  2. 32 CFR 855.7 - Conditions for use of Air Force airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force airfields. 855.7 Section 855.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits §...

  3. 32 CFR 855.7 - Conditions for use of Air Force airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force airfields. 855.7 Section 855.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits §...

  4. 32 CFR 855.7 - Conditions for use of Air Force airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force airfields. 855.7 Section 855.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits §...

  5. 32 CFR 855.7 - Conditions for use of Air Force airfields.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force airfields. 855.7 Section 855.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft Landing Permits §...

  6. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  7. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  8. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  9. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  10. 36 CFR 1002.17 - Aircraft and air delivery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft and air delivery... USE AND RECREATION § 1002.17 Aircraft and air delivery. (a) Delivering or retrieving a person or... business of the Federal government, or emergency rescues in accordance with the directions of the...

  11. High efficiency air cycle air conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rannenberg, G. C.

    1985-11-19

    An air cycle air conditioning system is provided with regenerative heat exchangers upstream and downstream of an expansion turbine. A closedloop liquid circulatory system serially connects the two regenerative heat exchangers for regeneration without the bulk associated with air-to-air heat exchange. The liquid circulatory system may also provide heat transport to a remote sink heat exchanger and from a remote load as well as heat exchange within the sink heat exchanger and load for enhanced compactness and efficiency.

  12. Cyclone: A close air support aircraft for tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George; Croulet, Donald; Dunn, James; Graham, Michael; Ip, Phillip; Low, Scott; Vance, Gregg; Volckaert, Eric

    1991-01-01

    To meet the threat of the battlefield of the future, the U.S. ground forces will require reliable air support. To provide this support, future aircrews demand a versatile close air support aircraft capable of delivering ordinance during the day, night, or in adverse weather with pin-point accuracy. The Cyclone aircraft meets these requirements, packing the 'punch' necessary to clear the way for effective ground operations. Possessing anti-armor, missile, and precision bombing capability, the Cyclone will counter the threat into the 21st Century. Here, it is shown that the Cyclone is a realistic, economical answer to the demand for a capable close air support aircraft.

  13. Passenger aircraft cabin air quality: trends, effects, societal costs, proposals.

    PubMed

    Hocking, M B

    2000-08-01

    As aircraft operators have sought to substantially reduce propulsion fuel cost by flying at higher altitudes, the energy cost of providing adequate outside air for ventilation has increased. This has lead to a significant decrease in the amount of outside air provided to the passenger cabin, partly compensated for by recirculation of filtered cabin air. The purpose of this review paper is to assemble the available measured air quality data and some calculated estimates of the air quality for aircraft passenger cabins to highlight the trend of the last 25 years. The influence of filter efficiencies on air quality, and a few medically documented and anecdotal cases of illness transmission aboard aircraft are discussed. Cost information has been collected from the perspective of both the airlines and passengers. Suggestions for air quality improvement are given which should help to result in a net, multistakeholder savings and improved passenger comfort.

  14. Capture Conditions for Merging Trajectory Segments to Model Realistic Aircraft Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Yiyuan; Slattery, Rhonda A.

    1996-01-01

    A typical commercial aircraft trajectory consists of a series of flight segments. An aircraft switches from one segment to another when certain specified variables reach their desired values. Trajectory synthesis for air traffic control automation must be consistent with practical pilot procedures. We examine capture conditions for merging trajectory segments to model commercial aircraft descent in trajectory synthesis. These conditions translate into bounds on measurements of atmospheric wind, pressure, and temperature. They also define ranges of thrust and drag feasible for a descent trajectory. Capture conditions are derived for the Center-TRACON Automation System developed at NASA Ames Research Center for automated air traffic control. Various uses of capture conditions are discussed. A Boeing 727-200 aircraft is used to provide numerical examples of capture conditions.

  15. The transfer of carbon fibers through a commercial aircraft water separator and air cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The fraction of carbon fibers passing through a water separator and an air filter was determined in order to estimate the proportion of fibers outside a closed aircraft that are transmitted to the electronics through the air conditioning system. When both devices were used together and only fibers 3 mm or larger were considered, a transfer function of .001 was obtained.

  16. System IDentification Programs for AirCraft (SIDPAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2002-01-01

    A collection of computer programs for aircraft system identification is described and demonstrated. The programs, collectively called System IDentification Programs for AirCraft, or SIDPAC, were developed in MATLAB as m-file functions. SIDPAC has been used successfully at NASA Langley Research Center with data from many different flight test programs and wind tunnel experiments. SIDPAC includes routines for experiment design, data conditioning, data compatibility analysis, model structure determination, equation-error and output-error parameter estimation in both the time and frequency domains, real-time and recursive parameter estimation, low order equivalent system identification, estimated parameter error calculation, linear and nonlinear simulation, plotting, and 3-D visualization. An overview of SIDPAC capabilities is provided, along with a demonstration of the use of SIDPAC with real flight test data from the NASA Glenn Twin Otter aircraft. The SIDPAC software is available without charge to U.S. citizens by request to the author, contingent on the requestor completing a NASA software usage agreement.

  17. Aircraft Environmental System Mechanic, 2-9. Block II--Air Conditioning Systems. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This publication contains a teaching guide and student instructional materials for conducting a high school or adult vocational education course to train persons to perform duties as an aircraft environmental systems mechanic. Course content has been adapted from a military course. The instructional design for this course is self-pace and/or small…

  18. Air Conditioning Does Reduce Air Pollution Indoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Bud

    1970-01-01

    Report of the winter meeting of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. Subjects covered are--(1) title subject, (2) predictions for the human habitat in 1994, (3) fans, and (4) fire safety in buildings. (JW)

  19. Air conditioned suit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carl, G. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An environmentally controlled suit is described consisting of an airtight outergarment attached by an airtight bellows to the wall of a sterile chamber, an undergarment providing for circulation of air near the skin of the wearer, and a circulation system comprised of air supply and distribution to the extremities of the undegarment and central collection and exhaust of air from the midsection of the undergarment. A workman wearing the undergarment and attached circulation system enters the outer garment through a tunnel in the chamber wall and the attached bellows to work in the chamber without any danger of spreading bacteria.

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOEpatents

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Determination of tricresyl phosphate air contamination in aircraft.

    PubMed

    Denola, G; Hanhela, P J; Mazurek, W

    2011-08-01

    Monitoring of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) contamination of cockpit air was undertaken in three types of military aircraft [fighter trainer (FT), fighter bomber (FB), and cargo transport (CT) aircraft]. The aircraft had a previous history of pilot complaints about cockpit air contamination suspected to originate from the engine bleed air supply through the entry of aircraft turbine engine oil (ATO) into the engine compressor. Air samples were collected in flight and on the ground during engine runs using sorbent tubes packed with Porapak Q and cellulose filters. A total of 78 air samples were analysed, from 46 different aircraft, and 48 samples were found to be below the limit of detection. Nine incidents of smoke/odour were identified during the study. The concentrations of toxic o-cresyl phosphate isomers were below the level of detection in all samples. The highest total TCP concentration was 51.3 μg m(-3), while most were generally found to be <5 μg m(-3) compared with the 8-h time-weighted average exposure limit of 100 μg m(-3) for tri-o-cresyl phosphate. The highest concentrations were found at high engine power. Although TCP contamination of cabin/cockpit air has been the subject of much concern in aviation, quantitative data are sparse.

  2. Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003: ER-2 aircraft. A NASA high-altitude ER-2 environmental research jet aircraft arrived at Oshkosh, Wisconsin on July 29, 2003 to take part in the world's larest aviation event, AirVenture 2003. The ER-2, built on the same assembly line as Air Force U-2 reconnaissance aircraft, i sused for atmospheric sampling and environmental research. Its duties include flights to remote locations where meteorites have fallen to Earth, sweeping the sky to see if particles of these from space can be collected for research before the trail goes cold. The NASA ER-2 is capable of flight above 70,000 ft. It has been used for replicating accuracy of instrumentation on those satellites. Two ER-2's are based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center in California's Mojave Desert. The flight from Dryden to Oshkosh took four hours at an altitude of 65,000 ft. AirVenture, an event of the Experimental Aircraft Association runs from July 29 to August 4, 2003 and is expected to draw as many as 800.000 visitors. NASA has exhibits and aircraft on display at this major show.

  3. Trends in cabin air quality of commercial aircraft: industry and passenger perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Martin B

    2002-01-01

    The small air space available per person in a fully occupied aircraft passenger cabin accentuates the human bioeffluent factor in the maintenance of air quality. The accumulation of carbon dioxide and other contributions to poor air quality that can occur with inadequate ventilation, even under normal circumstances, is related to the volume of available air space per person and various ventilation rates. This information is compared with established air quality guidelines to make specific recommendations with reference to aircraft passenger cabins under both normal and abnormal operating conditions. The effects of respiration on the air quality of any enclosed space from the respiration of a resting adult are estimated using standard equations. Results are given for different volumes of space per person, for zero air exchange, and for various air change rates. The required ventilation rates estimated in this way compared closely with results calculated using a standard empirical formula. The results confirm that the outside air ventilation required to achieve a target carbon dioxide concentration in the air of an occupied enclosed space remains the same regardless of the volume of that space. The outside air ventilation capability of older and more recent aircraft is then reviewed and compared with the actual measurements of cabin air quality for these periods. The correlation between calculated and measured aircraft cabin carbon dioxide concentrations from other studies was very good. Respiratory benefits and costs of returning to the 30% higher outside air ventilation rates and 8% higher cabin pressures of the 1960s and 1970s are outlined. Consideration is given to the occasional occurrence of certain types of aircraft malfunction that can introduce more serious contaminants to the aircraft cabin. Recommendations and suggestions for aircraft builders and operators are made that will help improve aircraft cabin air quality and the partial pressure of oxygen that

  4. Pollution Emission Analysis of Selected Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-04-29

    percent for large non-combat tranaport engines) are proposed. Eraoke numbers wlilch will ensure Invisible aircraft smoke plumes are specified. The...standards are being violated, as well as being significant sources of smoke , ,••(3) that maintenance of the national ambient sir quality BlSndards...and reduced impact of smoke emission requires that air- craft and aircraft engines be Bubjected to a program of control compatible with their

  5. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  6. Air Conditioning Overflow Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Technology Transfer Office at Stennis Space Center helped a local inventor develop a prototype of an attachment for central air conditioners and heat pumps that helps monitor water levels to prevent condensation overflow. The sensor will indicate a need for drain line maintenance and prevent possible damage caused by drain pan water spillover. An engineer in the Stennis Space Center prototype Development Laboratory used SSC sensor technology in the development of the sensor.

  7. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9437-2] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution... engines which in her judgment causes or contributes to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated...

  8. Impact of aircraft plume dynamics on airport local air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Steven R. H.; Britter, Rex E.; Waitz, Ian A.

    2013-08-01

    Air quality degradation in the locality of airports poses a public health hazard. The ability to quantitatively predict the air quality impacts of airport operations is of importance for assessing the air quality and public health impacts of airports today, of future developments, and for evaluating approaches for mitigating these impacts. However, studies such as the Project for the Sustainable Development of Heathrow have highlighted shortcomings in understanding of aircraft plume dispersion. Further, if national or international aviation environmental policies are to be assessed, a computationally efficient method of modeling aircraft plume dispersion is needed. To address these needs, we describe the formulation and validation of a three-dimensional integral plume model appropriate for modeling aircraft exhaust plumes at airports. We also develop a simplified concentration correction factor approach to efficiently account for dispersion processes particular to aircraft plumes. The model is used to explain monitoring station results in the London Heathrow area showing that pollutant concentrations are approximately constant over wind speeds of 3-12 m s-1, and is applied to reproduce empirically derived relationships between engine types and peak NOx concentrations at Heathrow. We calculated that not accounting for aircraft plume dynamics would result in a factor of 1.36-2.3 over-prediction of the mean NOx concentration (depending on location), consistent with empirical evidence of a factor of 1.7 over-prediction. Concentration correction factors are also calculated for aircraft takeoff, landing and taxi emissions, providing an efficient way to account for aircraft plume effects in atmospheric dispersion models.

  9. 77 FR 21834 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft) AGENCY..., Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). SUMMARY: This is a confirmation notice of the cancellation of TSO-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). The...

  10. Analysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missille Effectiveness Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    AD-A015 238 ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT EVASION STRATEGIES IN AIR-TO-AIR MISSILE EFFECTIVENESS MObri ’ G. Carpenter, et al Grumman Aerospace Corporation ...overall tep t Es CIS*atiet d) Oft ’IsNA 1tTNG AC ?v I TV ? corpor te author) 2S. REPORT SECUNITY CLASSIrICA TION Unclassified ;rummn Aerospace... Corporation b RoU N/A I NEPOA’ I ?LE nalysis of Aircraft Evasion Strategies in Air-to-Air Missile Effectiveness Models 4 DESCRIP T IVE *40TS ’Type of repct

  11. Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, L P

    1946-01-01

    A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.

  12. The Guardian: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Jonathan; Huber, David; Mcinerney, Kelly; Mulligan, Greg; Pessin, David; Seelos, Michael

    1991-01-01

    One design is presented of a Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft. It is a canard wing, twin engine, twin vertical tail aircraft that has the capability to cruise at 520 knots. The Guardian contains state of the art flight control systems. Specific highlights of the Guardian include: (1) low cost (the acquisition cost per airplane is $13.6 million for a production of 500 airplanes); (2) low maintenance (it was designed to be easily maintainable in unprepared fields); and (3) high versatility (it can perform a wide range of missions). Along with being a CAS aircraft, it is capable of long ferry missions, battlefield interdiction, maritime attack, and combat rescue. The Guardian is capable of a maximum ferry of 3800 nm, can takeoff in a distance of 1700 ft, land in a ground roll distance of 1644 ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight of 48,753 lbs, and is capable of carrying up to 19,500 lbs of ordinance.

  13. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  14. Computer Developments in Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancoast, Ferendino, Grafton and Skeels, Architects, Miami, FL.

    Proceedings of a conference on the present and future uses of computer techniques in the air conditioning field. The recommendation of this report is, for the most part, negative insofar as it applies to the use of computers for design by the small office. However, there should be an awareness of their usefulness in controlling the environmental…

  15. Peripheral Jet Air Cushion Landing System Spanloader Aircraft. Volume I

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    the Lockheed-Georgia Company attempted to solve the airport problem by use of a pressurized, trunk- type , air- cushi* landing system (ACLS) on its...which result from span distributed load type aircraft. To accomplish this objective the following study steps are performed: 1) A revised Spanloader...The fan performance characteristics, which are shown on Figure 25, were estimated by sealing an off-the-shelf Industrial type fan in accordance with

  16. The Eliminator: A design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Mandy; Hoang, TY; Kokolios, Alex; Selyem, Sharon; Wardell, Mark; Winterrowd, David

    1991-01-01

    The Eliminator is the answer to the need for an affordable, maintainable, survivable, high performance close air support aircraft primarily for the United States, but with possible export sales to foreign customers. The Eliminator is twin turbofan, fixed wing aircraft with high mounted canards and low mounted wings. It is designed for high subsonic cruise and an attack radius of 250 nautical miles. Primarily it would carry 20 500 pound bombs as its main ordnance , but is versatile enough to carry a variety of weapons configurations to perform several different types of missions. It carries state of the art navigation and targeting systems to deliver its payload with pinpoint precision and is designed for maximum survivability of the crew and aircraft for a safe return and quick turnaround. It can operate from fields as short as 1800 ft. with easy maintenance for dispersed operation during hostile situations. It is designed for exceptional maneuverability and could be used in a variety of roles from air-to-air operations to anti-submarine warfare and maritime patrol duties.

  17. Aircraft Recirculation Filter for Air-Quality and Incident Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Eckels, Steven J.; Jones, Byron; Mann, Garrett; Mohan, Krishnan R.; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    The current research examines the possibility of using recirculation filters from aircraft to document the nature of air-quality incidents on aircraft. These filters are highly effective at collecting solid and liquid particulates. Identification of engine oil contaminants arriving through the bleed air system on the filter was chosen as the initial focus. A two-step study was undertaken. First, a compressor/bleed air simulator was developed to simulate an engine oil leak, and samples were analyzed with gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. These samples provided a concrete link between tricresyl phosphates and a homologous series of synthetic pentaerythritol esters from oil and contaminants found on the sample paper. The second step was to test 184 used aircraft filters with the same gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry system; of that total, 107 were standard filters, and 77 were nonstandard. Four of the standard filters had both markers for oil, with the homologous series synthetic pentaerythritol esters being the less common marker. It was also found that 90% of the filters had some detectable level of tricresyl phosphates. Of the 77 nonstandard filters, 30 had both markers for oil, a significantly higher percent than the standard filters. PMID:25641977

  18. Cooling Air Inlet and Exit Geometries on Aircraft Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

    1982-01-01

    A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag or several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center 40 x 80-ft Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

  19. Concentrations of selected contaminants in cabin air of airbus aircrafts.

    PubMed

    Dechow, M; Sohn, H; Steinhanses, J

    1997-07-01

    The concentrations of selected air quality parameters in aircraft cabins were investigated including particle numbers in cabin air compared to fresh air and recirculation air, the microbiological contamination and the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC). The Airbus types A310 of Swissair and A340 of Lufthansa were used for measurements. The particles were found to be mainly emitted by the passengers, especially by smokers. Depending on recirculation filter efficiency the recirculation air contained a lower or equal amount of particles compared to the fresh air, whereas the amount of bacteria exceeded reported concentrations within other indoor spaces. The detected species were mainly non-pathogenic, with droplet infection over short distances identified as the only health risk. The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOC) were well below threshold values. Ethanol was identified as the compound with the highest amount in cabin air. Further organics were emitted by the passengers--as metabolic products or by smoking--and on ground as engine exhaust (bad airport air quality). Cleaning agents may be the source of further compounds.

  20. Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) - AirVenture 2003: Artist Robert T. McCall discussed the motivation for his new NASA century-of-flight mural during unveiling ceremonies July 30, 2003 at the EAA convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. A panoramic mural commissioned by NASA to depict highlights of the first century of flight was unveiled at the world's largest aviation event, the Experimental Aircraft Associations AirVenture - Oshkosh convention in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The mural, by aviation artist Robert McCall, measures six by 18 feet. McCall was on hand with NASA Dryden Flight Research Center director Kevin Peterson and Experimental Aircraft Association president Tom Poberezny for the official unveiling at Noon July 30, 2003. The painting depicts a host of milestone aircraft and spacecraft swirling around the original Wright Flyer, symbolically airborne in front of the sun at the dawn of the age of flight. In the foreground, fliers ranging from a happy-go-lucky aviator of World War One to a pair of free-floating astronauts, anonymous behind the reflective shields of their helmets, depict the people who animate the vehicles in the painting. The mural entitled 'Celebrating One Hundred Years of Powered Flight, 1903-2003' will be exhibited at the EAA as part fo the commemoration of a century of flight and eventually will go on permanent display at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center on Edwards Air Force Base in California. NASA Dryden director Keven Peterson said: ' This is an exciting day for us. The painting...has been years in the making. The events it records were a century in the making. But this is a celebration of the future yet to be.' Tom Poberezny said he was proud NASA chose to unveil the mural at AirVenture, 'Experimental Aircraft Association has valued the relationship it has with NASA.' Robert McCall told the audience he enjoys the awe of flight. He said he likes to think humanity is still just experiencing the beginnings of flight.

  1. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  2. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these

  3. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  4. Optimization via CFD of aircraft hot-air anti-icing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellissier, Mathieu Paul Constantin

    In-flight icing is a major concern in aircraft safety and a non-negligible source of incidents and accidents, and is still a serious hazard today. It remains consequently a design and certification challenge for aircraft manufacturers. The aerodynamic performance of an aircraft can indeed degrade rapidly when flying in icing conditions, leading to incidents or accidents. In-flight icing occurs when an aircraft passes through clouds containing supercooled water droplets at or below freezing temperature. Droplets impinge on its exposed surfaces and freeze, causing roughness and shape changes that increase drag, decrease lift and reduce the stall angle of attack, eventually inducing flow separation and stall. This hazardous ice accretion is prevented by the use of dedicated anti-icing systems, among which hot-air-types are the most common for turbofan aircraft. This work presents a methodology for the optimization of such aircraft hot-air-type anti-icing systems, known as Piccolo tubes. Having identified through 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) the most critical in-flight icing conditions, as well as determined thermal power constraints, the objective is to optimize the heat distribution in such a way to minimize power requirements, while meeting or exceeding all safety regulation requirements. To accomplish this, an optimization method combining 3D CFD, Reduced-Order Models (ROM) and Genetic Algorithms (GA) is constructed to determine the optimal configuration of the Piccolo tube (angles of jets, spacing between holes, and position from leading edge). The methodology successfully results in increasingly optimal configurations from three up to five design variables.

  5. Local Air Quality Conditions and Forecasts

    MedlinePlus

    Local Air Quality Conditions Zip Code: State : My Current Location Map Center Forecast AQI Current AQI Current Ozone Current PM ... Ozone Loop PM Loop AQI: Good (0 - 50) Air quality is considered satisfactory, and air pollution poses little ...

  6. BOREAS AFM-2 Wyoming King Air 1994 Aircraft Sounding Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team used the University of Wyoming King Air aircraft during IFCs 1, 2, and 3 in 1994 to collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for the large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns over the SSA and NSA and areas along the transect between these study areas. The data described here form a second set, namely soundings that were incorporated into nearly every research flight by the King Air in 1994. These soundings generally went from near the surface to above the inversion layer. Most were flown immediately after takeoff or immediately after finishing the last flux pattern of that particular day's flights. The parameters that were measured include wind direction, wind speed, west wind component (u), south wind component (v), static pressure, air dry bulb temperature, potential temperature, dewpoint, temperature, water vapor mixing ratio, and CO2 concentration. Data on the aircraft's location, attitude, and altitude during data collection are also provided. These data are stored in tabular ASCH files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  7. A simulator investigation of air-to-air combat maneuvering for tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, William A.; Isleib, Douglas; Johns, John

    1989-01-01

    As part of the Marine Corps's development of employment methods and maneuver techniques for the V-22 Osprey tilt-rotor aircraft, a piloted simulation study of one-on-one air-combat maneuvering (ACM) was conducted at NASA Ames. In addition to V-22 ACM, the simulation provided an opportunity for a preliminary investigation of maneuver requirements for a possible armed-escort tilt-rotor aircraft. Results from the study indicate that the tilt-rotor's low-speed masking and high-speed dash capabilities significantly enhance its survivability against both fixed-wing and helicopter aggressors. Furthermore, the tilt-rotor's conversion capability and, in turn, the variety and extent of its maneuvering characteristics make it an effective air-combat aircraft.

  8. Conceptual design of a flying boom for air-to-air refueling of passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, Ir. H. S.; La Rocca, ir. G., Dr.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the conceptual development of a flying boom for air-to-air refuelingof passenger aircraft. This operational concept is currently evaluated within the EC project RECREATE as a possible means to achieve significant increase in overall fuel efficiency. While in military aviation aerial refueling is performed with the tankerflyingahead and above the receiver aircraft, in case of passenger aircraft, safety, cost and comfort criteria suggest to invert the set up. This unconventional configuration would require a different refueling boom, able to extend from the tanker towards the cruiser, against wind and gravity. Amultidisciplinary design optimization framework was set up to size and compare various boom design solutions free of structural divergence and sufficientlycontrollable and with minimum values of weight and drag. Oneconcept, based on an innovative kinematic mechanism, was selected for its ability to meet all design constraints, with weight and drag values comparable to conventional boom designs.

  9. A Review of Aircraft Cabin Conditioning for Operations in Australia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    Balance for Thermal Comfort 17 3.4 Liquid Conditioned Garments 18 3.5 Environmental Requirements for Electronic Equipment 19 4. THERMAL LOAD- ON AIRCRAFT...References to these two aspects are given by Nunneley and James (1977). 3.3 Physiological Heat Balance for Thermal Comfort The heat balance for thermal ...

  10. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  11. Recent Experiences with Operating Unmanned Aircraft in Arctic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alaska Geophysical Institute has been identifying technical issues with operating small-unmanned aircraft in the harsh conditions of flying in the Arctic. Here we first describe the Institute's recent and ongoing scientific activity that involve unmanned aircraft in the Arctic and correlate these technical challenges to conducting safe operations. Of specific interest is building survivable observation platforms for low altitude remote sensing within the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) that fly from either shore or an Arctic capable research vessel. Unmanned aircraft based sensors can assist with obtaining ground truth knowledge of sea ice conditions and characteristics within the MIZ. The Institute's high-resolution imagery capability coupled to its airborne synthetic aperture radar can capture the floe size distribution, show what percent of ice in the MIZ complex is multi-year ice, and capture the effects of wind on the ice edge in real time. The Institute's experiments have also demonstrated a cost-effective, safe means of surveying marine mammals in such conditions. This presentation addresses ongoing work with Steller sea lion survey and past work with ice seal populations that have afforded wonderful opportunities to identify the technology limitations that exist today that prevent further unmanned aircraft exploitation.

  12. Preliminary design of a family of three close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian; Darrah, Paul; Lussier, Wayne; Mills, Nikos

    1989-01-01

    A family of three Close Air Support aircraft is presented. These aircraft are designed with commonality as the main design objective to reduce the life cycle cost. The aircraft are low wing, twin-boom, pusher turbo-prop configurations. The amount of information displayed to the pilot was reduced to a minimum to greatly simplify the cockpit. The aircraft met the mission specifications and the performance and cost characteristics compared well with other CAS aircraft. The concept of a family of CAS aircraft seems viable after preliminary design.

  13. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  14. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  15. Documentation of Atmospheric Conditions During Observed Rising Aircraft Wakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Flight tests were conducted in the fall of 1995 off the coast of Wallops Island, Virginia in order to determine characteristics of wake vortices at flight altitudes. A NASA Wallops Flight Facility C130 aircraft equipped with smoke generators produced visible wakes at altitudes ranging from 775 to 2225 m in a variety of atmospheric conditions, orientations (head wind, cross wind), and airspeeds. Meteorological and aircraft parameters were collected continuously from a Langley Research Center OV-10A aircraft as it flew alongside and through the wake vortices at varying distances behind the C130. Meteorological data were also obtained from special balloon observations made at Wallops. Differential GPS capabilities were on each aircraft from which accurate altitude profiles were obtained. Vortices were observed to rise at distances beyond a mile behind the C130. The maximum altitude was 150 m above the C130 in a near neutral atmosphere with significant turbulence. This occurred from large vertical oscillations in the wakes. There were several cases when vortices did not descend after a very short initial period and remained near generation altitude in a variety of moderately stable atmospheres and wind shears.

  16. Short-haul CTOL aircraft research. [on reduced energy for commercial air transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of the reduced energy for commercial air transportation studies on air transportation energy efficiency improvement alternatives are reviewed along with subsequent design studies of advanced turboprop powered transport aircraft. The application of this research to short-haul transportation is discussed. The results of several recent turboprop aircraft design are included. The potential fuel savings and cost savings for advanced turboprop aircraft appear substantial, particularly at shorter ranges.

  17. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA...: Final special conditions. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft...: Background On May 11, 2010, Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH applied for an ] amendment to Type Certificate...

  18. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  19. Weather Features Associated with Aircraft Icing Conditions: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk. PMID:24701152

  20. Weather features associated with aircraft icing conditions: a case study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  1. Experimental investigation of personal air supply nozzle use in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhaosong; Liu, Hong; Li, Baizhan; Baldwin, Andrew; Wang, Jian; Xia, Kechao

    2015-03-01

    To study air passengers' use of individual air supply nozzles in aircraft cabins, we constructed an experimental chamber which replicated the interior of a modern passenger aircraft. A series of experiments were conducted at different levels of cabin occupancy. Survey data were collected focused on the reasons for opening the nozzle, adjusting the level of air flow, and changing the direction of the air flow. The results showed that human thermal and draft sensations change over time in an aircraft cabin. The thermal sensation response was highest when the volunteers first entered the cabin and decreased over time until it stablized. Fifty-one percent of volunteers opened the nozzle to alleviate a feeling of stuffiness, and more than 50% adjusted the nozzle to improve upper body comfort. Over the period of the experiment the majority of volunteers chose to adjust their the air flow of their personal system. This confirms airline companies' decisions to install the individual aircraft ventilation systems in their aircraft indicates that personal air systems based on nozzle adjustment are essential for cabin comfort. These results will assist in the design of more efficient air distribution systems within passenger aircraft cabins where there is a need to optimize the air flow in order to efficiently improve aircraft passengers' thermal comfort and reduce energy use.

  2. 19 CFR 122.53 - Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased... Permit § 122.53 Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers. Aircraft of foreign registry leased or chartered to a U.S. air carrier, while being operated by the U.S. air...

  3. 19 CFR 122.53 - Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased... Permit § 122.53 Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers. Aircraft of foreign registry leased or chartered to a U.S. air carrier, while being operated by the U.S. air...

  4. 19 CFR 122.53 - Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased... Permit § 122.53 Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers. Aircraft of foreign registry leased or chartered to a U.S. air carrier, while being operated by the U.S. air...

  5. 19 CFR 122.53 - Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased... Permit § 122.53 Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers. Aircraft of foreign registry leased or chartered to a U.S. air carrier, while being operated by the U.S. air...

  6. 19 CFR 122.53 - Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased... Permit § 122.53 Aircraft of foreign registry chartered or leased to U.S. air carriers. Aircraft of foreign registry leased or chartered to a U.S. air carrier, while being operated by the U.S. air...

  7. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  8. The influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fišer, J.; Jícha, M.

    2013-04-01

    The paper deals with instigation of influence of air duct geometry on air jet direction in aircraft cabin ventilated by mixing ventilation. CFD approach was used for investigation and model geometry was based on small aircraft cabin mock-up geometry. Model was also equipped by nine seats and five manikins that represent passengers. The air jet direction was observed for selected ambient environment parameters and several types of air duct geometry and influence of main air duct geometry on jets direction is discussed. The model was created in StarCCM+ ver. 6.04.014 software and polyhedral mesh was used.

  9. Proposal for a low cost close air support aircraft for the year 2000: The Raptor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jerome D.; Dewitt, Ward S.; Mcdonald, Mark; Riley, John W.; Roberts, Anthony E.; Watson, Sean; Whelan, Margaret M.

    1991-01-01

    The Raptor is a proposed low cost Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft for the U.S. Military. The Raptor incorporates a 'cranked arrow' wing planform, and uses canards instead of a traditional horizontal tail. The Raptor is designed to be capable of responsive delivery of effective ordnance in close proximity to friendly ground forces during the day, night, and 'under the weather' conditions. Details are presented of the Raptor's mission, configuration, performance, stability and control, ground support, manufacturing, and overall cost to permit engineering evaluation of the proposed design. A description of the design process and analysis methods used is also provided.

