Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft airplane performance

  1. 77 FR 45979 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ...] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type certificate previously held by The New Piper Aircraft Inc.) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports...

  2. 77 FR 57534 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... all Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and PA-31-350 airplanes. The existing AD currently... or replacement of parts as necessary. Since we issued that AD, forced landings of aircraft...

  3. 77 FR 33083 - Airworthiness Directives; WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Aircraft Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... Aircraft Corporation Models 2T-1A, 2T-1A-1, and 2T-1A-2 airplanes. This AD requires inspection of the front..., contact WACO Classic Aircraft Corporation; 15955 South Airport Rd., Battle Creek, Michigan...

  4. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Lee H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (VR) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane acceleration and engine-performance anomalies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a continually predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system and conveyed to pilot in form of both elemental information and integrated information.

  5. Airplane takeoff and landing performance monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, David B. (Inventor); Srivatsan, Raghavachari (Inventor); Person, Jr., Lee H. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is a real-time takeoff and landing performance monitoring system for an aircraft which provides a pilot with graphic and metric information to assist in decisions related to achieving rotation speed (V.sub.R) within the safe zone of a runway, or stopping the aircraft on the runway after landing or take-off abort. The system processes information in two segments: a pretakeoff segment and a real-time segment. One-time inputs of ambient conditions and airplane configuration information are used in the pretakeoff segment to generate scheduled performance data. The real-time segment uses the scheduled performance data, runway length data and transducer measured parameters to monitor the performance of the airplane throughout the takeoff roll. Airplane and engine performance deficiencies are detected and annunciated. A novel and important feature of this segment is that it updates the estimated runway rolling friction coefficient. Airplane performance predictions also reflect changes in head wind occurring as the takeoff roll progresses. The system provides a head-down display and a head-up display. The head-up display is projected onto a partially reflective transparent surface through which the pilot views the runway. By comparing the present performance of the airplane with a predicted nominal performance based upon given conditions, performance deficiencies are detected by the system.

  6. 76 FR 70379 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-033-AD; RIN 2120-AA64] Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal... supersede an existing airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Cessna Aircraft Company...

  7. 77 FR 21420 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Model 680 airplanes. This...-feed wiring, and revising the airplane flight manual to include procedures to use when the left...

  8. 78 FR 24689 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... airworthiness directive (AD) for all PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 airplanes. This proposed AD results...

  9. 78 FR 54561 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations...-17457; AD 2013-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes AGENCY... Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-31, PA-31-325, and PA-31-350 airplanes. Table 1 of paragraph (g) lists...

  10. 77 FR 72250 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF... Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by reports of chafing of...

  11. 77 FR 50054 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0... Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and 172S airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by...

  12. Quantifying and scaling airplane performance in turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Johnhenri R.

    This dissertation studies the effects of turbulent wind on airplane airspeed and normal load factor, determining how these effects scale with airplane size and developing envelopes to account for them. The results have applications in design and control of aircraft, especially small scale aircraft, for robustness with respect to turbulence. Using linearized airplane dynamics and the Dryden gust model, this dissertation presents analytical and numerical scaling laws for airplane performance in gusts, safety margins that guarantee, with specified probability, that steady flight can be maintained when stochastic wind gusts act upon an airplane, and envelopes to visualize these safety margins. Presented here for the first time are scaling laws for the phugoid natural frequency, phugoid damping ratio, airspeed variance in turbulence, and flight path angle variance in turbulence. The results show that small aircraft are more susceptible to high frequency gusts, that the phugoid damping ratio does not depend directly on airplane size, that the airspeed and flight path angle variances can be parameterized by the ratio of the phugoid natural frequency to a characteristic turbulence frequency, and that the coefficient of variation of the airspeed decreases with increasing airplane size. Accompanying numerical examples validate the results using eleven different airplanes models, focusing on NASA's hypothetical Boeing 757 analog the Generic Transport Model and its operational 5.5% scale model, the NASA T2. Also presented here for the first time are stationary flight, where the flight state is a stationary random process, and the stationary flight envelope, an adjusted steady flight envelope to visualize safety margins for stationary flight. The dissertation shows that driving the linearized airplane equations of motion with stationary, stochastic gusts results in stationary flight. It also shows how feedback control can enlarge the stationary flight envelope by alleviating

  13. 78 FR 57104 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 40 and DA 40 F Airplanes. This proposed AD results from... proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Str.5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt,...

  14. 78 FR 38552 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Aircraft Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding AD 2000-04-01 that applies to certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R... in this AD, contact Cessna Aircraft Company, Product Support, P.O. Box 7706, Wichita, Kansas...

  15. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  16. 14 CFR 135.397 - Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small transport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.397 Small transport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating...

  17. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  18. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small nontransport category airplane... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.399 Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations. (a) No person may operate a reciprocating engine...

  19. 77 FR 6003 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ...-033-AD; Amendment 39-16925; AD 2012-02-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 172R and 172S airplanes. That AD currently requires you to inspect the fuel return line assembly...

  20. 77 FR 57994 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...-011-AD; Amendment 39-17193; AD 2012-18-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of direct current (DC) generator overvoltage events. This AD...

  1. 76 FR 67346 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... operators of these airplanes. This AD requires replacing certain lithium-ion batteries installed as the main... equipped with a lithium-ion battery as the main aircraft battery. We are issuing this AD to correct the... issued Emergency AD 2011-21-51, which requires replacing the lithium-ion main aircraft battery,...

  2. 78 FR 11572 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-022-AD; Amendment 39-17311; AD 2012-26-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft... Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-12, PC-12/45, PC-12/47, and PC- 12/47E airplanes. This AD results from...

  3. 77 FR 42225 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT... (AD) for all PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Models PC 12, PC 12/45, PC 12/47, and PC 12/47E airplanes...

  4. 78 FR 49221 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... Aircraft, Inc. Model J-2 airplanes equipped with wing lift struts. AD 99-26-19 currently...

  5. 78 FR 17865 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations...-17398; AD 2008-07-11 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes AGENCY...: We are rescinding an airworthiness directive (AD) for all PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Models PC-12,...

  6. 77 FR 59146 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... Aircraft Company Model 500, 501, 550, 551, S550, 560, 560XL, and 650 airplanes. This proposed AD...

  7. 77 FR 64442 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF... AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... are revising an earlier NPRM for all PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Models PC-12, PC-12/45, PC-12/47, and...

  8. 78 FR 32349 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Model 500, 501, 550, 551... by adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-09-11 Cessna Aircraft...

  9. 77 FR 52205 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO... of a Univair Aircraft Corporation Model ERCO 415-D Ercoupe that crashed after an in-flight ]...

  10. 77 FR 67561 - Airworthiness Directives; Univair Aircraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... Corporation Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; correction.... That AD applies to certain Univair Aircraft Corporation Models (ERCO) 415-C, 415-CD, 415-D, E, G..., dated September 1, 2008, is made in several places throughout the AD for Univair Aircraft...

  11. 76 FR 63167 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes With Supplemental Type...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...; AD 2011-21-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes... directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 airplanes equipped with cabin air... directive (AD): 2011-21-10 Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes Equipped With Supplemental...

  12. 78 FR 75453 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... data network and design integration may result in security vulnerabilities from intentional or... than previous airplane models. This may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities and... Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Isolation or Protection From Internal Access AGENCY:...

  13. Preliminary Airworthiness Evaluation of the Rutan Aircraft Factory (RAF) , Inc. LONG-EZ Airplane

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    If) USMAEFA PROJECT NO,. 82-18 PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), INC. LONG-EZ AIRPLANE VERNON L. DIEIOWIN...REPORT & PEIOO COVERED PRELIMINARY AIRWORTHINESS EVALUATION 14 JAN - 1 APR 1983 OF THE RUTAN AIRCRAFT FACTORY (RAF), FINAL INC. LONG-HZ AIRPLANE 6... Airworthiness Evaluation of the Rutan Aircraft Factory, Inc. designed * airplane ~ 4Jnmy-hog---pi -40 at Edwards Calif,~gn4&. During the test program 34

  14. 76 FR 37684 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model (Diamond) DA 40 Airplanes Equipped With Certain Cabin Air Conditioning Systems AGENCY... inspections of the Diamond Model DA 40 airplanes equipped with a VCS installed per Premier Aircraft...

  15. 75 FR 82335 - Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... CAP 10 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT... DAROIS-France, telephone: (33) 380 35 65 10; fax: (33) 380 35 65 15; e- mail: apex-aircraft.com . You may...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 airplanes, all serial...

  16. Wireless Local Area Network Performance Inside Aircraft Passenger Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whetten, Frank L.; Soroker, Andrew; Whetten, Dennis A.; Whetten, Frank L.; Beggs, John H.

    2005-01-01

    An examination of IEEE 802.11 wireless network performance within an aircraft fuselage is performed. This examination measured the propagated RF power along the length of the fuselage, and the associated network performance: the link speed, total throughput, and packet losses and errors. A total of four airplanes: one single-aisle and three twin-aisle airplanes were tested with 802.11a, 802.11b, and 802.11g networks.

  17. 78 FR 68985 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate these types of... Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized Internal Access AGENCY... conditions are issued for the Boeing Model 777- 200, -300, and -300ER series airplanes. These airplanes,...

  18. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    .... PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 series airplanes. This AD requires you to inspect the... apply to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 series airplanes....

  19. 75 FR 32863 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and... October 15, 2009, into the normal procedures section of the aircraft flight manual (AFM). (ii) Within 12... Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  20. 78 FR 66666 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... (AD) for certain Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42 NG and DA 42 M-NG airplanes. This... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto- ] Stra e 5,...

  1. 77 FR 35890 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... (AD) for certain Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG airplanes... information identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Stra e 5,...

  2. 77 FR 65503 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 M-NG, and DA 42 NG airplanes. This... Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Stra e 5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43...

  3. 78 FR 40642 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 42, DA 42 NG, and DA 42 M-NG airplanes. This... Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Str.5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria; telephone: +43...

  4. 77 FR 66409 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model H-36, HK 36 R, HK 36... identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Stra e 5, A-2700...

  5. 78 FR 73995 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... data busses and networks. A separate Cessna Model 680 project special condition addresses aircraft.... Discussion The integrated network configurations in the Cessna Model 680 series airplanes may allow increased... passenger entertainment and information services than previous airplane models. This may allow...

  6. 77 FR 59873 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes; Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes; Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Availability of an Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis... Flexibility Analysis for the previously published proposed airworthiness directive (AD) on Cessna...

  7. Boeing Satellite Television Airplane Receiving System (STARS) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vertatschitsch, Edward J.; Fitzsimmons, George W.

    1995-01-01

    Boeing Defense and Space Group is developing a Satellite Television Airplane Receiving System (STARS) capable of delivering Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS) television to an aircraft in-flight. This enables a new service for commercial airplanes that will make use of existing and future DBS systems. The home entertainment satellites, along with STARS, provide a new mobile satellite communication application. This paper will provide a brief background of the antenna issues associated with STARS for commercial airplanes and then describe the innovative Boeing phased-array solution to these problems. The paper then provides a link budget of the STARS using the Hughes DBS as an example, but the system will work with all of the proposed DBS satellites in the 12.2-12.7 GHz band. It concludes with operational performance calculations of the STARS system, supported by measured test data of an operational 16-element subarray. Although this system is being developed for commercial airplanes, it is well suited for a wide variety of mobile military and other commercial communications systems in air, on land and at sea. The applications include sending high quality video for the digital battlefield and large volumes of data on the information superhighway at rates in excess of 350 Mbps.

  8. The FAA aging airplane program plan for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Dayton; Lewis, Jess

    1992-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Aging Airplane Program is focused on five program areas: maintenance, transport airplanes, commuter airplanes, airplane engines, and research. These programs are complementary and concurrent, and have been in effect since 1988. The programs address the aging airplane challenge through different methods, including policies, procedures, and hardware development. Each program is carefully monitored and its progress tracked to ensure that the needs of the FAA, the industry, and the flying public are being met.

  9. Supersonic civil airplane study and design: Performance and sonic boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, Samson

    1995-01-01

    Since aircraft configuration plays an important role in aerodynamic performance and sonic boom shape, the configuration of the next generation supersonic civil transport has to be tailored to meet high aerodynamic performance and low sonic boom requirements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to design airplanes to meet these dual objectives. The work and results in this report are used to support NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). CFD tools and techniques have been developed for general usages of sonic boom propagation study and aerodynamic design. Parallel to the research effort on sonic boom extrapolation, CFD flow solvers have been coupled with a numeric optimization tool to form a design package for aircraft configuration. This CFD optimization package has been applied to configuration design on a low-boom concept and an oblique all-wing concept. A nonlinear unconstrained optimizer for Parallel Virtual Machine has been developed for aerodynamic design and study.

  10. 76 FR 53308 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for... airplanes. That AD currently requires either installing a placard prohibiting spins and other acrobatic maneuvers in the airplane or replacing the rudder stop, the rudder stop bumper, and the attachment...

  11. Factors of airplane engine performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gage, Victor R

    1921-01-01

    This report is based upon an analysis of a large number of airplane-engine tests. It contains the results of a search for fundamental relations between many variables of engine operation. The data used came from over 100 groups of tests made upon several engines, primarily for military information. The types of engines were the Liberty 12 and three models of the Hispano-Suiza. The tests were made in the altitude chamber, where conditions simulated altitudes up to about 30,000 feet, with engine speeds ranging from 1,200 to 2,200 r.p.m. The compression ratios of the different engines ranged from under 5 to over 8 to 1. The data taken on the tests were exceptionally complete, including variations of pressure and temperature, besides the brake and friction torques, rates of fuel and air consumption, the jacket and exhaust heat losses.

  12. 78 FR 15112 - Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance and Handling Characteristics-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... guidance material for airplane performance and handling characteristics in new transport category airplanes... associated guidance material for airworthiness certification of airplane designs. Recommendations may result... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Transport Airplane Performance...

  13. Icing Protection for a Turbojet Transport Airplane: Heating Requirements, Methods of Protection, and Performance Penalties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelder, Thomas F.; Lewis, James P.; Koutz, Stanley L.

    1953-01-01

    The problems associated with providing icing protection for the critical components of a typical turbojet transport airplane operating over a range of probable icing conditions are analyzed and discussed. Heating requirements for several thermal methods of protection are evaluated and the airplane performance penalties associated with providing this protection from various energy sources are assessed. The continuous heating requirements for icing protection and the associated airplane performance penalties for the turbojet transport are considerably increased over those associated with lower-speed aircraft. Experimental results show that the heating requirements can be substantially reduced by the deve1opment of a satisfactory cyclic deicing system. The problem of providing protection can be minimized by employing a proper energy source since the airplane performance penalties vary considerably with the source of energy employed. The optimum icing protection system for the turbojet transport or for any other particular aircraft cannot be generally specified; the choice of the optimum system is dependent upon the specific characteristics of the airplane and engine, the flight plan, the probable icing conditions, and the performance requirements of the aircraft.

  14. 78 FR 68986 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not anticipate this type of... the safety and maintenance of the airplane. The existing regulations and guidance material did not... Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access...

  15. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  16. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  17. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  18. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  19. 14 CFR 129.105 - Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aging airplane inspections and records... § 129.105 Aging airplane inspections and records reviews for U.S.-registered multiengine aircraft. (a... completed the aging airplane inspection and records review required by this section. During the...

  20. Subsonic aircraft: Evolution and the matching of size to performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, L. K., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Methods for estimating the approximate size, weight, and power of aircraft intended to meet specified performance requirements are presented for both jet-powered and propeller-driven aircraft. The methods are simple and require only the use of a pocket computer for rapid application to specific sizing problems. Application of the methods is illustrated by means of sizing studies of a series of jet-powered and propeller-driven aircraft with varying design constraints. Some aspects of the technical evolution of the airplane from 1918 to the present are also briefly discussed.

  1. 78 FR 14640 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... airplane flight manual (AFM) to include procedures for resetting the pitot switch in the event of pitot... for resetting the pitot switch in the event of pitot heater failure and for total loss of...

  2. Application of selected advanced technologies to high performance, single-engine, business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domack, C. S.; Martin, G. L.

    1984-01-01

    Improvements in performance and fuel efficiency are evaluated for five new configurations of a six place, single turboprop, business airplane derived from a conventional, aluminum construction baseline aircraft. Results show the greatest performance gains for enhancements in natural laminar flow. A conceptual diesel engine provides greater fuel efficiency but reduced performance. Less significant effects are produced by the utilization of composite materials construction or by reconfiguration from tractor to pusher propeller installation.

  3. An Analytical Performance Assessment of a Fuel Cell-powered, Small Electric Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Wickenheiser, Timothy J.

    2003-01-01

    Rapidly emerging fuel cell power technologies may be used to launch a new revolution of electric propulsion systems for light aircraft. Future small electric airplanes using fuel cell technologies hold the promise of high reliability, low maintenance, low noise, and with exception of water vapor zero emissions. This paper describes an analytical feasibility and performance assessment conducted by NASA's Glenn Research Center of a fuel cell-powered, propeller-driven, small electric airplane based on a model of the MCR 01 two-place kitplane.

  4. 77 FR 56993 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ..., 2011). A cracked stabilator horn coupled with the aircraft flight envelope conditions could create an... current required maintenance program. A cracked horn coupled with the aircraft flight envelope conditions... FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations...

  5. 78 FR 25363 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...-005-AD; Amendment 39-17439; AD 2013-08-21] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries Model..., contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Str.5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria; telephone:...

  6. 77 FR 2238 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft... (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/ 350-H1, PC-6/350-H2, PC... PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Liaison Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 41 619...

  7. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... requires visual repetitive inspections, expanding the inspection scope to include the entirety of each... inspection criteria to clarify the visual inspection. We also identified that airplanes with the STC SA240CH heat exchanger installed may not have all of the parts requiring the visual inspection. (Information...

  8. 78 FR 41277 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ... fuel vent valve's ability to vent atmospheric pressure to the main wing fuel tank during the rapid...-made part did not expand and open as large as the fluorosilicone-made part under the same pressure and temperature conditions. Also, in combination with the temperature and pressure changes, the airplane had a...

  9. 77 FR 26156 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... 560XL airplanes. This AD requires an inspection of the torque lug and surrounding components (wheel base... components (wheel base, side rim, lock ring) for damage (such as corrosion, cracks, dents, bent areas... Inspection, and measurement of Up to 11 work- Up to $6,462...... Up to $7,397...... Up to $3,498,781....

  10. 77 FR 2659 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... insert damaged the brake housing at a location that affects both the antiskid brake hydraulic system and the emergency brake system. In those two cases, both systems failed to stop the airplane on the runway... CONTACT: David Fairback, Aerospace Engineer, Mechanical Systems and Propulsion Branch, ACE-116W,...

  11. 77 FR 42455 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... switch shut off in flight. This proposed AD would require moving all magneto switches that are now or are... airplanes with magneto switches located on the left cabin panel, adjacent to the front seat, were caused by pilots unknowingly turning off the magneto switches and causing in-flight engine shutdowns. In each...

  12. 77 FR 19061 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-042-AD; Amendment 39-16997; AD 2012-06-16] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft...

  13. 76 FR 69123 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-030-AD; Amendment 39-16782; AD 2009-10-09 R2] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft.... That AD applies to certain Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 150F, 150G, 150H, 150J, 150K,...

  14. 77 FR 31169 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-002-AD; Amendment 39-17058; AD 2012-10-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (type...

  15. 78 FR 24985 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-16-AD; Amendment 39-17400; AD 2004-21-08 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft.... That AD applies to all Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Models 190, 195 (L-126A,B,C), 195A, and...

  16. 78 FR 58874 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-017-AD; Amendment 39-17592; AD 2013-19-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS AIRCRAFT...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for PILATUS AIRCRAFT...

  17. 76 FR 60367 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-006-AD; Amendment 39-16820; AD 2009-13-06 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft... revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-23,...

  18. 78 FR 9796 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-045-AD; Amendment 39-17350; AD 2013-03-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and...

  19. 77 FR 70114 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-021-AD; Amendment 39-17237; AD 2012-22-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172R and...

  20. 77 FR 4699 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft... Register. That NPRM applies to certain Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350,...

  1. 77 FR 75590 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... Aircraft Company (Cessna) (previously COLUMBIA or LANCAIR) Models LC40-550FG, LC41-550FG, and...

  2. 77 FR 55770 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... Aircraft Company Models 172RG, R182, TR182, FR182, 210N, T210N, 210R, T210R, P210N, P210R, and...

  3. 78 FR 14729 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft... (AD) for Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC-6/ 350-H1, PC-6/350-H2,...

  4. 78 FR 4053 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-048-AD; Amendment 39-17320; AD 2013-01-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model...

  5. 78 FR 9636 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft Company Model 500, 501, 550, 551, S550, 560, 560XL,...

  6. 76 FR 75442 - Airworthiness Directives; Quest Aircraft Design, LLC Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-037-AD; Amendment 39-16880; AD 2011-25-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Quest Aircraft... comments. ] SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Quest Aircraft...

  7. 77 FR 29863 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-015-AD; Amendment 39-17053; AD 2012-10-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Cessna Aircraft...

  8. 78 FR 4092 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft... Cessna Aircraft Company Models 172RG, R182, TR182, FR182, 210N, T210N, 210R, T210R, P210N, P210R,...

  9. 78 FR 56150 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17489; AD 2013-13-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc...-01 applies to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. Models PA-46-310P, PA-46-350P, PA-46R-350T, and...

  10. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  11. 78 FR 14726 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... ADDRESSES section. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2012-1052; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-014-AD'' at the... Aircraft Company: Docket No. FAA-2012-1052; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-014-AD. (a) Comments Due Date...

  12. 78 FR 42723 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ..., Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 41 619 65 01; fax: +41 (0) 41 619 65 76; Internet: http://www.pilatus-aircraft... Manager, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0) 41 619 65 01; fax: +41 (0) 41 619 65 76;...

  13. 78 FR 37701 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...-049-AD; Amendment 39-17468; AD 2013-11-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft... Aircraft Ltd. Models PC-6, PC-6-H1, PC-6-H2, PC-6/350, PC- 6/350-H1, PC-6/350-H2, PC-6/A, PC-6/A-H1,...

  14. 75 FR 52292 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation...: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH... Federal holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond...

  15. 78 FR 67011 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... identified in this AD, contact PILATUS AIRCRAFT LTD., Customer Technical Support (MCC), P.O. Box 992, CH-6371... person at the Docket Management Facility between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal... the relationship between the national government and the States, or on the distribution of power...

  16. 78 FR 72598 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace... directive (AD) for British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Jetstream Series 3101 and Jetstream Model 3201... after receipt. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Taylor Martin, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  17. 77 FR 69742 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2010-1084; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE... Cessna Aircraft Company: Amendment 39-17257; Docket No. FAA-2010-1084; Directorate Identifier...

  18. 78 FR 42417 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ..., Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0)41 619 65 80; fax: +41 (0)41 619 65 76; Internet: http://www.pilatus- aircraft...., Customer Liaison Manager, P.O. Box 992, CH-6371 STANS, Switzerland; telephone: +41 (0)41 619 65 80;...

  19. 78 FR 76040 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-17691; AD 99-26-19 R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc... (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to revise AD 99-26-19, Amendment 39-11479 (64 FR 72524, December 28, 1999... Amendment Accordingly, under the authority delegated to me by the Administrator, the FAA amends 14 CFR...

  20. Modeling of airplane performance from flight-test results and validation with an F-104G airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. T.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A technique of defining an accurate performance model of an airplane from limited flight-test data and predicted aerodynamic and propulsion system characteristics is developed. With the modeling technique, flight-test data from level accelerations are used to define a 1g performance model for the entire flight envelope of an F-104G airplane. The performance model is defined in terms of the thrust and drag of the airplane and can be varied with changes in ambient temperature or airplane weight. The model predicts the performance of the airplane within 5 percent of the measured flight-test data. The modeling technique could substantially reduce the time required for performance flight testing and produce a clear definition of the thrust and drag characteristics of an airplane.

  1. General formulas and charts for the calculation of airplane performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, W Bailey

    1933-01-01

    This report presents general formulas for the determination of all major airplane performance characteristics. A rigorous analysis is used, making no assumption regarding the attitude of the airplane at which maximum rate of climb occurs, but finding the attitude at which the excess thrust horsepower is maximum. Equations and charts are developed which show the variation of performance due to a change in any of the customary design parameters. Performance determination by use of the formulas and charts is rapid and explicit. The results obtained by this performance method have been found to give agreement with flight tests that is, in general, equal or superior to results obtained by present commonly used methods.

  2. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  3. 14 CFR 135.389 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.389 Large nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating a large nontransport category airplane...

  4. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  5. The calculated performance of airplanes equipped with supercharging engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemble, E C

    1921-01-01

    In part one of this report are presented the theoretical performance curves of an airplane engine equipped with a supercharging compressor. In predicting the gross power of a supercharging engine, the writer uses temperature and pressure correction factors based on experiments made at the Bureau of Standards (NACA report nos. 45 and 46). Means for estimating the temperature rise in the compressor are outlined. Part two of this report presents an estimation of the performance curves of an airplane fitted with a supercharging engine. A supercharging installation suitable for commercial use is described, and it is shown that with the use of the compressor a great saving in fuel and a considerable increase in carrying capacity can be effected simultaneously. In an appendix the writer derives a theoretical formula for the correction of the thrust coefficient of an airscrew to offset the added resistance of the airplane due to the slip-stream effect.

  6. The Effect of Supercharger Capacity on Engine and Airplane Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, O W; Gove, W D

    1930-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation to determine the effect of different supercharger capacities on the performance of an airplane and its engine . The tests were conducted on a DH4-M2 airplane powered with a Liberty 12 engine. In this investigation four supercharger capacities, obtained by driving a roots type supercharger at 1.615, 1.957, 2.4, and 3 time engine speed, were used to maintain sea-level pressure at the carburetor to altitudes of 7,000, 11,500, 17,000, and 22,000 feet, respectively. The performance of the airplane in climb and in level flight was determined for each of the four supercharger drive ratios and for the unsupercharged condition. The engine power was measured during these tests by means of a calibrated propeller. It was found that very little sacrifice in sea-level performance was experienced with the larger supercharger drive ratios as compared with performance obtained when using the smaller drive ratios. The results indicate that further increase in supercharger capacity over that obtained when using 3:1 drive ratio would give a slight increase in ceiling and in high-altitude performance but would considerably impair the performance for an appreciable distance below the critical altitude. As the supercharger capacity was increased, the height at which sea-level high speeds could be equaled or improved became a larger percentage of the maximum height of operation of the airplane.

  7. Study to determine operational and performance criteria for STOL aircraft operating in low visibility conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The operational and performance criteria for civil CTOL passenger-carrying airplanes landing in low visibilities depend upon the characteristics of the airplane, the nature and use of the ground and airborne guidance and control systems, and the geometry and lighting of the landing field. Based upon these criteria, FAA advisory circulars, airplane and equipment design characteristics, and airline operational and maintenance procedures were formulated. The documents are selected, described, and discussed in relationship to the potential low weather minima operation of STOL aircraft. An attempt is made to identify fundamental differences between CTOL and STOL aircraft characteristics which could impact upon existing CTOL documentation. Further study and/or flight experiments are recommended.

  8. Performance and safety aspects of the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernicke, K. G.

    1977-01-01

    Aircraft performance is presented illustrating the flexibility and capability of the XV-15 to conduct its planned proof-of-concept flight research in the areas of dynamics, stability and control, and aerodynamics. Additionally, the aircraft will demonstrate mission-type performance typical of future operational aircraft. The aircraft design is described and discussed with emphasis on the safety and fail-operate features of the aircraft and its systems. Two or more levels of redundancy are provided in the dc and ac electrical systems, hydraulics, conversion, flaps, landing gear extension, SCAS, and force-feel. RPM is maintained by a hydro-electrical blade pitch governor that consists of a primary and standby governor with a cockpit wheel control for manual backup. The two engines are interconnected for operation on a single engine. In the event of total loss of power, the aircraft can enter autorotation starting from the airplane as well as the helicopter mode of flight.

  9. Performance of a Fuel-Cell-Powered, Small Electric Airplane Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    Rapidly emerging fuel-cell-power technologies may be used to launch a new revolution of electric propulsion systems for light aircraft. Future small electric airplanes using fuel cell technologies hold the promise of high reliability, low maintenance, low noise, and - with the exception of water vapor - zero emissions. An analytical feasibility and performance assessment was conducted by NASA Glenn Research Center's Airbreathing Systems Analysis Office of a fuel-cell-powered, propeller-driven, small electric airplane based on a model of the MCR-01 two-place kitplane (Dyn'Aero, Darois, France). This assessment was conducted in parallel with an ongoing effort by the Advanced Technology Products Corporation and the Foundation for Advancing Science and Technology Education. Their project - partially funded by a NASA grant - is to design, build, and fly the first manned, continuously propelled, nongliding electric airplane. In our study, an analytical performance model of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell propulsion system was developed and applied to a notional, two-place light airplane modeled after the MCR-01 kitplane. The PEM fuel cell stack was fed pure hydrogen fuel and humidified ambient air via a small automotive centrifugal supercharger. The fuel cell performance models were based on chemical reaction analyses calibrated with published data from the fledgling U.S. automotive fuel cell industry. Electric propeller motors, rated at two shaft power levels in separate assessments, were used to directly drive a two-bladed, variable-pitch propeller. Fuel sources considered were compressed hydrogen gas and cryogenic liquid hydrogen. Both of these fuel sources provided pure, contaminant-free hydrogen for the PEM cells.

  10. Ground-to-Flight Handling Qualities Comparisons for a High Performance Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Jay M.; Glaab, Louis J.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    A flight test program was conducted in conjunction with a ground-based piloted simulation study to enable a comparison of handling qualities ratings for a variety of maneuvers between flight and simulation of a modern high performance airplane. Specific objectives included an evaluation of pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) tendencies and a determination of maneuver types which result in either good or poor ground-to-flight pilot handling qualities ratings. A General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft was used for the flight evaluations, and the NASA Langley Differential Maneuvering Simulator was employed for the ground based evaluations. Two NASA research pilots evaluated both the airplane and simulator characteristics using tasks developed in the simulator. Simulator and flight tests were all conducted within approximately a one month time frame. Maneuvers included numerous fine tracking evaluations at various angles of attack, load factors and speed ranges, gross acquisitions involving longitudinal and lateral maneuvering, roll angle captures, and an ILS task with a sidestep to landing. Overall results showed generally good correlation between ground and flight for PIO tendencies and general handling qualities comments. Differences in pilot technique used in simulator evaluations and effects of airplane accelerations and motions are illustrated.

  11. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 121 - Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... flight manual and approved manual material. 6. Operation. After compliance with the final airplane... Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes K Appendix K to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix K to Part 121—Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes...

  12. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 121 - Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... flight manual and approved manual material. 6. Operation. After compliance with the final airplane... Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes K Appendix K to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix K to Part 121—Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes...

  13. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 121 - Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... flight manual and approved manual material. 6. Operation. After compliance with the final airplane... Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes K Appendix K to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix K to Part 121—Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes...

  14. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 121 - Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... flight manual and approved manual material. 6. Operation. After compliance with the final airplane... Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes K Appendix K to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix K to Part 121—Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix K to Part 121 - Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... flight manual and approved manual material. 6. Operation. After compliance with the final airplane... Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes K Appendix K to Part 121 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Appendix K to Part 121—Performance Requirements for Certain Turbopropeller Powered Airplanes...

  16. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  17. 78 FR 73993 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... external to the airplane. Discussion The architecture and network configuration in the Cessna Model 680... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Cessna Model 680 Series Airplanes... conditions are issued for the Cessna Model 680 Series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or...

  18. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Concepts for possible future airplanes are studied that include all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multi-body airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short range feeder airplanes. Results indicate that each of these concepts has the potential for important performance and economic advantages, provided certain suggested research tasks are successfully accomplished. Indicated research areas include all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  19. Studies of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, A. L.