  10. Rise of Air Bubbles in Aircraft Lubricating Oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, J. V.

    1950-01-01

    Lubricating and antifoaming additives in aircraft lubricating oils may impede the escape of small bubbles from the oil by forming shells of liquid with a quasi-solid or gel structure around the bubbles. The rates of rise of small air bubbles, up to 2 millimeters in diameter, were measured at room temperature in an undoped oil, in the same oil containing foam inhibitors, and in an oil containing lubricating additives. The apparent diameter of the air bubbles was measured visually through an ocular micrometer on a traveling telescope. The bubbles in the undoped oil obeyed Stokes' Law, the rate of rise being proportional to the square of the apparent diameter and inversely proportional to the viscosity of the oil. The bubbles in the oils containing lubricating additives or foam inhibitors rose more slowly than the rate predicted by Stokes 1 Law from the apparent diameter, and the rate of rise decreased as the length of path the bubbles traveled increased. A method is derived to calculate the thickness of the liquid shell which would have to move with the bubbles in the doped oils to account for the abnoi'I!l8.lly slow velocity. The maximum thickness of this shell, calculated from the velocities observed, was equal to the bubble radius.

  11. No-reheat air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obler, H. D.

    1980-01-01

    Air conditioning system, for environmentally controlled areas containing sensitive equipment, regulates temperature and humidity without wasteful and costly reheating. System blends outside air with return air as dictated by various sensors to ensure required humidity in cooled spaces (such as computer room).

  12. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry...

  13. Chemical conditions inside occluded regions on corroding aircraft aluminum alloys.

    PubMed

    Lewis, K S; Yuan, J; Kelly, R G

    1999-07-30

    Corrosion of aluminum alloy structures costs the US Air Force in the order of US$1 x 10(9) annually. Corrosion develops in areas of overlap such as aircraft lap-splice joints and under protective organic coatings. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has been used to determine the local chemistries at these corrosion sites of solutions that were extracted using a microsampling system. Analysis of the local solution within lap-splice joints from aircraft has been performed in two ways: rehydration of corrosion products and direct microsampling. The solutions collected were analyzed with CE to quantitatively determine the species present during corrosion. The most common ions detected were Cl-, NO2-, NO3-, HCO3-, K+, Al3+, Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+. Studies of the solution chemistry under local coating defects are required to understand coating failure and develop more durable coatings. A microsampling system and micro pH sensor were developed to extract solution from and measure pH in defects with diameters as small as 170 microns. Actively corroding defects contained high concentrations of Cl-, Al3+, Mg2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ whereas only trace levels of Mg2+ were found in repassivated defects. The effects of these species on initiation and propagation of corrosion are discussed.

  14. Air Conditioning and Heating Technology--II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattone, Felix

    Twenty-eight chapters and numerous drawings provide information for instructors and students of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 1 lists the occupational opportunities in the field. Chapter 2 covers the background or development of the industry of air conditioning and heating technology. Chapter 3 includes some of the principle…

  15. Air Conditioning. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, William

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of seven terminal objectives for an intermediate air conditioning course. The titles of the seven terminal objectives are Refrigeration Cycle, Job Requirement Skills, Air Conditioning, Trouble Shooting, Performance Test, Shop Management, and S.I.E.…

  16. Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

  17. 78 FR 26103 - Proposed Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Service (AIR) Project Prioritization and Resource Management ACTION: Notice of availability and request... process used to prioritize certification projects and manage certification project resources when local... Operating Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Prioritization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. 76 FR 54528 - Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) of the Aircraft Certification Service (AIR) Process for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... (AIR) Process for the Sequencing of Certification and Validation Projects AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) standard operating procedure (SOP) describing the process used to sequence certification projects that are... Procedure--Aircraft Certification Service Project Sequencing to: Federal Aviation Administration,...

  19. Design of an air traffic computer simulation system to support investigation of civil tiltrotor aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Ralph V.

    1993-01-01

    The TATSS Project's goal was to develop a design for computer software that would support the attainment of the following objectives for the air traffic simulation model: (1) Full freedom of movement for each aircraft object in the simulation model. Each aircraft object may follow any designated flight plan or flight path necessary as required by the experiment under consideration. (2) Object position precision up to +/- 3 meters vertically and +/- 15 meters horizontally. (3) Aircraft maneuvering in three space with the object position precision identified above. (4) Air traffic control operations and procedures. (5) Radar, communication, navaid, and landing aid performance. (6) Weather. (7) Ground obstructions and terrain. (8) Detection and recording of separation violations. (9) Measures of performance including deviations from flight plans, air space violations, air traffic control messages per aircraft, and traditional temporal based measures.

  20. Heat generation in Aircraft tires under yawed rolling conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for approximating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire operating under conditions of yawed rolling. The model employs an assembly of elements to represent the tire cross section and treats the heat generated within the tire as a function of the change in strain energy associated with predicted tire flexure. Special contact scrubbing terms are superimposed on the symmetrical free rolling model to account for the slip during yawed rolling. An extensive experimental program was conducted to verify temperatures predicted from the analytical model. Data from this program were compared with calculation over a range of operating conditions, namely, vertical deflection, inflation pressure, yaw angle, and direction of yaw. Generally the analytical model predicted overall trends well and correlated reasonably well with individual measurements at locations throughout the cross section.

  1. 75 FR 77524 - Special Conditions: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-92A Helicopter; Installation of a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ...) weight. (iii) Maximum demonstrated weight. (d) Flight Characteristics. (1) The basic aircraft must meet... recover the aircraft and transition to the normal (Appendix B) IFR flight profile envelope without... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 29 Special Conditions: Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model...

  2. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  3. No Winglets: What a Drag...Argument for Adding Winglets to Large Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    22134-5068 MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES NO WINGLETS : WHAT A DRAG... ARGUMENT FOR ADDING WINGLETS TO LARGE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT ,SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE No Winglets ...What a Drag...Argument for Adding Winglets to Large Air Force Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  4. Office of Inspector General audit report on aircraft and air service management programs

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Albuquerque Operations Office (Albuquerque) owns seven aircraft that support defense programs, research and development efforts, emergency response programs, and official travel of Government and contractor employees. An Office of Inspector General (OIG) report, issued in 1994, identified concerns with Albuquerque`s cost for air service. Since that report, there have been reductions in cost and personnel indicating changes in air service requirements. This audit was conducted to determine (1) whether costs to operate Albuquerque`s aircraft were excessive and (2) if individual aircraft in the fleet were justified.

  5. Air pollution from aircraft operations at San Jose Municipal Airport, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schairer, E. T.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of air pollution discharged by arriving and departing aircraft at the San Jose Municipal Airport was estimated. These estimates were made for each one hour interval of a summer weekday in 1977. The contributions of both general aviation (personal and business aircraft) and certified air carriers (scheduled airliners) were considered. The locations at which the pollutants were discharged were estimated by approximating the flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft. Three types of pollutants were considered: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen.

  6. Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard H.; Thornhill, Kenneth L.; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; D’Ascoli, Eugenio; Kim, Jin; Lichtenstern, Michael; Scheibe, Monika; Beaton, Brian; Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Barrick, John; Bulzan, Dan; Corr, Chelsea A.; Crosbie, Ewan; Jurkat, Tina; Martin, Robert; Riddick, Dean; Shook, Michael; Slover, Gregory; Voigt, Christiane; White, Robert; Winstead, Edward; Yasky, Richard; Ziemba, Luke D.; Brown, Anthony; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2017-03-01

    Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol–cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation. However, previous observational data at cruise altitudes are sparse for engines burning conventional fuels, and no data have previously been reported for biofuel use in-flight. Here we report observations from research aircraft that sampled the exhaust of engines onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft as they burned conventional Jet A fuel and a 50:50 (by volume) blend of Jet A fuel and a biofuel derived from Camelina oil. We show that, compared to using conventional fuels, biofuel blending reduces particle number and mass emissions immediately behind the aircraft by 50 to 70 per cent. Our observations quantify the impact of biofuel blending on aerosol emissions at cruise conditions and provide key microphysical parameters, which will be useful to assess the potential of biofuel use in aviation as a viable strategy to mitigate climate change.

  7. Biofuel blending reduces particle emissions from aircraft engines at cruise conditions.

    PubMed

    Moore, Richard H; Thornhill, Kenneth L; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Sauer, Daniel; D'Ascoli, Eugenio; Kim, Jin; Lichtenstern, Michael; Scheibe, Monika; Beaton, Brian; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Barrick, John; Bulzan, Dan; Corr, Chelsea A; Crosbie, Ewan; Jurkat, Tina; Martin, Robert; Riddick, Dean; Shook, Michael; Slover, Gregory; Voigt, Christiane; White, Robert; Winstead, Edward; Yasky, Richard; Ziemba, Luke D; Brown, Anthony; Schlager, Hans; Anderson, Bruce E

    2017-03-15

    Aviation-related aerosol emissions contribute to the formation of contrail cirrus clouds that can alter upper tropospheric radiation and water budgets, and therefore climate. The magnitude of air-traffic-related aerosol-cloud interactions and the ways in which these interactions might change in the future remain uncertain. Modelling studies of the present and future effects of aviation on climate require detailed information about the number of aerosol particles emitted per kilogram of fuel burned and the microphysical properties of those aerosols that are relevant for cloud formation. However, previous observational data at cruise altitudes are sparse for engines burning conventional fuels, and no data have previously been reported for biofuel use in-flight. Here we report observations from research aircraft that sampled the exhaust of engines onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft as they burned conventional Jet A fuel and a 50:50 (by volume) blend of Jet A fuel and a biofuel derived from Camelina oil. We show that, compared to using conventional fuels, biofuel blending reduces particle number and mass emissions immediately behind the aircraft by 50 to 70 per cent. Our observations quantify the impact of biofuel blending on aerosol emissions at cruise conditions and provide key microphysical parameters, which will be useful to assess the potential of biofuel use in aviation as a viable strategy to mitigate climate change.

  8. Reduced bleed air extraction for DC-10 cabin air conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, W. H.; Viele, M. R.; Hrach, F. J.

    1980-01-01

    It is noted that a significant fuel savings can be achieved by reducing bleed air used for cabin air conditioning. Air in the cabin can be recirculated to maintain comfortable ventilation rates but the quality of the air tends to decrease due to entrainment of smoke and odors. Attention is given to a development system designed and fabricated under the NASA Engine Component Improvement Program to define the recirculation limit for the DC-10. It is shown that with the system, a wide range of bleed air reductions and recirculation rates is possible. A goal of 0.8% fuel savings has been achieved which results from a 50% reduction in bleed extraction from the engine.

  9. Computer Programs for Producing Single-Event Aircraft Noise Data for Specific Engine Power and Meteorological Conditions for Use with USAF (United States Air Force) Community Noise Model (NOISEMAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    34 " AFAMRL-TR-83-020 COMPUTER PROGRAMS FOR PRODUCING SINGLE-EVENT AIRCRAFT NOISE DATA FOR SPECIFIC ENGINE POWER * AND... any purpose other than a i4" padon#1th Goveremagn thereby incurs no responsibility ** tevewauIwt may have formulated, furnishe, or ore data, is, not...to be- regarded by ’thew holder or Aany other prson or corporation, or Usae, or sell any patented invention that may in any Akv twt. Amxopace Medical

  10. [Air quality control systems: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC)].

    PubMed

    Bellucci Sessa, R; Riccio, G

    2004-01-01

    After a brief illustration of the principal layout schemes of Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC), the first part of this paper summarizes the standards, both voluntary and compulsory, regulating HVAC facilities design and installation with regard to the question of Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). The paper then examines the problem of ventilation systems maintenance and the essential hygienistic requirements in whose absence HVAC facilities may become a risk factor for people working or living in the building. Lastly, the paper deals with HVAC design strategies and methods, which aim not only to satisfy comfort and air quality requirements, but also to ensure easy and effective maintenance procedures.

  11. A critical review of reported air concentrations of organic compounds in aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Nagda, N L; Rector, H E

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a review and assessment of aircraft cabin air quality studies with measured levels of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs). VOC and SVOC concentrations reported for aircraft cabins are compared with those reported for residential and office buildings and for passenger compartments of other types of transportation. An assessment of measurement technologies and quality assurance procedures is included. The six studies reviewed in the paper range in coverage from two to about 30 flights per study. None of the monitored flights included any unusual or episodic events that could affect cabin air quality. Most studies have used scientifically sound methods for measurements. Study results indicate that under routine aircraft operations, contaminant levels in aircraft cabins are similar to those in residential and office buildings, with two exceptions: (1). levels of ethanol and acetone, indicators of bioeffluents and chemicals from consumer products are higher in aircraft than in home or office environments, and (2). levels of certain chlorinated hydrocarbons and fuel-related contaminants are higher in residential/office buildings than in aircraft. Similarly, ethanol and acetone levels are higher in aircraft than in other transportation modes but the levels of some pollutants, such as m-/p-xylenes, tend to be lower in aircraft.

  12. Characterization of the frequency and nature of bleed air contamination events in commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Shehadi, M; Jones, B; Hosni, M

    2016-06-01

    Contamination of the bleed air used to pressurize and ventilate aircraft cabins is of concern due to the potential health and safety hazards for passengers and crew. Databases from the Federal Aviation Administration, NASA, and other sources were examined in detail to determine the frequency of bleed air contamination incidents. The frequency was examined on an aircraft model basis with the intent of identifying aircraft make and models with elevated frequencies of contamination events. The reported results herein may help investigators to focus future studies of bleed air contamination incidents on smaller number of aircrafts. Incident frequency was normalized by the number of aircraft, number of flights, and flight hours for each model to account for the large variations in the number of aircraft of different models. The focus of the study was on aircraft models that are currently in service and are used by major airlines in the United States. Incidents examined in this study include those related to smoke, oil odors, fumes, and any symptom that might be related to exposure to such contamination, reported by crew members, between 2007 and 2012, for US-based carriers for domestic flights and all international flights that either originated or terminated in the US. In addition to the reported frequency of incidents for different aircraft models, the analysis attempted to identify propulsion engines and auxiliary power units associated with aircrafts that had higher frequencies of incidents. While substantial variations were found in frequency of incidents, it was found that the contamination events were widely distributed across nearly all common models of aircraft.

  13. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model. Version 2.0; User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a guide for using the model in analysis. Those interested in making enhancements or modification to the model should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Technical Description.

  14. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  15. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  16. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  17. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  18. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  19. 32 CFR 766.5 - Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions governing use of aviation facilities... OF THE NAVY MISCELLANEOUS RULES USE OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY AVIATION FACILITIES BY CIVIL AIRCRAFT § 766.5 Conditions governing use of aviation facilities by civil aircraft. (a) Risk. The use of Navy...

  20. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR-CONDITIONING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an assessment of refrigeration technologies that are alternatives to vapor compression refrigeration for use in five application categories: domestic air conditioning, commercial air conditioning, mobile air conditioning, domestic refrigeration, and co...

  1. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  2. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  3. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  4. The SnoDog: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashbaugh, Scott; Bartel, Kent; Cavalli, J. R.; Chan, John; Chung, Jason; Dimaranan, Liza; Freese, Mike; Levitt, Rick; Soban, Dani

    1991-01-01

    U.S. military forces are presently searching for the next generation Close Air Support aircraft. The following report presents the SnoDog, a low-cost ($14.8 million) aircraft capable of operating from remote battlefields and unimproved airstrips. The configuration consists of a conventional, low aspect-ratio wing, twin booms, twin canted vertical stabilizers along with a high-mounted joined horizontal tail. A supercritical airfoil for the wing enhances aerodynamic performance, while the SnoDog's instability increases maneuverability over current close air support aircraft. Survivability was incorporated into the design by the use of a titanium tub to protect the cockpit from anti-aircraft artillery, as well as, the twin booms and retracted gear disposition. The booms aid survivability by supplying separated, redundant controls, and the landing gear are slightly exposed when retracted to enable a belly landing in emergencies. Designed to fly at Mach .76, the SnoDog is powered by two low-bypass turbofan engines. Engine accessibility and interchangeable parts make the SnoDog highly maintainable. The SnoDog is adaptable to many different missions, as it is capable of carrying advanced avionics pods, carrying external fuel tanks or refueling in-air, and carrying various types of munitions. This makes the SnoDog a multirole aircraft capable of air-to-air and air-to-ground combat. This combination of features make the SnoDog unique as a close air support aircraft, capable of meeting the U.S. military's future needs.

  5. Thermal conditions and perceived air quality in an air-conditioned auditorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz; Skwarczyński, Mariusz; Dudzińska, Marzenna R.

    2016-07-01

    The study reports measurements of indoor air temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), perceived air quality (PAQ) and CO2, fine aerosol particle number (PN) and mass (PM1) concentrations in an air conditioned auditorium. The measurements of these air physical parameters have been carried out in the unoccupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off (AC off mode) and in the unoccupied and occupied auditorium with the air conditioning system switched off during the night and switched on during the day (AC on/off mode). The average indoor air thermal parameters, CO2 concentration and the PAQ value (in decipols) were elevated, while average PM1 concentration was lower in the AC on/off mode. A statistically significant (p < 0.001) positive correlation has been observed between T and PAQ values and CO2 concentrations (r = 0.66 and r = 0.59, respectively) in that AC mode. A significant negative correlation has been observed between T and PN and PM1 concentrations (r = -0.38 and r = -0.49, respectively). In the AC off mode the above relations between T and the particle concentrations were not that unequivocal. These findings may be of importance as they indicate that in certain AC operation modes the indoor air quality deteriorates along with the variation of the indoor air microclimate and room occupation. This, in turn, may adversely affect the comfort and productivity of the users of air conditioned premises.

  6. Effect of different flight conditions at the release of a small spacecraft from a high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridolfi, L.; Pontani, M.; Teofilatto, P.

    2010-03-01

    In recent years, mainly due to miniaturization of electronics as well as to the improvement of computer performance, small spacecraft have increased their capabilities. More and more frequently specific mission objectives can be achieved with cheap satellites of reduced size. The growing use of small satellites stimulates the development of systems specifically dedicated to orbit injection of small payloads. In this context, one option is represented by air-launched rockets. The use of an air-launched rocket for delivering a small payload into the desired orbit has several advantages. First of all, payload release is much more flexible, because the delivery conditions are directly related to the dynamics of the aircraft and can be viewed as independent of ground facilities. In addition, reduced costs are associated with higher efficiency of an aircraft in the lower layers of the atmosphere with respect to traditional ground-launched rockets. To date, air-launched rockets separate from the aircraft in a horizontal flight condition. Then they maneuver in order to achieve the correct flight path angle for injecting into a gravity-turn arc of trajectory. Relevant losses are associated to this pitch maneuver; in addition, in this phase the rocket usually needs an aerodynamic control. Hence, the release of a rocket departing with a high flight path angle from the aircraft would avoid these losses and would simplify the control system, because in such a situation the pitch maneuver becomes unnecessary. This paper is aimed at investigating the dynamic behavior and performance of a payload delivered from a high performance aircraft, which flies with a high flight path angle. In particular, this work is concerned with showing the differences and tradeoffs among different starting conditions of a multistage air-launched rocket related to several flight path angles of the aircraft at release. An optimal system configuration, which allows placing a micro-satellite into a

  7. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Supplementary Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winston, Del; And Others

    This document contains supplemental materials for special needs high school students intended to facilitate their mainstreaming in regular air conditioning and refrigeration courses. Teacher's materials precede the materials for students and include general notes for the instructor, additional suggestions, two references, a questionnaire on the…

  8. Fundamentals of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This set of instructional materials provides secondary and postsecondary students with a state-of-the-art curriculum for the air conditioning and refrigeration industry that includes the many changes brought by new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. Introductory materials explain the use of this publication and provide the…

  9. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    Designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration, this curriculum guide includes seven major areas, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Orientation (history and development, and job opportunities), Safety…

  10. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication is the concluding text in a four-part curriculum for air conditioning and refrigeration. Materials in Book 4 are designed to complement theoretical and functional elements in Books 1-3. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes six…

  11. MOBILE AIR-CONDITIONING RECYCLING MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives guidelines on the recovery and recycle of the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), from mobile air conditions. It is intended for wide distribution internationally and is especially for use by developing countries and the World Bank to ass...

  12. Readings in Air Conditioning and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uberto, Jeffrey A.

    Designed to encourage vocational high school students to read by offering reading materials relevant to their vocational goals, this document contains thirty-seven articles related to air conditioning and refrigeration which have been selected from trade journals, magazines, and newspapers and adapted to the students' reading capabilities. A…

  13. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Book III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckes, William; Fulkerson, Dan

    Designed to present theory as a functional aspect, this air conditioning and refrigeration curriculum guide is comprised of nine units of instruction. Unit titles include (1) Job Orientation, (2) Applying for a Job, (3) Customer Relations, (4) Business Management, (5) Psychometrics, (6) Residential Heat Loss and Heat Gain, (7) Duct Design and…

  14. Standardized Curriculum for Heating and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    Standardized vocational education course titles and core contents for two courses in Mississippi are provided: heating and air conditioning I and II. The first course contains the following units: (1) orientation; (2) safety; (3) refrigeration gauges and charging cylinder; (4) vacuum pump service operations; (5) locating refrigerant leaks; (6)…

  15. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration. Book Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wantiez, Gary W.

    This curriculum guide (book II), along with book I, is designed to provide students with the basic skills for an occupation in air conditioning and refrigeration. Six major areas are included, each consisting of one or more units of instruction. These areas and their respective units are titled as follows: Electricity (fundamentals of electricity,…

  16. Considerations Relative to the Use of Canes by Blind Travelers in Air Carrier Aircraft Cabins,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    U) JUL 80 R F CHANDLER , J 0 GARNER, D L LOWREY UNCLASSIF lED FAAA-012EEEMEh EIEF’Tmom FAA-AM-80-12 CONSIDERATIONS RELATIVE TO THE USE OF CANES BY...BLIND TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 0R. F. Chandler , J. D. Garner, D. L. Lowrey, qJ. G. Blethrow, and J. A. Anderson Civil Aeromedical...TRAVELERS IN AIR CARRIER AIRCRAFT CABINS 6 Perarming Organization Code .. PerformingOrgan ationReport No. 7.Au R. F. Chandler J. D./Garner D. L./Lowrey J

  17. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  18. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  19. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  20. Air Conditioning System using Rankine Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatomo, Shigemi; Yamaguchi, Hiroichi; Hattori, Hitoshi; Futamura, Motonori

    Natural gas is used as the energy source to cope with the recent situation of increasing demand for electricity especially in summer. In this paper, the performance of a Rankine cycle air conditioning system driven by natural gas was studied. The following results were obtained : (1) Basic equations of performance, refrigerant mass flow rate and expander volume were developed by using the values of heating efficiency, regeneration efficiency, expander efficiency and compressor efficiency. (2) R134a refrigerant has been considered to be suitable for the Rankine cycle air conditioning system, compared with other refrigerants. (3)A Rankine cycle cooling system using R134a refrigerant as a single working fluid was developed. System COP of 0.47 was attained at typical operating condition.

  1. Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Performing the Air Refueling Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    designed as a test of the feasibility of putting fuel on ships in such a way that aircraft could grab it and refuel in-flight on transatlantic flights. On...AR technology has evolved little in the last 50 years; the AF still uses the same basic refueling systems designed for SAC over half a century ago...to say that an additional advantage is the time compression from design , flight testing and operational delivery since the basic airframe has already

  2. Hydrogen powered aircraft : The future of air transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandelwal, Bhupendra; Karakurt, Adam; Sekaran, Paulas R.; Sethi, Vishal; Singh, Riti

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates properties and traits of hydrogen with regard to environmental concerns and viability in near future applications. Hydrogen is the most likely energy carrier for the future of aviation, a fuel that has the potential of zero emissions. With investigation into the history of hydrogen, this study establishes issues and concerns made apparent when regarding the fuel in aero applications. Various strategies are analyzed in order to evaluate hydrogen's feasibility which includes production, storage, engine configurations and aircraft configurations.

  3. An Efficient Algorithm for Commercial Aircraft Trajectory Optimization in the Air Traffic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devulapalli, Raghuveer

    A discrete search strategy is presented to determine optimal aircraft trajectories which can be unconstrained or regulated to follow current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. The heuristic based Astar (A*) search algorithm has been selected for its efficiency and its inherent ability to handle numerous constraints as a discrete method. A point-mass aircraft model is assumed to accurately simulate commercial aircraft dynamics for the provided trajectories. The two dimensional space and the states of aircraft have been divided into discrete pieces. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, two-dimensional vertical and horizontal profile are simulated. Simulation results compare optimal trajectories that range from unconstrained to those that completely adhere to strict ATC procedures. Those trajectories following ATC procedures follow a segmented flight pattern where each segment follows specified objectives, terminating when certain criteria has been met. Trajectories are optimized for a combination of time and fuel with an emphasis on reducing fuel consumption.

  4. Alternative Air Conditioning Technologies: Underfloor AirDistribution (UFAD)

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, Tom

    2004-06-01

    Recent trends in today's office environment make it increasingly more difficult for conventional centralized HVAC systems to satisfy the environmental preferences of individual officer workers using the standardized approach of providing a single uniform thermal and ventilation environment. Since its original introduction in West Germany during the 1950s, the open plan office containing modular workstation furniture and partitions is now the norm. Thermostatically controlled zones in open plan offices typically encompass relatively large numbers of workstations in which a diverse work population having a wide range of preferred temperatures must be accommodated. Modern office buildings are also being impacted by a large influx of heat-generating equipment (computers, printers, etc.) whose loads may vary considerably from workstation to workstation. Offices are often reconfigured during the building's lifetime to respond to changing tenant needs, affecting the distribution of within-space loads and the ventilation pathways among and over office partitions. Compounding this problem, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of the comfort, health, and productivity of individual office workers, giving rise to an increased demand among employers and employees for a high-quality work environment. During recent years an increasing amount of attention has been paid to air distribution systems that individually condition the immediate environments of office workers within their workstations to address the issues outlined above. As with task/ambient lighting systems, the controls for the ''task'' components of these systems are partially or entirely decentralized and under the control of the occupants. Typically, the occupant has control over the speed and direction, and in some cases the temperature, of the incoming air supply. Variously called ''task/ambient conditioning,'' ''localized thermal distribution,'' and ''personalized air conditioning'' systems, these

  5. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  6. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  7. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  8. Preliminary Design of the Low Speed Propulsion Air Intake of the LAPCAT-MR2 Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerts, C.; Steelant, J.; Hendrick, P.

    2011-08-01

    A supersonic air intake has been designed for the low speed propulsion system of the LAPCAT-MR2 aircraft. Development has been based on the XB-70 aircraft air intake which achieves extremely high performances over a wide operation range through the combined use of variable geometry and porous wall suction for boundary layer control. Design of the LAPCAT-MR2 intake has been operated through CFD simulations using DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model - Menter SST turbulence model). First, a new boundary condition has been validated into the DLR TAU-Code (perfect gas model) for porous wall suction modelling. Standard test cases have shown surprisingly good agreement with both theoretical predictions and experimental results. Based upon this validation, XB-70 air intake performances have been assessed through CFD simulations over the subsonic, transonic and supersonic operation regions and compared to available flight data. A new simulation strategy was deployed avoiding numerical instabilities when initiating the flow in both transonic and supersonic operation modes. First, the flow must be initiated with a far field Mach number higher than the target flight Mach number. Additionally, the inlet backpressure may only be increased to its target value once the oblique shock pattern downstream the intake compression ramps is converged. Simulations using that strategy have shown excellent agreement with in-flight measurements for both total pressure recovery ratio and variable geometry schedule prediction. The demarcation between stable and unstable operation could be well reproduced. Finally, a modified version of the XB-70 air intake has been integrated in the elliptical intake on the LAPCAT vehicle. Operation of this intake in the LAPCAT-MR2 environment is under evaluation using the same simulation strategy as the one developed for the XB-70. Performances are assessed at several key operation points to assess viability of this design. This information will allow in a next

  9. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  10. Design of a small personal air monitor and its application in aircraft.

    PubMed

    van Netten, Chris

    2009-01-15

    A small air sampling system using standard air filter sampling technology has been used to monitor the air in aircraft. The device is a small ABS constructed cylinder 5 cm in diameter and 9 cm tall and can be operated by non technical individuals at an instant notice. It is completely self contained with a 4 AAA cell power supply, DC motor, a centrifugal fan, and accommodates standard 37 mm filters and backup pads. The monitor is totally enclosed and pre assembled in the laboratory. A 45 degrees twist of the cap switches on the motor and simultaneously opens up the intake ports and exhaust ports allowing air to pass through the filter. A reverse 45 degrees twist of the cap switches off the motor and closes all intake and exhaust ports, completely enclosing the filter. The whole monitor is returned to the laboratory by standard mail for analysis and reassembly for future use. The sampler has been tested for electromagnetic interference and has been approved for use in aircraft during all phases of flight. A set of samples taken by a BAe-146-300 crew member during two flights in the same aircraft and analyzed by GC-MS, indicated exposure to tricresyl phosphate (TCP) levels ranging from 31 to 83 nanograms/m(3) (detection limit <4.5 nanograms/m(3)). The latter elevated level was associated with the use of the auxiliary power unit (APU) in the aircraft. It was concluded that the air sampler was capable of monitoring air concentrations of TCP isomers in aircraft above 4.5 nanogram/m(3).

  11. 77 FR 3323 - Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Doc No: 2012-1243] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Airborne Radar...: Notice of intent to cancel Technical Standard Order (TSO)-C67, Airborne Radar Altimeter Equipment (For... Radar Altimeter Equipment (For Air Carrier Aircraft). The effect of the cancelled TSO will result in...

  12. An Examination of the Relationship between Usage and Operating and Support Costs for Air Force Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    S Costs ....................................................................................................... 39 Econometric Methodology Overview...words, I use them both regularly in conversation. I must note that Claire and Yang showed great patience in explaining the nuances econometric theory...RECCE Reconnaissance Aircraft REMIS Reliability and Maintenance Information System SAF/FM Secretary of the Air Force financial Management TAI

  13. Innovative Air Conditioning and Climate Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graf, John

    2015-01-01

    NASA needed to develop a desiccant wheel based humidity removal system to enable the long term testing of the Orion CO2 scrubber on the International Space Station. In the course of developing that system, we learned three things that are relevant to energy efficient air conditioning of office towers. NASA developed a conceptual design for a humidity removal system for an office tower environment. We are looking for interested partners to prototype and field test this concept.