    1978-01-01

    Several concepts for possible future airplanes, including all-wing distributed-load airplanes, multibody airplanes, a long-range laminar flow control airplane, a nuclear-powered airplane designed for towing conventionally powered airplanes during long-range cruise, and an aerial transportation system comprised of continuously flying liner airplanes operated in conjunction with short-range feeder airplanes are described. Performance and economic advantages of each concept are indicated. Further research is recommended in the following areas: all-wing airplane aerodynamics, aerial rendezvous, nuclear aircraft engines, air-cushion landing systems, and laminar flow control, as well as the basic research discipline areas of aerodynamics, structures, propulsion, avionics, and computer applications.

  20. Performance characteristics of nonaxisymmetric nozzles installed on the F-18 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Gowadia, N. S.; Wooten, W. H.

    1979-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has conducted an experimental program on a model of the F-18 airplane to determine the performance of nonaxisymmetric nozzles relative to the aircraft's baseline axisymmetric nozzle. The performance of a single expansion ramp (ADEN) and two-dimensional convergent-divergent (2-D C-D) nozzle were compared to the baseline axisymmetric nozzles. The effects of vectoring and reversing were also studied. Performance of a modified YF-17 airplane with the ADEN nozzle was also estimated. The results of this investigation indicate that nonaxisymmetric nozzles can be installed on a twin engine fighter airplane with equal or better performance than axisymmetric nozzles. The nonaxisymmetric nozzles also offer potential for innovative and improved aircraft maneuver through thrust vectoring and reversing. The YF-17/ADEN flown as a technology demonstrator would have reduced performance compared to an unmodified YF-17. However, on an equal aircraft weight basis, performance would essentially be equivalent. This study also showed that the YF-17 can serve as a testbed to validate nonaxisymmetric nozzle technology.

  1. The 727 airplane target thrust reverser static performance model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. T. P.; Atkey, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a scale model static performance test of target thrust reverser configurations for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 series engine are presented. The objective of the test was to select a series of suitable candidate reverser configurations for the subsequent airplane model wind tunnel ingestion and flight controls tests. Test results indicate that adequate reverse thrust performance with compatible engine airflow match is achievable for the selected configurations. Tapering of the lips results in loss of performance and only minimal flow directivity. Door pressure surveys were conducted on a selected number of lip and fence configurations to obtain data to support the design of the thrust reverser system.

  2. 76 FR 8607 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Company Model 750 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... requires revising the airplane flight manual. This AD was prompted by a report of a DC generator..., Transport Airplane Directorate, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington. For information on...

  3. 78 FR 65153 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...); 2. Operator business and administrative support (operator information services); 3. Passenger... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes... conditions are issued for the Learjet Model 45 series airplanes. These airplanes will have a novel or...

  4. Effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dam, C. P.; Holmes, B. J.; Pitts, C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent flight and wind tunnel evaluations of winglets mounted on general aviation airplanes have shown improvements in cruise fuel efficiency, and climbing and turning performance. Some of these analyses have also uncovered various effects of winglets on airplane handling qualities. Retrofitting an airplane with winglets can result in reduced cross wind take-off and landing capabilities. Also, winglets can have a detrimental effect on the lateral directional response characteristics of aircraft which have a moderate to high level of adverse yaw due to aileron. Introduction of an aileron-rudder-interconnect, and reduction of the effective dihedral by canting-in of the winglets, or addition of a lower winglet can eliminate these flying quality problems.

  5. Quest for Performance: the Evolution of Modern Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftin, Lawrence K., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The technical evolution of the subsonic airplane is traced from a curiosity at the beginning of World War I to the highly useful machine of today. Included are descriptions of significant aircraft which incorporated important technical innovations and served to shape the future course of aeronautical development, as well as aircraft which represented the state-of-art in a particular time frame or were much used or liked. The discussion is related primarily to aircraft configuration evolution and associated aerodynamic characteristics and, to a lesser extent, to developments in aircraft construction and propulsion. The material is presented in a manner designed to appeal to the nontechnical reader who is interested in the evolution of the airplane, as well as to students of aeronautical engineering and others with an aeronautical background.

  6. Calculation of Airplane Performances Without the Aid of Polar Diagrams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrenk, Martin

    1928-01-01

    For good profiles the profile-drag coefficient is almost constant in the whole range which comes into consideration for practical flight. This is manifest in the consideration of the Gottingen airfoil tests and is confirmed by the investigations of the writer (measurements of the profile drag during flight by the Betz method), concerning which a detailed report will soon be published. The following deductions proceed from this fact. The formulas developed on the assumptions of a constant profile-drag coefficient afford an extensive insight into the influences exerted on flight performances by the structure of the airplane.

  7. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  8. 14 CFR 135.395 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.395 Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Alternate airports. No person may select an airport as...

  9. 14 CFR 135.367 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.367 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Takeoff limitations. (a)...

  10. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  11. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. (a) No person may take off...

  12. 14 CFR 135.393 - Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Large nontransport category airplanes... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.393 Large nontransport category airplanes: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a large...

  13. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  14. Effects of Ice Formations on Airplane Performance in Level Cruising Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, G. Merritt; Blackman, Calvin C.

    1948-01-01

    A flight investigation in natural icing conditions was conducted by the NACA to determine the effect of ice accretion on airplane performance. The maximum loss in propeller efficiency encountered due to ice formation on the propeller blades was 19 percent. During 87 percent of the propeller icing encounters, losses of 10 percent or less were observed. Ice formations on all of the components of the airplane except the propellers during one icing encounter resulted in an increase in parasite drag of the airplane of 81 percent. The control response of the airplane in this condition was marginal.

  15. Performance improvements of an F-15 airplane with an integrated engine-flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Lawrence P.; Walsh, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated flight and propulsion control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on the NASA Ames-Dryden F-15 research aircraft. The highly integrated digital control (HIDEC) system provides additional engine thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR) at intermediate and afterburning power. The amount of EPR uptrim is modulated based on airplane maneuver requirements, flight conditions, and engine information. Engine thrust was increased as much as 10.5 percent at subsonic flight conditions by uptrimming EPR. The additional thrust significantly improved aircraft performance. Rate of climb was increased 14 percent at 40,000 ft and the time to climb from 10,000 to 40,000 ft was reduced 13 percent. A 14 and 24 percent increase in acceleration was obtained at intermediate and maximum power, respectively. The HIDEC logic performed fault free. No engine anomalies were encountered for EPR increases up to 12 percent and for angles of attack and sideslip of 32 and 11 degrees, respectively.

  16. 76 FR 27239 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model 172 Airplanes Modified by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Company (Cessna) Model 172 Airplanes Modified by Supplemental Type Certificate (STC) SA01303WI AGENCY... products listed above. The numbering of paragraphs (j)(3), (j)(4), and (j)(5) in the Material Incorporated... airplane flight manual, and replacing the FADEC backup battery every 12 calendar months for Cessna...

  17. Definition of 1992 Technology Aircraft Noise Levels and the Methodology for Assessing Airplane Noise Impact of Component Noise Reduction Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumasaka, Henry A.; Martinez, Michael M.; Weir, Donald S.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the methodology for assessing the impact of component noise reduction on total airplane system noise. The methodology is intended to be applied to the results of individual study elements of the NASA-Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program, which will address the development of noise reduction concepts for specific components. Program progress will be assessed in terms of noise reduction achieved, relative to baseline levels representative of 1992 technology airplane/engine design and performance. In this report, the 1992 technology reference levels are defined for assessment models based on four airplane sizes - an average business jet and three commercial transports: a small twin, a medium sized twin, and a large quad. Study results indicate that component changes defined as program final goals for nacelle treatment and engine/airframe source noise reduction would achieve from 6-7 EPNdB reduction of total airplane noise at FAR 36 Stage 3 noise certification conditions for all of the airplane noise assessment models.

  18. Aircraft design optimization with multidisciplinary performance criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Stephen; Kroo, Ilan

    1989-01-01

    The method described here for aircraft design optimization with dynamic response considerations provides an inexpensive means of integrating dynamics into aircraft preliminary design. By defining a dynamic performance index that can be added to a conventional objective function, a designer can investigate the trade-off between performance and handling (as measured by the vehicle's unforced response). The procedure is formulated to permit the use of control system gains as design variables, but does not require full-state feedback. The examples discussed here show how such an approach can lead to significant improvements in the design as compared with the more common sequential design of system and control law.

  19. Descent strategy comparisons for TNAV-equipped aircraft under airplane-preferred operating conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izumi, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Three 4-D descent strategies were evaluated which were employed by TNAV-equipped aircraft in an advanced metering air traffic control environment. The Flow Management Evaluation Model (FMEM) was used to assess performance using three criteria when traffic enters the simulation under preferred cruise operating conditions (altitude and speed): throughput, fuel usage, and conflict probability. In comparison to an evaluation previously performed under NASA contract, the current analysis indicates that the optimal descent strategy is preferred over the clean-idle and constant descent angle (CFPA) strategies when all three criteria are considered.

  20. 76 FR 65105 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... networks and systems, such as passenger entertainment and information services, than previous Gulfstream airplane models. This may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities and increased risks... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation,...

  1. Application of a performance modeling technique to an airplane with variable sweep wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redin, P. C.

    1981-01-01

    A performance modeling concept previously applied to an F-104F G and a YF-12C airplane was applied to an F-111A airplane. This application extended the concept to an airplane with variable sweep wings. The performance model adequately matched flight test data for maneuvers flown at different wing sweep angles at maximum afterburning and intermediate power settings. For maneuvers flown at less than intermediate power, including dynamic maneuvers, the performance model was not validated because the method used to correlate model and in-flight power setting was not adequate. Individual dynamic maneuvers were matched sucessfully by using adjustments unique to each maneuver.

  2. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  3. High performance forward swept wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, David G. (Inventor); Aoyagi, Kiyoshi (Inventor); Dudley, Michael R. (Inventor); Schmidt, Susan B. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A high performance aircraft capable of subsonic, transonic and supersonic speeds employs a forward swept wing planform and at least one first and second solution ejector located on the inboard section of the wing. A high degree of flow control on the inboard sections of the wing is achieved along with improved maneuverability and control of pitch, roll and yaw. Lift loss is delayed to higher angles of attack than in conventional aircraft. In one embodiment the ejectors may be advantageously positioned spanwise on the wing while the ductwork is kept to a minimum.

  4. Preliminary investigation of effects of heavy rain on the performance of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, O. W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A guideline was defined for the analysis of flight data to determine the effects of rain on the aerodynamic performance of an aircraft. It distinguishes and separates the effects of horizontal wind shears, downdrafts, gusts at the phugoid frequency, and rain based on various aerodynamic parameters. Flight data from NASA LaRC's TCV B-737 were inconclusive because precipitation rates encountered probably were not high enough. However, the guideline seemed to be valid and can be used on further flight data evaluations. Difficulties in this type of data analysis are discussed. Other indirect influences of rain on the degradation of airplane performance are also considered.

  5. Thrust stand evaluation of engine performance improvement algorithms in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation is underway to determine the benefits of a new propulsion system optimization algorithm in an F-15 airplane. The performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of an F100 derivative turbofan engine for several modes of operation. The PSC algorithm uses an onboard software engine model that calculates thrust, stall margin, and other unmeasured variables for use in the optimization. As part of the PSC test program, the F-15 aircraft was operated on a horizontal thrust stand. Thrust was measured with highly accurate load cells. The measured thrust was compared to onboard model estimates and to results from posttest performance programs. Thrust changes using the various PSC modes were recorded. Those results were compared to benefits using the less complex highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) algorithm. The PSC maximum thrust mode increased intermediate power thrust by 10 percent. The PSC engine model did very well at estimating measured thrust and closely followed the transients during optimization. Quantitative results from the evaluation of the algorithms and performance calculation models are included with emphasis on measured thrust results. The report presents a description of the PSC system and a discussion of factors affecting the accuracy of the thrust stand load measurements.

  6. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  7. Performance of two load-limiting subfloor concepts in full-scale general aviation airplane crash tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1984-01-01

    Three six-place, low wing, twin-engine general aviation airplane test specimens were crash tested at the langley Impact Dynamics research Facility under controlled free-flight conditions. One structurally unmodified airplane was the baseline airplane specimen for the test series. The other airplanes were structurally modified to incorporate load-limiting (energy-absorbing) subfloor concepts into the structure for full scale crash test evaluation and comparison to the unmodified airplane test results. Typically, the lowest floor accelerations and anthropomorphic dummy occupant responses, and the least seat crushing of standard and load-limiting seats, occurred in the modified load-limiting subfloor airplanes wherein the greatest structural crushing of the subfloor took place. The better performing of the two load-limiting subfloor concepts reduced the peak airplane floor accelerations at the pilot and four seat/occupant locations to -25 to -30 g's as compared to approximately -50 to -55 g's acceleration magnitude for the unmodified airplane structure.

  8. The relationship of an integral wind shear hazard to aircraft performance limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. S.; Robinson, P. A.; Hinton, D. A.; Bowles, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The development and certification of airborne forward-looking wind shear detection systems has required a hazard definition stated in terms of sensor observable wind field characteristics. This paper outlines the definition of the F-factor wind shear hazard index and an average F-factor quantity, calculated over a specified averaging interval, which may be used to judge an aircraft's potential performance loss due to a given wind shear field. A technique for estimating airplane energy changes during a wind shear encounter is presented and used to determine the wind shear intensity, as a function of the averaging interval, that presents significant hazard to transport category airplanes. The wind shear hazard levels are compared to averaged F-factor values at various averaging intervals for four actual wind shear encounters. Results indicate that averaging intervals of about one kilometer could be used in a simple method to discern hazardous shears.

  9. 78 FR 32081 - Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft Industries a.s. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... amendment of the Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) by implementation of a procedure to manually switch off the... the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for...-011-AD; Amendment 39-17462; AD 2013-11-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Aircraft...

  10. 78 FR 14160 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ...-040-AD; Amendment 39-17365; AD 2013-04-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft.... For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A....

  11. 78 FR 59223 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...-016-AD; Amendment 39-17593; AD 2013-19-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft.... For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A....

  12. 78 FR 16604 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ...-001-AD; Amendment 39-17397; AD 2013-06-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH... holidays. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH,...

  13. 78 FR 72568 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...-023-AD; Amendment 39-17689; AD 2013-24-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond Aircraft...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries...

  14. Aerodynamic design optimization of a fuel efficient high-performance, single-engine, business airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A design study has been conducted to optimize a single-engine airplane for a high-performance cruise mission. The mission analyzed included a cruise speed of about 300 knots, a cruise range of about 1300 nautical miles, and a six-passenger payload (5340 N (1200 lb)). The purpose of the study is to investigate the combinations of wing design, engine, and operating altitude required for the mission. The results show that these mission performance characteristics can be achieved with fuel efficiencies competitive with present-day high-performance, single- and twin-engine, business airplanes. It is noted that relaxation of the present Federal Aviation Regulation, Part 23, stall-speed requirement for single-engine airplanes facilitates the optimization of the airplane for fuel efficiency.

  15. Simulation model of a twin-tail, high performance airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buttrill, Carey S.; Arbuckle, P. Douglas; Hoffler, Keith D.

    1992-01-01

    The mathematical model and associated computer program to simulate a twin-tailed high performance fighter airplane (McDonnell Douglas F/A-18) are described. The simulation program is written in the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language. The simulation math model includes the nonlinear six degree-of-freedom rigid-body equations, an engine model, sensors, and first order actuators with rate and position limiting. A simplified form of the F/A-18 digital control laws (version 8.3.3) are implemented. The simulated control law includes only inner loop augmentation in the up and away flight mode. The aerodynamic forces and moments are calculated from a wind-tunnel-derived database using table look-ups with linear interpolation. The aerodynamic database has an angle-of-attack range of -10 to +90 and a sideslip range of -20 to +20 degrees. The effects of elastic deformation are incorporated in a quasi-static-elastic manner. Elastic degrees of freedom are not actively simulated. In the engine model, the throttle-commanded steady-state thrust level and the dynamic response characteristics of the engine are based on airflow rate as determined from a table look-up. Afterburner dynamics are switched in at a threshold based on the engine airflow and commanded thrust.

  16. 76 FR 65103 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model GIV-X Airplane; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation, Model... comments. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Model GIV-X... connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may allow access by...

  17. 77 FR 36123 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 25 Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model... comments. SUMMARY: These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP, Model Gulfstream... architecture and connectivity capabilities of the airplane's computer systems and networks, which may...