  14. Numerical simulation and nasal air-conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Keck, Tilman; Lindemann, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Heating and humidification of the respiratory air are the main functions of the nasal airways in addition to cleansing and olfaction. Optimal nasal air conditioning is mandatory for an ideal pulmonary gas exchange in order to avoid desiccation and adhesion of the alveolar capillary bed. The complex three-dimensional anatomical structure of the nose makes it impossible to perform detailed in vivo studies on intranasal heating and humidification within the entire nasal airways applying various technical set-ups. The main problem of in vivo temperature and humidity measurements is a poor spatial and time resolution. Therefore, in vivo measurements are feasible only to a restricted extent, solely providing single temperature values as the complete nose is not entirely accessible. Therefore, data on the overall performance of the nose are only based on one single measurement within each nasal segment. In vivo measurements within the entire nose are not feasible. These serious technical issues concerning in vivo measurements led to a large number of numerical simulation projects in the last few years providing novel information about the complex functions of the nasal airways. In general, numerical simulations merely calculate predictions in a computational model, e.g. a realistic nose model, depending on the setting of the boundary conditions. Therefore, numerical simulations achieve only approximations of a possible real situation. The aim of this review is the synopsis of the technical expertise on the field of in vivo nasal air conditioning, the novel information of numerical simulations and the current state of knowledge on the influence of nasal and sinus surgery on nasal air conditioning. PMID:22073112

  15. High Technology Centrifugal Compressor for Commercial Air Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckes, John

    2006-04-15

    R&D Dynamics, Bloomfield, CT in partnership with the State of Connecticut has been developing a high technology, oil-free, energy-efficient centrifugal compressor called CENVA for commercial air conditioning systems under a program funded by the US Department of Energy. The CENVA compressor applies the foil bearing technology used in all modern aircraft, civil and military, air conditioning systems. The CENVA compressor will enhance the efficiency of water and air cooled chillers, packaged roof top units, and other air conditioning systems by providing an 18% reduction in energy consumption in the unit capacity range of 25 to 350 tons of refrigeration The technical approach for CENVA involved the design and development of a high-speed, oil-free foil gas bearing-supported two-stage centrifugal compressor, CENVA encompassed the following high technologies, which are not currently utilized in commercial air conditioning systems: Foil gas bearings operating in HFC-134a; Efficient centrifugal impellers and diffusers; High speed motors and drives; and System integration of above technologies. Extensive design, development and testing efforts were carried out. Significant accomplishments achieved under this program are: (1) A total of 26 builds and over 200 tests were successfully completed with successively improved designs; (2) Use of foil gas bearings in refrigerant R134a was successfully proven; (3) A high speed, high power permanent magnet motor was developed; (4) An encoder was used for signal feedback between motor and controller. Due to temperature limitations of the encoder, the compressor could not operate at higher speed and in turn at higher pressure. In order to alleviate this problem a unique sensorless controller was developed; (5) This controller has successfully been tested as stand alone; however, it has not yet been integrated and tested as a system; (6) The compressor successfully operated at water cooled condensing temperatures Due to temperature

  16. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  17. Training of astronauts in laboratory-aircraft under weightless conditions for work in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khrunov, Y. V.; Chekidra, I. F.; Kolosov, I. A.

    1975-01-01

    Analyses of occupational activities of astronauts in laboratory-aircraft flights simulating weightlessness conditions permit the development of training methods and optimization of the interaction of man with various spacecraft designs.

  18. NASA-Langley Research Center's Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frye, Mark W.; Bailey, Roger M.; Jessup, Artie D.

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the hardware implementation design and architecture of Aeronautical Radio Incorporated (ARINC)'s Aircraft Condition Analysis and Management System (ACAMS), which was developed at NASA-Langley Research Center (LaRC) for use in its Airborne Research Integrated Experiments System (ARIES) Laboratory. This activity is part of NASA's Aviation Safety Program (AvSP), the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention (SAAP) project to develop safety-enabling technologies for aircraft and airborne systems. The fundamental intent of these technologies is to allow timely intervention or remediation to improve unsafe conditions before they become life threatening.

  19. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  20. Development and evaluation of a profile negotiation process for integrating aircraft and air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.

  1. Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model: Technical Description. 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etheridge, Melvin; Plugge, Joana; Retina, Nusrat

    1998-01-01

    The Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 (FAM 2.0), is a discrete event simulation model designed to support analysis of alternative concepts in air traffic management and control. FAM 2.0 was developed by the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) under a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contract. This document provides a technical description of FAM 2.0 and its computer files to enable the modeler and programmer to make enhancements or modifications to the model. Those interested in a guide for using the model in analysis should consult the companion document, Aircraft/Air Traffic Management Functional Analysis Model, Version 2.0 Users Manual.

  2. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max conditions. However, the TCP concentration during ground testing in an airplane that had experienced leakage of turbine oil with subsequent contamination of the cabin and cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02).

  3. Study of a very low cost air combat maneuvering trainer aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, G. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    A very low cost aircraft for performing Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) training was studied using the BD-5J sport plane as a point of departure. The installation of a larger engine and increased fuel capacity were required to meet the performance and mission objectives. Reduced wing area increased the simulation of the ACM engagement, and a comparison with current tactical aircraft is presented. Other factors affecting the training transfer are considered analytically, but a flight evaluation is recommended to determine the concept utility.

  4. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  5. Air pollution from aircraft. [jet exhaust - aircraft fuels/combustion efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Chigier, N. A.

    1975-01-01

    A model which predicts nitric oxide and carbon monoxide emissions from a swirl can modular combustor is discussed. A detailed analysis of the turbulent fuel-air mixing process in the swirl can module wake region is reviewed. Hot wire anemometry was employed, and gas sampling analysis of fuel combustion emissions were performed.

  6. Alternative non-CFC mobile air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.; Kyle, D.M.

    1992-09-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in the search for alternative, non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential, which could result in their eventual phaseout. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This report, therefore, is aimed mainly at the study of alternative automotive cooling methodologies, although it briefly discusses the current status of alternative refrigerants. The alternative MACs can be divided into work-actuated and heat-actuated systems. Work-actuated systems include conventional MAC, reversed Brayton air cycle, rotary vane compressor air cycle, Stirling cycle, thermoelectric (TE) cooling, etc. Heat-actuated MACs include metal hydride cooling, adsorption cooling, ejector cooling, absorption cycle, etc. While we are better experienced with some work-actuated cycle systems, heat-actuated cycle systems have a high potential for energy savings with possible waste heat applications. In this study, each altemative cooling method is discussed for its advantages and its limits.

  7. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  8. Cascade Optimization Strategy for Aircraft and Air-Breathing Propulsion System Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya N.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Coroneos, Rula M.

    1996-01-01

    Design optimization for subsonic and supersonic aircraft and for air-breathing propulsion engine concepts has been accomplished by soft-coupling the Flight Optimization System (FLOPS) and the NASA Engine Performance Program analyzer (NEPP), to the NASA Lewis multidisciplinary optimization tool COMETBOARDS. Aircraft and engine design problems, with their associated constraints and design variables, were cast as nonlinear optimization problems with aircraft weight and engine thrust as the respective merit functions. Because of the diversity of constraint types and the overall distortion of the design space, the most reliable single optimization algorithm available in COMETBOARDS could not produce a satisfactory feasible optimum solution. Some of COMETBOARDS' unique features, which include a cascade strategy, variable and constraint formulations, and scaling devised especially for difficult multidisciplinary applications, successfully optimized the performance of both aircraft and engines. The cascade method has two principal steps: In the first, the solution initiates from a user-specified design and optimizer, in the second, the optimum design obtained in the first step with some random perturbation is used to begin the next specified optimizer. The second step is repeated for a specified sequence of optimizers or until a successful solution of the problem is achieved. A successful solution should satisfy the specified convergence criteria and have several active constraints but no violated constraints. The cascade strategy available in the combined COMETBOARDS, FLOPS, and NEPP design tool converges to the same global optimum solution even when it starts from different design points. This reliable and robust design tool eliminates manual intervention in the design of aircraft and of air-breathing propulsion engines where it eases the cycle analysis procedures. The combined code is also much easier to use, which is an added benefit. This paper describes COMETBOARDS

  9. Determining the Orbit Locations of Turkish Airborne Early Warning and Control Aircraft Over the Turkish Air Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE...Defense, the U.S. Government. AFIT/GOR/ENS/09-14 DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE...AFIT/GOR/09-14 DETERMINING THE ORBIT LOCATIONS OF TURKISH AIRBORNE EARLY WARNING AND CONTROL AIRCRAFT OVER THE TURKISH AIR SPACE Nebi

  10. A Differential Thrust Controller for Air Cushion Landing System Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    8217 control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced approximately 70% by the addition...assistance with explanations of the ACLS. Credit should also be given to Lieutenant John Pinnel , a classmate at the Air Force Institute of Technology...the system with and without the control installed, for each of the five time-delay values. In all cases , the average mean square error was reduced

  11. Statistical approaches for identifying air pollutant mixtures associated with aircraft departures at Los Angeles International Airport.

    PubMed

    Diez, David M; Dominici, Francesca; Zarubiak, Darcy; Levy, Jonathan I

    2012-08-07

    Aircraft departures emit multiple pollutants common to other near-airport sources, making it challenging to determine relative source contributions. While there may not be unique tracers of aircraft emissions, examination of multipollutant concentration patterns in combination with flight activity can facilitate source attribution. In this study, we examine concentrations of continuously monitored air pollutants measured in 2008 near a departure runway at Los Angeles International Airport (LAX), considering single-pollutant associations with landing and takeoff (LTO) of the aircraft (LTO activity, weighted by LTO cycle fuel burn), as well as multipollutant predictors of binary LTO activity. In the single-pollutant analyses, one-minute average concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide are positively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures on the runway proximate to the monitor, whereas ozone is negatively associated with fuel burn-weighted departures. In analyses in which the flight departure is predicted by pollutant concentrations, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are the best individual predictors, but including all five pollutants greatly increases the power of prediction compared to single-pollutant models. Our results demonstrate that air pollution impacts from aircraft departures can be isolated using time-resolved monitoring data, and that combinations of simultaneously measured pollutants can best identify contributions from flight activity.

  12. An Air-flow-direction Pickup Suitable for Telemetering Use on Pilotless Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikard, Wallace L

    1954-01-01

    A free-swiveling vane-type pickup for measuring air flow direction in both the angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip directions is described. The device, which is intended to telemeter flow direction from pilotless aircraft, has variable-inductance outputs suitable for use in the 100 to 200 kcps subcarrier frequency range of the NACA FM-AM telemetering system. Preliminary test results indicate that it can also be adapted for use with the audio subcarrier frequencies of the Research and Development Board standard FM-FM telemetering system. Test results are presented which indicate that the pickup is aerodynamically stable and has an accuracy, obtained from a bench calibration, of better than 0.3 degrees under conditions including acceleration up to 20g in any direction, Mach numbers from 0.5 to 2.8, and dynamic pressures up to at least 65 psi. Equations and curves which can be used to obtain flow direction at the center of gravity of a maneuvering model are presented.

  13. On fluttering modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic air flow.

    PubMed

    Shubov, Marianna A

    2014-12-08

    The paper deals with unstable aeroelastic modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic, incompressible, inviscid air flow. In recent author's papers asymptotic, spectral and stability analysis of the model has been carried out. The model is governed by a system of two coupled integrodifferential equations and a two-parameter family of boundary conditions modelling action of self-straining actuators. The Laplace transform of the solution is given in terms of the 'generalized resolvent operator', which is a meromorphic operator-valued function of the spectral parameter λ, whose poles are called the aeroelastic modes. The residues at these poles are constructed from the corresponding mode shapes. The spectral characteristics of the model are asymptotically close to the ones of a simpler system, which is called the reduced model. For the reduced model, the following result is shown: for each value of subsonic speed, there exists a radius such that all aeroelastic modes located outside the circle of this radius centred at zero are stable. Unstable modes, whose number is always finite, can occur only inside this 'circle of instability'. Explicit estimate of the 'instability radius' in terms of model parameters is given.

  14. On fluttering modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic air flow

    PubMed Central

    Shubov, Marianna A.

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with unstable aeroelastic modes for aircraft wing model in subsonic, incompressible, inviscid air flow. In recent author’s papers asymptotic, spectral and stability analysis of the model has been carried out. The model is governed by a system of two coupled integrodifferential equations and a two-parameter family of boundary conditions modelling action of self-straining actuators. The Laplace transform of the solution is given in terms of the ‘generalized resolvent operator’, which is a meromorphic operator-valued function of the spectral parameter λ, whose poles are called the aeroelastic modes. The residues at these poles are constructed from the corresponding mode shapes. The spectral characteristics of the model are asymptotically close to the ones of a simpler system, which is called the reduced model. For the reduced model, the following result is shown: for each value of subsonic speed, there exists a radius such that all aeroelastic modes located outside the circle of this radius centred at zero are stable. Unstable modes, whose number is always finite, can occur only inside this ‘circle of instability’. Explicit estimate of the ‘instability radius’ in terms of model parameters is given. PMID:25484610

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems in a Forward Air Controller (Airborne) Role

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    not the answer. As Troy Caraway stated, “A FAC(A) is not a platform…but a specifically trained and qualified aviator.”39 Lack of maneuverability...The first factor requiring attention is the establishment of a test plan for UASs in the FAC(A) role. Troy Caraway , while serving as the Senior...Jonathan Greene, “Controlling CAS With the Predator: Is it Feasible?” Air Land Sea Bulletin, Issue No. 2006-02 (May 2006), 8. 39 Troy Caraway , Senior

  16. An Optimization Method for Condition Based Maintenance of Aircraft Fleet Considering Prognostics Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yiran; Sun, Bo; Li, Songjie

    2014-01-01

    An optimization method for condition based maintenance (CBM) of aircraft fleet considering prognostics uncertainty is proposed. The CBM and dispatch process of aircraft fleet is analyzed first, and the alternative strategy sets for single aircraft are given. Then, the optimization problem of fleet CBM with lower maintenance cost and dispatch risk is translated to the combinatorial optimization problem of single aircraft strategy. Remain useful life (RUL) distribution of the key line replaceable Module (LRM) has been transformed into the failure probability of the aircraft and the fleet health status matrix is established. And the calculation method of the costs and risks for mission based on health status matrix and maintenance matrix is given. Further, an optimization method for fleet dispatch and CBM under acceptable risk is proposed based on an improved genetic algorithm. Finally, a fleet of 10 aircrafts is studied to verify the proposed method. The results shows that it could realize optimization and control of the aircraft fleet oriented to mission success. PMID:24892046

  17. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  18. 78 FR 49729 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Specified Activities; U.S. Air Force Launches, Aircraft and Helicopter Operations, and Harbor Activities Related to Launch Vehicles From Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), California AGENCY: National Marine... has received a request from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) for authorization to take marine...

  19. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... EXEMPTIONS FOR AIR TAXI AND COMMUTER AIR CARRIER OPERATIONS Reporting Requirements § 298.63 Reporting...

  20. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  1. Refrigeration, Heating & Air Conditioning. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Joe C.; And Others

    This curriculum guide was designed for use in postsecondary refrigeration, heating and air conditioning education programs in Georgia. Its purpose is to provide for the development of entry level skills in refrigeration, heating, and air conditioning in the areas of air conditioning knowledge, theoretical structure, tool usage, diagnostic ability,…

  2. Operational Test Plan Concept for Evaluation of Close Air Support Alternative Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    to prepare an operational test plan to conduct a competitive fly-off of alternative aircraft for the close air support (CAS) mission and to complete...the test pLanbys>_ M &vach49- The Act also directed the Secretary of Defense to conduct an independent assessment of ongoing studies and analyses...commitment of forces and equipment by the Services and the likelihood of conducting the test on an active Army installation, the Army will be

  3. Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-22

    Air Force is expected late next month.... Sen. Richard Shelby, R- Ala ., a Northrop supporter, and Rep. Norman Dicks, D-Wash., a Boeing supporter...from $2.1 billion per year to $3 billion per year by 2040 due to increasing depot maintenance and forecasted modernization programs in avionics and...China avionics access doors Source: Teal Group Note: Commercial variants of both aircraft types are powered by engines manufactured by either

  4. Predicting Disposal Costs for United States Air Force Aircraft (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S Predicting Disposal Costs for United States Air Force Aircraft (Presentation) Mark F. Kaye...control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4

  5. An Air-flow-direction Pickup Suitable for Telemetering Use on Pilotless Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikard, Wallace L

    1956-01-01

    A vane-type air-flow-direction pickup is described which is suitable for telemetering angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip data from rocket-propelled pilotless aircraft models. Test results which are presented show that the device performs well under high accelerations and is stable throughout a Mach number rage from subsonic to above a Mach number of 2.5.

  6. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    engine model is a detailed, physics-based engine model of a two-spool, non-augmented, low bypass ratio engine developed using MATLAB/ Simulink ® [9]. The...AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-218 A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE- EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT...SUBTITLE A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE-EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  8. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  9. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  10. Meeting Unmanned Air Vehicle Platform Challenges Using Oblique Wing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    effects need to be assessed with fully relaxed wakes (Section 5). 4.2 Oblique Flying Wing with 75o Folded Tip / Winglet , Mach 0.8, CL = 0.3 Fig.9 (a...e) refers to an OFW flying at 30o sweep with 75o folded tip or winglet , Ref.14. This also acts as a vertical fin or as a control (deflection...design problem. The resultant Cp-x distributions (e) at the design condition are well behaved. The distributions on the winglet are slightly more

  11. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  12. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  13. An outlook for cargo aircraft of the future. [assessment of the future of air cargo by analyzing statistics and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.; Alford, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment is provided of the future of air cargo by analyzing air cargo statistics and trends, by noting air cargo system problems and inefficiencies, by analyzing characteristics of air-eligible commodities, and by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. NASA's proposed program is reviewed which would sponsor the research needed to provide for development of advanced designs by 1985.

  14. C-130 Force Structure: Air Force Addressed Statutory Elements in Its Report, but Decided Not to Transfer Certain Aircraft as Proposed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    provides life- cycle cost savings over earlier C-130 models. The National Defense Authorization Act (NDAA) for Fiscal Year 2013 required the Air...Air Force indicated instead its intent to redirect the transfer of the 10 C-130J aircraft from Keesler Air Force Base in Mississippi to Little Rock ...Air Force Base in Arkansas. Figure 1 shows a C-130J aircraft taking off from Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas. Air Mobility Command manages the

  15. Meteorological conditions during the formation of ice on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, L T

    1932-01-01

    These are the results of a number of records recently secured from autographic meteorological instruments mounted on airplanes at times when ice formed. Ice is found to collect on an airplane only when the airplane is in some form of visible moisture, such as cloud, fog, mist, rain. etc., and the air temperature is within certain critical limits. Described here are the characteristics of clear ice and rime ice and the specific types of hazards they present to airplanes and lighter than air vehicles. The weather records are classified according to the two general types of formation (clear ice and rime) together with the respective temperatures, relative humidities, clouds, and elevations above ground at which formations occurred. This classification includes 108 cases where rime formed, 43 cases in which clear ice formed, and 4 cases when both rime and clear ice formed during the same flight. It is evident from the above figures that there was a preponderance of rime by the ratio of 2.5 to 1, while in only a few cases both types of ice formation occurred during the same flight.

  16. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icinig. Flight data wre reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured 'iced' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13173

  17. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icing. Flight data were reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured ""iced'' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower.

  18. Ice Shape Scaling for Aircraft in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This paper has summarized recent NASA research into scaling of SLD conditions with data from both SLD and Appendix C tests. Scaling results obtained by applying existing scaling methods for size and test-condition scaling will be reviewed. Large feather growth issues, including scaling approaches, will be discussed briefly. The material included applies only to unprotected, unswept geometries. Within the limits of the conditions tested to date, the results show that the similarity parameters needed for Appendix C scaling also can be used for SLD scaling, and no additional parameters are required. These results were based on visual comparisons of reference and scale ice shapes. Nearly all of the experimental results presented have been obtained in sea-level tunnels. The currently recommended methods to scale model size, icing limit and test conditions are described.

  19. Air Conditioner Charging. Automotive Mechanics. Air Conditioning. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spignesi, B.

    This instructional package, one in a series of individualized instructional units on automobile air conditioning, consists of a student guide and an instructor guide dealing with air conditioning charging. Covered in the module are checking the air conditioning system for leaks, checking and adding refrigerant oil as needed, evacuating the system,…

  20. An Inter-comparative Study of the Effects of Aircraft on Surface Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, M. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Barrett, S. R. H.; Bian, H.; Chen, C. C.; Eastham, S. D.; Gettelman, A.; Khodayari, A.; Liang, Q.; Phoenix, D. B.; Selkirk, H. B.; Unger, N.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Yue, X.

    2015-12-01

    This study inter-compares, among five global models, the potential impacts of all commercial aircraft emissions worldwide on surface ozone and PM2.5. The models include climate-response models (CRMs) with interactive meteorology, chemical-transport models (CTMs) with prescribed meteorology, and models that integrate aspects of both. Previously, few studies have addressed the effects of cruise-altitude aircraft emissions on surface air quality, and each has provided a marginally different result. Here, model inputs are substantially harmonized in an effort to achieve a consensus about the state of understanding of impacts of 2006 commercial aviation emissions. Whereas, all models find that aircraft increase near-surface ozone (0.4 to 1.9% globally), perturbations in the Northern Hemisphere are highest in winter, when ambient ozone levels are lower and potentially of not as much concern to human health compared to the higher ozone in the summer months. Changes in surface-level PM2.5 in the CTMs (0.14 to 0.4%) and CRMs (-1.9 to 1.2%) may depend on highly-varying background aerosol fields among models and the inclusion of feedbacks between aircraft emissions and changes in meteorology. The CTMs tend to show an increase in surface PM2.5 primarily over high-traffic regions in the North American mid-latitudes. The CRMs, on the other hand, demonstrate the effects of changing meteorological fields and potential feedbacks on aviation emission impacts, and exhibit large perturbations over regions where natural emissions (e.g., soil dust and sea spray) are abundant. Excluding these emissions in the CRMs results in a smaller-in-magnitude surface change due to aviation. The changes in ozone and PM2.5 found here may be used to estimate ranges in the net impacts of aircraft on human health.

  1. 78 FR 73995 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... data busses and networks. A separate Cessna Model 680 project special condition addresses aircraft.... Discussion The integrated network configurations in the Cessna Model 680 series airplanes may allow increased... passenger entertainment and information services than previous airplane models. This may allow...

  2. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  3. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  4. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  5. 14 CFR 298.63 - Reporting of aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. 298.63 Section 298.63 Aeronautics and Space... aircraft operating expenses and related statistics by small certificated air carriers. (a) Each small... Related Statistics.” This schedule shall be filed quarterly as prescribed in § 298.60. Data reported...

  6. The Best Investment for the Air Superiority Fighter of the Year 2000: The Aircraft, Its Weapon System or Its Armament?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    Tactical Aircraft Division, 21 and 22 April 1986. 5. Study made in 1985 for a seminar of the Air War College by Colonel Bodie Bodenheim , USAF, and the...Magazine, January 1986, pp. 38-45. Ulsamer, Edgar , *Hard Calls on Tactical Technology.- Air Force Magazine, April 1986, pp. 58-64. A 0 _4 4.I _woo= ,DŔ

  7. Remote Sensing of Battlefield Weather Conditions Using Unmanned Air Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    Konrad, T.G., Hill, M.L., Rowland, J.R., and Mayer , J.H.: "A Small Radio Controlled Aircraft as a Platform for Y.teorological Sensors," APL Technical...simulations were run assuming all the dropsondes were stowed throughout the mission. This presents a worse case condition for range/endurance. 3.1 Roller

  8. The air-conditioning capacity of the human nose.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Sara; Rosenfeld, Moshe; Wolf, Michael; Elad, David

    2005-04-01

    The nose is the front line defender of the respiratory system. Unsteady simulations in three-dimensional models have been developed to study transport patterns in the human nose and its overall air-conditioning capacity. The results suggested that the healthy nose can efficiently provide about 90% of the heat and the water fluxes required to condition the ambient inspired air to near alveolar conditions in a variety of environmental conditions and independent of variations in internal structural components. The anatomical replica of the human nose showed the best performance and was able to provide 92% of the heating and 96% of the moisture needed to condition the inspired air to alveolar conditions. A detailed analysis explored the relative contribution of endonasal structural components to the air-conditioning process. During a moderate breathing effort, about 11% reduction in the efficacy of nasal air-conditioning capacity was observed.

  9. ADS-B within a Multi-Aircraft Simulation for Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Palmer, Michael T.; Chung, William W.; Loveness, Ghyrn W.

    2004-01-01

    Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology for NASA s Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) concept. DAG-TM has the goal of significantly increasing capacity within the National Airspace System, while maintaining or improving safety. Under DAG-TM, aircraft exchange state and intent information over ADS-B with other aircraft and ground stations. This information supports various surveillance functions including conflict detection and resolution, scheduling, and conformance monitoring. To conduct more rigorous concept feasibility studies, NASA Langley Research Center s PC-based Air Traffic Operations Simulation models a 1090 MHz ADS-B communication structure, based on industry standards for message content, range, and reception probability. The current ADS-B model reflects a mature operating environment and message interference effects are limited to Mode S transponder replies and ADS-B squitters. This model was recently evaluated in a Joint DAG-TM Air/Ground Coordination Experiment with NASA Ames Research Center. Message probability of reception vs. range was lower at higher traffic levels. The highest message collision probability occurred near the meter fix serving as the confluence for two arrival streams. Even the highest traffic level encountered in the experiment was significantly less than the industry standard "LA Basin 2020" scenario. Future studies will account for Mode A and C message interference (a major effect in several industry studies) and will include Mode A and C aircraft in the simulation, thereby increasing the total traffic level. These changes will support ongoing enhancements to separation assurance functions that focus on accommodating longer ADS-B information update intervals.

  10. Learning Styles of Pilots Currently Qualified in United States Air Force Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanske, Craig A.

    2001-01-01

    Kolb's Learning Style Inventory was used to identify the predominant learning styles of pilots currently qualified in United States Air Force aircraft. The results indicate that these pilots show a significant preference for facts and things over people and feelings. By understanding the preferred learning styles of the target population, course material can be developed that take advantage of the strengths of these learning styles. This information can be especially useful in the future design of cockpit resource management training. The training program can be developed to demonstrate both that there are different learning styles and that it is possible to take advantage of the relative strengths of each of these learning styles.

  11. Comparison of Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Aircraft, and Radiosonde Measurements From the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2001-01-01

    Measurements from a profiling microwave radiometer are compared to measurements from a research aircraft and radiosondes. Data compared is temperature, water vapor, and liquid water profiles. Data was gathered at the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) at Mirabel Airport outside Montreal, Canada during December 1999 and January 2000. All radiometer measurements were found to lose accuracy when the radome was wet. When the radome was not wetted, the radiometer was seen to indicate an inverted distribution of liquid water within a cloud. When the radiometer measurements were made at 15 deg. instead of the standard zenith, the measurements were less accurate.

  12. 41 CFR 102-37.460 - What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? 102-37.460 Section 102-37.460 Public Contracts and... REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 37-DONATION OF SURPLUS PERSONAL PROPERTY Donations to Public Agencies, Service...-37.460 What special terms and conditions apply to the donation of aircraft and vessels? The...

  13. Highly integrated system solutions for air conditioning.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Horst

    2002-08-01

    Starting with the air handling unit, new features concerning energy efficient air treatment in combination with optimisation of required space were presented. Strategic concepts for the supply of one or more operating suites with a modular based air handling system were discussed. The operating theatre ceiling itself, as a major part of the whole integrated system, is no longer a simple air outlet: additional functions have been added in so-called media-bridges, so that it has changed towards a medical apparatus serving as a daily tool for the physicians and the operating staff. Last and not least, the servicing of the whole system has become an integral part of the facility management with remote access to the main functions and controls. The results are understood to be the basis for a discussion with specialists from medical and hygienic disciplines as well as with technically orientated people representing the hospital and building-engineering.

  14. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  15. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  16. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  17. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  18. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at......

  19. Possible Economies in Air-Conditioning by Accepting Temperature Swings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loudon, A. G.; Petherbridge, P.

    Public building air conditioning systems, which use constant and varying heat and cooling loads, are compared and investigated. Experiments indicated that constant temperature controls based on outside air temperature alone were inefficient. Ventilating a building with outside air and the methods of doing so are cited as being the most economical…

  20. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and other regulatory requirements for aircraft turbofan or... Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. Deposition of Nitrogen b. Visibility Effects c. Plant and Ecosystem... nitrogen (NO X ) emission standards for aircraft engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kN...

  1. Controlling energy in an air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Lamar, R. H.; Davis, R. A.

    1985-03-26

    A system for minimizing the energy consumption in a central air conditioning unit incorporating a refrigeration unit which is normally in operation to supplement or substitute for the cooling effect of outside air. The system employs sensor to sense the enthalpy of the return air entering the unit from the work space, the outside air entering the unit from the outside, and the washer air discharged into the work space from the unit, and controls the operation of the unit in accordance with the relative levels of enthalpy at these points. The energy content of the discharged washer air may be modified by modulating dampers controlling the proportion of outside and recirculated air, and also by modulating the washer which provides evaporative cooling and, in addition, cooling by refrigeration. The controls keep the outdoor air dampers normally closed when the enthalpy of the outdoor air is higher than the enthalpy of the return air and keep the outdoor air dampers normally opened when the enthalpy of the outside air is less than the enthalpy of the return air. Regulating means provide auxiliary signals to modulate the dampers to avoid adversely affecting the conditioning effect of the washer air in the work area, and also to enable the continued operation of the refrigeration unit without damage when the system would otherwise call for operating the unit at less than the minimum safe operating load.

  2. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., 2011). A cracked stabilator horn coupled with the aircraft flight envelope conditions could create an... current required maintenance program. A cracked horn coupled with the aircraft flight envelope conditions... FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations...

  3. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, First Floor Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 2 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-6. Scale one-eighth inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper 405 - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  4. Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Repair Air Conditioning, COC Bldg 2605, Basement Plan. By Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. R-156, sheet no. 1 of 4, 15 August 1968; project no. MAR-125-8;CE-572; file drawer 2605-5. Last revised 31 August 1968?. Scale one-eighth inch and one-quarter inch to one foot. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  5. The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

  6. Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning Systems, Part of Indoor Air Quality Design Tools for Schools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The main purposes of a Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning system are to help maintain good indoor air quality through adequate ventilation with filtration and provide thermal comfort. HVAC systems are among the largest energy consumers in schools.

  7. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  8. Intensive probing of a clear air convective field by radar and instrumental drone aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An instrumented drone aircraft was used in conjunction with ultrasensitive radar to study the development of a convective field in the clear air. Radar data are presented which show an initial constant growth rate in the height of the convective field of 3.8 m/min, followed by a short period marked by condensation and rapid growth at a rate in excess of 6.1 m/min. Drone aircraft soundings show general features of a convective field including progressive lifting of the inversion at the top of the convection and a cooling of the air at the top of the field. Calculations of vertical heat flux as a function of time and altitude during the early stages of convection show a linear decrease in heat flux with altitude to near the top of the convective field and a negative heat flux at the top. Evidence is presented which supports previous observations that convective cells overshoot their neutral buoyancy level into a region where they are cool and moist compared to their surroundings. Furthermore, only that portion of the convective cell that has overshot its neutral buoyancy level is generally visible to the radar.