  18. 75 FR 17879 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... proposed AD would require inspecting for cracks and corrosion of the bracket of the inboard horizontal... applicability to remove certain airplanes. This proposed AD results from a report of cracking and corrosion... AD to prevent such cracking and corrosion of the elevator inboard-hinge brackets and the...

  19. 76 FR 22298 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model 172 Airplanes Modified by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... engine control (FADEC) backup battery, replacing the supplement pilot's operating handbook and FAA approved airplane flight manual, and replacing the FADEC backup battery every 12 calendar months. This AD... NPRM proposed to require installing a FADEC backup battery, replacing the supplement pilot's...

  20. 75 FR 78177 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model 172 Airplanes Modified by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... battery, replacing the supplement pilot's operating handbook and FAA approved airplane flight manual, and replacing the FADEC backup battery every 12 calendar months. This proposed AD was prompted by an incident... allow the FADEC to shut down or reset if the main battery is depleted and the electrical charging...

  1. 75 FR 81417 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...) backup battery, replacing the supplement pilot's operating handbook and FAA approved airplane flight..., 2010 (75 FR 61655). That NPRM proposed to require installation of a FADEC backup battery, replacement.... Action Labor cost Parts cost product operators Installation of a FADEC backup battery 7 work-hours x...

  2. 75 FR 68731 - Airworthiness Directives; The Cessna Aircraft Company Model 750 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... the serial numbers of the auxiliary power unit (APU) generator and the left and right engine direct current (DC) generators, and related corrective actions if necessary. This proposed AD would also require revising the airplane flight manual. This proposed AD results from a report of a DC generator...

  3. 75 FR 61655 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Model PA-28-161 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... battery, replacing the supplement pilot's operating handbook and FAA approved airplane flight manual, and.... ADDRESSES: Use one of the following addresses to comment on this proposed AD: Federal eRulemaking Portal: Go... can allow the FADEC to shut down or reset if the main battery is depleted and the electrical...

  4. The X-31 aircraft: Advances in aircraft agility and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcorn, C. W.; Croom, M. A.; Francis, M. S.; Ross, H.

    1996-08-01

    The X-31 enhanced fighter maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator has pioneered agile flight in the post-stall flight regime and explored integrated multi-axis thrust vectoring across a broad flight envelope. Its maneuvering achievements include sustained flight up to 70 degrees angle of attack, velocity vector rolls in deep post-stall conditions, and post-stall turns from high entry to exit speeds with ultra low turning/transitional conditions. The concept of post-stall maneuverability was extensively studied in simulations preceding initiation of the X-31 program. These simulations provided a baseline for tactical utility demonstrations and vehicle design requirements. Post-stall maneuverability was not achieved without encountering and mitigating the effects of highly unsteady, asymmetric, vortex-dominated flow-fields associated with post-stall flight. Anomalies in vehicle response to control inputs were observed at high angles of attack, as were differences between simulator and actual flight parameters due to a misrepresentation of the effects of these complex flowfields. Some preliminary force and moment data for the X-31 configuration during dynamic maneuvers are provided to highlight the complex nature of the flowfield. The X-31 aircraft's enabling capabilities, including multi-axis thrust vectoring and integrated flight/propulsion control also provided performance enhancements across the entire flight envelope. In what were known as ‘quasi-tailless’ experiments, conventional aerodynamic control surfaces were used to reduce or eliminate the stabilizing influence of the vertical stabilizer, while the vehicle's multi-axis thrust vectoring capability was used for restabilization. Properly exploited, these technologies can lead to the reduction or elimination of traditional aerodynamic control surfaces, which provides profound improvements in vehicle range, weight, payload, and low observability. This review focuses on some of the principal aerodynamic issues

  5. Clarification of 'Turn Performance of Aircraft'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, William F.

    1996-01-01

    A recent note analyzed the minimum turning radius of an airplane in terms of its airspeed and angle of bank. Unfortunately, some misconceptions concerning the underlying physics were introduced. This note is intended to clarify those areas.

  6. 75 FR 50869 - Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-12/47E Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... requirements.'' Under that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in..., 2009, into the normal procedures section of the aircraft flight manual (AFM). (ii) Within 12 months...-028-AD; Amendment 39-16401; AD 2010-17-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pilatus...

  7. 76 FR 14346 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft... identified in this proposed AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A. Otto-Stra e 5, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria, telephone: +43 2622 26700; fax: +43 2622 26780; e-mail: office@diamond-air.at ;...

  8. 76 FR 31457 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Model DA 42 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ...-003-AD; Amendment 39-16706; AD 2011-11-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft...., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH...; e- mail: office@diamond-air.at ; Internet: http://www.diamond-air.at . You may review copies of...

  9. 75 FR 66700 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model 402C Airplanes Modified by...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... ``Docket No. FAA-2010-1084; Directorate Identifier 2010-CE-056-AD'' at the beginning of your comments. We... following new airworthiness directive (AD): Cessna Aircraft Company: Docket No. FAA-2010-1084;...

  10. 78 FR 75451 - Special Conditions: Cessna Model 750 Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic System Security...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... systems and networks. Connectivity to, or access by, external systems and networks may result in security... configuration may allow the exploitation of network security vulnerabilities resulting in intentional or...; Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized External Access AGENCY: Federal...

  11. Thermal Performance of Aircraft Polyurethane Seat Cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft seat materials were evaluated in terms of their thermal performance. The materials were evaluated using (a) thermogravimetric analysis, (b) differential scanning calorimetry, (c) a modified NBS smoke chamber to determine the rate of mass loss and (d) the NASA T-3 apparatus to determine the thermal efficiency. In this paper, the modified NBS smoke chamber will be described in detail since it provided the most conclusive results. The NBS smoke chamber was modified to measure the weight loss of material when exposed to a radiant heat source over the range of 2.5 to 7.5 W/sq cm. This chamber has been utilized to evaluate the thermal performance of various heat blocking layers utilized to protect the polyurethane cushioning foam used in aircraft seats. Various kinds of heat blocking layers were evaluated by monitoring the weight loss of miniature seat cushions when exposed to the radiant heat. The effectiveness of aluminized heat blocking systems was demonstrated when compared to conventional heat blocking layers such as neoprene. All heat blocking systems showed good fire protection capabilities when compared to the state-of-the-art, i.e., wool-nylon over polyurethane foam.

  12. Thermal performance of aircraft polyurethane seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were conducted on 7.6 x 7.6 cm samples of polyurethane seat cushion material in a modified National Bureau of Standards smoke density chamber to simulate real life conditions for an onboard aircraft fire or post-crash fire. In this study, a non-flaming heat radiation condition was simulated. Two aluminized polymeric fabrics (Norfab 11HT-26-A and Preox 1100-4) and one neoprene type material in two thicknesses (Vonar 2 and 3) were tested as heat blocking layers to protect the urethane foam from rapid heat degradation. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to characterize thermally the materials tested. It was found that Vonar 2 or 3 provided approximately equal thermal protection to F.R. urethane as the aluminized fabrics, but at a significant weight penalty. The efficiency of the foams to absorb heat per unit mass loss when protected with the heat blocking layer decreases in the heating range of 2.5-5.0 W/sq cm, but remains unchanged or slightly increases in the range of 5.0-7.5 W/sq cm. The results show that at all heat flux ranges tested the usage of a heat blocking layer in aircraft seats significantly improves their thermal performance.

  13. Graphical Analysis of Electromagnetic Coupling on B-737 and B-757 Aircraft for VOR and LOC IPL Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2005-01-01

    Electromagnetic coupling measurements were performed from numerous passenger cabin locations to aircraft instrument landing system localizer (LOC) and VHF Omni-Ranging (VOR) systems. This paper presents and compares the data for B-757 and B-737 airplanes, and provides a basis for fuzzy modeling of coupling patterns in different types of airplanes and airplanes with different antenna locations.

  14. Study of small civil turbofan engines applicable to military trainer airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldenbrand, R. W.; Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    Small turbofan engine design concepts were applied to military trainer airplanes to establish the potential for commonality between civil and military engines. Several trainer configurations were defined and studied. A ""best'' engine was defined for the trainer mission, and sensitivity analyses were performed to determine the effects on airplane size and efficiency of wing loading, power loading, configuration, aerodynamic quality, and engine quality. It is concluded that a small civil aircraft is applicable to military trainer airplanes. Aircraft designed with these engines are smaller, less costly, and more efficient than existing trainer aircraft.

  15. A 727 airplane center duct inlet low speed performance confirmation model test for refanned JT8D engines, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaldschmidt, G.; Syltebo, B. E.; Ting, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    The results from testing of a 0.3 scale model center duct inlet (S duct) for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 engines are presented. The objective of this test was to demonstrate that the required airflow of the JT8D-100 engine (480 lb/sec as compared to 334 lb/sec for JT8D-15) can be achieved with minimum modifications to the existing 727 airplane structure at acceptable levels of total pressure recovery and distortion. Steady-state pressure recovery, steady-state pressure distortion, and dynamic pressure measurements were taken at the engine face station. Surface static pressure measurements were taken along the duct. Test results indicated that the required airflow was achieved with acceptable pressure recovery (comparable to the current 727-200 S duct). Inlet inflow angle variation within the 727 airplane operating regime (minus 5 to 5 degrees) had no effect on the inlet performance. Pressure distortion at static and forward speed at takeoff airflow conditions are within P and WA limits for the Phase II duct when equipped with vortex generators. Static crosswind operation between 10 knots and 25 knots appears feasible at full takeoff power.

  16. Design study of technology requirements for high performance single-propeller-driven business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Hammer, J.

    1985-01-01

    Developments in aerodyamic, structural and propulsion technologies which influence the potential for significant improvements in performance and fuel efficiency of general aviation business airplanes are discussed. The advancements include such technolgies as natural laminar flow, composite materials, and advanced intermittent combustion engines. The design goal for this parameter design study is a range of 1300 nm at 300 knots true airspeed with a payload of 1200lbs at 35,000 ft cruise altitude. The individual and synergistic effects of various advanced technologies on the optimization of this class of high performance, single engine, propeller driven business airplanes are identified.

  17. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  18. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  19. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  20. 14 CFR 135.365 - Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Large transport category airplanes: Reciprocating engine powered: Weight limitations. 135.365 Section 135.365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 135.365 Large...

  1. 78 FR 22170 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... 2012-CE-039-AD; Amendment 39-17405; AD 2013-07-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond... Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Diamond.... For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH, N.A....

  2. 77 FR 54800 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ...-018-AD; Amendment 39-17170; AD 2012-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft...). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Diamond... Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590. For service information identified in this AD, contact...

  3. 75 FR 66655 - Airworthiness Directives; PILATUS Aircraft Ltd. Model PC-7 Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... occurrence when an aircraft had a partial in-flight separation of the aileron outboard bearing support. The aileron outboard bearing supports are attached with two forward attachment bolts and two aft attachment... bolts. If the aileron outboard bearing supports have been removed, it is possible that during...

  4. 76 FR 12845 - Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model CAP 10 B Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ...-063-AD; Amendment 39-16625; AD 2011-06-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; APEX Aircraft Model... was the improper locking of a turnbuckle (locking clip missing) of the flight control cables, and the... was the improper locking of a turnbuckle (locking clip missing) of the flight control cables, and...

  5. UWB EMI To Aircraft Radios: Field Evaluation on Operational Commercial Transport Airplanes. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oria, A. J. (Editor); Ely, Jay J.; Martin, Warren L.; Shaver, Timothy W.; Fuller, Gerald L.; Zimmerman, John; Fuschino, Robert L.; Larsen, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrawideband (UWB) transmitters may soon be integrated into a wide variety of portable electronic devices (PEDs) that passengers routinely carry on board commercial airplanes. Airlines and the FAA will have difficulty controlling passenger use of UWB transmitters during flights with current airline policies and existing wireless product standards. The aeronautical community is concerned as to whether evolving FCC UWB rules are adequate to protect legacy and emerging aeronautical radio systems from electromagnetic interference (EMI) from emerging UWB products. To address these concerns, the NASA Office of Space Communications and Chief Spectrum Managers assembled a multidisciplinary team from NASA LaRC, NASA JPL, NASA ARC, FAA, United Airlines, Sky West Airlines, and Eagles Wings Inc. to carry out a comprehensive series of tests aimed at determining the nature and extent of any EMI to aeronautical communication and navigation systems from UWB devices meeting FCCapproved and proposed levels for unlicensed handheld transmitters.

  6. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  7. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  8. The impact of the All Electric Airplane on production engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Cronin, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The emergence of an All Electric Airplane in the role of an energy efficient transport is described in relation to the increasing fuel problems, which are impacting on the economic viability of the aerospace industry. The paper reviews the All Electric Airplane (which performs electrically all those functions normally powered by hydraulics, pneumatics and engine bleed air) for its impact upon the design/implementation of the aircraft systems, the advanced technology engines, the aircraft's ground-logistic support, and the producibility aspects of these advanced transport aircraft. The simplification of engine design and the prospective improvements in its specific-fuel-consumption are highlighted along with the overall simplification of the aircraft production aspects of the All Electric Airplane.

  9. Longitudinal Handling Qualities of the Tu-144LL Airplane and Comparisons With Other Large, Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Timothy H.; Marshall, Alisa

    2000-01-01

    Four flights have been conducted using the Tu-144LL supersonic transport aircraft with the dedicated objective of collecting quantitative data and qualitative pilot comments. These data are compared with the following longitudinal flying qualities criteria: Neal-Smith, short-period damping, time delay, control anticipation parameter, phase delay (omega(sp)*T(theta(2))), pitch bandwidth as a function of time delay, and flight path as a function of pitch bandwidth. Determining the applicability of these criteria and gaining insight into the flying qualities of a large, supersonic aircraft are attempted. Where appropriate, YF-12, XB-70, and SR-71 pilot ratings are compared with the Tu-144LL results to aid in the interpretation of the Tu-144LL data and to gain insight into the application of criteria. The data show that approach and landing requirements appear to be applicable to the precision flightpath control required for up-and-away flight of large, supersonic aircraft. The Neal-Smith, control anticipation parameter, and pitch-bandwidth criteria tend to correlate with the pilot comments better than the phase delay criterion, omega(sp)*T(theta(2)). The data indicate that the detrimental flying qualities implication of decoupled pitch-attitude and flightpath responses occurring for high-speed flight may be mitigated by requiring the pilot to close the loop on flightpath or vertical speed.

  10. Preliminary study of propulsion systems and airplane wing parameters for a US Navy subsonic V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zola, C. L.; Fishbach, L. H.; Allen, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    Two V/STOL propulsion concepts were evaluated in a common aircraft configuration. One propulsion system consists of cross coupled turboshaft engines driving variable pitch fans. The other system is a gas coupled combination of turbojet gas generators and tip turbine fixed pitch fans. Evaluations were made of endurance at low altitude, low speed loiter with equal takeoff fuel loads. Effects of propulsion system sizing, bypass ratio, and aircraft wing planform parameters were investigated and compared. Shaft driven propulsion systems appear to result in better overall performance, although at higher installed weight, than gas systems.

  11. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  12. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  13. 76 FR 41142 - Special Conditions; Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Lithium-ion Battery Installations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... also considering the use of this Lithium-battery technology in several ] other auxiliary-battery... (c)(4), basically reworded the CAR requirements. Increased use of Ni-Cd batteries in small airplanes... proposed use of rechargeable Lithium batteries for equipment and systems on the Model 680 airplane...

  14. Initial results from flight testing a large, remotely piloted airplane model. [flight tests of remotely controlled scale model of F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The first four flights of a remotely piloted airplane model showed that a flight envelope can be expanded rapidly and that hazardous flight tests can be conducted safely with good results. The flights also showed that aerodynamic data can be obtained quickly and effectively over a wide range of flight conditions, clear and useful impressions of handling and controllability of configurations can be obtained, and present computer and electronic technology provide the capability to close flight control loops on the ground, thus providing a new method of design and flight test for advanced aircraft.

  15. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  16. Performance analysis of bonded composite doublers on aircraft structures

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.