  9. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Program Articulation, 1981-1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas County Community Coll. District, TX.

    Based on a survey of high school programs and courses in the Dallas County Community College District (DCCCD), this articulated program is designed to prepare students for entry-level employment in the air conditioning and refrigeration industry, including residential and commercial air conditioning and commercial refrigeration. The skills and…

  10. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Heating, Refrigeration, & Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, John

    This Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning course is comprised of eleven individualized units: (1) Refrigeration Tools, Materials, and Refrigerant; (2) Basic Heating and Air Conditioning; (3) Sealed System Repairs; (4) Basic Refrigeration Systems; (5) Compression Systems and Compressors; (6) Refrigeration Controls; (7) Electric Circuit…

  11. Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in eight different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: residential installer, domestic refrigeration technician, air conditioning and…

  12. Application of solar energy to air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harstad, A. J.; Nash, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Results of survey of application of solar energy to air-conditioning systems are summarized in report. Survey reviewed air-conditioning techniques that are most likely to find residential applications and that are compatible with solar-energy systems being developed.

  13. Solar-powered air-conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, D. C.; Rousseau, J.

    1977-01-01

    Report focuses on recent study on development of solar-powered residential air conditioners and is based on selected literature through 1975. Its purposes are to characterize thermal and mechanical systems that might be useful in development of Rankine-cycle approach to solar cooling and assessment of a Lithium Bromide/Water absorption cycle system.

  14. Air conditioning system with supplemental ice storing and cooling capacity

    DOEpatents

    Weng, Kuo-Lianq; Weng, Kuo-Liang

    1998-01-01

    The present air conditioning system with ice storing and cooling capacity can generate and store ice in its pipe assembly or in an ice storage tank particularly equipped for the system, depending on the type of the air conditioning system. The system is characterized in particular in that ice can be produced and stored in the air conditioning system whereby the time of supplying cooled air can be effectively extended with the merit that the operation cycle of the on and off of the compressor can be prolonged, extending the operation lifespan of the compressor in one aspect. In another aspect, ice production and storage in great amount can be performed in an off-peak period of the electrical power consumption and the stored ice can be utilized in the peak period of the power consumption so as to provide supplemental cooling capacity for the compressor of the air conditioning system whereby the shift of peak and off-peak power consumption can be effected with ease. The present air conditioning system can lower the installation expense for an ice-storing air conditioning system and can also be applied to an old conventional air conditioning system.

  15. Heating, Ventilating, Air Conditioning and Dehumidifying Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    not be connected to other ventilating systems. Duct runs shall be as short as possible to avoid leakage of moisture. I b. Special Considerations. (1...For rectangular duct design, see the SMACNA -Low Pressure Duct Construction Standards. Under jnormal applications, a minimum duct size of 6 by 6 inches...prevent leakage of the moisture-laden discharge air into the intake duct , and the intake and discharge outlets shall be located to prevent any

  16. BEETIT: Building Cooling and Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: The 14 projects that comprise ARPA-E’s BEETIT Project, short for “Building Energy Efficiency Through Innovative Thermodevices,” are developing new approaches and technologies for building cooling equipment and air conditioners. These projects aim to drastically improve building energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO2) at a cost comparable to current technologies.

  17. Source Attribution and Interannual Variability of Arctic Pollution in Spring Constrained by Aircraft (ARCTAS, ARCPAC) and Satellite (AIRS) Observations of Carbon Monoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, J. A.; Jacob, D. J.; Purdy, M. T.; Kopacz, M.; LeSager, P.; Carouge, C.; Holmes, C. D.; Yantosca, R. M.; Batchelor, R. L.; Strong, K.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Holloway, J. S.; McMillan, W. W.; Warner, J.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wu, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use aircraft observations of carbon monoxide (CO) from the NASA ARCTAS and NOAA ARCPAC campaigns in April 2008 together with multiyear (2003-2008) CO satellite data from the AIRS instrument and a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to better understand the sources, transport, and interannual variability of pollution in the Arctic in spring. Model simulation of the aircraft data gives best estimates of CO emissions in April 2008 of 26 Tg month-1 for Asian anthropogenic, 9.1 for European anthropogenic, 4.2 for North American anthropogenic, 9.3 for Russian biomass burning (anomalously large that year), and 21 for Southeast Asian biomass burning. We find that Asian anthropogenic emissions are the dominant source of Arctic CO pollution everywhere except in surface air where European anthropogenic emissions are of similar importance. Synoptic pollution influences in the Arctic free troposphere include contributions of comparable magnitude from Russian biomass burning and from North American, European, and Asian anthropogenic sources. European pollution dominates synoptic variability near the surface. Analysis of two pollution events sampled by the aircraft demonstrates that AIRS is capable of observing pollution transport to the Arctic in the mid-troposphere. The 2003-2008 record of CO from AIRS shows that interannual variability averaged over the Arctic cap is very small. AIRS CO columns over Alaska are highly correlated with the Ocean Nino Index, suggesting a link between El Nino and northward pollution transport. AIRS shows lower-than-average CO columns over Alaska during April 2008, despite the Russian fires, due to a weakened Aleutian Low hindering transport from Asia and associated with the moderate 2007-2008 La Nina. This suggests that Asian pollution influence over the Arctic may be particularly large under strong El Nino conditions.

  18. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Air Quality in the Vicinity of Airports. Volume I: Recent Airport Measurement Programs, Data Analyses, and Sub-Model Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    by distribu-. ting "hot spot" impacts to other nearby cross wind receptors. A study of the meteorological factors involved in pollutant levels...10.1 aircraft Tier hour, one projects an annual average aircraft impact of about 0.005 ppm (5 ppb). Even allowing an additional factor of two for...jet plume dynamical factors , tends to overpredict the near field air quality impact of aircraft. Studies at commercial air- ports suggest that this

  19. Combination valance and conditioned air admission and return ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Sprout, F.C. Sr.

    1987-06-16

    This patent describes an improved air treatment system for a dwelling comprising: an air diffusion chamber associated with the ceiling and having at least a portion in a position of close proximity to an outer wall of the dwelling; an opening formed in the chamber faces downwardly in close proximity to the wall and parallels the wall for venting the chamber to the room; a conditioning unit having integral fan means generates a flow of conditioned air to the chamber; means conducts the air from the generating means to the chamber; means returns the air vented into the room to the air generating means; a suspended valance member associated with and extends below the chamber for concealment of the opening from view within the room; an auxiliary fan located in the air returning means to cause the returned air to be drawn through the air returning means and be forced into the integral fan means of the conditioning unit; the air return means comprises a network of interconnected concrete channels constructed directly in the ground to extend beneath each of the rooms of the structure and are concealed by the floor of the structure; and apertures extend through the flooring to communicate with the network of channels, the apertures are positioned to provide at least one aperture in each of the major rooms of the structure; and the network of interconnected channels additionally forms to receive service utilities for the structure.

  20. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  1. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders.

  2. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  3. Intensive probing of clear air convective fields by radar and instrumented drone aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowland, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Clear air convective fields were probed in three summer experiments (1969, 1970, and 1971) on an S-band monopulse tracking radar at Wallops Island, Virginia, and a drone aircraft with a takeoff weight of 5.2 kg, wingspan of 2.5 m, and cruising glide speed of 10.3 m/sec. The drone was flown 23.2 km north of the radar and carried temperature, pressure/altitude, humidity, and vertical and airspeed velocity sensors. Extensive time-space convective field data were obtained by taking a large number of RHI and PPI pictures at short intervals of time. The rapidly changing overall convective field data obtained from the radar could be related to the meteorological information telemetered from the drone at a reasonably low cost by this combined technique.

  4. Hydraulic fluids and jet engine oil: pyrolysis and aircraft air quality.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2001-01-01

    Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 degrees C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet engine oil and two hydraulic fluids at 525 degrees C. Engine oil was an important source of carbon monoxide. Volatile agents and organophosphate constituents were released from all the agents tested; however, the neurotoxin trimethyl propane phosphate was not found. The authors hypothesized that localized condensation of pyrolysis products in ventilation ducts, followed by mobilization when cabin heat demand was high, accounted for mid-flight incidents. The authors recommended that carbon monoxide data be logged continuously to capture levels during future incidents.

  5. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Air Quality in the Vicinity of Airports. Volume 4. Nitrogen Dioxide and Hydrocarbons.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Measurement History ........... 3 2.1.2 System Characterization..* ......... o ...................... 14 2.2 Data Analysis and Results...2.2 Field-Program Measurement History .................................. 8 4 2.3 Julian Date/Calendar Date Correspondence...aircraft on air quality have been the subject of a variety of research programs Involvitng both field- measurement programs and computer model

  6. Prevention of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from entering simulated aircraft with commercial air curtain units.

    PubMed

    Carlson, David A; Hogsette, Jerome A; Kline, Daniel L; Geden, Chris D; Vandermeer, Robert K

    2006-02-01

    Commercially available air curtain units were used to create air barriers to prevent mosquitoes and house flies from entering a simulated aircraft doorway together with passengers. Two assemblies of simulated passenger bridge and aircraft were constructed, and airflow measurements were recorded to confirm airflow characteristics for several combinations of commercial units. Three mosquito species were selected for different host-seeking characteristics, and house flies were selected to represent a large, strong-flying insect. Batches of 20 or 200 insects of four species were released into the passenger bridge just before 25 persons passed through the assembly, then insects that entered the aircraft cabin were recovered. Results showed that horizontal plus vertical or vertical-mounted air curtain units with the airflow directed at a 45 degrees angle into the passenger bridge excluded 95-99% of the mosquitoes and 95-100% of the house flies, respectively. Airflows were measured and estimated to be effective if the mean was > 4 m/s in the critical area in the center of the converging airflows. The study validates the concept that air barriers can effectively prevent the passage of flying insects into an aircraft.

  7. Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Sikorsky UH-60 (USA 82-23748 NASA-748) Air-loads research aircraft - Blackhawk helicopter with MUX-Bucket in flight Note: Used in publication in Flight Research at Ames; 57 Years of Development and Validation of Aeronautical Technology NASA SP-1998-3300 fig. 135

  8. Measurement of Vehicle Air Conditioning Pull-Down Period

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, John F.; Huff, Shean P.; Moore, Larry G.; West, Brian H.

    2016-08-01

    Air conditioner usage was characterized for high heat-load summer conditions during short driving trips using a 2009 Ford Explorer and a 2009 Toyota Corolla. Vehicles were parked in the sun with windows closed to allow the cabin to become hot. Experiments were conducted by entering the instrumented vehicles in this heated condition and driving on-road with the windows up and the air conditioning set to maximum cooling, maximum fan speed and the air flow setting to recirculate cabin air rather than pull in outside humid air. The main purpose was to determine the length of time the air conditioner system would remain at or very near maximum cooling power under these severe-duty conditions. Because of the variable and somewhat uncontrolled nature of the experiments, they serve only to show that for short vehicle trips, air conditioning can remain near or at full cooling capacity for 10-minutes or significantly longer and the cabin may be uncomfortably warm during much of this time.

  9. 64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING DOWN LENGTH OF AIR CONDITIONING EQUIPMENT REPAIR SHOP. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Shops, South side of Pratt Street between Carey & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. 10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Building 105, Facilities Engineering Building, 1830, interior, air condition repair shop, S end of building, looking N. - Watervliet Arsenal, Building 105, South Broadway, on Hudson River, Watervliet, Albany County, NY

  11. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Unitary Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low-Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant alternatives used in unitary air-conditioning equipment, relevant to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

  12. Apparatus and Method for Measuring Air Temperature Ahead of an Aircraft for Controlling a Variable Inlet/Engine Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The apparatus and method employ remote sensing to measure the air temperature a sufficient distance ahead of the aircraft to allow time for a variable inlet/engine assembly to be reconfigured in response to the measured temperature, to avoid inlet unstart and/or engine compressor stall. In one embodiment, the apparatus of the invention has a remote sensor for measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle and an inlet control system for varying the inlet. The remote sensor determines a change in temperature value using at least one temperature measurement and prior temperature measurements corresponding to the location of the aircraft. The control system uses the change in air temperature value to vary the inlet configuration to maintain the position of the shock wave during the arrival of the measured air in the inlet. In one embodiment, the method of the invention includes measuring at least one air temperature ahead of the vehicle, determining an air temperature at the vehicle from prior air temperature measurements, determining a change in temperature value using the air temperature at the vehicle and the at least one air temperature measurement ahead of the vehicle, and using the change in temperature value to-reposition the airflow inlet, to cause the shock wave to maintain substantially the same position within the inlet as the airflow temperature changes within the inlet.

  13. Application of solar energy to air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, J. M.; Harstad, A. J.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a survey of solar energy system applications of air conditioning are summarized. Techniques discussed are both solar powered (absorption cycle and the heat engine/Rankine cycle) and solar related (heat pump). Brief descriptions of the physical implications of various air conditioning techniques, discussions of status, proposed technological improvements, methods of utilization and simulation models are presented, along with an extensive bibliography of related literature.

  14. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia - aerosol and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Huntrieser, H.; Mannstein, H.; McMillan, W. W.; Petzold, A.; Schlager, H.; Weinzierl, B.

    2007-02-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24-25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone (O3) measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17-34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv) and O3 by 2-9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv). Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface of the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume encounters 0.25-0.70 Mm-1), as was the

  15. Aircraft measurements over Europe of an air pollution plume from Southeast Asia - aerosol and chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Huntrieser, H.; Mannstein, H.; McMillan, W. W.; Petzold, A.; Schlager, H.; Weinzierl, B.

    2006-12-01

    An air pollution plume from Southern and Eastern Asia, including regions in India and China, was predicted by the FLEXPART particle dispersion model to arrive in the upper troposphere over Europe on 24-25 March 2006. According to the model, the plume was exported from Southeast Asia only six days earlier, transported into the upper troposphere by a warm conveyor belt, and travelled to Europe in a fast zonal flow. This is confirmed by the retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from AIRS satellite measurements, which are in excellent agreement with the model results over the entire transport history. The research aircraft DLR Falcon was sent into this plume west of Spain on 24 March and over Southern Europe on 25 March. On both days, the pollution plume was indeed found close to the predicted locations and, thus, the measurements taken allowed the first detailed characterization of the aerosol content and chemical composition of an anthropogenic pollution plume after a nearly hemispheric transport event. The mixing ratios of CO, reactive nitrogen (NOy) and ozone (O3) measured in the Asian plume were all clearly elevated over a background that was itself likely elevated by Asian emissions: CO by 17-34 ppbv on average (maximum 60 ppbv) and O3 by 2-9 ppbv (maximum 22 ppbv). Positive correlations existed between these species, and a ΔO3/ΔCO slope of 0.25 shows that ozone was formed in this plume, albeit with moderate efficiency. Nucleation mode and Aitken particles were suppressed in the Asian plume, whereas accumulation mode aerosols were strongly elevated and correlated with CO. The suppression of the nucleation mode was likely due to the large pre-existing aerosol surface due to the transported larger particles. Super-micron particles, likely desert dust, were found in part of the Asian pollution plume and also in surrounding cleaner air. The aerosol light absorption coefficient was enhanced in the plume (average values for individual plume encounters 0.25-0.70 Mm-1

  16. Extreme conditions in a dissolving air nanobubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kanematsu, Wataru

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulations of the dissolution of an air nanobubble in water have been performed taking into account the effect of bubble dynamics (inertia of the surrounding liquid). The presence of stable bulk nanobubbles is not assumed in the present study because the bubble radius inevitably passes the nanoscale in the complete dissolution of a bubble. The bubble surface is assumed to be clean because attachment of hydrophobic materials on the bubble surface could considerably change the gas diffusion rate. The speed of the bubble collapse (the bubble wall speed) increases to about 90 m/s or less. The shape of a bubble is kept nearly spherical because the amplitude of the nonspherical component of the bubble shape is negligible compared to the instantaneous bubble radius. In other words, a bubble never disintegrates into daughter bubbles during the dissolution. At the final moment of the dissolution, the temperature inside a bubble increases to about 3000 K due to the quasiadiabatic compression. The bubble temperature is higher than 1000 K only for the final 19 ps. However, the Knudsen number is more than 0.2 for this moment, and the error associated with the continuum model should be considerable. In the final 2.3 ns, only nitrogen molecules are present inside a bubble as the solubility of nitrogen is the lowest among the gas species. The radical formation inside a bubble is negligible because the probability of nitrogen dissociation is only on the order of 10-15. The pressure inside a bubble, as well as the liquid pressure at the bubble wall, increases to about 5 GPa at the final moment of dissolution. The pressure is higher than 1 GPa for the final 0.7 ns inside a bubble and for the final 0.6 ns in the liquid at the bubble wall. The liquid temperature at the bubble wall increases to about 360 K from 293 K at the final stage of the complete dissolution.

  17. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-01-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p-value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  18. Impacts of aircraft emissions on the air quality near the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H.; Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Youn, D.

    2013-06-01

    The continuing increase in demand for commercial aviation transport raises questions about the effects of resulting emissions on the environment. The purpose of this study is to investigate, using a global chemistry transport model, to what extent aviation emissions outside the boundary layer influence air quality in the boundary layer. The large-scale effects of current levels of aircraft emissions were studied through comparison of multiple simulations allowing for the separated effects of aviation emissions occurring in the low, middle and upper troposphere. We show that emissions near cruise altitudes (9-11 km in altitude) rather than emissions during landing and take-off are responsible for most of the total odd-nitrogen (NOy), ozone (O3) and aerosol perturbations near the ground with a noticeable seasonal difference. Overall, the perturbations of these species are smaller than 1 ppb even in winter when the perturbations are greater than in summer. Based on the widely used air quality standards and uncertainty of state-of-the-art models, we conclude that aviation-induced perturbations have a negligible effect on air quality even in areas with heavy air traffic. Aviation emissions lead to a less than 1% aerosol enhancement in the boundary layer due to a slight increase in ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) during cold seasons and a statistically insignificant aerosol perturbation in summer. In addition, statistical analysis using probability density functions, Hellinger distance, and p value indicate that aviation emissions outside the boundary layer do not affect the occurrence of extremely high aerosol concentrations in the boundary layer. An additional sensitivity simulation assuming the doubling of surface ammonia emissions demonstrates that the aviation induced aerosol increase near the ground is highly dependent on background ammonia concentrations whose current range of uncertainty is large.

  19. Neural Partial Differentiation for Aircraft Parameter Estimation Under Turbulent Atmospheric Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuttieri, R. A.; Sinha, M.

    2012-07-01

    An approach based on neural partial differentiation is suggested for aircraft parameter estimation using the flight data gathered under turbulent atmospheric conditions. The classical methods such as output error and equation error methods suffer from severe convergence issues; resulting in biased, inaccurate, and inconsistent estimates. Though filter error method yields better estimates while dealing with the flight data having process noise, it has few demerits like computational overheads and it allows estimation of a single set of process noise distribution matrix. The proposed neural method does not face any such problem of the classical methods. Moreover, the neural method does not require parameter initialization and a priori knowledge of the model structure. The neural network maps the aircraft state and control variables into the output variables corresponding to aerodynamic forces and moments. The parameter estimation, pertaining to lateral-directional motion, of the research aircraft de Havilland DHC-2 with simulated process noise, is presented. The results obtained using the neural partial differentiation are compared with the nominal values given in literature and with the classical methods. The neural method yields the aerodynamic derivatives very close to the nominal values and having quite low standard deviation. The neural methodology is also validated by comparing actual output variables with the neural predicted and neural reconstructed variables.

  20. Air Quality in the Mid-Atlantic/Northeast Region: An Aircraft Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marufu, L. T.; Doddridge, B.; Taubman, B.; Piety, C.

    2002-12-01

    Parts of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic and Northeast are frequently in violation of the 125 ppbv 1-hr national ambient air quality standard for ozone (O3). The frequency of occurrence and spatial coverage of these violations are expected to increase when/if new standards for fine particulate matter (PM) and ozone averaged over 8-hr come into effect. Online aircraft measurements provide a powerful tool for determining the levels and origins of both primary and secondary pollutants of interest. During the summer of 2002 the University of Maryland at College Park used a twin engine Piper Aztec-F PA-27-250 aircraft to; investigate pollution transport (ozone, haze, and gaseous precursors) over region, state, and class 1 area boundaries; characterize planetary boundary layer (PBL) height, dynamics and development; investigate cross-corridor (transport corridors, metropolitan/ industrial areas) differences in air quality aloft leading to downwind enhancements in pollutants; investigate mesoscale and sub-regional transport influences (e.g. bay and sea breezes, low-level jets, urban island effects) upon near surface air quality and visibility; acquire in situ data for initialization, constraint, and evaluation of ongoing and planned measurement analyses efforts and modeling studies within the region. A total of 54 research flights (192.5 hours), consisting of fixed-position vertical survey spirals and constant altitude transects, were made upwind, near and downwind of selected major cities/industrial areas, transport corridors and class 1 areas in the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic regions. Preliminary results from upwind, near and downwind data show that major cities/industrial areas (Richmond, Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York and Boston) and transport corridors are net sources of primary and secondary pollutants (gaseous precursors, ozone, and haze). Class 1 areas (Shenandoah national park VA, Lye Brook NY, Mt. Washington in New Hampshire NH and Acadia in ME), on the other

  1. Air Force Air Refueling: The KC-X Aircraft Acquisition Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-04

    condition and sustainment costs of the KC-135” ... and that “an early replacement program would be a hedging strategy against that uncertainty.”40...tankers are least in demand when airlift assets are stretched most thin during the early deployment phase of a conflict.”66 This may be considered...released a formal request for proposals (RFP) in early 2007.77 The Boeing Company responded to the RFP with the KC-767, a variant of the commercial 767

  2. Nowcasting Aircraft Icing Conditions in the Presence of Multilayered Clouds Using Meteorological Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L.; Chang, Fu-Lung

    2011-01-01

    Cloud properties retrieved from satellite data are used to diagnose aircraft icing threat in single layer and multilayered ice-over-liquid clouds. The algorithms are being applied in real time to the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data over the CONUS with multilayer data available over the eastern CONUS. METEOSAT data are also used to retrieve icing conditions over western Europe. The icing algorithm s methodology and validation are discussed along with future enhancements and plans. The icing risk product is available in image and digital formats on NASA Langley s Cloud and Radiation Products web site, http://wwwangler. larc.nasa.gov.

  3. [The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions].

    PubMed

    Blaginin, A A; Grebeniuk, A N; Lizogub, I N

    2014-02-01

    Blaginin A.A., Grebenyuk A.N., Lizogub LN. - The main ways of improvement of medical support of the Air Forces in modern conditions. Aircrew conducting active hostilities suffers from the whole spectrum of factors and conditions of the combat situation. The main task for the medical service of the Air Force is to carry out preventive and curative action for aviation specialists who are responsible for the combat capability of aircraft formations. The medical service of the Air Force must have forces and facilities for planning, organization and implementation of the treatment of lightly wounded and sick aviation professionals with short periods of recovery, medical rehabilitation of aircrew qfter suffering injuries, diseases, sanatorium therapy of aircrew with partial failure of health, outpatient and inpatient medical examination aircrew - flight commissions, preventive rest of aviation specialists with symptoms of chronic fatigue. Should be trained aviation physicians, including both basic military medical education and in-depth study of the medical aspects of various fields of personnel of the Air Force.

  4. An Analysis of Retaining or Replacing Air Force Command and Control Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE December 2007 3 . REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE... 3 1. Command and Control Mission Development .................................. 3 a. National Airborne...AIRCRAFT REVIEW........15 1. E-4B Aircraft – Cost / Performance Specifications ........................15 2. E- 3 Aircraft – Cost / Performance

  5. In-situ air sparging under confined aquifer conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Breeding, L.B.; Swartz, T.E.; Pringle, C.C.

    1994-12-31

    In the summer of 1993, an effort to evaluate the effectiveness of in-situ air sparging (IAS) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remedy jet fuel condition found in Colorado River Terrace deposits was initiated by the Air Force Center for Environmental Excellence. Preliminary field tests were performed to develop air injection flow rates, IAS radius of influence, air entry pressure requirements, SVE radii of influence, SVE well head vacuum requirements, and SVE air extraction flow rates. In addition to the field tests, soil samples were, collected for formal geotechnical laboratory analysis. The information gathered from these preliminary field investigations were then used to design and install a pilot scale ground-water remediation system. The pilot scale system represents a modified version of the traditional IAS/SVE approach. Due to the presence of an overlying low permeability confining layer, the system was modified to inject and extract air from the phreatic zone. The vapor extraction wells are screened down into the saturated interval to provide an escape route for the air injected by the sparging system. This system is intended to trigger two remedial processes. The first is the physical stripping of dissolved phase volatile petroleum constituents as ground water contacts air channels forming around each sparge point. The second remedial process which may be activated by this system is enhanced aerobic biodegradation of organics due to the oxygenation of the saturated interval.

  6. CFD Variability for a Civil Transport Aircraft Near Buffet-Onset Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Morrison, Joseph H.; Biedron, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    A CFD sensitivity analysis is conducted for an aircraft at several conditions, including flow with substantial separation (buffet onset). The sensitivity is studied using two different Navier-Stokes computer codes, three different turbulence models, and two different grid treatments of the wing trailing edge. This effort is a follow-on to an earlier study of CFD variation over a different aircraft in buffet onset conditions. Similar to the earlier study, the turbulence model is found to have the largest effect, with a variation of 3.8% in lift at the buffet onset angle of attack. Drag and moment variation are 2.9% and 23.6%, respectively. The variations due to code and trailing edge cap grid are smaller than that due to turbulence model. Overall, the combined approximate error band in CFD due to code, turbulence model, and trailing edge treatment at the buffet onset angle of attack are: 4% in lift, 3% in drag, and 31% in moment. The CFD results show similar trends to flight test data, but also exhibit a lift curve break not seen in the data.

  7. Negative air ion effects on human performance and physiological condition.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W; Rizzuto, A P

    1984-08-01

    Beneficial effects of exposure to negative air ions have been suggested, to include improved performance, mood, attention, and physiological condition. Existing support is clouded by methodological problems of control and standardization in treatment and equipment. This study investigated effects of negative ions produced by a commercially marketed air purification device on grip magnitude, coding, motor dexterity, reaction time, tracking, pulse, blood pressure, and temperature. Two groups of 12 males were exposed to 6 continuous h of either negative or "normal" ion environments under a double blind condition. Repeated measures (0,3,6 h) on each variable were obtained. MANOVA applied to change scores revealed no differences between groups, and 0 vs. 3 and 0 vs. 6-h group differences showed no significant alteration in any measure. Negative ions generated by an air purification device were concluded to produce no general or specific alteration of cognitive or psychomotor performance or physiological condition.

  8. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths's ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  9. Non-CFC air conditioning for transit buses

    SciTech Connect

    Pesaran, A.A.; Parent, Y.O.; Bharathan, D.

    1992-11-01

    In the United Sates, more than 80% of transit city buses are air conditioned. Vapor compression refrigeration systems are standard for air conditioning buses and account for up to 25% of fuel consumption in the cooling season. Vapor compression devices use chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), chemicals that contributes to Earths`s ozone depletion and to global warming. Currently, evaporative cooling is an economical alternative to CFC vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning buses. It does not use CFCs but is restricted in use to arid climates. This limitation can be eliminated by dehumidifying the supply air using desiccants. We studied desiccant systems for cooling transit buses and found that the use of a desiccant-assisted evaporative cooling system is feasible and can deliver the required cooling. The weight and the size of the desiccant system though larger than vapor compression systems, can be easily accommodated within a bus. Fuel consumption for naming desiccant systems was about 70% less than CFC refrigeration system, resulting in payback periods of less than 2.5 years under most circumstances. This preliminary study indicated that desiccant systems combined with evaporative cooling is a CFC-free option to vapor compression refrigeration for air conditioning of transit buses. The concept is ready to be tested in a fun prototype scale in a commercial bus.

  10. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Aircraft Symposium, 29th, Gifu, Japan, Oct. 7-11, 1991, Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on air and space technology are presented. Individual topics addressed include: media selection analysis: implications for training design, high-speed challenge for rotary wing aircraft, high-speed VSTOL answer to congestion, next generation in computational aerodynamics, acrobatic airship 'Acrostat', ducted fan VTOL for working platform, Arianespace launch of Lightsats, small particle acceleration by minirailgun, free-wake analyses of a hovering rotor using panel method, update of the X-29 high-angle-of-attack program, economic approach to accurate wing design, flow field around thick delta wing with rounded leading edge, aerostructural integrated design of forward-swept wing, static characteristics of a two-phase fluid drop system, simplfied-model approach to group combustion of fuel spray, avionics flight systems for the 21st century. Also discussed are: Aircraft Command in Emergency Situations, spectrogram diagnosis of aircraft disasters, shock interaction induced by two hemisphere-cylinders, impact response of composite UHB propeller blades, high-altitude lighter-than-air powered platform, integrated wiring system, auxiliary power units for current and future aircraft, Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit status, numerical analysis of RCS jet in hypersonic flights, energy requirements for the space frontier, electrical system options for space exploration, aerospace plane hydrogen scramjet boosting, manual control of vehicles with time-varying dynamics, design of strongly stabilizing controller, development of the Liquid Apogee Propulsion System for ETS-VI.

  11. Trend of Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Technology in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hoo-Kyu; Papk, Ki-Won

    It can be said that refrigeration and air-conditioning technology in Korea dates back to the ancient dynasty, all the way up to the Sokkuram(700s) and Seokbinggo(1700s), But modern refrigeration and air-conditioning technology was first developed in and introduced to Korea in the1960swith the modernization of Korea, Today it is at a level which meets that of advanced countries in both the industrial and domestic fields. As of 2003, there were about 700 companies that owned cold storage/freezing/refrigeration facilities, with cold storage capacity of about 2,000, 000tons and capacity per company of about 3,000 tons. These facilities most are continuously expanding and automating their facilities. 62 million units of refrigeration and air-conditioning machinery and equipment were produced in 2003, worth a total of 7.7 trillion won(about 7.7 thousand million US). On the academic side there are 9 universities and 12 junior colleges with courses in either refrigeration and air-conditioning or architectural equipment. Academic societies such as the Society of Air-conditioning and Refrigerating Engineers of Korea(SAREK), and industrial societies like the Korean Association of Refrigeration(KAR) are active members of the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry. The1eare also national/government-established research institutions such as the Korea Institute of Science and Technology(KIST), the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), the Korea Institute of Energy Research(KIER), and the Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH).