    1995-08-01

    Researchers contend that composite repairs (or structural reinforcement doublers) offer numerous advantages over metallic patches including corrosion resistance, light weight, high strength, elimination of rivets, and time savings in installation. Their use in commercial aviation has been stifled by uncertainties surrounding their application, subsequent inspection and long-term endurance. The process of repairing or reinforcing airplane structures is time consuming and the design is dependent upon an accompanying stress and fatigue analysis. A repair that is too stiff may result in a loss of fatigue life, continued growth of the crack being repaired, and the initiation of a new flaw in the undesirable high stress field around the patch. Uncertainties in load spectrums used to design repairs exacerbates these problems as does the use of rivets to apply conventional doublers. Many of these repair or structural reinforcement difficulties can be addressed through the use of composite doublers. Primary among unknown entities are the effects of non-optimum installations and the certification of adequate inspection procedures. This paper presents on overview of a program intended to introduce composite doubler technology to the US commercial aircraft fleet. In this project, a specific composite application has been chosen on an L-1011 aircraft in order to focus the tasks on application and operation issues. Through the use of laboratory test structures and flight demonstrations on an in-service L-1011 airplane, this study is investigating composite doubler design, fabrication, installation, structural integrity, and non-destructive evaluation. In addition to providing an overview of the L-1011 project, this paper focuses on a series of fatigue and strength tests which have been conducted in order to study the damage tolerance of composite doublers. Test results to-date are presented.

  17. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes the computational techniques employed in determining the optimal propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. The computer programs used to perform calculations for all the factors that enter into the selection process of determining the optimum combinations of airplanes and engines are examined. Attention is given to the description of the computer codes including NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. A process is illustrated by which turbine engines can be evaluated as to fuel consumption, engine weight, cost and installation effects. Examples are shown as to the benefits of variable geometry and of the tradeoff between fuel burned and engine weights. Future plans for further improvements in the analytical modeling of engine systems are also described.

  18. New materials drive high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruhmann, Douglas C.; Bates, William F., Jr.; Dexter, H. B.; June, Reid B.

    1992-01-01

    This report shows how advanced composite materials and new processing methods are enabling lighter, lower cost aircraft structures. High-temperature polymers research will focus on systems capable of 50,000 to 100,000 hours of operation in the 212-400 F temperature range. Prospective materials being evaluated include high-temperature epoxies, toughened bismaleimides, cyanates, thermoplastics, polyimides and other polymers.

  19. Predicted performance benefits of an adaptive digital engine control system of an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Ray, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrating engine-airframe control systems. Currently this is accomplished on the NASA Ames Research Center's F-15 airplane. The two control modes used to implement the systems are an integrated flightpath management mode and in integrated adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode. The ADECS mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the available engine stall margin are continually computed. The excess stall margin is traded for thrust. The predicted increase in engine performance due to the ADECS mode is presented in this report.

  20. Predicted performance benefits of an adaptive digital engine control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Myers, L. P.; Ray, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrating engine-airframe control systems. Currently this is accomplished on the NASA Ames Research Center's F-15 airplane. The two control modes used to implement the systems are an integrated flightpath management mode and an integrated adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode. The ADECS mode is a highly integrated mode in which the airplane flight conditions, the resulting inlet distortion, and the available engine stall margin are continually computed. The excess stall margin is traded for thrust. The predicted increase in engine performance due to the ADECS mode is presented in this report.

  1. Graphical and Statistical Analysis of Airplane Passenger Cabin RF Coupling Paths to Avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jafri, Madiha; Ely, Jay; Vahala, Linda

    2003-01-01

    Portable wireless technology provides many benefits to modern day travelers. Over the years however, numerous reports have cited portable electronic devices (PEDs) as a possible cause of electromagnetic interference (EMI) to aircraft navigation and communication radio systems. PEDs may act as transmitters, both intentional and unintentional, and their signals may be detected by the various radio receiver antennas installed on the aircraft. Measurement of the radiated field coupling between passenger cabin locations and aircraft communication and navigation receivers, via their antennas is defined herein as interference path loss (IPL). IPL data is required for assessing the threat of PEDs to aircraft radios, and is very dependent upon airplane size, the interfering transmitter position within the airplane, and the location of the particular antenna for the aircraft system of concern. NASA Langley Research Center, Eagles Wings Inc., and United Airlines personnel performed extensive IPL measurements on several Boeing 737 airplanes.

  2. Performance improvements of a highly integrated digital electronic control system for an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Andries, M. G.; Kelly, J. B.

    1985-01-01

    The NASA highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program is structured to conduct flight research into the benefits of integrating an aircraft flight control system with the engine control system. A brief description of the HIDEC system installed on an F-15 aircraft is provided. The adaptive engine control system (ADECS) mode is described in detail, together with simulation results and analyses that show the significant excess thrust improvements achievable with the ADECS mode. It was found that this increased thrust capability is accompanied by reduced fan stall margin and can be realized during flight conditions where engine face distortion is low. The results of analyses and simulations also show that engine thrust response is improved and that fuel consumption can be reduced. Although the performance benefits that accrue because of airframe and engine control integration are being demonstrated on an F-15 aircraft, the principles are applicable to advanced aircraft such as the advanced tactical fighter and advanced tactical aircraft.

  3. The effect of interior aircraft noise on pilot performance.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Johan; Västfjall, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the effect of the interior sounds of an aircraft cockpit on ratings of affect and expected performance decrement. While exposed to 12 interior aircraft sounds, of which half were modified to correspond to what is experienced with an active noise reduction (ANR) headset, 23 participants rated their affective reactions and how they believed their performance on various tasks would be affected. The results suggest that implementation of ANR-technique has a positive effect on ratings of expected performance. In addition, affective reactions to the noise are related to ratings of expected performance. The implications of these findings for both research and pilot performance are discussed.

  4. A performance measure for evaluating aircraft landing trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witt, R. M.; Cook, G.

    1978-01-01

    A general performance index is developed for evaluating aircraft landing trajectories. The primary term in the index is the effect of noise on people residing near the air terminal. Other terms included are passenger comfort, fuel consumed, and the time spent in the near-terminal area. Models are developed for aircraft engine noise, passenger comfort, the population distribution about a specific airport, and the aircraft flight behavior. While this performance index may be used in computing optimal trajectories, it is also useful for comparing nonoptimal trajectories which, for one reason or another, may be worthy of consideration. Some examples of such comparisons are included through simulations of landing. The aircraft considered is a Boeing 737.

  5. Digital control of high performance aircraft using adaptive estimation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Landingham, H. F.; Moose, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, an adaptive signal processing algorithm is joined with gain-scheduling for controlling the dynamics of high performance aircraft. A technique is presented for a reduced-order model (the longitudinal dynamics) of a high performance STOL aircraft. The actual controller views the nonlinear behavior of the aircraft as equivalent to a randomly switching sequence of linear models taken from a preliminary piecewise-linear fit of the system nonlinearities. The adaptive nature of the estimator is necessary to select the proper sequence of linear models along the flight trajectory. Nonlinear behavior is approximated by effective switching of the linear models at random times, with durations reflecting aircraft motion in response to pilot commands.

  6. Study of materials performance model for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, K.; Skratt, J.

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration version of an aircraft interior materials computer data library was developed and contains information on selected materials applicable to aircraft seats and wall panels, including materials for the following: panel face sheets, bond plies, honeycomb, foam, decorative film systems, seat cushions, adhesives, cushion reinforcements, fire blocking layers, slipcovers, decorative fabrics and thermoplastic parts. The information obtained for each material pertains to the material's performance in a fire scenario, selected material properties and several measures of processability.

  7. Stability and control of maneuvering high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Berry, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stability and control of a high-performance aircraft was analyzed, and a design methodology for a departure prevention stability augmentation system (DPSAS) was developed. A general linear aircraft model was derived which includes maneuvering flight effects and trim calculation procedures for investigating highly dynamic trajectories. The stability and control analysis systematically explored the effects of flight condition and angular motion, as well as the stability of typical air combat trajectories. The effects of configuration variation also were examined.

  8. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure is developed for deriving the level flight drag and propulsive efficiency of propeller-driven aircraft. This is a method in which the overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag. The aircraft is flown in unaccelerated, straight and level flight, and thus includes the effects of the propeller drag and slipstream. Propeller efficiency and airplane drag are computed on the basis of data obtained during flight test and do not rely on the analytical calculations of inadequate theory.

  9. Use of optimization to predict the effect of selected parameters on commuter aircraft performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, V. L.; Shevell, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between field length and cruise speed and aircraft direct operating cost were determined. A gradient optimizing computer program was developed to minimize direct operating cost (DOC) as a function of airplane geometry. In this way, the best airplane operating under one set of constraints can be compared with the best operating under another. A constant 30-passenger fuselage and rubberized engines based on the General Electric CT-7 were used as a baseline. All aircraft had to have a 600 nautical mile maximum range and were designed to FAR part 25 structural integrity and climb gradient regulations. Direct operating cost was minimized for a typical design mission of 150 nautical miles. For purposes of C sub L sub max calculation, all aircraft had double-slotted flaps but with no Fowler action.

  10. TAKEOFF AND LANDING PERFORMANCE CAPABILITIES OF TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRCRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foss, W. E.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most important considerations in the design of a commercial transport aircraft is the aircraft's performance during takeoff and landing operations. The aircraft must be designed to meet field length constraints in accordance with airworthiness standards specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations. In addition, the noise levels generated during these operations must be within acceptable limits. This computer program provides for the detailed analysis of the takeoff and landing performance capabilities of transport category aircraft. The program calculates aircraft performance in accordance with the airworthiness standards of the Federal Aviation Regulations. The aircraft and flight constraints are represented in sufficient detail to permit realistic sensitivity studies in terms of either configuration modifications or changes in operational procedures. This program provides for the detailed performance analysis of the takeoff and landing capabilities of specific aircraft designs and allows for sensitivity studies. The program is not designed to synthesize configurations or to generate aerodynamic, propulsion, or structural characteristics. This type of information must be generated externally to the program and then input as data. The program's representation of the aircraft data is extensive and includes realistic limits on engine and aircraft operational boundaries and maximum attainable lift coefficients. The takeoff and climbout flight-path is generated by a stepwise integration of the equation of motion. Special features include options for nonstandard-day operation, for balanced field length, for derated throttle to meet a given field length for off-loaded aircraft, and for throttle cutback during climbout for community noise alleviation. Advanced takeoff procedures for noise alleviation such as programmed throttle and control flaps may be investigated with the program. Approach profiles may incorporate advanced procedures such as two segment

  11. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  12. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  13. Improving Student Naval Aviator Aircraft Carrier Landing Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Thomas H.; Foster, T. Chris

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the use of human performance technology (HPT) to improve qualification rates for learning to land onboard aircraft carriers. This project started as a request for a business case analysis and evolved into a full-fledged performance improvement project, from mission analysis through evaluation. The result was a significant…

  14. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  15. Optimizing aircraft performance with adaptive, integrated flight/propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.; Chisholm, J. D.; Stewart, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Performance-Seeking Control (PSC) integrated flight/propulsion adaptive control algorithm presented was developed in order to optimize total aircraft performance during steady-state engine operation. The PSC multimode algorithm minimizes fuel consumption at cruise conditions, while maximizing excess thrust during aircraft accelerations, climbs, and dashes, and simultaneously extending engine service life through reduction of fan-driving turbine inlet temperature upon engagement of the extended-life mode. The engine models incorporated by the PSC are continually upgraded, using a Kalman filter to detect anomalous operations. The PSC algorithm will be flight-demonstrated by an F-15 at NASA-Dryden.

  16. Advances in Experiment Design for High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Engene A.

    1998-01-01

    A general overview and summary of recent advances in experiment design for high performance aircraft is presented, along with results from flight tests. General theoretical background is included, with some discussion of various approaches to maneuver design. Flight test examples from the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) are used to illustrate applications of the theory. Input forms are compared using Cramer-Rao bounds for the standard errors of estimated model parameters. Directions for future research in experiment design for high performance aircraft are identified.

  17. Gordon Bennett Airplane Cup

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margoulis, W

    1921-01-01

    The characteristics of the airplanes built for the Gordon Bennet Airplane Cup race that took place on September 28, 1920 are described. The airplanes are discussed from a aerodynamical point of view, with a number of new details concerning the French machines. Also discussed is the regulation of future races. The author argues that there should be no limitations on the power of the aircraft engines. He reasons that in the present state of things, liberty with regard to engine power does not lead to a search for the most powerful engine, but for one which is reliable and light, thus leading to progress.

  18. Night time aircraft noise exposure and children's cognitive performance.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Hygge, Staffan; Clark, Charlotte; Alfred, Tamuno

    2010-01-01

    Chronic aircraft noise exposure in children is associated with impairment of reading and long-term memory. Most studies have not differentiated between day or nighttime noise exposure. It has been hypothesized that sleep disturbance might mediate the association of aircraft noise exposure and cognitive impairment in children. This study involves secondary analysis of data from the Munich Study and the UK Road Traffic and Aircraft Noise Exposure and Children's Cognition and Health (RANCH) Study sample to test this. In the Munich study, 330 children were assessed on cognitive measures in three measurement waves a year apart, before and after the switchover of airports. Self-reports of sleep quality were analyzed across airports, aircraft noise exposure and measurement wave to test whether changes in nighttime noise exposure had any effect on reported sleep quality, and whether this showed the same pattern as for changes in cognitive performance. For the UK sample of the RANCH study, night noise contour information was linked to the children's home and related to sleep disturbance and cognitive performance. In the Munich study, analysis of sleep quality questions showed no consistent interactions between airport, noise, and measurement wave, suggesting that poor sleep quality does not mediate the association between noise exposure and cognition. Daytime and nighttime aircraft noise exposure was highly correlated in the RANCH study. Although night noise exposure was significantly associated with impaired reading and recognition memory, once home night noise exposure was centered on daytime school noise exposure, night noise had no additional effect to daytime noise exposure. These analyses took advantage of secondary data available from two studies of aircraft noise and cognition. They were not initially designed to examine sleep disturbance and cognition, and thus, there are methodological limitations which make it less than ideal in giving definitive answers to these

  19. Performance of a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza airplane engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparrow, S W; White, H S

    1921-01-01

    The National Bureau of Standards tested a 300-horsepower Hispano-Suiza engine to determine the characteristic performance of the engine at various altitudes. The engine was operated at the ground, at 25,000 feet, and at intermediate altitudes, both at full loads similar to those that would be imposed upon the engine at various speeds by a propeller whose normal full-load speed was 1,800 r.p.m. Friction horsepower also was determined in order that the mechanical efficiency of the engine might be calculated. From the test data there were computed the brake horsepower, brake mean effective pressure, specific fuel consumption, mixture ratio, jacket loss, exhaust loss, and thermal, mechanical, and volumetric efficiencies. A record of jacket water temperatures, oil temperatures, manifold pressures, etc., shows the conditions under which the test was made.

  20. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  1. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  2. 14 CFR 135.399 - Small nontransport category airplane performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... that person complies with the takeoff weight limitations in the approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for operations under this part, and, if the airplane is certificated under § 135.169(b) (4) or (5) with the landing weight limitations in the Approved Airplane Flight Manual or equivalent for...

  3. Flight evaluation of the effect of winglets on performance and handling qualities of a single-engine general aviation airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Vandam, C. P.; Brown, P. W.; Deal, P. L.

    1980-01-01

    A flight evaluation was conducted to determine the effects of winglets on the performance and handling qualities of a light, single-engine general aviation airplane. The performance measurements were made with a pace airplane to provide calibrated airspeeds; uncalibrated panel instruments in the test airplane were used to provide additional quantitative performance data. These tests were conducted with winglets on and off during the same day to measure relative performance effects. Handling qualities were evaluated by means of pilot comments. Winglets increased cruise speed 8 knots (5.6 percent) at 3962 m (13,000 ft) density altitude and 51 percent maximum continuous power setting. Maximum speed at 3962 m was virtually unchanged. Rate of climb increased approximately 6 percent, or 0.25 m/sec (50 ft/min), at 1524 m (5000 ft). Stall speed was virtually unchanged. Handling qualities were favorably affected.

  4. A fuel-efficient cruise performance model for general aviation piston engine airplanes. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, R. C. H.

    1983-01-01

    A fuel-efficient cruise performance model which facilitates maximizing the specific range of General Aviation airplanes powered by spark-ignition piston engines and propellers is presented. Airplanes of fixed design only are considered. The uses and limitations of typical Pilot Operating Handbook cruise performance data, for constructing cruise performance models suitable for maximizing specific range, are first examined. These data are found to be inadequate for constructing such models. A new model of General Aviation piston-prop airplane cruise performance is then developed. This model consists of two subsystem models: the airframe-propeller-atmosphere subsystem model; and the engine-atmosphere subsystem model. The new model facilitates maximizing specific range; and by virtue of its implicity and low volume data storge requirements, appears suitable for airborne microprocessor implementation.

  5. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  6. 76 FR 57627 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company Model M680 Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... Airplane; Rechargeable Lithium-Ion Battery Installations AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... lithium-ion batteries. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate... lithium-ion batteries in the Model 680. Type Certification Basis Under the provisions of Title 14, Code...

  7. 78 FR 70849 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... with Class 3 Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) and wireless local area data networks (LAN) associated with the EFB architecture and existing airplane network systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations..., software-configurable avionics, and fiber-optic avionics networks. The proposed Class 3 EFB architecture...

  8. 78 FR 70848 - Special Conditions: Boeing Model 777-200, -300, and -300ER Series Airplanes; Aircraft Electronic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... with Class 3 Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) and wireless local area data networks (LAN) associated with the EFB architecture and existing airplane network systems. The applicable airworthiness regulations..., software-configurable avionics, and fiber-optic avionics networks. The proposed Class 3 EFB architecture...

  9. Energy absorption studied to reduce aircraft crash forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The NASA/FAA aircraft safety reseach programs for general aviation aircraft are discussed. Energy absorption of aircraft subflooring and redesign of interior flooring are being studied. The testing of energy absorbing configurations is described. The three NASA advanced concepts performed at neary the maximum possible amount of energy absorption, and one of two minimum modifications concepts performed well. Planned full scale tests are described. Airplane seat concepts are being considered.

  10. Flight comparison of the transonic agility of the F-111A airplane and the F-111 supercritical wing airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, E. L.; Sakamoto, G. M.

    1978-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to investigate the improvements in maneuverability of an F-111A airplane equipped with a supercritical wing. In this configuration the aircraft is known as the F-111 TACT (transonic aircraft technology) airplane. The variable-wing-sweep feature permitted an evaluation of the supercritical wing in many configurations. The primary emphasis was placed on the transonic Mach number region, which is considered to be the principal air combat arena for fighter aircraft. An agility study was undertaken to assess the maneuverability of the F-111A aircraft with a supercritical wing at both design and off-design conditions. The evaluation included an assessment of aerodynamic and maneuver performance in conjunction with an evaluation of precision controllability during tailchase gunsight tracking tasks.

  11. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  12. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat; Barmore, Bryan; Swieringa, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    The accuracy of the wind information used to generate trajectories for aircraft performing Interval Management (IM) operations is critical to the success of an IM operation. There are two main forms of uncertainty in the wind information used by the Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM) equipment. The first is the accuracy of the forecast modeling done by the weather provider. The second is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment, resulting in loss of additional information. This study focuses on what subset of forecast data, such as the number and location of the points where the wind is sampled should be made available to uplink to the aircraft.

  13. Coordinated crew performance in commercial aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1977-01-01

    A specific methodology is proposed for an improved system of coding and analyzing crew member interaction. The complexity and lack of precision of many crew and task variables suggest the usefulness of fuzzy linguistic techniques for modeling and computer simulation of the crew performance process. Other research methodologies and concepts that have promise for increasing the effectiveness of research on crew performance are identified.

  14. Performance improvements of single-engine business airplanes by the integration of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    An assessment is presented of the performance gains and economic impact of the integration in general aviation aircraft of advanced technologies, relating to such aspects of design as propulsion, natural laminar flow, lift augmentation, unconventional configurations, and advanced aluminum and composite structures. All considerations are with reference to a baseline mission of 1300 nm range and 300-knot cruise speed with a 1300-lb payload, and a baseline aircraft with a 40 lb/sq ft wing loading and an aspect ratio of 8. Extensive analytical results are presented from the NASA-sponsored General Aviation Synthesis Program. Attention is given to the relative performance gains to be expected from the single-engined baseline aircraft's use of a low cost general aviation turbine engine, a spark-ignited reciprocating engine, a diesel engine, and a Wankel rotary engine.

  15. Performance of light sources and radiation sensors under low gravity realized by parabolic airplane flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki; Hirai, Takehiro

    A fundamental study was conducted to establish an experimental system for space farming. Since to ensure optimal light for plant cultivation in space is of grave importance, this study examined the performance of light sources and radiation sensors under microgravity conditions created during the parabolic airplane flight. Three kinds of light sources, a halogen bulb, a fluorescent tube, and blue and red LEDs, and ten models of radiation sensors available in the market were used for the experiment. Surface temperature of the light sources, output signals from the radiation sensors, spectroscopic characteristics were measured at the gravity levels of 0.01, 1.0 and 1.8 G for 20 seconds each during parabolic airplane flights. As a result, the performance of the halogen lamp was affected the most by the gravity level among the three light sources. Under the microgravity conditions which do not raise heat convection, the temperature of the halogen lamp rose and the output of the radiation sensors increased. Spectral distributions of the halogen lamp indicated that peak wavelength appeared the highest at the level of 0.01G, which contributed to the increase in light intensity. In the case of red and blue LEDs, which are promising light sources in space farming, the temperature of both LED chips rose but irradiance from red LED increased and that from blue LED decreased under microgravity conditions due to the different thermal characteristics.

  16. 78 FR 68347 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... solution, EASA issued Emergency AD 2009-0012-E to require implementation of an aircraft Flight Manual (AFM..., Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing... airplanes. AD 2009-04-07 required revising the airplane flight manual (AFM) to include...

  17. Takeoff certification considerations for large subsonic and supersonic transport airplanes using the Ames flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, C. T.; Drinkwater, F. J., III; Fry, E. B.; Forrest, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Data for use in development of takeoff airworthiness standards for new aircraft designs such as the supersonic transport (SST) and the large wide-body subsonic jet transport are provided. An advanced motion simulator was used to compare the performance and handling characteristics of three representative large jet transports during specific flight certification tasks. Existing regulatory constraints and methods for determining rotation speed were reviewed, and the effects on takeoff performance of variations in rotation speed, pitch attitude, and pitch attitude rate during the rotation maneuver were analyzed. A limited quantity of refused takeoff information was obtained. The aerodynamics, wing loading, and thrust-to-weight ratio of the subject SST resulted in takeoff speeds limited by climb (rather than lift-off) considerations. Take-off speeds based on U.S. subsonic transport requirements were found unacceptable because of the criticality of rotation-abuse effects on one-engine-inoperative climb performance. Adequate safety margin was provided by takeoff speeds based on proposed Anglo-French supersonic transport (TSS) criteria, with the limiting criterion being that takeoff safety speed be at least 1.15 times the one-engine-inoperative zero-rate-of-climb speed. Various observations related to SST certification are presented.

  18. Wind Information Uplink to Aircraft Performing Interval Management Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    provider. This is generally a global environmental prediction obtained from a weather model such as the Rapid Refresh (RAP) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The weather forecast data will have errors relative to the actual, or truth, winds that the aircraft will encounter. The second source of uncertainty is that only a small subset of the forecast data can be uplinked to the aircraft for use by the FIM equipment. This results in loss of additional information. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and RTCA are currently developing standards for the communication of wind and atmospheric data to the aircraft for use in NextGen operations. This study examines the impact of various wind forecast sampling methods on IM performance metrics to inform the standards development.

  19. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  20. 78 FR 65155 - Special Conditions: Learjet Model 45 Series Airplanes; Isolation or Security Protection of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... navigation systems (aircraft control domain); 2. Operator business and administrative support (operator... electronic system security protection against, access by unauthorized sources internal to the airplane. The... Airplanes; Isolation or Security Protection of the Aircraft Control Domain and the Airline...

  1. Experiences performing conceptual design optimization of transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Optimum Preliminary Design of Transports (OPDOT) is a computer program developed at NASA Langley Research Center for evaluating the impact of new technologies upon transport aircraft. For example, it provides the capability to look at configurations which have been resized to take advantage of active controls and provide and indication of economic sensitivity to its use. Although this tool returns a conceptual design configuration as its output, it does not have the accuracy, in absolute terms, to yield satisfactory point designs for immediate use by aircraft manufacturers. However, the relative accuracy of comparing OPDOT-generated configurations while varying technological assumptions has been demonstrated to be highly reliable. Hence, OPDOT is a useful tool for ascertaining the synergistic benefits of active controls, composite structures, improved engine efficiencies and other advanced technological developments. The approach used by OPDOT is a direct numerical optimization of an economic performance index. A set of independent design variables is iterated, given a set of design constants and data. The design variables include wing geometry, tail geometry, fuselage size, and engine size. This iteration continues until the optimum performance index is found which satisfies all the constraint functions. The analyst interacts with OPDOT by varying the input parameters to either the constraint functions or the design constants. Note that the optimization of aircraft geometry parameters is equivalent to finding the ideal aircraft size, but with more degrees of freedom than classical design procedures will allow.

  2. Performance of high-altitude, long-endurance, turboprop airplanes using conventional or cryogenic fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, G. C.; Morris, C. E. K., Jr.; Koenig, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical study has been conducted to evaluate the potential endurance of remotely piloted, low speed, high altitude, long endurance airplanes designed with 1990 technology. The baseline configuration was a propeller driven, sailplane like airplane powered by turbine engines that used JP-7, liquid methane, or liquid hydrogen as fuel. Endurance was measured as the time spent between 60,000 feet and an engine limited maximum altitude of 70,000 feet. Performance was calculated for a baseline vehicle and for configurations derived by varying aerodynamic, structural or propulsion parameters. Endurance is maximized by reducing wing loading and engine size. The level of maximum endurance for a given wing loading is virtually the same for all three fuels. Constraints due to winds aloft and propulsion system scaling produce maximum endurance values of 71 hours for JP-7 fuel, 70 hours for liquid methane, and 65 hours for liquid hydrogen. Endurance is shown to be strongly effected by structural weight fraction, specific fuel consumption, and fuel load. Listings of the computer program used in this study and sample cases are included in the report.

  3. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  4. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  5. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  6. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  7. 14 CFR 135.398 - Commuter category airplanes performance operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... all commuter category airplanes notwithstanding their stated applicability to turbine-engine-powered... used, the elevation of the airport, the effective runway gradient, and ambient temperature, and...

  8. An Analysis of the Tracking Performances of Two Straight-wing and Two Swept-wing Fighter Airplanes with Fixed Sights in a Standardized Test Maneuver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziff, Howard L; Rathert, George A; Gadeberg, Burnett L

    1953-01-01

    Standard air-to-air-gunnery tracking runs were conducted with F-51H, F8F-1, F-86A, and F-86E airplanes equipped with fixed gunsights. The tracking performances were documented over the normal operating range of altitude, Mach number, and normal acceleration factor for each airplane. The sources of error were studied by statistical analyses of the aim wander.

  9. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to single-engine light airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    1976-01-01

    The design, efficiency and cost factors are investigated for application of turbofan propulsion engines to single engine, general aviation light airplanes. A companion study of a hypothetical engine family of a thrust range suitable to such aircraft and having a high degree of commonality of design features and parts is presented. Future turbofan powered light airplanes can have a lower fuel consumption, lower weight, reduced airframe maintenance requirements and improved engine overhaul periods as compared to current piston engined powered airplanes. Achievement of compliance with noise and chemical emission regulations is expected without impairing performance, operating cost or safety.

  10. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  11. Amphibious Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The airplane pictured is the new Air Shark I, a four-place amphibian that makes extensive use of composite materials and cruises at close to 200 miles per hour under power from a 200-horsepower engine. Air Shark I is a "homebuilt" airplane, assembled from a kit of parts and components furnished by Freedom Master Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida. The airplane incorporates considerable NASA technology and its construction benefited from research assistance provided by Kennedy Space Center (KSC) In designing the Shark, company president Arthur M. Lueck was able to draw on NASA's aeronautical technology bank through KSC's computerized "recon" library. As a result of his work at KSC, the wing of the Air Shark I is a new airfoil developed by Langley Research Center for light aircraft. In addition, Lueck opted for NASA-developed "winglets," vertical extensions of the wing that reduce drag by smoothing air turbulence at the wingtips. The NASA technology bank also contributed to the hull design. Lueck is considering application of NASA laminar flow technology-means of smoothing the airflow over wing and fuselage-to later models for further improvement of the Shark's aerodynamic efficiency. A materials engineer, Lueck employed his own expertise in designing and selecting the materials for the composite segments, which include all structural members, exposed surfaces and many control components. The materials are fiber reinforced plastics, or FRP They offer a high strength-to-weight ratio, with a nominal strength rating about one and a half times that of structural steel. They provide other advantages: the materials can be easily molded into finished shapes without expensive tooling or machining, and they are highly corrosion resistant. The first homebuilt to be offered by Freedom Master, Air Shark I completed air and water testing in mid-1985 and the company launched production of kits.

  12. Airstart performance of a digital electronic engine control system in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Licata, S. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The airstart performance of the F100 engine equipped with a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system was evaluated in an F-15 airplane. The DEEC system incorporates closed-loop airstart logic for improved capability. Spooldown and jet fuel starter-assisted airstarts were made over a range of airspeeds and altitudes. All jet fuel starter-assisted airstarts were successful, with airstart time varying from 35 to 60 sec. All spooldown airstarts at airspeeds of 200 knots and higher were successful; airstart times ranged from 45 sec at 250 knots to 135 sec at 200 knots. The effects of altitude on airstart success and time were small. The flight results agreed closely with previous altitude facility test results. The DEEC system provided successful airstarts at airspeeds at least 50 knots lower than the standard F100 engine control system.

  13. Terminal area considerations for an advanced CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Projected future conditions at large urban airports were used to identify design objectives for a long-haul, advanced transport airplane introduced for operation in the mid-1980s. Operating constraints associated with airport congestion and aircraft noise and emissions were of central interest. In addition, some of the interaction of these constraints with aircraft fuel usage were identified. The study allowed for advanced aircraft design features consistent with the future operating period. A baseline 200 passenger airplane design was modified to comply with design requirements imposed by terminal area constraints. Specific design changes included: (1) modification of engine arrangement; wing planform; (2) drag and spoiler surfaces; (3) secondary power systems; (4) brake and landing gear characteristics; and (5) the aircraft avionics. These changes, based on exploratory design estimates and allowing for technology advance, were judged to enable the airplane to: reduce wake turbulence; handle steeper descent paths with fewer limitation due to engine characteristics; reduce runway occupancy times; improve community noise contours; and reduce the total engine emittants deposited in the terminal area. The penalties to airplane performance and operating cost associated with improving the terminal area characteristics of the airplane were assessed. Finally, key research problems requiring solution in order to validate the assumed advanced airplane technology were identified.

  14. Subsonic flight test evaluation of a performance seeking control algorithm on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Orme, John S.

    1992-01-01

    The subsonic flight test evaluation phase of the NASA F-15 (powered by F 100 engines) performance seeking control program was completed for single-engine operation at part- and military-power settings. The subsonic performance seeking control algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of the propulsion system for three modes of operation. The minimum fuel flow mode minimizes fuel consumption. The minimum thrust mode maximizes thrust at military power. Decreases in thrust-specific fuel consumption of 1 to 2 percent were measured in the minimum fuel flow mode; these fuel savings are significant, especially for supersonic cruise aircraft. Decreases of up to approximately 100 degree R in fan turbine inlet temperature were measured in the minimum temperature mode. Temperature reductions of this magnitude would more than double turbine life if inlet temperature was the only life factor. Measured thrust increases of up to approximately 15 percent in the maximum thrust mode cause substantial increases in aircraft acceleration. The system dynamics of the closed-loop algorithm operation were good. The subsonic flight phase has validated the performance seeking control technology, which can significantly benefit the next generation of fighter and transport aircraft.