  12. Real-time aircraft structural damage identification with flight condition variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a real-time structural damage identification method for aircraft with flight condition variations. The proposed approach begins by identifying the dynamic models under various test conditions from time-domain input/output data. A singular value decomposition technique is then used to characterize and quantify the parameter uncertainties from the identified models. The uncertainty coordinates, corresponding to the identified principal directions, of the identified models are computed, and the residual errors between the identified uncertainty coordinates and the estimated uncertainty coordinates of the health structure are used to identify damage status. A correlation approach is applied to identify damage type and intensity, based on the difference between the identified parameters and the estimated parameters of the healthy structure. The proposed approach is demonstrated by application to the Benchmark Active Controls Technology (BACT) wind-tunnel model.

  13. Short-range optical air data measurements for aircraft control using rotational Raman backscatter.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2013-07-15

    A first laboratory prototype of a novel concept for a short-range optical air data system for aircraft control and safety was built. The measurement methodology was introduced in [Appl. Opt. 51, 148 (2012)] and is based on techniques known from lidar detecting elastic and Raman backscatter from air. A wide range of flight-critical parameters, such as air temperature, molecular number density and pressure can be measured as well as data on atmospheric particles and humidity can be collected. In this paper, the experimental measurement performance achieved with the first laboratory prototype using 532 nm laser radiation of a pulse energy of 118 mJ is presented. Systematic measurement errors and statistical measurement uncertainties are quantified separately. The typical systematic temperature, density and pressure measurement errors obtained from the mean of 1000 averaged signal pulses are small amounting to < 0.22 K, < 0.36% and < 0.31%, respectively, for measurements at air pressures varying from 200 hPa to 950 hPa but constant air temperature of 298.95 K. The systematic measurement errors at air temperatures varying from 238 K to 308 K but constant air pressure of 946 hPa are even smaller and < 0.05 K, < 0.07% and < 0.06%, respectively. A focus is put on the system performance at different virtual flight altitudes as a function of the laser pulse energy. The virtual flight altitudes are precisely generated with a custom-made atmospheric simulation chamber system. In this context, minimum laser pulse energies and pulse numbers are experimentally determined, which are required using the measurement system, in order to meet measurement error demands for temperature and pressure specified in aviation standards. The aviation error margins limit the allowable temperature errors to 1.5 K for all measurement altitudes and the pressure errors to 0.1% for 0 m and 0.5% for 13000 m. With regard to 100-pulse-averaged temperature measurements, the pulse energy using 532 nm

  14. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-01-01

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future. PMID:27916906

  15. Enabling Smart Air Conditioning by Sensor Development: A Review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2016-11-30

    The study investigates the development of sensors, in particular the use of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors, to achieve smart operation of air conditioning systems. Smart operation refers to the operation of air conditioners by the reinforcement of interaction to achieve both thermal comfort and energy efficiency. Sensors related to thermal comfort include those of temperature, humidity, and pressure and wind velocity anemometers. Improvements in their performance in the past years have been studied by a literature survey. Traditional occupancy detection using passive infra-red (PIR) sensors and novel methodologies using smartphones and wearable sensors are both discussed. Referring to the case studies summarized in this study, air conditioning energy savings are evaluated quantitatively. Results show that energy savings of air conditioners before 2000 was 11%, and 30% after 2000 by the integration of thermo-fluidic sensors and occupancy detectors. By utilizing wearable sensing to detect the human motions, metabolic rates and related information, the energy savings can reach up to 46.3% and keep the minimum change of predicted mean vote (∆PMV→0), which means there is no compromise in thermal comfort. This enables smart air conditioning to compensate for the large variations from person to person in terms of physiological and psychological satisfaction, and find an optimal temperature for everyone in a given space. However, this tendency should be evidenced by more experimental results in the future.

  16. The induction of water to the inlet air as a means of internal cooling in aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, Addison M; Krsek, Alois, Jr; Jones, Anthony W

    1943-01-01

    Report presents the results of investigations conducted on a full-scale air-cooled aircraft-engine cylinder of 202-cubic inch displacement to determine the effects of internal cooling by water induction on the maximum permissible power and output of an internal-combustion engine. For a range of fuel-air and water-fuel ratios, the engine inlet pressure was increased until knock was detected aurally, the power was then decreased 7 percent holding the ratios constant. The data indicated that water was a very effective internal coolant, permitting large increases in engine power as limited by either knock or by cylinder temperatures.

  17. Aerodynamic heating and the deflection of drops by an obstacle in an air stream in relation to aircraft icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur

    1940-01-01

    Two topics of interest to persons attempting to apply the heat method of preventing ice formation on aircraft are considered. Surfaces moving through air at high speed are shown, both theoretically and experimentally, to be subject to important aerodynamic heating effects that will materially reduce the heat required to prevent ice. Numerical calculations of the path of water drops in an air stream around a circular cylinder are given. From these calculations, information is obtained on the percentage of the swept area cleared of drops.

  18. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  19. 14 CFR 135.181 - Performance requirements: Aircraft operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... over-the-top or in IFR conditions. 135.181 Section 135.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... operated over-the-top or in IFR conditions. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may— (1) Operate a single-engine aircraft carrying passengers over-the-top; or...

  20. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D.

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an {open_quotes}upsized{close_quotes} condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  1. Study of long term options for electric vehicle air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Dieckmann, J.; Mallory, D. , Inc., Cambridge, MA )

    1991-07-01

    There are strong incentives in terms of national energy and environmental policy to encourage the commercialization of electrically powered vehicles in the U.S. Among these incentives are reduced petroleum consumption, improved electric generation capacity utilization, reduced IC engine emissions, and, depending on the primary fuel used for electric power generation, reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. A basic requirement for successfully commercializing any motor vehicle in the US is provision of adequate passenger comfort heating and air conditioning (cooling). Although air conditioning is generally sold as optional equipment, in excess of 80% of the automobiles and small trucks sold in the US have air conditioning systems. In current, pre-commercial electric vehicles, comfort heating is provided by a liquid fuel fired heater that heats water which is circulated through the standard heater core in the conventional interior air handling unit. Air conditioning is provided by electric motor driven compressors, installed in a system having, perhaps, an [open quotes]upsized[close quotes] condenser and a standard evaporator (front and rear evaporators in some instances) installed in the conventional interior air handler. Although this approach is adequate in the near term for initial commercialization efforts, a number of shortcomings of this arrangement, as well as longer range concerns need to be addressed. In this project, the long term alternatives for cooling and heating electric vehicles effectively, efficiently (with minimum range penalties), and without adverse environmental impacts have been examined. Identification of options that can provide both heating and cooling is important, in view of the disadvantages of carrying separate heating and cooling systems in the vehicle.

  2. Heating and Air Conditioning Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructor's guide contains materials for teaching the heating and air conditioning specialist component of a competency-based instructional program for students preparing for employment in the automotive service trade. It is based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The six instructional units presented…

  3. State Skill Standards: Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning, and Refrigeration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Larry; Soukup, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The Department of Education has undertaken an ambitious effort to develop statewide career and technical education skill standards. The standards in this document are for Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) programs and are designed to clearly state what the student should know and be able to do upon completion of…

  4. Careers for the 70's in Heating and Air Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, James P.

    1974-01-01

    In a trade encompassing all others in construction, installation foremen for heating/air conditioning firms spend a varied day (repairing a water heater, overseeing installation crews). Decision-makers who must think while using their hands, they rely heavily on preparation in math, mechanical drawing, blueprint reading, physics, and electicity.…

  5. Advanced Print Reading. Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This is a workbook for students learning advanced blueprint reading for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning applications. The workbook contains eight units covering the following material: architectural working drawings; architectural symbols and dimensions; basic architectural electrical symbols; wiring symbols; basic piping symbols;…

  6. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed…

  7. An Analysis of the Air Conditioning, Refrigerating and Heating Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frass, Melvin R.; Krause, Marvin

    The general purpose of the occupational analysis is to provide workable, basic information dealing with the many and varied duties performed in the air conditioning, refrigerating, and heating occupation. The document opens with a brief introduction followed by a job description. The bulk of the document is presented in table form. Six duties are…

  8. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration. Competency-Based Curriculum Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourley, Frank A., Jr.

    This manual was developed to serve as an aid to administrators and instructors involved with postsecondary air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration programs. The first of six chapters contains general information on program implementation, the curriculum design, facilities and equipment requirements, and textbooks and references. Chapter 2…

  9. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning. Energy Technology Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    This course in heating, ventilating, and air conditioning is one of 16 courses in the Energy Technology Series developed for an Energy Conservation-and-Use Technology curriculum. Intended for use in two-year postsecondary technical institutions to prepare technicians for employment, the courses are also useful in industry for updating employees in…

  10. Heating, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Technician. National Skill Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This guide contains information on the knowledge and skills identified by industry as essential to the job performance of heating, air-conditioning, and refrigeration technicians. It is intended to assist training providers in public and private institutions, as well as in industry, to develop and implement training that will provide workers with…

  11. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(φ)} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(φ)} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  12. Modelling and simulation of air-conditioning cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rais, Sandi; Kadono, Yoshinori; Murayama, Katsunori; Minakuchi, Kazuya; Takeuchi, Hisae; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    2016-05-01

    The heat-pump cycle for air conditioning was investigated both numerically and experimentally by evaluating the coefficient of performance (COP) under Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS B 8619:1999) and ANSI/AHRI standard 750-2007 operating conditions. We used two expansion valve coefficients Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.12 for standard operating conditions (Case 1) approaching 1.3 MPa at high pressure and 0.2 MPa at low pressure, and Cv_{(\\varphi )} = 0.06 namely poor operating conditions (Case 2). To improve the performance of the air conditioner, we compared the performance for two outside air temperatures, 35 and 40 °C (Case 3). The simulation and experiment comparison resulted the decreasing of the COP for standard operating condition is equal to 14 %, from 3.47 to 2.95 and a decrease of the cooling capacity is equal to 18 %, from 309.72 to 253.53 W. This result was also occurred in poor operating condition which the COP was superior at 35 °C temperature.

  13. A strategy for oxygen conditioning at high altitude: comparison with air conditioning.

    PubMed

    West, John B

    2015-09-15

    Large numbers of people live or work at high altitude, and many visit to trek or ski. The inevitable hypoxia impairs physical working capacity, and at higher altitudes there is also cognitive impairment. Twenty years ago oxygen enrichment of room air was introduced to reduce the hypoxia, and this is now used in dormitories, hotels, mines, and telescopes. However, recent advances in technology now allow large amounts of oxygen to be obtained from air or cryogenic oxygen sources. As a result it is now feasible to oxygenate large buildings and even institutions such as hospitals. An analogy can be drawn between air conditioning that has improved the living and working conditions of millions of people who live in hot climates and oxygen conditioning that can do the same at high altitude. Oxygen conditioning is similar to air conditioning except that instead of cooling the air, the oxygen concentration is raised, thus reducing the equivalent altitude. Oxygen conditioning on a large scale could transform living and working conditions at high altitude, where it could be valuable in homes, hospitals, schools, dormitories, company headquarters, banks, and legislative settings.

  14. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18–22 g/m3 to a range of 13.5–18.3 g/m3. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process. PMID:26580660

  15. Hollow Fiber Membrane Dehumidification Device for Air Conditioning System.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Baiwang; Peng, Na; Liang, Canzeng; Yong, Wai Fen; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-11-16

    In order to provide a comfortable living and working environment indoors in tropical countries, the outdoor air often needs to be cooled and dehumidified before it enters the rooms. Membrane separation is an emerging technology for air dehumidification and it is based on the solution diffusion mechanism. Water molecules are preferentially permeating through the membranes due to its smaller kinetic diameter and higher condensability than the other gases. Compared to other dehumidification technologies such as direct cooling or desiccation, there is no phase transition involved in membrane dehumidification, neither the contact between the fresh air stream and the desiccants. Hence, membrane dehumidification would not only require less energy consumption but also avoid cross-contamination problems. A pilot scale air dehumidification system is built in this study which comprises nine pieces of one-inch PAN/PDMS hollow fiber membrane modules. A 150 h long-term test shows that the membrane modules has good water vapor transport properties by using a low vacuum force of only 0.78 bar absolute pressure at the lumen side. The water vapor concentration of the feed humid air decreases dramatically from a range of 18-22 g/m³ to a range of 13.5-18.3 g/m³. Most importantly, the total energy saving is up to 26.2% compared with the conventional air conditioning process.

  16. Meteorological Conditions Favouring Development of Urban Air Pollution Episodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Finardi, Sandro; Beekmann, Matthias; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Mahura, Alexander; Ginsburg, Alexander; Mažeikis, Adomas

    2013-04-01

    The causes of urban air pollution episodes are complex and depend on various factors including emissions, meteorological parameters, topography, atmospheric chemical processes and solar radiation. The relative importance of such factors is dependent on the geographical region, its surrounding emission source areas and the related climatic characteristics, as well as the season of the year. The key pollutants are PM10, PM2.5, O3 and NO2, as these cause the worst air quality problems in European cities. The main aim of this study realised within the MEGAPOLI project was to describe and quantify the influence of meteorological patterns on urban air pollution especially high-level concentrations air pollution episodes in megacities. Several European urban agglomerations and megacities, including the Po Valley, Helsinki, London, Paris, Moscow, Vilnius, were considered in the study. The study also carried out analysis of meteorological patterns leading to urban air pollution episodes considered by the development of suitable indicators linking particular meteorological conditions/ parameters to increased air pollution levels in the urban areas. These indicators constitute a useful tool for regulators in suggesting effective policies and mitigation measures. Finally, a combination of modelling and analysis of observations data can allow both the quality assurance of the new parameterisations as well as the verification of input emissions.

  17. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  18. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C

    1999-05-07

    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  19. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  20. TEWI Evaluation for Household Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Atsushi; Watanabe, Koichi

    In the present study, we have quantitatively evaluated the global warming impact by household refrigerator and air-conditioning systems on the basis of reliable TEWI information. In TEWI evaluation of household refrigerators, the percentage of the impact by refrigerant released to the atmosphere (direct effect) is less than 18.6% in TEWI. In case of room air-conditioners, however, the percentage of direct effect is less than 5.4% in TEWI. Therefore, it was confirmed that impact by CO2 released as a result of the energy consumed to drive the refrigeration or air-conditioning systems throughout their lifetime (indirect effect) is far larger than direct effect by the entire system. A reduction of indirect effect by energy saving is the most effective measure in reducing the global warming impact by refrigeration and air-conditioning systems, For a realization of the energy saving, not only the advanced improvement in energy efficiency by household appliance manufacturers but also the improvement of consumer's mind in selecting the systems and a way of using are concluded important.

  1. Causal Factors and Adverse Conditions of Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Evans, Joni K.; Sandifer, Carl E.; Jones, Sharon Monica

    2010-01-01

    The causal factors of accidents from the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database and incidents from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) database associated with loss of control (LOC) were examined for four types of operations (i.e., Federal Aviation Regulation Part 121, Part 135 Scheduled, Part 135 Nonscheduled, and Part 91) for the years 1988 to 2004. In-flight LOC is a serious aviation problem. Well over half of the LOC accidents included at least one fatality (80 percent in Part 121), and roughly half of all aviation fatalities in the studied time period occurred in conjunction with LOC. An adverse events table was updated to provide focus to the technology validation strategy of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project. The table contains three types of adverse conditions: failure, damage, and upset. Thirteen different adverse condition subtypes were gleaned from the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), the FAA Accident and Incident database, and the NTSB database. The severity and frequency of the damage conditions, initial test conditions, and milestones references are also provided.

  2. Lightning effects on aircraft: A cockpit perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumer, J. A.

    1980-05-01

    Typical conditions in which strikes have been experienced by large and small aircraft are described, together with effects as experienced by flight crews. Most strikes have occurred when the aircraft is flying at between 3000 and 5000 meters altitude, where the outside air temperature is within 5 deg of 0 C and there exists a light to moderate amount of precipitation. Strikes to aircraft have, however, occurred at altitudes as high as 12,000 m and also when the aircraft are parked on the ground. If an aircraft approaches a highly electrified region it may actually trigger a strike, especially if the aircraft is large and causes a significant perturbation in the nearby electric field. Aircraft lightning strike mechanisms, effects to avionics and electric power systems, engine effects, and effects to personnel are addressed.

  3. [Microbiological cleanness of the air in hospitals--rooms with air-condition].

    PubMed

    Krogulski, Adam; Kanclerski, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to valuate effectiveness of the air condition system in hospitals. It was done by estimation of bacteria and fungi concentration in the air. The study were performed in ten hospital rooms which were protected by EU 13 or EU 9 filters. Possible the most important source of fungi was not treated air incoming from outside. Only in four of the rooms concentrations of the fungi in the air were satisfactory and not exceeded 20 cfu/m3 (cfu--colony forming unit). However in two of them the number of fungi rise 4-5 times after the windows were opened. Concentration of the fungi in operating theater number 2 (1-2 cfu/m3) allow to valuate efficiency of air conditioning systems. The lowest bacteria concentration was in Intensive Care Unit (73 cfu/m3) but the highest in instrumentalists rum (1427 cfu/m3. where according to high fungi concentration (116 cfu/m3) the air conditioning systems was switched of and the ventilation was by open windows.

  4. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  5. The Air Quality and Economic Impact of Atmospheric Lead from General Aviation Aircraft in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, P. J.; Selin, N. E.; Barrett, S. R. H.

    2015-12-01

    While leaded fuels for automobiles were phased-out of use in the United States by 1996, lead (Pb) continues to be used as an anti-knock additive for piston-driven aircraft. We model the annual concentration of atmospheric lead attributable to piston driven aircraft emissions in the continental United States using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Using aircraft emissions inventories for 2008, we then calculate annual economic damages from lead as lifetime employment losses for a one-year cohort exposed to elevated atmospheric lead concentrations using a range of concentration response functions from literature. Mean and median estimates of annual damages attributable to lifetime lost earnings are 1.06 and 0.60 billion respectively. Economy-wide impacts of IQ-deficits on productivity and labor increase expected damages by 54%. Damages are sensitive to background lead concentrations; as emissions decrease from other sources, the damages attributable to aviation are expected to increase holding aviation emissions constant. The monetary impact of General Aviation lead emissions on the environment is the same order of magnitude as noise, climate change, and air quality degradation from all commercial operations.

  6. Thermal storage HVAC system retrofit provides economical air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.F. )

    1993-03-01

    This article describes an EMS-controlled HVAC system that meets the ventilation and cooling needs of an 18,000-seat indoor ice hockey arena. The Buffalo Memorial Auditorium (affectionately referred to as the Aud) was built in 1937 under the Works Project Administration of the federal government. Its original configuration included a 12,000-seat arena with an ice skating rink. By the late 1980s, the city was unsuccessfully attempting to attract events and tenants to the auditorium, which lacked air conditioning and other modern amenities. Thus, it was decided to renovate the facility to make it marketable. The first phase of the renovation included installing an air-conditioning system in the arena and repairing the existing building systems that were inoperable because of deferred maintenance. After considering the existing conditions (such as size of the space, intermittent usage, construction restrictions, operating budgets and the limited operations staff), the engineering team designed an innovative HVAC system. The system's features include: a carbon dioxide monitoring device that controls the intake of outside air; an ice storage system that provides chilled water and shifts electrical demand to off-peak hours; and a design that uses the building mass as a heat sink. A new energy management system (EMS) determines building cooling needs based on the type of event, ambient conditions and projected audience size. Then, it selects the most economical method to obtain the desired arena temperature.

  7. A methodology for hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2013-05-01

    Condition-based maintenance (CBM) refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. Traditionally, CBM involves equipping machinery with electronic sensors that continuously monitor components and collect data for analysis. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognitive functions (i.e., sensemaking, problem detection, planning, adaptation, coordination, naturalistic decision making) to traditional CBM may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Cognitive systems engineering techniques provide an opportunity to utilize a dynamic resource—people acting as soft sensors. The literature is extensive on techniques to fuse data from electronic sensors, but little work exists on fusing data from humans with that from electronic sensors (i.e., hard/soft fusion). The purpose of my research is to explore, observe, investigate, analyze, and evaluate the fusion of pilot and maintainer knowledge, experiences, and sensory perceptions with digital maintenance resources. Hard/soft information fusion has the potential to increase problem detection capability, improve flight safety, and increase mission readiness. This proposed project consists the creation of a methodology that is based upon the Living Laboratories framework, a research methodology that is built upon cognitive engineering principles1. This study performs a critical assessment of concept, which will support development of activities to demonstrate hard/soft information fusion in operationally relevant scenarios of aircraft maintenance. It consists of fieldwork, knowledge elicitation to inform a simulation and a prototype.

  8. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate

  9. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  10. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  11. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  12. Solar air-conditioning-active, hybrid and passive

    SciTech Connect

    Yellott, J. I.

    1981-04-01

    After a discussion of summer air conditioning requirements in the United States, active, hybrid, and passive cooling systems are defined. Active processes and systems include absorption, Rankine cycle, and a small variety of miscellaneous systems. The hybrid solar cooling and dehumidification technology of desiccation is covered as well as evaporative cooling. The passive solar cooling processes covered include convective, radiative and evaporative cooling. Federal and state involvement in solar cooling is then discussed. (LEW)

  13. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate these types of... Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal Access AGENCY... conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes. These airplanes,...

  14. Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-07

    Force is expected late next month.... Sen. Richard Shelby, R- Ala ., a Northrop supporter, and Rep. Norman Dicks, D-Wash., a Boeing supporter, have sent...maintenance and forecasted modernization programs in avionics and aircraft systems. Additionally, the Department anticipates depot maintenance costs...slat tracks Xian Aircraft Co. (AVIC- 1) Peoples Republic of China avionics access doors Source: Teal Group Note: Commercial variants of both

  15. Sensitivity of urban air pollution to aircraft emissions in Paris area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pison, I.; Menut, L.

    2003-04-01

    An accurate estimation of the emissions of primary pollutants is a key parameter for modeling surface concentrations observed during regional pollution events. These emissions are generally taken into account near the surface only, representing surface fluxes such as traffic, industries or biogenic sources. Other sources exist such as commercial aircraft emissions. In large urbanized areas, airports represent a non negligible source including landing and take-off of aircraft within the boundary layer. Even if these emissions certainly are not the most important process explaining urban pollution, the quantification of their impact on local pollution is rarely studied. This is the case of Paris where one national airport (Le Bourget) and two international airports (Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle and Orly) are located less than 30~km from the center of the city. In this paper, we present the first model analysis of the impact of aircraft emissions over Paris area. Using a three-dimensional aircraft emission inventory we partly elaborated, we compare ozone surface concentrations obtained with and without these emissions by the chemistry-transport model CHIMERE. The observed differences show the spatial and temporal influence of these emissions within the boundary layer. This enables us to estimate the perturbations due to aircraft emissions on surface concentrations recorded in and around the city during the second intensive observation period (IOP2) of the ESQUIF project. Finally, aircraft emitted masses of VOCs and nitrogen oxides were disturbed in order to study the sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the accuracy of the inventory.

  16. Characteristics of future air cargo demand and impact on aircraft development: A report on the Cargo/Logistic Airlift Systems Study (CLASS) project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Current domestic and international air cargo operations are studied and the characteristics of 1990 air cargo demand are postulated from surveys conducted at airports and with shippers, consignees, and freight forwarders as well as air, land, and ocean carriers. Simulation and route optimization programs are exercised to evaluate advanced aircraft concepts. The results show that proposed changes in the infrastructure and improved cargo loading efficiencies are as important enhancing the prospects of air cargo growth as is the advent of advanced freighter aircraft. Potential reductions in aircraft direct operating costs are estimated and related to future total revenue. Service and cost elasticities are established and utilized to estimate future potential tariff reductions that may be realized through direct and indirect operating cost reductions and economies of scale.

  17. Effect of Intake Air Filter Condition on Vehicle Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Kevin M; Huff, Shean P; West, Brian H

    2009-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jointly maintain a fuel economy website (www.fueleconomy.gov), which helps fulfill their responsibility under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to provide accurate fuel economy information [in miles per gallon (mpg)] to consumers. The site provides information on EPA fuel economy ratings for passenger cars and light trucks from 1985 to the present and other relevant information related to energy use such as alternative fuels and driving and vehicle maintenance tips. In recent years, fluctuations in the price of crude oil and corresponding fluctuations in the price of gasoline and diesel fuels have renewed interest in vehicle fuel economy in the United States. (User sessions on the fuel economy website exceeded 20 million in 2008 compared to less than 5 million in 2004 and less than 1 million in 2001.) As a result of this renewed interest and the age of some of the references cited in the tips section of the website, DOE authorized the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center (FEERC) to initiate studies to validate and improve these tips. This report documents a study aimed specifically at the effect of engine air filter condition on fuel economy. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of a clogged air filter on the fuel economy of vehicles operating over prescribed test cycles. Three newer vehicles (a 2007 Buick Lucerne, a 2006 Dodge Charger, and a 2003 Toyota Camry) and an older carbureted vehicle were tested. Results show that clogging the air filter has no significant effect on the fuel economy of the newer vehicles (all fuel injected with closed-loop control and one equipped with MDS). The engine control systems were able to maintain the desired AFR regardless of intake restrictions, and therefore fuel consumption was not increased. The carbureted engine did show a decrease in

  18. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  19. Using natural refrigerants (hydrocarbons) in air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    Refrigerant 134a has emerged as the new refrigerant for the automotive and commercial A/C industry that has a zero ozone depleting potential (ODP) value. However, R-134a's greenhouse warming potential (GWP) is relatively high among the newly developed hydroflourocarbons (HFCs) which seems to be an obstacle for the furtherance of the use of R-134a, especially in European countries. Hence, many countries are looking for other refrigerants that do not contribute to global warming. There are many refrigerants that are currently available naturally. Examples of the so called natural refrigerants are: ammonia, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, water, helium, air, etc. Hydrocarbons are receiving attention these days as their thermodynamic and thermophysical properties are similar to that of R-12 and R-134a. Hydrocarbons are highly flammable that have zero ODP and negligible GWP. In Europe, some countries have started using hydrocarbons for refrigerators, freezers, automobiles, and for commercial applications like supermarkets. Currently, limited information is available in the open literature on the performance and design of the air conditioning and refrigeration systems using the hydrocarbons. Most of the work reported in the literature on the hydrocarbon refrigerants has been conducted by the researchers in Europe and Australia. In the United States, due to the product liability, the manufacturers have not been receptive to the idea of using hydrocarbons as the refrigerants. In this paper, the author has simulated the thermodynamic performance of a typical air conditioning system using hydrocarbons. The performance of the air conditioning system has been simulated by using Propane (R-290) and Isobutane (R-600a) as the working fluids. REFPROP computer program developed by NIST has been used to determine the thermodynamic properties for R-290 and R-600a. The author has also presented the single phase (liquid and vapor), pool boiling, two-phase, dry- out region, and

  20. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  1. Aircraft accident report: NASA 712, Convair 990, N712NA, March Air Force Base, California, July 17, 1985, facts and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batthauer, Byron E.; Mccarthy, G. T.; Hannah, Michael; Hogan, Robert J.; Marlow, Frank J.; Reynard, William D.; Stoklosa, Janis H.; Yager, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    On July 17, l985, at 1810 P.d.t., NASA 712, a Convair 990 aircraft, was destroyed by fire at March Air Force Base, California. The fire started during the rollout after the pilot rejected the takeoff on runway 32. The rejected takeoff was initiated during the takeoff roll because of blown tires on the right landing gear. During the rollout, fragments of either the blown tires or the wheel/brake assemblies penetrated a right-wing fuel tank forward of the right main landing gear. Leaking fuel ignited while the aircraft was rolling, and fire engulfed the right wing and the fuselage after the aircraft was stopped on the runway. The 4-man flightcrew and the 15 scientists and technicians seated in the cabin evacuated the aircraft without serious injury. The fire was not extinguished by crash/rescue efforts and the aircraft was destroyed.

  2. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  3. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulent sampling missions with an instrumented B-57B aircraft. Volume 2, appendix C: Turbulence missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waco, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized from a meteorological viewpoint in a two-volume technical memorandum. The missions were part of the NASA Langley Research Center's MAT (Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence) program, which was conducted between March 1974, and September 1975, at altitudes ranging up to 15 km. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encountered on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program.

  4. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  5. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  6. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  7. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  8. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  9. 78 FR 75451 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... systems and networks. Connectivity to, or access by, external systems and networks may result in security... configuration may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities resulting in intentional or...; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal...

  10. 78 FR 75453 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... data network and design integration may result in security vulnerabilities from intentional or... than previous airplane models. This may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities and... Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Isolation or Protection From Internal Access AGENCY:...

  11. Estimating KC-137 Aircraft Ownership Costs in the Brazilian Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-01

    stability on the international market . Utilization Rate -- since the mission profiles of the KC-137 aircraft are expected to remain the same for the near...the international market . Utilization Rate -- since the mission profiles of the KC-137 aircraft are expected to remain the same for the near future...ocontrole? 2.3 Suprimentos recebidos do Parque Custo rn6dio de todo o material que o Parque envia para a Base por ano (ou rn6s, etc.) Inclui todo tipo de

  12. The dynamics of the HSCT environment. [air pollution from High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Assessments of the impact of aircraft engine exhausts on stratospheric ozone levels are currently limited to 2D zonally-averaged models which, while completely representing chemistry, involve high parameterization of transport processes. Prospective 3D models under development by NASA-Goddard will use winds from a data-assimilation procedure; the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere behavior of one such model has been verified by direct comparison of model simulations with satellite, balloon, and sonde measurements. Attention is presently given to the stratosphere/troposphere exchange and nonzonal distribution of aircraft engine exhaust.

  13. Do-It-Yourself Additives Recharge Auto Air Conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    In planning for a return mission to the Moon, NASA aimed to improve the thermal control systems that keep astronauts comfortable and cool while inside a spacecraft. Goddard Space Flight Center awarded a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to Mainstream Engineering Corporation, of Rockledge, Florida, to develop a chemical/mechanical heat pump. IDQ Inc., of Garland, Texas, exclusively licensed the technology and incorporates it into its line of Arctic Freeze products for automotive air conditioning applications. While working on the design, Mainstream Engineering came up with a unique liquid additive called QwikBoost to enhance the performance of the advanced heat pump design.

  14. Analysis of non-CFC automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. ); Sullivan, R.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Concern about the destruction of the global environment by chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) fluids has become an impetus in searching for alternative non-CFC refrigerants and cooling methods for mobile air conditioning (MAC). While some alternative refrigerants have been identified, they are not considered a lasting solution because of their high global warming potential (GWP), which could result in their eventual phase-out. In view of this dilemma, environmentally acceptable alternative cooling methods have become important. This study discusses the advantages and the limits of some of the alternative automotive cooling methodologies. 19 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  16. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  17. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  18. Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Storey, Bill; Patterson, Michael K.

    2009-09-30

    The goal of this demonstration was to show how sensors in IT equipment could be accessed and used to directly control computer room air conditioning. The data provided from the sensors is available on the IT network and the challenge for this project was to connect this information to the computer room air handler's control system. A control strategy was developed to enable separate control of the chilled water flow and the fans in the computer room air handlers. By using these existing sensors in the IT equipment, an additional control system is eliminated (or could be redundant) and optimal cooling can be provided saving significant energy. Using onboard server temperature sensors will yield significant energy reductions in data centers. Intel hosted the demonstration in its Santa Clara, CA data center. Intel collaborated with IBM, HP, Emerson, Wunderlich-Malec Engineers, FieldServer Technologies, and LBNL to install the necessary components and develop the new control scheme. LBNL also validated the results of the demonstration.

  19. Bioaerosol deposition on an air-conditioning cooling coil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yan; Chen, Ailu; Luhung, Irvan; Gall, Elliott T.; Cao, Qingliang; Chang, Victor Wei-Chung; Nazaroff, William W.

    2016-11-01

    This study is concerned with the role of a fin-and-tube heat exchanger in modifying microbial indoor air quality. Specifically, depositional losses of ambient bioaerosols and particles onto dry (not cooled) and wet (cool) coil surfaces were measured for different airspeeds passing through the test coil. Total, bacterial and fungal DNA concentrations in condensate water produced by a wet coil were also quantified by means of fluorescent dsDNA-binding dye and qPCR assays. Results revealed that the deposition of bioaerosols and total particles is substantial on coil surfaces, especially when wet and cool. The average deposition fraction was 0.14 for total DNA, 0.18 for bacterial DNA and 0.22 for fungal DNA on the dry coil, increasing to 0.51 for total DNA, 0.50 for bacterial DNA and 0.68 for fungal DNA on the wet coil. Overall, as expected, deposition fractions increased with increasing particle size and increasing airspeed. Deposited DNA was removed from the cooling coil surfaces through the flow of condensing water at a rate comparable to the rate of direct deposition from air. A downward trend of bacterial and fungal DNA measured in condensate water over time provides suggestive evidence of biological growth on heat exchangers during nonoperational times of a ventilation system. This investigation provides new information about bioaerosol deposition onto a conventional fin-and-tube cooling coil, a potentially important factor influencing indoor exposure to microbial aerosols in air-conditioned buildings.

  20. Study of Ram-air Heat Exchangers for Reducing Turbine Cooling-air Temperature of a Supersonic Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diaguila, Anthony J; Livingood, John N B; Eckert, Ernst R G

    1956-01-01

    The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude The sizes and weights of the cores of heat exchangers were determined analytically for possible application for reducing turbine cooling-air temperatures of an engine designed for a Mach number of 2.5 and an altitude of 70,000 feet. A compressor-bleed-air weight flow of 2.7 pounds per second was assumed for the coolant; ram air was considered as the other fluid. Pressure drops and inlet states of both fluids were prescribed, and ranges of compressor-bleed-air temperature reductions and of the ratio of compressor-bleed to ram-air weight flows were considered.

  1. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  2. Aircraft Fuel, Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems (Course Outlines), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with the operation, inspection, and repair of aircraft fuel, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe maintenance technician…

  3. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  4. Absorption and adsorption chillers applied to air conditioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuczyńska, Agnieszka; Szaflik, Władysław

    2010-07-01

    This work presents an application possibility of sorption refrigerators driven by low temperature fluid for air conditioning of buildings. Thermodynamic models were formulated and absorption LiBr-water chiller with 10 kW cooling power as well as adsorption chiller with silica gel bed were investigated. Both of them are using water for desorption process with temperature Tdes = 80 °C. Coefficient of performance (COP) for both cooling cycles was analyzed in the same conditions of the driving heat source, cooling water Tc = 25 °C and temperature in evaporator Tevap = 5 °C. In this study, the computer software EES was used to investigate the performance of absorption heat pump system and its behaviour in configuration with geothermal heat source.

  5. Turboprop aircraft against terrorism: a SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Murat; Akkas, Ali; Aslan, Yavuz

    2012-06-01

    Today, the threat perception is changing. Not only for countries but also for defence organisations like NATO, new threat perception is pointing terrorism. Many countries' air forces become responsible of fighting against terorism or Counter-Insurgency (COIN) Operations. Different from conventional warfare, alternative weapon or weapon systems are required for such operatioins. In counter-terrorism operations modern fighter jets are used as well as helicopters, subsonic jets, Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), turboprop aircraft, baloons and similar platforms. Succes and efficiency of the use of these platforms can be determined by evaluating the conditions, the threats and the area together. Obviously, each platform has advantages and disadvantages for different cases. In this research, examples of turboprop aircraft usage against terrorism and with a more general approach, turboprop aircraft for Close Air Support (CAS) missions from all around the world are reviewed. In this effort, a closer look is taken at the countries using turboprop aircraft in CAS missions while observing the fields these aircraft are used in, type of operations, specifications of the aircraft, cost and the maintenance factors. Thus, an idea about the convenience of using these aircraft in such operations can be obtained. A SWOT analysis of turboprop aircraft in CAS operations is performed. This study shows that turboprop aircraft are suitable to be used in counter-terrorism and COIN operations in low threat environment and is cost benefical compared to jets.

  6. Mathematical and experimental investigation of heat control and power increase in air-cooled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosslau, F

    1929-01-01

    In order to understand the numerical relations between the air velocity, temperature of the cylinder walls, heat dissipation, cylinder dimensions and type of construction an experimental plant was installed in the Siemens and Halske laboratory. The experimental cylinder was exposed to the air stream of a wind tunnel. The compression chamber was heated by an electrically heated oil bath kept constantly in motion by a stirrer. The wall temperatures were measured by thermocouples. The air stream was produced a seven-watt blower. The air flowed through a current rectifier (honeycomb), diffuser, air chamber with quieting sieves and a nozzle.

  7. Prediction of Air Conditioning Load Response for Providing Spinning Reserve - ORNL Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Ally, Moonis Raza; Rice, C Keith

    2009-02-01

    This report assesses the use of air conditioning load for providing spinning reserve and discusses the barriers and opportunities. Air conditioning load is well suited for this service because it often increases during heavy load periods and can be curtailed for short periods with little impact to the customer. The report also provides an appendix describing the ambient temperature effect on air conditioning load.

  8. Conditional extraction of air-pollutant source signals from air-quality monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malby, Andrew R.; Whyatt, J. Duncan; Timmis, Roger J.

    2013-08-01

    Ambient air-quality data contain information about air-pollution sources that is currently under-exploited. This information could be used to assess trends in the emissions performance of specific sources, and to check at an early stage if policies or controls to reduce air-quality impacts from particular sources are working. Previous techniques for extracting such information have tended to adopt complex analyses and to rely on data from monitoring networks with many sites, thus limiting their applicability to non-specialist users and to networks with few sites. This paper describes simple techniques for 'conditionally' selecting data from one or two monitors, and for analysing and interpreting concentrations in terms of source performance or policy progress. Our techniques minimise the effects of variations in meteorology and source activity, so that the selected data give a more consistent indication of individual source performance. We demonstrate our techniques with a case study, in which we track the source performance of road traffic on the M4 motorway in London and show how impacts per vehicle have changed over time under different conditions of traffic flow and fleet composition.

  9. Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division at Warminster Environmental Materials Program. Phase 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-24

    assisted airless, electrostatic, and high-volume low- pressure ( HVLP ) spray application techniques all have improved transfer efficiencies over...process can be applied by either immersion or spray apphcation. However, this new pretreatment is a multi-staged, elevated temperature immersion...process and is not directly applicable for aircraft skins. Efforts to modify the process for spray application are in progress. Incorporat- ing steam

  10. Air-breathing hypersonic cruise - Prospects for Mach 4-7 waverider aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    1992-01-01

    In the Mach 4-7 range, waverider aircraft are considered as candidates for both short- and long-range cruise missions, as hypersonic missiles, and as high L/D highly maneuverable craft. The potential for near- and far-term application of airbreathing engines to the waverider vehicle missions and concepts is presented. Attention is focused on the cruise mission and attempts are made to compare and contrast it with the accelerator mission.

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Beddown of C-17 Aircraft at March Air Reserve Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Proposed Action consists of three parts : 1) aircraft changes at March ARB; 2) construction activities at March ARB; and 3) changes of operations at March...describes FY 02 (or the most current 12-month period) and FY 06 proposed sortie utilization for the airspace included as part of the Proposed Action. The...cumulative impacts analysis of the entire Proposed Action (32 CFR 989.10). Alternatives to the Proposed Action As part of the NEP A process

  12. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-05-01

    This memo explains what Berkeley Lab has learned about how the residential central air-conditioning (CAC) end use is represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS is an energy model maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) that is routinely used in analysis of energy efficiency standards for residential appliances. As part of analyzing utility and environmental impacts related to the federal rulemaking for residential CAC, lower-than-expected peak utility results prompted Berkeley Lab to investigate the input load shapes that characterize the peaky CAC end use and the submodule that treats load demand response. Investigations enabled a through understanding of the methodology by which hourly load profiles are input to the model and how the model is structured to respond to peak demand. Notably, it was discovered that NEMS was using an October-peaking load shape to represent residential space cooling, which suppressed peak effects to levels lower than expected. An apparent scaling down of the annual load within the load-demand submodule was found, another significant suppressor of the peak impacts. EIA promptly responded to Berkeley Lab's discoveries by updating numerous load shapes for the AEO2002 version of NEMS; EIA is still studying the scaling issue. As a result of this work, it was concluded that Berkeley Lab's customary end-use decrement approach was the most defensible way for Berkeley Lab to perform the recent CAC utility impact analysis. This approach was applied in conjunction with the updated AEO2002 load shapes to perform last year's published rulemaking analysis. Berkeley Lab experimented with several alternative approaches, including modifying the CAC efficiency level, but determined that these did not sufficiently improve the robustness of the method or results to warrant their implementation. Work in this area will continue in preparation for upcoming rulemakings for the other peak coincident end uses, commercial

  13. Aircraft Survivability: Survivability Against Man Portable Air Defense Systems, Summer 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    air into the air stream ahead of the engine, while holding T2 at near-ambient condi- tions. Hot air was produced using an airflow rig ( Huff and Puff ... Huff and Puff , a trailer-mounted, TF30 turbofan engine, has a butterfly valve that can quickly re-direct the TF30 bypass air to the test article...Variable Exhaust Nozzle (VEN) shown in closed position Figure 6. HIVAS test setup Figure 7. Fan and compressor damage test setup with “ huff and puff

  14. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  15. Turning up the heat on aircraft structures. [design and analysis for high-temperature conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobyns, Alan; Saff, Charles; Johns, Robert

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented of the current effort in design and development of aircraft structures to achieve the lowest cost for best performance. Enhancements in this area are focused on integrated design, improved design analysis tools, low-cost fabrication techniques, and more sophisticated test methods. 3D CAD/CAM data are becoming the method through which design, manufacturing, and engineering communicate.

  16. Degradation of glycol based aircraft deicing fluids under anaerobic methanogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltman, Shawn Herbert

    2000-11-01

    Large quantities of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) comprised mainly of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) are used for aircraft deicing/anti-icing during cold weather operations at airports throughout the world. Several different formulations of ADF have been developed and are used. Type I solutions are commonly employed to remove snow and ice from aircraft surfaces (deicing), and Type IV solutions are commonly applied to prevent ice from reforming (anti-icing). The runoff from aircraft deicing operations is known to have a high oxygen demand. As a consequence, deicing wastes are often collected at airports for treatment. ADF products also contain small amounts of colorants, corrosion inhibitors, and thickeners, and these compounds may pose a greater environmental concern than oxygen depletion. Several studies have been completed to compare the relative toxicity of the pure glycols (EG and PG) vs. ADF using Microtox RTM assays and other aquatic tests, and it has been reported that ADF is significantly more inhibitory than the pure glycols. With growing concern over the environmental consequences of deicing there has been interest in developing anaerobic technology to treat deicing waste. In this dissertation a survey, a deicing waste characterization study, and research efforts employing serum bottles and bench scale laboratory reactors were used to demonstrate that ADF may be degraded effectively and efficiently in an anaerobic methanogenic environment. The factors that may affect this degradation are examined and discussed.

  17. Requirements for regional short-haul air service and the definition of a flight program to determine neighborhood reactions to small transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feher, K.; Bollinger, L.; Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the current status and future requirements of an intraregional short haul air service is given. A brief definition of the different types of short haul air service is given. This is followed by a historical review of previous attempts to develop short haul air service in high density urban areas and an assessment of the current status. The requirements for intraregional air service, the need for economic and environmental viability and the need for a flight research program are defined. A detailed outline of a research program that would determine urban community reaction to frequent operations of small transport aircraft is also given. Both the operation of such an experiment in a specific region (San Francisco Bay area) and the necessary design modifications of an existing fixed wing aircraft which could be used in the experiment are established. An estimate is made of overall program costs.

  18. Lake Michigan and Lake Superior air quality: The 1994-2003 LADCO Aircraft Project (LAP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, T. A.; Betterton, E. A.; Jacko, R.; Hillery, J.

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the 1994 to 2003 LADCO Airplane Project (LAP) was to study ozone formation over Lake Michigan so that equitable regional control strategies could be devised. During the ten year LAP campaign, a total of 328 flights were flown on 81 days over Lake Michigan and its southern and western boundaries. LAP also monitored air quality over Lake Superior and other areas in the Midwestern and southern United States. From 2001 to 2003, 117 flights were conducted over Lake Superior, Isle Royale National Park, Painted Rocks National Lakeshore and the Seeney National Wildlife Refuge in Michigan. 63 flights were conducted over St. Louis and 58 flights over the Dolly Sods Wilderness Area in West Virginia. We are looking for collaborators to help us analyze this vast data archive. Our first paper (Atmospheric Environment 45 (2011) 3192-3202) documented the project and presented results of our ozone analysis. Our results support the hypothesis of Dye et al. (1995), who found that the atmosphere over Lake Michigan is stable in the summer due to the air water temperature difference, which creates an efficient reaction chamber for ozone formation. They also hypothesized that the southwest winds characteristic of ozone-conducive conditions transport ozone further north over the lake before it crosses the shoreline onto land. We found that below 200 m above the lake, ozone formation is VOC-limited in the morning and becomes NOx limited in the afternoon. Above 200 m, ozone formation is NOx-limited throughout the day. The onshore NOx and VOC diurnal cycles peak during the early morning rush hour and are clearly linked to traffic patterns. Over the lake, VOC and NOy concentrations peak during the mid-morning rather than the early morning, supporting the hypothesis that the land breeze transports VOC and NOy over the lake. The diurnal NOx pattern over Lake Michigan is less clearly defined than the VOC pattern possibly as a result of emissions from five coal-burning power plants

  19. Aircraft structural health monitoring system development: overview of the Air Force/Navy smart metallic structures program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Way, Craig B.; Kudva, Jayanth N.; Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Zeigler, Michael L.; Alper, James M.

    1995-05-01

    Significant progress in fulfilling the current joint Air Force/Navy `Smart Metallic Structures (SMS)' program primary objective, to demonstrate a viable structural health monitoring system (SHMS) for a large structural aircraft component, is presented. Structural health monitoring and its relation to current Force Management (FM) and Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) procedures are first reviewed together with a brief status overview of the relevant sensor technologies (e.g. AE, fiber-optic, corrosion, etc.). Key features of the SHMS architecture are described for the selected F/A-18 bulkhead and T-38 wing spar structural demonstration articles, highlighting sensors, processors, data busses, hardware, and software. Results from acoustic monitoring of the program sub-element structural tests are presented in some detail along with a status review of the SHMS multiplex bus component hardware and software. Finally, structural requirements for an SHMS meeting minimum ASIP guidelines for damage detection are discussed along with foals for future testing and development of the SHMS under the SMS program.

  20. Mental health diagnoses and counseling among pilots of remotely piloted aircraft in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Otto, Jean L; Webber, Bryant J

    2013-03-01

    Remotely piloted aircraft (RPA), also known as drones, have been used extensively in the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although RPA pilots in the U.S. Air Force (USAF) have reported high levels of stress and fatigue, rates of mental health (MH) diagnoses and counseling in this population are unknown. We calculated incidence rates of 12 specific MH outcomes among all active component USAF RPA pilots between 1 October 2003 and 31 December 2011, and by various demographic and military variables. We compared these rates to those among all active component USAF manned aircraft (MA) pilots deployed to Iraq/Afghanistan during the same period. The unadjusted incidence rates of all MH outcomes among RPA pilots (n=709) and MA pilots (n=5,256) were 25.0 per 1,000 person-years and 15.9 per 1,000 person-years, respectively (adjusted incidence rate ratio=1.1, 95% confidence interval=0.9-1.5; adjusted for age, number of deployments, time in service, and history of any MH outcome). Th ere was no significant difference in the rates of MH diagnoses, including post-traumatic stress disorder, depressive disorders, and anxiety disorders between RPA and MA pilots. Military policymakers and clinicians should recognize that RPA and MA pilots have similar MH risk profiles.

  1. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  2. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  3. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e

  4. Closing the Irregular Warfare Air Capability Gap. The Missing Puzzle Piece: Rugged Utility Aircraft and Personnel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Army Air Forces initially found itself unprepared. In the Pacific theater, the First Air Commando Group performed a daring glider operation in...hatch with a trainable gun and hanging standoff weap- ons under the wings (or both) convert it into a gunship. The Pilatus has almost limit- less

  5. Separation Characteristics of the MK-82 AIR when Released from the F-111 Aircraft at Mach Numbers from 0.70 to 1.25

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    WHEN RELEASED FROM THE F-111 AIRCRAFT AT MACH NUMBERS FROM 0.70 TO 1.25 PROPULSION WIND TUNNEL FACILITY ARNOLD ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT CENTER- AIR...PREFACE The work reported herein was conducted by the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC), Air Force Systems Command (AFSC), at the request...U. S. Government drawings specifications, or other data are used for any purpose other than a definitely related Government procurement operation

  6. Adaptation of Combustion Principles to Aircraft Propulsion. Volume I; Basic Considerations in the Combustion of Hydrocarbon Fuels with Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C (Editor); Hibbard, Robert R (Editor)

    1955-01-01

    The report summarizes source material on combustion for flight-propulsion engineers. First, several chapters review fundamental processes such as fuel-air mixture preparation, gas flow and mixing, flammability and ignition, flame propagation in both homogenous and heterogenous media, flame stabilization, combustion oscillations, and smoke and carbon formation. The practical significance and the relation of these processes to theory are presented. A second series of chapters describes the observed performance and design problems of engine combustors of the principal types. An attempt is made to interpret performance in terms of the fundamental processes and theories previously reviewed. Third, the design of high-speed combustion systems is discussed. Combustor design principles that can be established from basic considerations and from experience with actual combustors are described. Finally, future requirements for aircraft engine combustion systems are examined.

  7. A Survey of Aircraft Structural-Life Management Programs in the U.S. Navy, the Canadian Forces, and the U.S. Air Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    the fuselage, wing , empennage , landing gear, control systems, engine section, nacelles, air induction, weapon mounts, engine mounts, structural ...managing and executing the program. The military standard includes require- ments for design , analysis, and test procedures to establish structural ...strength-based design concept, in which the aircraft structure was designed to prevent structural failure resulting from a single application of a load

  8. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  9. Challenges to United States Tactical Air Force Aircraft Maintenance Personnel: Past, Present and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Cormmand t5:169). The Northrup F-5 Freedom Fighter, McDonnell Douglas P-4 Phantom II, and General Dynamics F-Ill and PB-Ill series aircraft were the...supply to foreign forces under the Militacy Assistance Program, TAC never accepted it as a front line fighter (5:172). It was the F-4 Phantom II...The LG title results froim the combining of the deputy cofmmnd’er for rtqintenance (DCl) and resource avrnager (RM) under one title. The old DCM

  10. Environmental Assessment for Proposed Aircraft Replacement, 507th Tactical Air Control Wing, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    7=1r LUIB MUM= 1ý14 . I.’D 󈨚 1 :-•.HC,• Tý4-7 DI-U’F_1 LAHILF__’ PFE ; ...4• - C, significant impact on the management of hazardous wraterfals, the...Detachment 1372, Air Force Audit Agency; the 2020th Information Systems Squadron; Field Training Detachment 307; and Detachment 9, Tactical

  11. Liquid Desiccant in Air Conditioners: Nano-Engineered Porous Hollow Fiber Membrane-Based Air Conditioning System

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-02

    BEETIT Project: UTRC is developing an air conditioning system that is optimized for use in warm and humid climates. UTRC’s air conditioning system integrates a liquid drying agent or desiccant and a traditional vapor compression system found in 90% of air conditioners. The drying agent reduces the humidity in the air before it is cooled, using less energy. The technology uses a membrane as a barrier between the air and the liquid salt stream allowing only water vapor to pass through and not the salt molecules. This solves an inherent problem with traditional liquid desiccant systems—carryover of the liquid drying agent into the conditioned air stream—which eliminates corrosion and health issues

  12. Air Traffic Controllers' Control Strategies in the Terminal Area Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Mercer, Joey; Callantine, Todd; Kupfer, Michael; Cabrall, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop simulation investigated the robustness of a schedule-based terminal-area air traffic management concept, and its supporting controller tools, to off-nominal events - events that led to situations in which runway arrival schedules required adjustments and controllers could no longer use speed control alone to impose the necessary delays. The main research question was exploratory: to assess whether controllers could safely resolve and control the traffic during off-nominal events. A focus was the role of the supervisor - how he managed the schedules, how he assisted the controllers, what strategies he used, and which combinations of tools he used. Observations and questionnaire responses revealed supervisor strategies for resolving events followed a similar pattern: a standard approach specific to each type of event often resolved to a smooth conclusion. However, due to the range of factors influencing the event (e.g., environmental conditions, aircraft density on the schedule, etc.), sometimes the plan required revision and actions had a wide-ranging effect.

  13. An Optimization Approach to Analyzing the Effect of Supply Water and Air Temperatures in Planning an Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for a cold air distribution system, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures for a cold air distribution system, and that the influence of supply air temperature is larger than that of supply water temperature on the long-term economics.

  14. Aircraft noise: accounting for changes in air traffic with time of day.

    PubMed

    Schäffer, Beat; Bütikofer, Rudolf; Plüss, Stefan; Thomann, Georg

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft noise contours are estimated using model calculations and, due to their impact on land use planning, they need to be highly accurate. During night time, not only the number and dominant types of aircraft may differ from daytime but also the flight paths flown may differ. To determine to which detail these variations in flight paths need to be considered, calculations were performed exemplarily for two airports using all available radar data over 1 year, taking into account their changes over the day. The results of this approach were compared with results of a simpler approach which does not consider such changes. While both calculations yielded similar results for the day and close to the airport, differences increased with distance as well as with the period of day (day

  15. Four-dimensional guidance algorithms for aircraft in an air traffic control environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecsvaradi, T.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical development and computer implementation of three guidance algorithms are presented. From a small set of input parameters the algorithms generate the ground track, altitude profile, and speed profile required to implement an experimental 4-D guidance system. Given a sequence of waypoints that define a nominal flight path, the first algorithm generates a realistic, flyable ground track consisting of a sequence of straight line segments and circular arcs. Each circular turn is constrained by the minimum turning radius of the aircraft. The ground track and the specified waypoint altitudes are used as inputs to the second algorithm which generates the altitude profile. The altitude profile consists of piecewise constant flight path angle segments, each segment lying within specified upper and lower bounds. The third algorithm generates a feasible speed profile subject to constraints on the rate of change in speed, permissible speed ranges, and effects of wind. Flight path parameters are then combined into a chronological sequence to form the 4-D guidance vectors. These vectors can be used to drive the autopilot/autothrottle of the aircraft so that a 4-D flight path could be tracked completely automatically; or these vectors may be used to drive the flight director and other cockpit displays, thereby enabling the pilot to track a 4-D flight path manually.

  16. 40 CFR 86.166-12 - Method for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air conditioning leakage. 86.166-12 Section 86.166-12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY... for calculating emissions due to air conditioning leakage. This section describes procedures used...

  17. 32 CFR 809a.9 - Conditions for use of Air Force resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force resources. 809a.9 Section 809a.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.9 Conditions for use of Air Force resources. This...

  18. 32 CFR 809a.9 - Conditions for use of Air Force resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force resources. 809a.9 Section 809a.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.9 Conditions for use of Air Force resources. This...

  19. 32 CFR 809a.9 - Conditions for use of Air Force resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conditions for use of Air Force resources. 809a.9 Section 809a.9 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE... Disturbance Intervention and Disaster Assistance § 809a.9 Conditions for use of Air Force resources. This...

  20. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R. M.

    1985-05-28

    Aircraft engine exhaust is mixed with air and fuel and recombusted. Air is drawn into the secondary combustion chamber from suction surfaces on wings. Exhaust of the secondary combustion chamber is blown over wing and fuselage surfaces.

  1. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  2. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  3. A study of the air movement in two aircraft-engine cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W

    1940-01-01

    Studies were made of the air movements in the NACA glass-cylinder apparatus using cylinder heads similar to those on the Wright R-1820-G engine and the Pratt & Whitney Wasp engine as modified by the Eclipse Aviation Corporation to use fuel-injection equipment. The air movements were made visible by mixing small feathers with the air; high-speed motion pictures were than taken of the feathers as they swirled about the inside the glass cylinder. The test engine speeds were 350, 500, and 1,000 r.p.m. Motion pictures were also taken of gasoline sprays injected into the cylinder during the intake stroke. The air flow produced by each cylinder head is described and some results of the velocity measurements of feathers are presented. The apparent time intervals required for vaporization of the gasoline sprays are also given.

  4. Effect of Wind Over Deck Conditions on Aircraft Approach Speeds for Carrier Landings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    the glideslope established by the carrier’s Fresnel lens , a pilot will perform a successful carrier landing. The NATOPS recommended approach speed...glideslope followed during the test, which is defined by the fresnel lens , establishes the aircraft’s sink rate. The minimum recovery head wind is...of a carrier landing, the pilot’s principle guidance shifts from the AOA indexer to the glideslope indicator i.e. the "ball" seen on the Fresnel Lens . The

  5. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  6. Implications of an Air Force Budget Downturn on the Aircraft Industrial Base: An Exploratory Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    FYDP Future Years Defense Program LRSB long-range strike bomber MIBP manufacturing and industrial base policy MoD Ministry of Defence O&M...time, Air Force planners faced the threat of sequestration—a mechanism that would result in significant and indiscriminate cuts to the defense ...xi Summary The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as a result of the current defense budget downturn along with the uncertainty of its

  7. United States Air Force Aircraft Modification Process: A System Dynamics Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    only for his guidance in this research, but also for his leadership and exemplary officership. Lt Col David Zorich , on the Air Staff, and Lt Col Larry...51. Zorich , Lt Col David R., Analyst, Modification Programs, Modification and Operations and Maintenance Programs Division, Directorate of...52. Zorich , Lt Col David R. and Donald R. Taylor, "Class V Mad Improvement Plan." Briefing given to the Air Force Council. HO USAF, Washington DC, 22

  8. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  9. On-line updating Gaussian mixture model for aircraft wing spar damage evaluation under time-varying boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Chang, Fu-Kuo; Bao, Qiao; Mei, Hanfei

    2014-12-01

    Structural health monitoring technology for aerospace structures has gradually turned from fundamental research to practical implementations. However, real aerospace structures work under time-varying conditions that introduce uncertainties to signal features that are extracted from sensor signals, giving rise to difficulty in reliably evaluating the damage. This paper proposes an online updating Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based damage evaluation method to improve damage evaluation reliability under time-varying conditions. In this method, Lamb-wave-signal variation indexes and principle component analysis (PCA) are adopted to obtain the signal features. A baseline GMM is constructed on the signal features acquired under time-varying conditions when the structure is in a healthy state. By adopting the online updating mechanism based on a moving feature sample set and inner probability structural reconstruction, the probability structures of the GMM can be updated over time with new monitoring signal features to track the damage progress online continuously under time-varying conditions. This method can be implemented without any physical model of damage or structure. A real aircraft wing spar, which is an important load-bearing structure of an aircraft, is adopted to validate the proposed method. The validation results show that the method is effective for edge crack growth monitoring of the wing spar bolts holes under the time-varying changes in the tightness degree of the bolts.

  10. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Air Inlet and Outlet Openings for Aircraft, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Gauvain, William E.

    1938-01-01

    An investigation was made in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of a large variety of duct inlets and outlets to obtain information relative to their design for the cooling or the ventilation systems on aircraft. Most of the tests were of openings in a flat plate but, in order to determine the best locations and the effects of interference, a few tests were made of openings in an airfoil. The best inlet location for a system not including a blower was found to be at the forward stagnation point; for one including a blower, the best location was found to be in the region of lowest total head, probably in the boundary layer near the trailing edge. Design recommendations are given, and it is shown that correct design demands a knowledge of the external flow and of the internal requirements in addition to that obtained from the results of the wind tunnel tests.

  11. Fault detection and isolation of aircraft air data/inertial system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdjag, D.; Cieslak, J.; Zolghadri, A.

    2013-12-01

    A method for failure detection and isolation (FDI) for redundant aircraft sensors is presented. The outputs of the concerned sensors are involved in the computation of flight control laws, and the objective is to eliminate any fault before propagation in the control loop when selecting a unique flight parameter among a set (generally, three) of redundant measurements. The particular case of an oscillatory failure is investigated. The proposed method allows an accurate FDI of erroneous sensor and computes a consolidated parameter based on the fusion of data from remaining valid sensors. The benefits of the presented method are to enhance the data fusion process with FDI techniques which improve the performance of the fusion when only few sources (less than three) are initially valid.

  12. Wind tunnel investigation of an all flush orifice air data system for a large subsonic aircraft. [conducted in a Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Flechner, S. G.; Siemers, P. M., III

    1980-01-01

    The results of a wind tunnel investigation on an all flush orifice air data system for use on a KC-135A aircraft are presented. The investigation was performed to determine the applicability of fixed all flush orifice air data systems that use only aircraft surfaces for orifices on the nose of the model (in a configuration similar to that of the shuttle entry air data system) provided the measurements required for the determination of stagnation pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. For the measurement of static pressure, additional flush orifices in positions on the sides of the fuselage corresponding to those in a standard pitot-static system were required. An acceptable but less accurate system, consisting of orifices only on the nose of the model, is defined and discussed.

  13. Allergies to molds caused by fungal spores in air conditioning equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Schata, M.; Jorde, W. ); Elixmann, J.H.; Linskens, H.F. )

    1989-01-01

    People suffering from various symptoms while in air-conditioned rooms often show sensitizations to fungi that can be isolated when the fungi are removed from air conditioners. By using specific challenge tests it was shown that fungal spores in air conditioners can evoke allergic symptoms. Hyposensitization was the specific therapy prescribed for such allergic reactions. After hyposensitization therapy, more than 70% of the patients so treated could live and work again in air-conditioned rooms without developing specific symptoms.