  15. Flexible body dynamic stability for high performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goforth, E. A.; Youssef, H. M.; Apelian, C. V.; Schroeder, S. C.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic equations which include the effects of unsteady aerodynamic forces and a flexible body structure were developed for a free flying high performance fighter aircraft. The linear and angular deformations are assumed to be small in the body reference frame, allowing the equations to be linearized in the deformation variables. Equations for total body dynamics and flexible body dynamics are formulated using the hybrid coordinate method and integrated in a state space format. A detailed finite element model of a generic high performance fighter aircraft is used to generate the mass and stiffness matrices. Unsteady aerodynamics are represented by a rational function approximation of the doublet lattice matrices. The equations simplify for the case of constant angular rate of the body reference frame, allowing the effect of roll rate to be studied by computing the eigenvalues of the system. It is found that the rigid body modes of the aircraft are greatly affected by introducing a constant roll rate, while the effect on the flexible modes is minimal for this configuration.

  16. Switching LPV Control for High Performance Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a switching Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) control approach to determine if it is practical to use for flight control designs within a wide angle of attack region. The approach is based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. The full parameter space is partitioned into overlapping subspaces and a family of LPV controllers are designed, each suitable for a specific parameter subspace. The hysteresis switching logic is used to accomplish the transition among different parameter subspaces. The proposed switching LPV control scheme is applied to an F-16 aircraft model with different actuator dynamics in low and high angle of attack regions. The nonlinear simulation results show that the aircraft performs well when switching among different angle of attack regions.

  17. External store effects on the stability of fighter and interceptor airplanes. [application to military aircraft mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some criteria for external carriage of missiles for fighter aircraft intended for aerial combat missions and for fighter-interceptor missions are considered. The mission requirements discussed include the short-range fighter-interceptor, the short-range interceptor, the medium-range interceptor, and the long-range interceptor. Missiles types considered to be compatible with the various point mission designs include the short-range missile, the medium-range missile, and the long-range missile. From the study, it appears that point mission design aircraft can be arranged in such a way that the required external-store arrangement will not impair the stability of the aircraft. An extensive reference list of NASA external store research is included.

  18. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  19. Design of the ARES Mars Airplane and Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Robert D.; Wright, Henry S.; Croom, Mark A.; Levine, Joel S.; Spencer, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Significant technology advances have enabled planetary aircraft to be considered as viable science platforms. Such systems fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Recent efforts have produced mature mission and flight system concepts, ready for flight project implementation. This paper summarizes the development of a Mars airplane mission architecture that balances science, implementation risk and cost. Airplane mission performance, flight system design and technology maturation are described. The design, analysis and testing completed demonstrates the readiness of this science platform for use in a Mars flight project.

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  1. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  2. Analysis of Aircraft Control Performance using a Fuzzy Rule Base Representation of the Cooper-Harper Aircraft Handling Quality Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Chris; Gupta, Pramod; Schumann, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper rating of Aircraft Handling Qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft since it was introduced in 1966. Aircraft performance, ability to control the aircraft, and the degree of pilot compensation needed are three major key factors used in deciding the aircraft handling qualities in the Cooper- Harper rating. We formulate the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as a fuzzy rule-based system and use it to analyze the effectiveness of the aircraft controller. The automatic estimate of the system-level handling quality provides valuable up-to-date information for diagnostics and vehicle health management. Analyzing the performance of a controller requires a set of concise design requirements and performance criteria. Ir, the case of control systems fm a piloted aircraft, generally applicable quantitative design criteria are difficult to obtain. The reason for this is that the ultimate evaluation of a human-operated control system is necessarily subjective and, with aircraft, the pilot evaluates the aircraft in different ways depending on the type of the aircraft and the phase of flight. In most aerospace applications (e.g., for flight control systems), performance assessment is carried out in terms of handling qualities. Handling qualities may be defined as those dynamic and static properties of a vehicle that permit the pilot to fully exploit its performance in a variety of missions and roles. Traditionally, handling quality is measured using the Cooper-Harper rating and done subjectively by the human pilot. In this work, we have formulated the rules of the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as fuzzy rules with performance, control, and compensation as the antecedents, and pilot rating as the consequent. Appropriate direct measurements on the controller are related to the fuzzy Cooper-Harper rating system: a stability measurement like the rate of change of the cost function can be used as an indicator if the aircraft is under

  3. 75 FR 3127 - Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft, Inc. Model 600 S2D and S2R Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...-036-AD; Amendment 39-16150; AD 2009-26-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thrush Aircraft...: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) to supersede AD (AD) 2006-07-15... previously held by Quality Aerospace, Inc. and Ayres Corporation). AD 2006-07-15 currently...

  4. 75 FR 75868 - Airworthiness Directives; Diamond Aircraft Industries GmbH Models DA 40 and DA 40F Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... 2010-CE-044-AD; Amendment 39-16534; AD 2010-25-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Diamond..., 2011. ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this AD, contact Diamond Aircraft Industries Gmb... 26780; e-mail: office@diamond-air.at ; Internet: http://www.diamond-air.at . You may review copies...

  5. Development of lightweight fire retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. B.; Burnside, J. V.; Hajari, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Fire resistance mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex honeycomb core. The test results were compared to proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels.

  6. 77 FR 55163 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes... directive (AD) for certain Airbus Model A330-200, A330-300, A340-200, and A340- 300 series airplanes; and Model A340-541 airplanes and Model A340-642 airplanes. That NPRM proposed to require performing...

  7. Assessment of advanced technologies for high performance single-engine business airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, D. L.; Holmes, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    The prospects for significantly increasing the fuel efficiency and mission capability of single engine business aircraft through the incorporation of advanced propulsion, aerodynamics and materials technologies are explored. It is found that turbine engines cannot match the fuel economy of the heavier rotary, diesel and advanced spark reciprocating engines. The rotary engine yields the lightest and smallest aircraft for a given mission requirement, and also offers greater simplicity and a multifuel capability. Great promise is also seen in the use of composite material primary structures in conjunction with laminar flow wing surfaces, a pusher propeller and conventional wing-tail configuration. This study was conducted with the General Aviation Synthesis Program, which can furnish the most accurate mission performance calculations yet obtained.

  8. Controlling crippled aircraft-with throttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1991-01-01

    A multiengine crippled aircraft, with most or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. A study was conducted of the capability and techniques for emergency flight control. Included were light twin engine piston powered airplanes, an executive jet transport, commercial jet transports, and a high performance fighter. Piloted simulations of the B-720, B-747, B-727, MD-11, C-402, and F-15 airplanes were studied, and the Lear 24, PA-30, and F-15 airplanes were flight tested. All aircraft showed some control capability with throttles and could be kept under control in up-and-away flight for an extended period of time. Using piloted simulators, landings with manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. However, there are techniques that improve the chances of making a survivable landing. In addition, augmented control systems provide major improvements in control capability and make repeatable landings possible. Control capabilities and techniques are discussed.

  9. The airplane: A simulated commercial air transportation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauteuil, Mark; Geniesse, Pete; Hunniford, Michael; Lawler, Kathleen; Quirk, Elena; Tognarelli, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The 'Airplane' is a moderate-range, 70 passenger aircraft. It is designed to serve demands for flights up to 10,000 feet and it cruises at 32 ft/s. The major drivers for the design of the Airplane are economic competitiveness, takeoff performance, and weight minimization. The Airplane is propelled by a single Astro 15 electric motor and a Zinger 12-8 propeller. The wing section is a Spica airfoil which, because of its flat bottom, provides simplicity in manufacturing and thus helps to cut costs. The wing is constructed of a single load bearing mainspar and shape-holding ribs coated with Monokote skin, lending to a light weight structural makeup. The fuselage houses the motor, flight deck and passenger compartments as well as the fuel and control actuating systems. The wing will be attached to the top of the fuselage as will the fuel and control actuator systems for easy disassembly and maintenance. The aircraft is maneuvered about its pitch axis by means of an aft elevator on the flat plate horizontal tail. The twin vertical tail surfaces are also flat plates and each features a rudder for both directional and roll control. Along with wing dihedral, the rudders will be used to roll the aircraft. The Airplane is less costly to operate at its own maximum range and capacity as well as at its maximum range and the HB-40's maximum capacity than the HB-40.

  10. Comparative Performance Obtained with XF7C-1 Airplane Using Several Different Engine Cowlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schey, Oscar W; Johnson, Ernest; Gough, Melvin N

    1930-01-01

    Discussed here are problems with the use of cowlings with radial air cooled engines. An XF7C-1 airplane, equipped with service cowling and with narrow ring, wide ring, and exhaust collector ring cowlings over the service cowling, was used. For these four cowling conditions, the rate of climb and high speed performance were determined, the cylinder conditions were measured, and pictures to show visibility were taken. The level flight performance obtained with an engine speed of 1900 r.p.m. for the service type, the narrow ring, the wide ring, and the exhaust collector ring was 144.4, 146.6, 152.8, and 155 mph, respectively. The rate of climb was practically the same for each type tested. The visibility was not materially impaired by the use of the wide or the narrow cowlings. With the narrow ring and exhaust collector ring cowlings there was an increase in cylinder temperature. However, this increase was not enough to affect the performance of the engine. The use of an exhaust collector ring incorporated into the cowling is practical where the problem of visibility does not enter.

  11. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  12. Crash Tests of Protective Airplane Floors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carden, H. D.

    1986-01-01

    Energy-absorbing floors reduce structural buckling and impact forces on occupants. 56-page report discusses crash tests of energy-absorbing aircraft floors. Describes test facility and procedures; airplanes, structural modifications, and seats; crash dynamics; floor and seat behavior; and responses of anthropometric dummies seated in airplanes. Also presents plots of accelerations, photographs and diagrams of test facility, and photographs and drawings of airplanes before, during, and after testing.

  13. Flight test report of the NASA icing research airplane: Performance, stability, and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J. L.; Platz, S. J.; Schinstock, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Flight test results are presented documenting the effect of airframe icing on performance and stability and control of a NASA DHC-6 icing research aircraft. Kohlman System Research, Inc., provided the data acquisition system and data analysis under contract to NASA. Performance modeling methods and MMLE techniques were used to determine the effects of natural ice on the aircraft. Results showed that ice had a significant effect on the drag coefficient of the aircraft and a modest effect on the MMLE derived longitudinal stability coefficients (code version MMLE). Data is also presented on asymmetric power sign slip maneuvers showing rudder floating characteristics with and without ice on the vertical stabilizer.

  14. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  15. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  16. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  17. 14 CFR 125.91 - Airplane requirements: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane requirements: General. 125.91... AND OPERATIONS: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1437 - Accessories for multiengine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accessories for multiengine airplanes. 23... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1437 Accessories for multiengine airplanes. For multiengine...

  20. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  1. 14 CFR 121.159 - Single-engine airplanes prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Single-engine airplanes prohibited. 121.159... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Aircraft Requirements § 121.159 Single-engine airplanes prohibited. No certificate holder may operate a single-engine airplane under this part....

  2. 14 CFR 125.75 - Airplane flight manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane flight manual. 125.75 Section 125...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Manual Requirements § 125.75 Airplane flight manual. (a) Each certificate holder shall keep a current approved Airplane Flight Manual...

  3. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  4. Numerical modelling methods for predicting antenna performance on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubina, S. J.

    1983-09-01

    Typical case studies that involve the application of Moment Methods to the prediction of the radiation characteristics of antennas in the HF frequency band are examined. The examples consist of the analysis of a shorted transmission line HF antenna on a CHSS-2/Sea King helicopter, wire antennas on the CP-140/Aurora patrol aircraft and a long dipole antenna on the Space Shuttle Orbiter spacecraft. In each of these cases the guidelines for antenna modeling by the use of the program called the Numerical Electromagnetic Code are progressively applied and results are compared to measurements made by the use of scale-model techniques. In complex examples of this type comparisons based on individual radiation patterns are insufficient for the validation of computer models. A volumetric method of radiation pattern comparison is used based on criteria that result from pattern integration and that are related to communication system performance. This is supplemented by hidden-surface displays of an entire set of conical radiation patterns resulting from measurements and computations. Antenna coupling considerations are discussed for the case of the dual HF installation on the CP-140/Aurora aircraft.

  5. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  6. 14 CFR 121.207 - Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisionally certificated airplanes... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.207 Provisionally certificated airplanes: Operating limitations....

  7. Calculated Drag of an Aerial Refueling Assembly Through Airplane Performance Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Michael Jacob; Ray, Ronald J.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic drag of an aerial refueling assembly was calculated during the Automated Aerial Refueling project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. An F/A-18A airplane was specially instrumented to obtain accurate fuel flow measurements and to determine engine thrust. A standard Navy air refueling store with a retractable refueling hose and paradrogue was mounted to the centerline pylon of the F/A-18A airplane. As the paradrogue assembly was deployed and stowed, changes in the calculated thrust of the airplane occurred and were equated to changes in vehicle drag. These drag changes were attributable to the drag of the paradrogue assembly. The drag of the paradrogue assembly was determined to range from 200 to 450 lbf at airspeeds from 170 to 250 KIAS. Analysis of the drag data resulted in a single drag coefficient of 0.0056 for the paradrogue assembly that adequately matched the calculated drag for all flight conditions. The drag relief provided to the tanker airplane when a receiver airplane engaged the paradrogue is also documented from 35 to 270 lbf at the various flight conditions tested. The results support the development of accurate aerodynamic models to be used in refueling simulations and control laws for fully autonomous refueling.

  8. Calculation of Precipitable Water for Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy Aircraft (SOFIA): Airplane in the Night Sky

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Pey Chun; Busby, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, is the new generation airborne observatory station based at NASA s Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility, Palmdale, CA, to study the universe. Since the observatory detects infrared energy, water vapor is a concern in the atmosphere due to its known capacity to absorb infrared energy emitted by astronomical objects. Although SOFIA is hoping to fly above 99% of water vapor in the atmosphere it is still possible to affect astronomical observation. Water vapor is one of the toughest parameter to measure in the atmosphere, several atmosphere modeling are used to calculate water vapor loading. The water vapor loading, or Precipitable water, is being calculated by Matlab along the planned flight path. Over time, these results will help SOFIA to plan flights to regions of lower water vapor loading and hopefully improve the imagery collection of these astronomical features.

  9. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  10. 14 CFR 125.355 - Airplane equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane equipment. 125.355 Section 125.355...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.355...

  11. Notes on New French Commercial Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    This document discusses the types of commercial planes ordered by Air France. Characteristics of the Wibault 670, the Dewoitine D.620, Bloch 300, and the Potez 620 airplanes are included. Pictures and diagrams of these aircraft are also included.

  12. 75 FR 20518 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Full Authority Digital Engine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Airplane; Full Authority Digital Engine Control (FADEC) System AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... issued for the Cirrus Design Corporation model SF50 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... Aviation Administration, Aircraft Certification Service, Small Airplane Directorate, ACE-111, 901...

  13. Recommendations for field measurements of aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Specific recommendations for environmental test criteria, data acquisition procedures, and instrument performance requirements for measurement of noise levels produced by aircraft in flight are provided. Recommendations are also given for measurement of associated airplane and engine parameters and atmospheric conditions. Recommendations are based on capabilities which were available commercially in 1981; they are applicable to field tests of aircraft flying subsonically past microphones located near the surface of the ground either directly under or to the side of a flight path. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations include fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines or by propellers. The recommended field-measurement procedures are consistent with assumed requirements for data processing and analysis.

  14. Ski jump takeoff performance predictions for a mixed-flow, remote-lift STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.

    1992-01-01

    A ski jump model was developed to predict ski jump takeoff performance for a short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The objective was to verify the model with results from a piloted simulation of a mixed flow, remote lift STOVL aircraft. The prediction model is discussed. The predicted results are compared with the piloted simulation results. The ski jump model can be utilized for basic research of other thrust vectoring STOVL aircraft performing a ski jump takeoff.

  15. Flight evaluation of the transonic stability and control characteristics of an airplane incorporating a supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matheny, N. W.; Gatlin, D. H.