  14. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  15. Determining the Maximum Number of Radar Controlled Interceptor Aircraft by a Tactical Air Defense System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    attacking a defense. ThiE is one of the basic principles of warfare, and Air Marshall Guilio Douhet describes its use in air warfare as follows (1:85...the same principle which governs warfare on land and sea; and therefore the material and moral effects of aerial offensives -- as any other kind of...8217.a brie! tasK a-a~vs~s -:. te wa::-r s was ver:,rrme , Tr.s task ana..SIS was :11seZ . :.s ex’zer~en:e as a weap--ns :t-.e ar resenlel te.Dw Ea2h ! asx

  16. Air Force’s Combat Aircraft: A Future Holding into the Past

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-07

    Europe was built and which gave it crucial relevance leading up to the events of June 1944.23 Because the integrity of Britain was maintained in 1940, a...established at the termination of DESERT STORM. During the opening days there were reported to be 1,660 SAM launches, 1,224 AAA events , 436 SAM...made 2S6 Tunguska . It is an integrated air defense system armed with 30 millimeter cannons and SA-19 surface-to-air missiles. The cannons used in

  17. Wireless Condition Monitoring and Maintenance for Rooftop Packaged Heating, Ventilation, and Air-Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.

    2004-06-01

    Rooftop package air-conditioning and heat pumps, while representing over half of U.S. commercial-building cooling energy consumption, are some of the most neglected of building systems. They are often found with inoperable dampers, dirty/clogged filters and coils, incorrect refrigerant charges, failing compressors, failed fans, missing enclosure panels, un-calibrated controls, failed sensors, and other problems. Frequently, actual operating hours deviate considerably from intended (and assumed) schedules. Although there are no reliable estimates on what fraction of the units operate under degraded conditions and the energy inefficiencies associated with such operations, a range of savings from 10 to 30% are generally believed to be achievable by enhancing operation of these units. Potential national energy savings from proper operation range from 23 to 70 trillion Btus annually in the U.S. Since the cost associated with conventional monitoring and servicing is quite high, conventional monitoring is seldom done. Combinations of wireless sensing and data acquisition, monitoring tools, automated diagnostics and prognostics show considerable promise to help remedy this maintenance problem for package HVAC units and the underserved small commercial building sector in which they are predominantly installed. This paper characterizes the current problem with maintenance of packaged air conditioners and heat pumps, provides estimates of the total energy impacts of the problem, and describes a generic system in which these developing technologies are used to provide real-time condition monitoring for package HVAC units and their components. Costs with today's technology are provided and future costs are estimated, showing that benefits will greatly exceed costs in many cases particularly if low-cost wireless monitoring is used.

  18. Does urban vegetation mitigate air pollution in northern conditions?

    PubMed

    Setälä, Heikki; Viippola, Viljami; Rantalainen, Anna-Lea; Pennanen, Arto; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa

    2013-12-01

    It is generally accepted that urban vegetation improves air quality and thereby enhances the well-being of citizens. However, empirical evidence on the potential of urban trees to mitigate air pollution is meager, particularly in northern climates with a short growing season. We studied the ability of urban park/forest vegetation to remove air pollutants (NO2, anthropogenic VOCs and particle deposition) using passive samplers in two Finnish cities. Concentrations of each pollutant in August (summer; leaf-period) and March (winter, leaf-free period) were slightly but often insignificantly lower under tree canopies than in adjacent open areas, suggesting that the role of foliage in removing air pollutants is insignificant. Furthermore, vegetation-related environmental variables (canopy closure, number and size of trees, density of understorey vegetation) did not explain the variation in pollution concentrations. Our results suggest that the ability of urban vegetation to remove air pollutants is minor in northern climates.

  19. Aircraft Measurements for Understanding Air-Sea Coupling and Improving Coupled Model Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    concern since we do not expect to measure turbulence at that high altitude). The LI-COR 7200 and Krypton fast humidity data were calibrated against...measurements. Our modified krypton hygrometer is a good alternative to the obsolete AIR Lyman-alpha for fast-response humidity measurements from research

  20. Predicting the impacts of new technology aircraft on international air transportation demand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    International air transportation to and from the United States was analyzed. Long term and short term effects and causes of travel are described. The applicability of econometric methods to forecast passenger travel is discussed. A nomograph is developed which shows the interaction of economic growth, airline yields, and quality of service in producing international traffic.

  1. Efficacy of aerial spray applications using fuselage booms on Air Force C-130H aircraft against mosquitoes and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Breidenbaugh, Mark S; Haagsma, Karl A; Wojcik, George M; De Szalay, Ferenc A

    2009-12-01

    The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, was measured. Mosquitoes in bioassay cages had 100% mortality at 639 m downwind in all single-pass spray trials, and most trials had >90% mortality up to 1491 m downwind. Mosquito mortality was negatively correlated with distance from the spray release point (r2 = 0.38, P < 0.001). The volume median diam of droplets collected was 44 tm at 213 m and decreased to 11 microm at 2130 m downwind of the release point. Droplet density decreased from an average of 18.4 drops/cm2 at 213 m to 2 drops/cm2 at 2130 m. Droplet densities of 10-18 droplets/cm2 were recorded at sampling stations with high mosquito mortality rates (>90%). In wide-area operational applications, numbers of mosquitoes from natural populations 1 wk postspray were 83% (range 55%-95%), lower than prespray numbers (P < 0.05). Biting midge numbers were reduced by 86% (range 53%-97%) on average (P = 0.051) after 7 days. The results of these field trials indicate that the fuselage boom configuration on C-130H aircraft are an effective method to conduct large-scale aerial sprays during military operations and public health emergencies.

  2. Methyl chloride as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air in the lowermost stratosphere inferred from IAGOS-CARIBIC passenger aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Zahn, A.; Oram, D. E.; Velthoven, P. F. J.

    2015-12-01

    We present variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) obtained from air samples collected by the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System-Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (IAGOS-CARIBIC) passenger aircraft observatory for the period 2008-2012. To correct for the temporal increase of atmospheric N2O, the CARIBIC N2O data are expressed as deviations from the long-term trend at the northern hemispheric baseline station Mauna Loa, Hawaii (ΔN2O). ΔN2O undergoes a pronounced seasonal variation in the LMS with a minimum in spring. The amplitude increases going deeper in the LMS (up to potential temperature of 40 K above the thermal tropopause), as a result of the seasonally varying subsidence of air from the stratospheric overworld. Seasonal variation of CH3Cl above the tropopause is similar in phase to that of ΔN2O. Significant correlations are found between CH3Cl and ΔN2O in the LMS from winter to early summer, both being affected by mixing between stratospheric air and upper tropospheric air. This correlation, however, disappears in late summer to autumn. The slope of the CH3Cl-ΔN2O correlation observed in the LMS allows us to determine the stratospheric lifetime of CH3Cl to be 35 ± 7 years. Finally, we examine the partitioning of stratospheric air and tropical/extratropical tropospheric air in the LMS based on a mass balance approach using ΔN2O and CH3Cl. This analysis clearly indicates efficient inflow of tropical tropospheric air into the LMS in summer and demonstrates the usefulness of CH3Cl as a tracer of tropical tropospheric air.

  3. 24 CFR 3280.813 - Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-conditioning equipment, etc. 3280.813 Section 3280.813 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Electrical Systems § 3280.813 Outdoor outlets, fixtures, air-conditioning equipment, etc. (a) Outdoor.../or air conditioning equipment located outside the manufactured home, shall have permanently...

  4. Poaceae pollen in the air depending on the thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Myszkowska, Dorota

    2014-07-01

    The relationship between the meteorological elements, especially the thermal conditions and the Poaceae pollen appearance in the air, were analysed as a basis to construct a useful model predicting the grass season start. Poaceae pollen concentrations were monitored in 1991-2012 in Kraków using the volumetric method. Cumulative temperature and effective cumulative temperature significantly influenced the season start in this period. The strongest correlation was seen as the sum of mean daily temperature amplitudes from April 1 to April 14, with mean daily temperature>15 °C and effective cumulative temperature>3 °C during that period. The proposed model, based on multiple regression, explained 57% of variation of the Poaceae season starts in 1991-2010. When cumulative mean daily temperature increased by 10 °C, the season start was accelerated by 1 day. The input of the interaction between these two independent variables into the factor regression model caused the increase in goodness of model fitting. In 2011 the season started 5 days earlier in comparison with the predicted value, while in 2012 the season start was observed 2 days later compared to the predicted day. Depending on the value of mean daily temperature from March 18th to the 31st and the sum of mean daily temperature amplitudes from April 1st to the 14th, the grass pollen seasons were divided into five groups referring to the time of season start occurrence, whereby the early and moderate season starts were the most frequent in the studied period and they were especially related to mean daily temperature in the second half of March.

  5. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Goetzler, William; Guernsey, Matt; Young, J.; Fuhrman, J.; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  6. Promoting wildness in sandhill cranes conditioned to follow an ultralight aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duff, J.W.; Lishman, W.A.; Clark, D.A.; Gee, G.F.; Sprague, D.T.; Ellis, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    During the 1998 field season, we developed and tested a new protocol to teach sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to follow ultralight aircraft yet avoid humans. Although successful in teaching the cranes a migration route, our previous migration (1997) resulted in birds that were overly tame and sought association with humans. For this study, 16 sandhill cranes were costume-reared at USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center and transported to Ontario shortly before fledging. After the birds learned to follow the aircraft, 14 were transported to an isolated wintering site in South Carolina, 1300 km south of the training area. Twelve arrived safely. Eleven of 12 birds survived the winter. All of these 11 cranes moved north to Cape Hatteras in early May. Thereafter, 6 of the cranes were captured and translocated to northern New York state. The remaining 5 returned to South Carolina, autumn 1999. Prior to capture, although the cranes sometimes allowed humans to approach them, none of the cranes approached buildings or humans.

  7. Measured Changes in C-Band Radar Reflectivity of Clear Air Caused by Aircraft Wake Vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackenzie, Anne I.

    1997-01-01

    Wake vortices from a C-130 airplane were observed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility with a ground-based, monostatic C-band radar and an antenna-mounted boresight video camera. The airplane wake was viewed from a distance of approximately 1 km, and radar scanning was adjusted to cross a pair of marker smoke trails generated by the C-130. For each airplane pass, changes in radar reflectivity were calculated by subtracting the signal magnitudes during an initial clutter scan from the signal magnitudes during vortex-plus-clutter scans. The results showed both increases and decreases in reflectivity on and near the smoke trails in a characteristic sinusoidal pattern of heightened reflectivity in the center and lessened reflectivity at the sides. Reflectivity changes in either direction varied from -131 to -102 dBm(exp -1); the vortex-plus-clutter to noise ratio varied from 20 to 41 dB. The radar recordings lasted 2.5 min each; evidence of wake vortices was found for up to 2 min after the passage of the airplane. Ground and aircraft clutter were eliminated as possible sources of the disturbance by noting the occurrence of vortex signatures at different positions relative to the ground and the airplane. This work supports the feasibility of vortex detection by radar, and it is recommended that future radar vortex detection be done with Doppler systems.

  8. Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, S. M.; Coman, G.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents a study concerning the influence of air conditioning system operation on the increase of gases emissions from cars. The study focuses on urban operating regimes of the automobile, regimes when the engines have low loads or are operating at idling. Are presented graphically the variations of pollution emissions (CO, CO2, HC) depending of engine speed and the load on air conditioning system. Additionally are presented, injection duration, throttle position, the mechanical power required by the compressor of air conditioning system and the refrigerant pressure variation on the discharge path, according to the stage of charging of the air conditioning system.

  9. Transient effects of harsh luminous conditions on the visual performance of aviators in a civil aircraft cockpit.

    PubMed

    Yang, Biao; Lin, Yandan; Sun, Yaojie

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this work was to examine how harsh luminous conditions in a cockpit, such as lightning in a thunderstorm or direct sunlight immediately after an aircraft passes through clouds, may affect the visual performance of pilots, and how to improve it. Such lighting conditions can result in the temporary visual impairment of aviators, which may greatly increase the risk of accidents. Tests were carried out in a full-scale simulator cockpit in which two kinds of dynamic lighting scenes, namely pulse changed and step changed lighting, were used to represent harsh luminous conditions. Visual acuity (VA), reaction time (RT) and identification accuracy (IA) were recorded as dependent variables. Data analysis results indicate that standardized VA values decreased significantly in both pulsing and step conditions in comparison with the dark condition. Standardized RT values increased significantly in the step condition; on the contrary, less reaction time was observed in the pulsing condition. Such effects could be reduced by an ambient illumination provided by a fluorescent lamp in both conditions. The results are to be used as a principle for optimizing lighting design with a thunderstorm light.

  10. Tankering Fuel on U.S. Air Force Transport Aircraft: An Assessment of Cost Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    software to determine whether their flights should tanker fuel to reduce operating costs. Since the Arabian oil embargo of 1973, air carriers have...Iraq and Afghanistan. The amounts of fuel that could potentially be tankered on these selected flights as well as the corresponding savings generated...possible need for compensation mechanisms within DoD as well as possible externalities that may result from an AMC tankering program. Our results

  11. Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division at Warminster Environmental Materials Program. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    electrostatic and high-volume low-pressure ( HVLP ) spray guns . Both of these techniques have improved transfer efficiencies over conventional air spray . Roller... spray gun washer that meets this requirement has been identified. In addition to drastically reducing the solvent emissions, the cleaning operation with...skins. Efforts to modify the process for spray application are in progress. Incorporating steam generator equipment to provide the necessary process

  12. Air Force KC-X Tanker Aircraft Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-05

    arrangement beginning as early as FY2004 to procure up to 80 tankers using incremental funding. Section 135 also required the Secretary of Defense...2008 Consistent with the findings of the 2006 RAND report, the Air Force in early 2007 released a formal request for proposals (RFP) for the...tankers, and to use a multiyear procurement (MYP) arrangement beginning as early as FY2004 to procure up to 80 tankers using incremental funding

  13. "We Burn to Learn" About Fuel-Air Mixing Within Aircraft Powerplants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Heidi N.

    2004-01-01

    I am working with my branch s advanced diagnostics team to investigate fuel-air mixing in jet-fueled gas turbine combustors and jet-fuel reformers. Our data acquisition begins with bench-top experiments which will help with calibration of equipment for facility testing. While conducting the bench-top experiments I learned to align laser and optical equipment to collect data, to use the data acquisition software, and to process the data into graphs and images. which jet he1 is to be reformed into hydrogen. Testing will commence shortly, after which we will obtain and analyze data and meet a critical milestone for the end of September. I am also designing the layout for a Schlieren system that will be used during that time frame. A Schlieren instrument records changes in the refractive index distribution of transparent media like air flows. The refractive index distribution can then be related to density, temperature, or pressure distributions within the flow. I am working on a scheme to quantify this information and add to the knowledge of the fuel-air mixing process.

  14. BOREAS AFM-2 King Air 1994 Aircraft Flux and Moving Window Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Robert D.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS AFM-2 team collected pass-by-pass fluxes (and many other statistics) for a large number of level (constant altitude), straight-line passes used in a variety of flight patterns. The data were collected by the University of Wyoming King Air in 1994 BOREAS IFCs 1-3. Most of these data were collected at 60-70 m above ground level, but a significant number of passes were also flown at various levels in the planetary boundary layer, up to about the inversion height. This documentation concerns only the data from the straight and level passes that are presented as original (over the NSA and SSA) and moving window values (over the Transect). Another archive of King Air data is also available, containing data from all the soundings flown by the King Air 1994 IFCs 1-3. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884) or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  15. [Design, equipment, and management for air conditioning in operating room].

    PubMed

    Fuji, Kumiko; Mizuno, Ju

    2011-11-01

    In order to maintain air cleanliness in the operating room (OR) permanently, air exchange rate in the OR should be more than 15 times x hr(-1), the laminar air flow should be kept, and the numbers of the persons in the OR and the numbers of opening and closing OR door should be limited. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter is effective in collection and removal of airborne microbes, and is used in the biological clean room. We need to design, equip, and manage the OR environment according to Guideline for Design and Operation of Hospital HVAC Systems HEAS-02-2004 established by Healthcare Engineering Association of Japan and Guideline for Prevention of Surgical Site Infection (SSI) established by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the USA.

  16. COMPOSITION CHANGES IN REFRIGERANT BLENDS FOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace CFC-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in b...

  17. Capability of air filters to retain airborne bacteria and molds in heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems.

    PubMed

    Möritz, M; Peters, H; Nipko, B; Rüden, H

    2001-07-01

    The capability of air filters (filterclass: F6, F7) to retain airborne outdoor microorganisms was examined in field experiments in two heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. At the beginning of the 15-month investigation period, the first filter stages of both HVAC systems were equipped with new unused air filters. The number of airborne bacteria and molds before and behind the filters were determined simultaneously in 14 days-intervals using 6-stage Andersen cascade impactors. Under relatively dry (< 80% R. H.) and warm (> 12 degrees C) outdoor air conditions air filters led to a marked reduction of airborne microorganism concentrations (bacteria by approximately 70% and molds by > 80%). However, during long periods of high relative humidity (> 80% R. H.) a proliferation of bacteria on air filters with subsequent release into the filtered air occurred. These microorganisms were mainly smaller than 1.1 microns therefore being part of the respirable fraction. The results showed furthermore that one possibility to avoid microbial proliferation is to limit the relative humidity in the area of the air filters to 80% R. H. (mean of 3 days), e.g. by using preheaters in front of air filters in HVAC-systems.

  18. Optimal integration condition between the gas turbine air compressor and the air separation unit of IGCC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.; Kim, H.T.; Yun, Y.

    1997-12-31

    Parametric studies are conducted for optimizing the integration design between gas turbine compressor and air separation unit (ASU) of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. The ASU is assumed as low pressure double-distillation column process which is integrated at the interstage location of the compressor, and integration design criteria of air extraction and reversing heat exchanger are defined and mathematically formulated. With the performance prediction of compressor by through-flow analysis, the effects of pinch-point temperature difference (PTD) in the reversing heat exchanger, the amount and the pressure of extracted air are quantitatively examined. As the extraction air amount or the PTD is increased, the power consumption is increased. The compressor efficiency deteriorates as the increase of the flow rate of air extracted at higher pressure while improving at lower pressure air extraction. Furthermore, optimal integration condition for compressor efficiency maximization is found by generating the compressor characteristic curve.

  19. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  20. 40 CFR 86.161-00 - Air conditioning environmental test facility ambient requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... elements that are discussed are ambient air temperature and humidity, minimum test cell size, solar heating..., within the test cell, during all phases of the air conditioning test sequence to 95 ±2 °F on average and... of 30 second intervals. Records of cell air temperatures and values of average test temperatures...

  1. Aircraft Observations of Aerosol Composition and Ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the Summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2007-05-11

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 NEAQS field campaign. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a PCASP optical particle detector and an Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/SMPS volume was 1.25; the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. Size spectra were compared for subsets of samples with different effective diameters (Deff). There is good agreement between the AMS, PCASP, and SMPS spectra for larger values of Deff but an unexplained over-prediction in the AMS for small values. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in 2 high sulfate plumes. Average aerosol concentrations were 11 μg m-3. The organic content was high in comparison to monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. The ratio of organic aerosol to CO and light absorption acting were examined as a function of photochemical age. CO is a conservative tracer for urban emissions and light absorption is a surrogate for black carbon which is also conservative. Comparisons were made to surface ratios measured under conditions where there is little secondary organic aerosol (SOA). An increase in these ratios relative to surface values indicates that 70 - 80% of the organic aerosol in polluted air masses was secondary. Most of this SOA is rapidly formed within a few hours. At longer time scales

  2. Determination of the Corrosive Conditions Present within Aircraft Lap-Splice Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Karen S.; Kelly, Robert G.; Piascik, Robert S.

    1999-01-01

    The complexity of airframe structure lends itself to damage resulting from crevice corrosion. Fuselage lap-splice joints are a particularly important structural detail in this regard because of the difficulty associated with detection and measurement of corrosion in these occluded regions. The objective of this work is to develop a laboratory corrosion test protocol to identify the chemistry to which lap joints are exposed and to develop a model of the corrosion within the joints. A protocol for collecting and identifying the chemistry of airframe crevice corrosion has been developed. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is used to identify the ionic species contained in corrosion product samples removed from fuselage lap splice joints. CE analysis has been performed on over sixty corrosion product samples removed from both civilian and military aircraft. Over twenty different ions have been detected. Measurements of pH of wetted corroded surfaces indicated an alkaline occluded solution. After determining the species present and their relative concentrations, the resultant solution was reproduced in bulk and electrochemical tests were performed to determine the corrosion rate. Electrochemical analyses of the behavior of AA2024-T3 in these solutions gave corrosion rates of up to 250 microns per year (10 mpy). Additional tests have determined the relative importance of each of the detected ions in model solutions used for future predictive tests. The statistically significant ions have been used to create a second generation solution. Laboratory studies have also included exposure tests involving artificial lap joints exposed to various simulated bulk and crevice environments. The extent and morphology of the attack in artificial lap joints has been compared to studies of corroded samples from actual aircraft. Other effects, such as temperature and potential, as well as the impact of the environment on fatigue crack growth have also been studied.

  3. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  4. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  5. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  6. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. The Wave of the Present - Remotely-Piloted Aircraft in Air Force Culture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    feelings of apprehension bringing to mind the old phrase, ―You can‘t teach an old dog new tricks.‖ Barry Posen furthers, ―Because doctrinal innovation...the members of a given culture so that the proposed solution is not simply brushed aside. Rosen wrote, ―Change will come about through the actions...doing business, it‘s been like pulling teeth .‖ 3 Though senior Air Force leaders were already ramping up RPA operations in theater, this comment

  9. Analysis of Rotary Aircraft Alternatives for NATO SOF Organic Air Wing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    should take in developing its new strategic guidance. A 2009 paper by RAND Project Air Force framed the future of NATO engagements into five...Equipment $4,326 $4,326 $4,326 Technical Data $4,326 $4,326 $4.326 Sub-Sub-line Item 1: Towl Cosr $26,940 $26.940 Sub-Sub-Line ltem2: Travel OAPML...TECliNTCAL SERVICI::S (CI::TS) Item Ocscrlpllon Qty lrllt C’o~t C’ontmctor tngmecring Technical SuJ>port Lint• Ut•m : 013 Towl Cost S29.b61 $29.~61

  10. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  12. Analysis of an Aircraft Honeycomb Sandwich Panel with Circular Face Sheet/Core Disbond Subjected to Ground-Air Pressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinker, Martin; Krueger, Ronald; Ratcliffe, James

    2013-01-01

    The ground-air pressurization of lightweight honeycomb sandwich structures caused by alternating pressure differences between the enclosed air within the honeycomb core and the ambient environment is a well-known and controllable loading condition of aerospace structures. However, initial face sheet/core disbonds intensify the face sheet peeling effect of the internal pressure load significantly and can decrease the reliability of the sandwich structure drastically. Within this paper, a numerical parameter study was carried out to investigate the criticality of initial disbonds in honeycomb sandwich structures under ground-air pressurization. A fracture mechanics approach was used to evaluate the loading at the disbond front. In this case, the strain energy release rate was computed via the Virtual Crack Closure Technique. Special attention was paid to the pressure-deformation coupling which can decrease the pressure load within the disbonded sandwich section significantly when the structure is highly deformed.

  13. Portable device for use in starting air-start-units for aircraft and having cable lead testing capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosier, W. R.; Volk, G. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A portable device for starting aircraft engines and the like is disclosed. The device includes a lead testing and motor starting circuit characterized by: (1) a direct current voltage source, (2) a pair of terminal plugs connected with the circuit (each being characterized by a first, second, and third terminal) (3) a pair of manually operable switches for connecting the first terminal of each plug of the pair to the positive side of the voltage source, (4) a circuit lead connecting to the second terminal of each plug the negative side of said source, (5) a pair of electrical cables adapted to connect said first and second terminals of each plug to an air-start unit, and means for connecting each cable of the pair of cables between the first terminal of one plug and the third terminal of the other plug of the pair, and (6) a second pair of manually operable switches for selectivity connecting the third terminal of each plug of the pair to the negative side of the voltage source.

  14. 75 FR 6338 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: New Substitute in the Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Sector...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... Conditioning Sector Under the Significant New Alternatives Policy (SNAP) Program AGENCY: Environmental... to use conditions as a substitute for CFC-12 in motor vehicle air conditioning. The proposed... conditioning, subject to use conditions. The refrigerant discussed in the proposed action, for which...

  15. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Proposed Finding That Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Aircraft Cause or Contribute to Air Pollution That May Reasonably Be Anticipated To Endanger Public Health and Welfare and Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  16. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  17. Athletes Do Not Condition Inspired Air More Effectively than Nonathletes during Hyperpnea.

    PubMed

    Boulet, Louis-Philippe; Moreau, Simon-Pierre; Villeneuve, HÉlÈNE; Turmel, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Endurance athletes have a high prevalence of airway diseases, some possibly representing adaptive mechanisms to the need of conditioning large volumes of inspired air during high ventilation in specific environments. The aim of this study is to assess the ability to condition (warm and humidify) inspired air in athletes by measuring the difference between inhaled and exhaled air temperature (ΔT) during and after eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea (EVH) test.

  18. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    PubMed

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  19. 40 CFR 86.162-03 - Approval of alternative air conditioning test simulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... initiative, the Administrator will approve a simulation of the environmental cell for air conditioning test... environmental cell test data for the range of vehicles to be covered by the simulation including items such as the tailpipe emissions, air conditioning compressor load, and fuel economy. (2) For any...

  20. Criterion-Referenced Test (CRT) Items for Air Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Diane, Ed.

    These criterion-referenced test (CRT) items for air conditioning, heating, and refrigeration are keyed to the Missouri Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Competency Profile. The items are designed to work with both the Vocational Instructional Management System and Vocational Administrative Management System. For word processing and…

  1. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  2. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  3. Neighborhood-scale air quality impacts of emissions from motor vehicles and aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Wonsik; Hu, Shishan; He, Meilu; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M.; Paulson, Suzanne E.

    2013-12-01

    A mobile monitoring platform (MMP) was used to measure real-time air pollutant concentrations in different built environments of Boyle Heights (BH, a lower-income community enclosed by several freeways); Downtown Los Angeles (DTLA, adjacent to BH with taller buildings and surrounded by several freeways); and West Los Angeles (WLA, an affluent community traversed by two freeways) in summer afternoons of 2008 and 2011 (only for WLA). Significant inter-community and less significant but observable intra-community differences in traffic-related pollutant concentrations were observed both in the residential neighborhoods studied and on their arterial roadways between BH, DTLA, and WLA, particularly for ultrafine particles (UFP). HEV, defined as vehicles creating plumes with concentrations more than three standard deviations from the adjusted local baseline, were encountered during 6-13% of sampling time, during which they accounted for 17-55% of total UFP concentrations both on arterial roadways and in residential neighborhoods. If instead a single threshold value is used to define HEVs in all areas, HEV's were calculated to make larger contributions to UFP concentrations in BH than other communities by factors of 2-10 or more. Santa Monica Airport located in WLA appears to be a significant source for elevated UFP concentrations in nearby residential neighborhoods 80-400 m downwind. In the WLA area, we also showed, on a neighborhood scale, striking and immediate reductions in particulate pollution (˜70% reductions in both UFP and, somewhat surprisingly, PM2.5), corresponding to dramatic decreases in traffic densities during an I-405 closure event (“Carmageddon”) compared to non-closure Saturday levels. Although pollution reduction due to decreased traffic is not unexpected, this dramatic improvement in particulate pollution provides clear evidence air quality can be improved through strategies such as heavy-duty-diesel vehicle retrofits, earlier retirement of HEV

  4. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  5. Performance of a photovoltaically powered air-conditioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, Jr, E. C.; Millner, A. R.

    1980-01-01

    A vapor-compression air conditioner coupled directly to a photovoltaic array is discussed. Previous analyses of such a system are reviewed, and a development system designed to test the concept is described. Preliminary experiments indicate that the performance of this initial system falls considerably short of analytic expectations.

  6. Improving microbial air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses by opening the bus exhaust ventilation fans.

    PubMed

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Arunchai, Nongphon; Luksamijarulkul, Soavalug; Kaewboonchoo, Orawan

    2005-07-01

    The air quality in air-conditioned mass transport buses may affect bus drivers' health. In-bus air quality improvement with the voluntary participation of bus drivers by opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus was implemented in the Seventh Bus Zone of Bangkok Mass Transit Authority. Four bus numbers, including bus numbers 16, 63, 67 and 166, were randomly selected to investigate microbial air quality and to observe the effect of opening the exhaust ventilation fans in the bus. With each bus number, 9 to 10 air-conditioned buses (total, 39 air-conditioned buses) were included. In-bus air samples were collected at 5 points in each studied bus using the Millipore Air Tester. A total of 195 air samples were cultured for bacterial and fungal counts. The results reveal that the exhaust ventilation fans of 17 air-conditioned buses (43.6%) were opened to ventilate in-bus air during the cycle of the bus route. The means +/- SD of bacterial counts and fungal counts in the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (83.8 +/- 70.7 and 38.0 +/- 42.8 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those in the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans (199.6 +/- 138.8 and 294.1 +/- 178.7 cfu/m3), p < 0.0005. All the air samples collected from the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans were at acceptable levels (< 500 cfu/m3) compared with 4.6% of the air samples collected from the studied buses without opened exhaust ventilation fans, which had high levels (> 500 cfu/m3). Of the studied buses with opened exhaust ventilation fans (17 buses), the bacterial and fungal counts after opening the exhaust ventilation fans (68.3 +/- 33.8 and 28.3 +/- 19.3 cfu/m3) were significantly lower than those before opening the exhaust ventilation fans (158.3 +/- 116.9 and 85.3 +/- 71.2 cfu/m3), p < 0.005.

  7. 78 FR 28719 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    .... Using the search function of the docket Web site, anyone can find and read the electronic form of all... condition and maneuver. The conditions may be simulated in a suitable mockup. This flow must be shown in...

  8. Opportunities to Reduce Air-Conditioning Loads Through Lower Cabin Soak Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, R.; Cuddy, M.; Keyser, M.; Rugh, J.

    1999-07-12

    Air-conditioning loads can significantly reduce electric vehicle (EV) range and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) fuel economy. In addition, a new U. S. emissions procedure, called the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP), has provided the motivation for reducing the size of vehicle air-conditioning systems in the United States. The SFTP will measure tailpipe emissions with the air-conditioning system operating. If the size of the air-conditioning system is reduced, the cabin soak temperature must also be reduced, with no penalty in terms of passenger thermal comfort. This paper presents the impact of air-conditioning on EV range and HEV fuel economy, and compares the effectiveness of advanced glazing and cabin ventilation. Experimental and modeled results are presented.

  9. Lessons Learned from Numerical Simulations of the F-16XL Aircraft at Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Jirasek, Adam; Lamar, John; Crippa, Simone; Badcock, Kenneth; Boelens, Oklo

    2009-01-01

    Nine groups participating in the Cranked Arrow Wing Aerodynamics Project International (CAWAPI) project have contributed steady and unsteady viscous simulations of a full-scale, semi-span model of the F-16XL aircraft. Three different categories of flight Reynolds/Mach number combinations were computed and compared with flight-test measurements for the purpose of code validation and improved understanding of the flight physics. Steady-state simulations are done with several turbulence models of different complexity with no topology information required and which overcome Boussinesq-assumption problems in vortical flows. Detached-eddy simulation (DES) and its successor delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) have been used to compute the time accurate flow development. Common structured and unstructured grids as well as individually-adapted unstructured grids were used. Although discrepancies are observed in the comparisons, overall reasonable agreement is demonstrated for surface pressure distribution, local skin friction and boundary velocity profiles at subsonic speeds. The physical modeling, steady or unsteady, and the grid resolution both contribute to the discrepancies observed in the comparisons with flight data, but at this time it cannot be determined how much each part contributes to the whole. Overall it can be said that the technology readiness of CFD-simulation technology for the study of vehicle performance has matured since 2001 such that it can be used today with a reasonable level of confidence for complex configurations.

  10. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  11. Air-Sea Fluxes in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica from In Situ Aircraft Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.; Cassano, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2009, the first unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) were flown over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica to collect information regarding air-sea interactions over a wintertime coastal polynya. The UAVs measured wind, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity in flights parallel to the downslope wind flow over the polynya, and in a series of vertical profiles at varying distances from the coast. During three flights on three different days, sufficient measurements were collected to calculate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes over varying oceanic surface states, including frazil, pancake, and rafted ice, with background winds greater than 15 ms-1. During the three flights, sensible heat fluxes upwards of 600 Wm-2 were estimated near the coast, with maximum latent heat fluxes near 160 Wm-2 just downwind of the coast. The calculated accelerations due to the momentum flux divergence were on the order of 10-3 ms-2. In addition to the fluxes, changes in the overall momentum budget, including the horizontal pressure gradient force, were also calculated during the three flights. This presentation will summarize the methodology for calculating the fluxes from the UAV data, present the first ever in situ estimates of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes and overall momentum budget estimates over Terra Nova Bay, and compare the UAV flux calculations to flux measurements taken during other field campaigns in other regions of the Antarctic, as well as to model estimates over Terra Nova Bay.

  12. Combustion of Gaseous Fuels with High Temperature Air in Normal- and Micro-gravity Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Gupta, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is determine the effect of air preheat temperature on flame characteristics in normal and microgravity conditions. We have obtained qualitative (global flame features) and some quantitative information on the features of flames using high temperature combustion air under normal gravity conditions with propane and methane as the fuels. This data will be compared with the data under microgravity conditions. The specific focus under normal gravity conditions has been on determining the global flame features as well as the spatial distribution of OH, CH, and C2 from flames using high temperature combustion air at different equivalence ratio.

  13. The Design of Research Laboratories. Part I: A General Assessment. Part II: Air Conditioning and Conditioned Rooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legget, R. F.; Hutcheon, N. B.

    Design factors in the planning of research laboratories are described which include--(1) location, (2) future expansion, (3) internal flexibility, (4) provision of services, (5) laboratory furnishing, (6) internal traffic, (7) space requirements, and (8) building costs. A second part discusses air-conditioning and conditioned rooms--(1)…

  14. Airborne aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft: Measurement by HPLC with UV absorbance detection of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones.

    PubMed

    Rosenberger, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Bibiana; Wrbitzky, Renate

    2016-04-15

    This paper presents the strategy and results of in-flight measurements of airborne aldehydes during normal operation and reported "smell events" on commercial aircraft. The aldehyde-measurement is a part of a large-scale study on cabin-air quality. The aims of this study were to describe cabin-air quality in general and to detect chemical abnormalities during the so-called "smell-events". Adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated silica gel (DNPH-cartridge) was applied using tailor-made sampling kits. Samples were collected with battery supplied personal air sampling pumps during different flight phases. Furthermore, the influence of ozone was investigated by simultaneous sampling with and without ozone absorption unit (ozone converter) assembled to the DNPH-cartridges and found to be negligible. The method was validated for 14 aldehydes and found to be precise (RSD, 5.5-10.6%) and accurate (recovery, 98-103 %), with LOD levels being 0.3-0.6 μg/m(3). According to occupational exposure limits (OEL) or indoor air guidelines no unusual or noticeable aldehyde pollution was observed. In total, 353 aldehyde samples were taken from two types of aircraft. Formaldehyde (overall average 5.7 μg/m(3), overall median 4.9 μg/m(3), range 0.4-44 μg/m(3)), acetaldehyde (overall average 6.5 μg/m(3), overall median 4.6, range 0.3-90 μg/m(3)) and mostly very low concentrations of other aldehydes were measured on 108 flights. Simultaneous adsorption and derivatization of airborne aldehydes on DNPH-cartridges to the Schiff bases and their HPLC analysis with UV absorbance detection is a useful method to measure aldehydes in cabin-air of commercial aircraft.

  15. Tracking Phragmites Australis Expansion in Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge using AggieAir Aircraft Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaman, B.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    This research examines the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAV), a cutting edge technology developed at the Utah Water research lab for acquiring airborne imagery using drones for the assessment of abundance of an invasive species Phragmites australis in a wetland vegetation setup. These UAV’s acquire multispectral data in the visible and near-infrared bands with a spatial resolution of 0.5 meters. The study area is the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge (MBR) which lies in northern Utah, where the Bear River flows into the northeast arm of the Great Salt Lake. The Refuge protects the marshes found at the mouth of the Bear River; these marshes are the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem. A common reed, Phragmites australis, is a tall (1.5-4.0 m) coarse perennial grass found primarily in brackish and freshwater wetlands, growing at or above mean high water. The methodology is to build Bayesian statistical supervised classification model using relevance vector machine (RVM) employing the inexpensive and readily available UAV data. The UAV images of the bird refuge are processed to obtain calibrated reflectance imagery. Thereafter, the isodata clustering algorithm is applied to classify the multispectral imagery into different classes. Using ground sampling of the species, pixels containing the Phragmites australis are deduced. The training set for the supervised RVM classification model is prepared using the deduced pixel values. A separate set of ground sampling points containing the Phragmites australis are kept aside for validation. The distribution of Phragmites australis in the study area as obtained from RVM classification model is compared to the validation set. The RVM model results for tracking of Phragmites are encouraging and the new technique has promising real-time implementation for similar applications.

  16. Controlling VOC and air toxic emissions from aircraft refinishing facilities -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect

    Ayer, J.

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary studies conducted by the EPA and Air Force indicate that significant cost reductions are achievable by reducing booth exhaust flow rates via recirculation. Based on these results, the EPA and the US Marine Corps launched a full scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified at the Barstow MCLB to encompass recirculation and other ventilation system optimization strategies. Additionally, the booth exhaust streams were vented to an innovative VOC emission control device that has extremely low operating costs. The paper describes this full-scale demonstration program in which booth exhaust flow rates were safely reduced from 143,000 cfm to 44,000 cfm. This program (completed in September, 1996) encompassed several innovative elements, including: Permanent installation of split-flow/recirculation ventilation in 3 high production paint booths. Use of Variable Frequency Drive Fans to continually reduce booth flow rates to the lowest level while maintaining compliance with OSHA mandates. Integration of an innovative monitoring system using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to continuously monitor/speciate organic compound concentrations in recirculation ducts and ensure safe system operation. Installation of an ambient temperature emission control system that oxidizes the exhaust stream VOCs and is capable of instantaneous startup/shutdown operations; this is ideal for the Barstow MCLB high production operation. The ventilation systems were tested extensively to ensure a safe and efficient working environment; these test results indicate that recirculation and other system modifications successfully reduced flow rates to achieve low cost emission control. Results of a detailed economic analysis are also presented which demonstrate that ventilation system modification costs are quickly recovered from the installation/operation of a smaller VOC emission control device.

  17. Air Mobility Command’s En Route Support Infrastructure: A Construct of Aircraft Type and Geographic Location Utilized to Assess En Route Aircraft Logistic Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    and during operations in Kosovo, C-5 major inspections were performed at Moron AB, Spain (AMC, 2002b). 9 Figure 2. Countries Visited by AMC...Minor LTAG Incirlik AB, Turkey 721 AMOG 728 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LPLA Lajes AB, Azores 721 AMOG 729 Air Mobility Squadron Minor LEMO Moron AB...A. (1999). Air mobility: The evolution of global reach. Vienna, VA: PointOne Publishing. International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). (2006

  18. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...); 2. Operator business and administrative support (operator information services); 3. Passenger... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes... conditions are issued for the Learjet Model 45 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or...

  19. 76 FR 65103 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model... comments. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GIV-X... connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by...

  20. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... external to the airplane. Discussion The architecture and network configuration in the Cessna Model 680... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes... conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 Series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or...

  1. 77 FR 36123 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model... comments. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP, Model Gulfstream... architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may...

  2. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft...

  3. Circular polarization of radio emission from air showers in thunderstorm conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, T. N. G.; Scholten, O.; Bonardi, A.; Buitink, S.; Corstanje, A.; Ebert, U.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Mitra, P.; Mulrey, K.; Nelles, A.; Thoudam, S.; Rachen, J. P.; Rossetto, L.; Rutjes, C.; Schellart, P.; ter Veen, S.; Winchen, T.

    2017-03-01

    We present measured radio emission from cosmic-ray-induced air showers under thunderstorm conditions. We observe for these events large differences in intensity, linear polarization and circular polarization from the events measured under fair-weather conditions. This can be explained by the effects of atmospheric electric fields in thunderclouds. Therefore, measuring the intensity and polarization of radio emission from cosmic ray extensive air showers during thunderstorm conditions provides a new tool to probe the atmospheric electric fields present in thunderclouds.

  4. [Working ability between air and trimix breathing gas under 8 ATA air condition].

    PubMed

    Shibayama, M; Kosugi, S; Mohri, M; Yamamura, I; Oda, S; Kimura, A; Takeuchi, J; Mano, Y

    1990-04-01

    Pneumatic caisson work in Japan has come into operation since 1924. Afterward, this technique of compressed air work has been widely utilized in the construction of foundation basements, shafts of the bottom tunnel shields for subway and so forth. While using this technique of compressed air work means that workers have to be exposed to hyperbaric environment, this technique has risks of not only decompression sickness (DCS) but also toxicity of poisonous gas and/or oxygen deficiency. However, this technique is independent of city construction work and the operation of compressed air work higher than 5ATA (4.0 kg/cm2G) is actually been planning recently. Accordingly unmanned caisson work is considered as a better technique for such higher pressurized work, even though workers must enter into hyperbaric working fields for maintenance or repair of unmanned operated machinery and materials. This research is to establish the safe work under hyperbaric air environment at 8ATA.

  5. Minimum Specific Fuel Consumption of a Liquid-Cooled Multicylinder Aircraft Engine as Affected by Compression Ratio and Engine Operating Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brun, Rinaldo J.; Feder, Melvin S.; Harries, Myron L.

    1947-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on a 12-cylinder V-type liquid-cooled aircraft engine of 1710-cubic-inch displacement to determine the minimum specific fuel consumption at constant cruising engine speed and compression ratios of 6.65, 7.93, and 9.68. At each compression ratio, the effect.of the following variables was investigated at manifold pressures of 28, 34, 40, and 50 inches of mercury absolute: temperature of the inlet-air to the auxiliary-stage supercharger, fuel-air ratio, and spark advance. Standard sea-level atmospheric pressure was maintained at the auxiliary-stage supercharger inlet and the exhaust pressure was atmospheric. Advancing the spark timing from 34 deg and 28 deg B.T.C. (exhaust and intake, respectively) to 42 deg and 36 deg B.T.C. at a compression ratio of 6.65 resulted in a decrease of approximately 3 percent in brake specific fuel consumption. Further decreases in brake specific fuel consumption of 10.5 to 14.1 percent (depending on power level) were observed as the compression ratio was increased from 6.65 to 9.68, maintaining at each compression ratio the spark advance required for maximum torque at a fuel-air ratio of 0.06. This increase in compression ratio with a power output of 0.585 horsepower per cubic inch required a change from . a fuel- lend of 6-percent triptane with 94-percent 68--R fuel at a compression ratio of 6.65 to a fuel blend of 58-percent, triptane with 42-percent 28-R fuel at a compression ratio of 9.68 to provide for knock-free engine operation. As an aid in the evaluation of engine mechanical endurance, peak cylinder pressures were measured on a single-cylinder engine at several operating conditions. Peak cylinder pressures of 1900 pounds per square inch can be expected at a compression ratio of 9.68 and an indicated mean effective pressure of 320 pounds per square inch. The engine durability was considerably reduced at these conditions.

  6. 76 FR 65105 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... networks and systems, such as passenger entertainment and information services, than previous Gulfstream airplane models. This may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities and increased risks... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation,...

  7. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-03-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved "Out of Africa" to explore the more severe climates of

  8. Impaired Air Conditioning within the Nasal Cavity in Flat-Faced Homo

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Mori, Futoshi; Hanida, Sho; Kumahata, Kiyoshi; Ishikawa, Shigeru; Samarat, Kaouthar; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Hayashi, Misato; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Matsuzawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    We are flat-faced hominins with an external nose that protrudes from the face. This feature was derived in the genus Homo, along with facial flattening and reorientation to form a high nasal cavity. The nasal passage conditions the inhaled air in terms of temperature and humidity to match the conditions required in the lung, and its anatomical variation is believed to be evolutionarily sensitive to the ambient atmospheric conditions of a given habitat. In this study, we used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with three-dimensional topology models of the nasal passage under the same simulation conditions, to investigate air-conditioning performance in humans, chimpanzees, and macaques. The CFD simulation showed a horizontal straight flow of inhaled air in chimpanzees and macaques, contrasting with the upward and curved flow in humans. The inhaled air is conditioned poorly in humans compared with nonhuman primates. Virtual modifications to the human external nose topology, in which the nasal vestibule and valve are modified to resemble those of chimpanzees, change the airflow to be horizontal, but have little influence on the air-conditioning performance in humans. These findings suggest that morphological variation of the nasal passage topology was only weakly sensitive to the ambient atmosphere conditions; rather, the high nasal cavity in humans was formed simply by evolutionary facial reorganization in the divergence of Homo from the other hominin lineages, impairing the air-conditioning performance. Even though the inhaled air is not adjusted well within the nasal cavity in humans, it can be fully conditioned subsequently in the pharyngeal cavity, which is lengthened in the flat-faced Homo. Thus, the air-conditioning faculty in the nasal passages was probably impaired in early Homo members, although they have survived successfully under the fluctuating climate of the Plio-Pleistocene, and then they moved “Out of Africa” to explore the more severe climates of

  9. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-02-26

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  10. An Improved Gaussian Mixture Model for Damage Propagation Monitoring of an Aircraft Wing Spar under Changing Structural Boundary Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) technology is considered to be a key technology to reduce the maintenance cost and meanwhile ensure the operational safety of aircraft structures. It has gradually developed from theoretic and fundamental research to real-world engineering applications in recent decades. The problem of reliable damage monitoring under time-varying conditions is a main issue for the aerospace engineering applications of SHM technology. Among the existing SHM methods, Guided Wave (GW) and piezoelectric sensor-based SHM technique is a promising method due to its high damage sensitivity and long monitoring range. Nevertheless the reliability problem should be addressed. Several methods including environmental parameter compensation, baseline signal dependency reduction and data normalization, have been well studied but limitations remain. This paper proposes a damage propagation monitoring method based on an improved Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). It can be used on-line without any structural mechanical model and a priori knowledge of damage and time-varying conditions. With this method, a baseline GMM is constructed first based on the GW features obtained under time-varying conditions when the structure under monitoring is in the healthy state. When a new GW feature is obtained during the on-line damage monitoring process, the GMM can be updated by an adaptive migration mechanism including dynamic learning and Gaussian components split-merge. The mixture probability distribution structure of the GMM and the number of Gaussian components can be optimized adaptively. Then an on-line GMM can be obtained. Finally, a best match based Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence is studied to measure the migration degree between the baseline GMM and the on-line GMM to reveal the weak cumulative changes of the damage propagation mixed in the time-varying influence. A wing spar of an aircraft is used to validate the proposed method. The results indicate that the crack

  11. System and method for conditioning intake air to an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Sellnau, Mark C.

    2015-08-04

    A system for conditioning the intake air to an internal combustion engine includes a means to boost the pressure of the intake air to the engine and a liquid cooled charge air cooler disposed between the output of the boost means and the charge air intake of the engine. Valves in the coolant system can be actuated so as to define a first configuration in which engine cooling is performed by coolant circulating in a first coolant loop at one temperature, and charge air cooling is performed by coolant flowing in a second coolant loop at a lower temperature. The valves can be actuated so as to define a second configuration in which coolant that has flowed through the engine can be routed through the charge air cooler. The temperature of intake air to the engine can be controlled over a wide range of engine operation.

  12. [Optimization of the indoor air conditioning in the places of excessive radon release].

    PubMed

    Malykhin, V M

    1994-01-01

    The experimental modelling covered ventilation and air purification as well as air pollution with radon and such derivatives as polonium-218b, lead-214 and bismuth-214. The modelling was designed for industrial conditions with higher radon release in technologic conversion at enterprises processing uranium. The investigators obtained some information to optimize air processing and to lower the workers exposure to radon and its derivatives.

  13. Ecological succession of the microbial communities of an air-conditioning cooling coil in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, E; Chénard, C; Miller, D; Gaultier, N E; Heinle, C E; Chang, V W-C; Uchida, A; Drautz-Moses, D I; Schuster, S C; Lauro, F M

    2017-03-01

    Air-conditioning systems harbor microorganisms, potentially spreading them to indoor environments. While air and surfaces in air-conditioning systems are periodically sampled as potential sources of indoor microbes, little is known about the dynamics of cooling coil-associated communities and their effect on the downstream airflow. Here, we conducted a 4-week time series sampling to characterize the succession of an air-conditioning duct and cooling coil after cleaning. Using an universal primer pair targeting hypervariable regions of the 16S/18S ribosomal RNA, we observed a community succession for the condensed water, with the most abundant airborne taxon Agaricomycetes fungi dominating the initial phase and Sphingomonas bacteria becoming the most prevalent taxa toward the end of the experiment. Duplicate air samples collected upstream and downstream of the coil suggest that the system does not act as ecological filter or source/sink for specific microbial taxa during the duration of the experiment.

  14. Air Conditioning Stall Phenomenon Testing, Model Development, and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Irminger, Philip; Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Smith, Travis; Rice, C Keith; Li, Fangxing; Adhikari, Sarina

    2012-01-01

    Electric distribution systems are experiencing power quality issues of extended reduced voltage due to fault-induced delayed voltage recovery (FIDVR). FIDVR occurs in part because modern air conditioner (A/C) and heat pump compressor motors are much more susceptible to stalling during a voltage sag or dip such as a sub-transmission fault. They are more susceptible than older A/C compressor motors due to the low inertia of these newer and more energy efficient motors. There is a concern that these local reduced voltage events on the distribution system will become more frequent and prevalent and will combine over larger areas and challenge transmission system voltage and ultimately power grid reliability. The Distributed Energy Communications and Controls (DECC) Laboratory at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been employed to (1) test, (2) characterize and (3) model the A/C stall phenomenon.

  15. Composition changes in refrigerant blends for automotive air conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Jetter, J.J.; Delafield, F.R.; Ng, A.S.; Ratanaphruks, K.; Tufts, M.W.

    1999-07-01

    Three refrigerant blends used to replace the chlorofluorocarbon R-12 in automotive air conditioners were evaluated for composition changes due to typical servicing and leakage. When recommended service procedures were followed, changes in blend compositions were relatively small. Small changes in blend compositions caused no significant changes in refrigeration capacities. However, when recommended procedures were not followed, changes in compositions were relatively large. The amount of change in composition and the resulting effect on performance varied among the three refrigerant blends that were tested. Of the three blends, a quaternary blend containing hydrochlorofluorocarbon R-22 had the greatest changes in composition, while a binary blend containing hydrofluorocarbon R-134a had the smallest changes in composition.

  16. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  17. Temperature and Humidity Independent Control Research on Ground Source Heat Pump Air Conditioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Wang, L. L.

    Taking green demonstration center building air conditioning system as an example, this paper presents the temperature and humidity independent control system combined with ground source heat pump system, emphasis on the design of dry terminal device system, fresh air system and ground source heat pump system.

  18. Colonization by Cladosporium spp. of painted metal surfaces associated with heating and air conditioning systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahearn, D. G.; Simmons, R. B.; Switzer, K. F.; Ajello, L.; Pierson, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. hebarum colonized painted metal surfaces of covering panels and register vents of heating, air conditioning and ventilation systems. Hyphae penetrated the paint film and developed characteristic conidiophores and conidia. The colonies were tightly appressed to the metal surface and conidia were not readily detectable via standard air sampling procedures.

  19. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Ventilating: Construction, Supervision, and Inspection. Course of Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messer, John D.

    This course of study on air conditioning, heating, and ventilating is part of a construction, supervision, and inspection series, which provides instructional materials for community or junior college technical courses in the inspection program. Material covered pertains to: piping and piping systems; air movers; boilers; heat exchangers; cooling…

  20. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  1. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  2. 40 CFR 86.165-12 - Air conditioning idle test procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... used to qualify for air conditioning efficiency CO2 credits according to § 86.1866-12(c). (b) Overview... this stabilization. (3) Immediately after the preconditioning, turn off any cooling fans, if present... but set the fan speed to the lowest setting that continues to provide air flow. Recirculation shall...

  3. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... fueled engines, the vibration characteristics, both normal and with an inoperative cylinder, anticipated... vibration levels under both normal operating conditions and when one cylinder is inoperative. The concerns... engine installation are as follows: Installation and Vibration Requirements Fuel and Fuel System...

  4. Estimating Chlorophyll Conditions in Southern New England Coastal Waters from Hyperspectral Aircraft Remote Sensing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorophyll a (chl a) is commonly measured in water quality monitoring programs for coastal and freshwater systems. The concentration of chl a, when evaluated with other condition indicators such as water clarity and dissolved oxygen concentrations, provides information on the en...

  5. Cold-flow performance of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle for supersonic-cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, D. E.; Nosek, S. M.; Straight, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained with a 21.59 cm (8.5 in.) diameter cold-flow model in a static altitude facility to determine the thrust and pumping characteristics of several variations of a ram-air-cooled plug nozzle. Tests were conducted over a range of nozzle pressure ratios simulating supersonic cruise and takeoff conditions. Primary throat area was also varied to simulate afterburner on and off. Effect of plug size, outer shroud length, primary nozzle geometry, and varying amounts of secondary flow were investigated. At a supersonic cruise pressure ratio of 27, nozzle efficiencies were 99.7 percent for the best configurations.

  6. SCHOOL AIR CONDITIONING/CASE STUDY, MCPHERSON HIGH SCHOOL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OSTENBERG, JOE W.

    THE STANFORD UNIVERSITY SCHOOL PLANNING LABORATORIES CONDUCTED AN EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF THE MCPHERSON CITY SCHOOLS BY STUDYING THE EXISTING CONDITIONS, LOCAL ECONOMIES, AND POTENTIAL POPULATION GROWTH. IT WAS RECOMMENDED THAT A NEW SENIOR HIGH BE BUILT TO HOUSE 700-750 STUDENTS, THE ANTICIPATED ENROLLMENT 10 YEARS AFTER…

  7. Stability and control of maneuvering high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Berry, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stability and control of a high-performance aircraft was analyzed, and a design methodology for a departure prevention stability augmentation system (DPSAS) was developed. A general linear aircraft model was derived which includes maneuvering flight effects and trim calculation procedures for investigating highly dynamic trajectories. The stability and control analysis systematically explored the effects of flight condition and angular motion, as well as the stability of typical air combat trajectories. The effects of configuration variation also were examined.

  8. Influence of Boundary Conditions on Simulated U.S. Air Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the key inputs to regional-scale photochemical models frequently used in air quality planning and forecasting applications are chemical boundary conditions representing background pollutant concentrations originating outside the regional modeling domain. A number of studie...

  9. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured motor vehicle air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  10. Fuel Savings and Emission Reductions from Next-Generation Mobile Air Conditioning Technology in India: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Chaney, L.; Thundiyil, K.; Chidambaram, S.; Abbi, Y. P.; Anderson, S.

    2007-05-01

    This paper quantifies the mobile air-conditioning fuel consumption of the typical Indian vehicle, exploring potential fuel savings and emissions reductions these systems for the next generation of vehicles.

  11. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  12. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides information on low-GWP alternatives in newly manufactured residential and commercial air conditioning systems. It discusses HFC alternatives, market trends, challenges to market entry for alternatives, and potential solutions.

  13. Transitioning to Low-GWP Alternatives in Residential and Light Commercial Air Conditioning

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet provides current information on low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives for new equipment in residential and light commercial air conditioning (AC), in lieu of high-GWP hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  14. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Datong; Zhang, Yujie; Peng, Yu

    2016-04-29

    In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM) can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor) to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved.

  15. Effective Sensor Selection and Data Anomaly Detection for Condition Monitoring of Aircraft Engines

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liansheng; Liu, Datong; Zhang, Yujie; Peng, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In a complex system, condition monitoring (CM) can collect the system working status. The condition is mainly sensed by the pre-deployed sensors in/on the system. Most existing works study how to utilize the condition information to predict the upcoming anomalies, faults, or failures. There is also some research which focuses on the faults or anomalies of the sensing element (i.e., sensor) to enhance the system reliability. However, existing approaches ignore the correlation between sensor selecting strategy and data anomaly detection, which can also improve the system reliability. To address this issue, we study a new scheme which includes sensor selection strategy and data anomaly detection by utilizing information theory and Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). The sensors that are more appropriate for the system CM are first selected. Then, mutual information is utilized to weight the correlation among different sensors. The anomaly detection is carried out by using the correlation of sensor data. The sensor data sets that are utilized to carry out the evaluation are provided by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center and have been used as Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) challenge data in 2008. By comparing the two different sensor selection strategies, the effectiveness of selection method on data anomaly detection is proved. PMID:27136561

  16. Nuclear-Powered Aircraft: Potential Air Force’s Future Alternative Fuel Persistence and Reach Platform or Crazy Idea?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the scope of a nuclear-powered aircraft program, if not eliminate the idea completely. By analyzing the potential...Island and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the scope of a nuclear-powered aircraft program, if not eliminate the idea completely. By analyzing the...established political hurdles and associated public fears with nuclear power after the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents, will limit the

  17. Energy-efficient heat recovery systems for air conditioning of indoor swimming pools

    SciTech Connect

    Elsayed, M.M.; El-Refaee, M.M.; Borhan, Y.A.

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of a conventional air-conditioning system for indoor swimming pools during the summer season is presented. The analysis showed that the cooling load is characterized by a large latent heat fraction. As a result, a reheating process must be used downstream of the cooling coil to achieve the proper design comfort condition in the pool area. This, in turn, increases the energy requirement per unit cooling load of the pool. Two heat recovery systems are proposed to reduce this energy. In the first system, ambient air is used for the reheating process in an air-to-air heat exchanger. In the second system, mixed air--recirculated and ambient air--is used for the reheating process. Heat recovery efficiency is defined as an index of the energy savings resulting from the use of the heat recovery system compared to that of a conventional air-conditioning system. At a wide range of ambient conditions it is found that the energy savings could be up to 70% of the energy required to operate a conventional air-conditioning system. A parametric study was carried out to size the air-to-air heat exchanger associated with these heat recovery systems, and the results showed that a heat exchanger having an effectiveness of 0.5 would give satisfactory results. The proposed heat recovery systems are also compared to the case of reheating using the heat rejection from the condenser of the refrigeration machine. The comparison showed that the proposed systems save more energy than reheating using the condenser heat. A typical case study is given to demonstrate the savings in energy consumption when these systems are used.

  18. Physiological and subjective responses in the elderly when using floor heating and air conditioning systems.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Tochihara, Yutaka; Ohnaka, Tadakatsu; Tsuchida, Chiaki; Otsuki, Tamio

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a floor heating and air conditioning system on thermal responses of the elderly. Eight elderly men and eight university students sat for 90 minutes in a chair under the following 3 conditions: air conditioning system (A), floor heating system (F) and no heating system (C). The air temperature of sitting head height for condition A was 25 degrees C, and the maximum difference in vertical air temperature was 4 degrees C. The air and floor temperature for condition F were 21 and 29 degrees C, respectively. The air temperature for condition C was 15 degrees C. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature and mean skin temperature between condition A and F. Systolic blood pressure of the elderly men in condition C significantly increased compared to those in condition A and F. No significant differences in systolic blood pressure between condition A and F were found. The percentage of subjects who felt comfortable under condition F was higher than that of those under condition A in both age groups, though the differences between condition F and A was not significant. Relationships between thermal comfort and peripheral (e.g., instep, calf, hand) skin temperature, and the relationship between thermal comfort and leg thermal sensation were significant for both age groups. However, the back and chest skin temperature and back thermal sensation for the elderly, in contrast to that for the young, was not significantly related to thermal comfort. These findings suggested that thermal responses and physiological strain using the floor heating system did not significantly differ from that using the air conditioning system, regardless of the subject age and despite the fact that the air temperature with the floor heating system was lower. An increase in BP for elderly was observed under the condition in which the air temperature was 15 degrees C, and it was suggested that it was necessary for the elderly

  19. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming.

    PubMed

    Davis, Lucas W; Gertler, Paul J

    2015-05-12

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change.

  20. Contribution of air conditioning adoption to future energy use under global warming

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Lucas W.; Gertler, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    As household incomes rise around the world and global temperatures go up, the use of air conditioning is poised to increase dramatically. Air conditioning growth is expected to be particularly strong in middle-income countries, but direct empirical evidence is scarce. In this paper we use high-quality microdata from Mexico to describe the relationship between temperature, income, and air conditioning. We describe both how electricity consumption increases with temperature given current levels of air conditioning, and how climate and income drive air conditioning adoption decisions. We then combine these estimates with predicted end-of-century temperature changes to forecast future energy consumption. Under conservative assumptions about household income, our model predicts near-universal saturation of air conditioning in all warm areas within just a few decades. Temperature increases contribute to this surge in adoption, but income growth by itself explains most of the increase. What this will mean for electricity consumption and carbon dioxide emissions depends on the pace of technological change. Continued advances in energy efficiency or the development of new cooling technologies could reduce the energy consumption impacts. Similarly, growth in low-carbon electricity generation could mitigate the increases in carbon dioxide emissions. However, the paper illustrates the enormous potential impacts in this sector, highlighting the importance of future research on adaptation and underscoring the urgent need for global action on climate change. PMID:25918391