    1978-01-01

    A TF-8A airplane was equipped with a transport type supercritical wing and fuselage fairings to evaluate predicted performance improvements for cruise at transonic speeds. A comparison of aerodynamic derivatives extracted from flight and wind tunnel data showed that static longitudinal stability, effective dihedral, and aileron effectiveness, were higher than predicted. The static directional stability derivative was slower than predicted. The airplane's handling qualities were acceptable with the stability augmentation system on. The unaugmented airplane exhibited some adverse lateral directional characteristics that involved low Dutch roll damping and low roll control power at high angles of attack and roll control power that was greater than satisfactory for transport aircraft at cruise conditions. Longitudinally, the aircraft exhibited a mild pitchup tendency. Leading edge vortex generators delayed the onset of flow separation, moving the pitchup point to a higher lift coefficient and reducing its severity.

  16. Time-History Data of Maneuvers Performed by an F-86A Airplane During Squadron Operational Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Campbell; Thornton, James; Mayo, Alton

    1952-01-01

    Preliminary results of one phase of a control-motion study program are presented in the form of plots of load factor.and angular acceleration against indicated airspeed and of time histories of several measured quantities. The results were obtained from 197 maneuvers performed by an F-86A jet-fighter airplane during normal squadron operational training. Most of the tactical maneuver8 of which the F-86A is capable were performed at pressure altitudes ranging from 0 to 32,000 feet and at indicated airspeeds ranging from 95 to 650 miles per hour.

  17. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  18. Noise reduction studies for the U-10 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilton, D. A.; Connor, A. B.; Hubbard, H. H.; Dingeldein, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    A study was undertaken by the NASA Langley Research Center to determine the noise reduction potential of the U-10 airplane in order to reduce its aural detection distance. Static and flyover noise measurements were made to document the basic airplane noise signature. Two modifications to the airplane configuration are suggested as having the best potential for substantially reducing aural detection distance with small penalty to airplane performance or stability and control. These modifications include changing the present 3-blade propeller to a 5-blade propeller, changing the propeller diameter, and changing the propeller gear ratio, along with the use of an engine exhaust muffler. The aural detection distance corresponding to normal cruising flight at an altitude of 1,000 ft over grassy terrain is reduced from 28,000 ft (5.3 miles) to about 50 percent of that value for modification 1, and to about 25 percent for modification 2. For the aircraft operating at an altitude of 300 ft, the analysis indicates that relatively straightforward modifications could reduce the aural detection distance to approximately 0.9 mile. Operation of the aircraft at greatly reduced engine speed (1650 rpm) with a 1.3-cu-ft muffler provides aural detection distances slightly lower than modification 1.

  19. Blended Buffet-Load-Alleviation System for Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.

    2005-01-01

    The capability of modern fighter airplanes to sustain flight at high angles of attack and/or moderate angles of sideslip often results in immersion of part of such an airplane in unsteady, separated, vortical flow emanating from its forebody or wings. The flows from these surfaces become turbulent and separated during flight under these conditions. These flows contain significant levels of energy over a frequency band coincident with that of low-order structural vibration modes of wings, fins, and control surfaces. The unsteady pressures applied to these lifting surfaces as a result of the turbulent flows are commonly denoted buffet loads, and the resulting vibrations of the affected structures are known as buffeting. Prolonged exposure to buffet loads has resulted in fatigue of structures on several airplanes. Damage to airplanes caused by buffeting has led to redesigns of airplane structures and increased support costs for the United States Air Force and Navy as well as the armed forces of other countries. Time spent inspecting, repairing, and replacing structures adversely affects availability of aircraft for missions. A blend of rudder-control and piezoelectric- actuator engineering concepts was selected as a basis for the design of a vertical-tail buffet-load-alleviation system for the F/A-18 airplane. In this system, the rudder actuator is used to control the response of the first tail vibrational mode (bending at a frequency near 15 Hz), while directional patch piezoelectric actuators are used to control the second tail vibrational mode (tip torsion at a frequency near 45 Hz). This blend of two types of actuator utilizes the most effective features of each. An analytical model of the aeroservoelastic behavior of the airplane equipped with this system was validated by good agreement with measured results from a full-scale ground test, flight-test measurement of buffet response, and an in-flight commanded rudder frequency sweep. The overall performance of the

  20. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  1. The sealed lead-acid battery: performance and present aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmons, John; Kurian, Raju; Goodman, Alan; Johnson, William R.

    The United States Navy has flown valve-regulated lead-acid batteries (VRLA) for approximately 22 years. The first VRLA aircraft batteries were of a cylindrical cell design and these evolved to a prismatic design to save weight, volume, and to increase rate capability. This paper discusses the evolution of the VRLA aircraft battery designs, present VRLA battery performance, and battery size availability along with their aircraft applications (both military and commercial). The paper provides some of the reliability data from present applications. Finally, the paper discusses what future evolution of the VRLA technology is required to improve performance and to remain the technology of choice over other sealed aircraft battery designs.

  2. Recommended procedures for measuring aircraft noise and associated parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1977-01-01

    Procedures are recommended for obtaining experimental values of aircraft flyover noise levels (and associated parameters). Specific recommendations are made for test criteria, instrumentation performance requirements, data-acquisition procedures, and test operations. The recommendations are based on state-of-the-art measurement capabilities available in 1976 and are consistent with the measurement objectives of the NASA Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. The recommendations are applicable to measurements of the noise produced by an airplane flying subsonically over (or past) microphones located near the surface of the ground. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations are fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines and using conventional aerodynamic means for takeoff and landing. Various assumptions with respect to subsequent data processing and analysis were made (and are described) and the recommended measurement procedures are compatible with the assumptions. Some areas where additional research is needed relative to aircraft flyover noise measurement techniques are also discussed.

  3. 26 x 6.6 radial-belted aircraft tire performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Martinson, Veloria J.; Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1991-01-01

    Preliminary results from testing of 26 x 6.6 radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley's Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) are reviewed. The 26 x 6.6 tire size evaluation includes cornering performance tests throughout the aircraft ground operational speed range for both dry and wet runway surfaces. Static test results to define 26 x 6.6 tire vertical stiffness properties are also presented and discussed.

  4. Analytical study of the cruise performance of a class of remotely piloted, microwave-powered, high-altitude airplane platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. E. K., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Each cycle of the flight profile consists of climb while the vehicle is tracked and powered by a microwave beam, followed by gliding flight back to a minimum altitude. Parameter variations were used to define the effects of changes in the characteristics of the airplane aerodynamics, the power transmission systems, the propulsion system, and winds. Results show that wind effects limit the reduction of wing loading and increase the lift coefficient, two effective ways to obtain longer range and endurance for each flight cycle. Calculated climb performance showed strong sensitivity to some power and propulsion parameters. A simplified method of computing gliding endurance was developed.

  5. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to better interference risk assessment.

  6. Small Aircraft RF Interference Path Loss Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.; Mielnik, John J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2007-01-01

    Interference to aircraft radio receivers is an increasing concern as more portable electronic devices are allowed onboard. Interference signals are attenuated as they propagate from inside the cabin to aircraft radio antennas mounted on the outside of the aircraft. The attenuation level is referred to as the interference path loss (IPL) value. Significant published IPL data exists for transport and regional category airplanes. This report fills a void by providing data for small business/corporate and general aviation aircraft. In this effort, IPL measurements are performed on ten small aircraft of different designs and manufacturers. Multiple radio systems are addressed. Along with the typical worst-case coupling values, statistical distributions are also reported that could lead to more meaningful interference risk assessment.

  7. Development and experimental characterization of a fuel cell powered aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Thomas H.; Moffitt, Blake A.; Mavris, Dimitri N.; Parekh, David E.

    This paper describes the characteristics and performance of a fuel cell powered unmanned aircraft. The aircraft is novel as it is the largest compressed hydrogen fuel cell powered airplane built to date and is currently the only fuel cell aircraft whose design and test results are in the public domain. The aircraft features a 500 W polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell with full balance of plant and compressed hydrogen storage incorporated into a custom airframe. Details regarding the design requirements, implementation and control of the aircraft are presented for each major aircraft system. The performances of the aircraft and powerplant are analyzed using data from flights and laboratory tests. The efficiency and component power consumption of the fuel cell propulsion system are measured at a variety of flight conditions. The performance of the aircraft powerplant is compared to other 0.5-1 kW-scale fuel cell powerplants in the literature and means of performance improvement for this aircraft are proposed. This work represents one of the first studies of fuel cell powered aircraft to result in a demonstration aircraft. As such, the results of this study are of practical interest to fuel cell powerplant and aircraft designers.

  8. Human Performance Considerations for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Hobbs, Alan; Lyall, Beth; Rorie, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Successful integration of Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS) into civil airspace will not only require solutions to technical challenges, but will also require that the design and operation of RPAS take into account human limitations and capabilities. Human factors can affect overall system performance whenever the system relies on people to interact with another element of the system. Four types of broad interactions can be described. These are (1) interactions between people and hardware, such as controls and displays; (2) human use of procedures and documentation; (3) impact of the task environment, including lighting, noise and monotony; and lastly, (4) interactions between operational personnel, including communication and coordination. In addition to the human factors that have been identified for conventional aviation, RPAS operations introduce a set of unique human challenges. The purpose of document is to raise human factors issues for consideration by workgroups of the ICAO RPAS panel as they work to develop guidance material and additions to ICAO annexes. It is anticipated that the content of this document will be revised and updated as the work of the panel progresses.

  9. Tailless aircraft performance improvements with relaxed static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashkenas, Irving L.; Klyde, David H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose is to determine the tailless aircraft performance improvements gained from relaxed static stability, to quantify this potential in terms of range-payload improvements, and to identify other possible operational and handling benefits or problems. Two configurations were chosen for the study: a modern high aspect ratio, short-chord wing proposed as a high-altitude long endurance (HALE) remotely piloted vehicle; a wider, lower aspect ratio, high volume wing suitable for internal stowage of all fuel and payload required for a manned long-range reconnaissance mission. Flying at best cruise altitude, both unstable configurations were found to have a 14 percent improvement in range and a 7 to 9 percent improvement in maximum endurance compared to the stable configurations. The unstable manned configuration also shows a 15 percent improvement in the 50 ft takeoff obstacle distance and an improved height response to elevator control. However, it is generally more deficient in control power due to its larger adverse aileron yaw and its higher takeoff and landing lift coefficient C(sub L), both due to the downward trimmed (vs. upward trimmed for stable configurations) trailing edge surfaces.

  10. Practice and Incentive Effects on Learner Performance: Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Task.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenpas, Barbara G.; Higgins, Norman C.

    To study the effects of practice and incentive on learner performance on the aircraft instrument comprehension task, 48 third-year Air Force cadets were chosen as subjects. The subjects were expected to be able to identify which one of four pictures of aircraft in flight most nearly corresponded to the position indicated on a panel of attitude and…

  11. Current Research in Aircraft Tire Design and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Mccarthy, J. L.; Clark, S. K.

    1981-01-01

    A review of the tire research programs which address the various needs identified by landing gear designers and airplane users is presented. The experimental programs are designed to increase tire tread lifetimes, relate static and dynamic tire properties, establish the tire hydroplaning spin up speed, study gear response to tire failures, and define tire temperature profiles during taxi, braking, and cornering operations. The analytical programs are aimed at providing insights into the mechanisms of heat generation in rolling tires and developing the tools necessary to streamline the tire design process and to aid in the analysis of landing gear problems.

  12. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  13. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  14. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  15. Static performance and noise tests on a thrust reverser for an augmentor wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Marrs, C. C.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/3 scale model static test program was conducted to measure the noise levels and reverse thrust performance characteristics of wing-mounted thrust reverser that could be used on an advanced augmentor wing airplane. The configuration tested represents only the most fundamental designs where installation and packaging restraints are not considered. The thrust reverser performance is presented in terms of horizontal, vertical, and resultant effectiveness ratios and the reverser noise is compared on the basis of peak perceived noise level (PNL) and one-third octave band data (OASPL). From an analysis of the model force and acoustic data, an assessment is made on the stopping distance versus noise for a 90,900 kg (200,000 lb) airplane using this type of thrust reverser.

  16. Noise and static performance characteristics of a STOL aircraft jet flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Mcbride, J. F.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    Static noise and performance tests were conducted on a 1/4-scale jet flap model with a multilobe nozzle of array area ratio of 2.7. The model nozzle and flap tested were a two-dimensional section of a distributed blowing system similar to previously investigated augmentor wing systems without the upper shroud and intake door. Noise data were measured with the nozzle alone and also during attached flow conditions with the flap at two turning angles representing takeoff and approach conditions. The noise data are scaled to a 200,000-lb TOGW four-engine airplane and are presented in terms of perceived noise level and one-third octave band sound pressure level. Comparisons are made with the noise levels produced by an augmentor wing airplane fitted with a three-element acoustically lined augmentor flap. The static performance is presented in terms of thrust recovery and effective turning angle.

  17. 78 FR 9341 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and... Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) to include the following information. This may be done by inserting a copy of... certain Airbus airplane flight manual (AFM) temporary revisions into the AFM. We have not included...

  18. Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation: Performance Characterization of Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Coraor, Lee

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here is a part of NASA's Synthetic Vision System (SVS) project for the development of a High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (HSCT). One of the components of the SVS is a module for detection of potential obstacles in the aircraft's flight path by analyzing the images captured by an on-board camera in real-time. Design of such a module includes the selection and characterization of robust, reliable, and fast techniques and their implementation for execution in real-time. This report describes the results of our research in realizing such a design. It is organized into three parts. Part I. Data modeling and camera characterization; Part II. Algorithms for detecting airborne obstacles; and Part III. Real time implementation of obstacle detection algorithms on the Datacube MaxPCI architecture. A list of publications resulting from this grant as well as a list of relevant publications resulting from prior NASA grants on this topic are presented.

  19. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  20. Performance Characterization of Obstacle Detection Algorithms for Aircraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasturi, Rangachar; Camps, Octavia; Coraor, Lee; Gandhi, Tarak; Hartman, Kerry; Yang, Mau-Tsuen

    2000-01-01

    The research reported here is a part of NASA's Synthetic Vision System (SVS) project for the development of a High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft (HSCT). One of the components of the SVS is a module for detection of potential obstacles in the aircraft's flight path by analyzing the images captured by an on-board camera in real-time. Design of such a module includes the selection and characterization of robust, reliable, and fast techniques and their implementation for execution in real-time. This report describes the results of our research in realizing such a design.

  1. Effect of two types of helium circulators on the performance of a subsonic nuclear powered airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1971-01-01

    Two types of helium circulators are analytically compared on the bases of their influence on airplane payload and on propulsion system variables. One type of circulator is driven by the turbofan engines with power takeoff shafting while the other, a turbocirculator, is powered by a turbine placed in the helium loop between the nuclear reactor and the helium-to-air heat exchangers inside the engines. Typical results show that the turbocirculator yields more payload for circulator efficiencies greater than 0.82. Optimum engine and heat exchanger temperatures and pressures are significantly lower in the turbocirculator case compared to the engine-driven circulator scheme.

  2. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  3. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  4. A Method for Integrating Thrust-Vectoring and Actuated Forebody Strakes with Conventional Aerodynamic Controls on a High-Performance Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallman, Frederick J.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A method, called pseudo controls, of integrating several airplane controls to achieve cooperative operation is presented. The method eliminates conflicting control motions, minimizes the number of feedback control gains, and reduces the complication of feedback gain schedules. The method is applied to the lateral/directional controls of a modified high-performance airplane. The airplane has a conventional set of aerodynamic controls, an experimental set of thrust-vectoring controls, and an experimental set of actuated forebody strakes. The experimental controls give the airplane additional control power for enhanced stability and maneuvering capabilities while flying over an expanded envelope, especially at high angles of attack. The flight controls are scheduled to generate independent body-axis control moments. These control moments are coordinated to produce stability-axis angular accelerations. Inertial coupling moments are compensated. Thrust-vectoring controls are engaged according to their effectiveness relative to that of the aerodynamic controls. Vane-relief logic removes steady and slowly varying commands from the thrust-vectoring controls to alleviate heating of the thrust turning devices. The actuated forebody strakes are engaged at high angles of attack. This report presents the forward-loop elements of a flight control system that positions the flight controls according to the desired stability-axis accelerations. This report does not include the generation of the required angular acceleration commands by means of pilot controls or the feedback of sensed airplane motions.

  5. Evaluation of advanced lift concepts and fuel conservative short-haul aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bowden, M. K.; Narucki, C. W.; Bennett, J. A.; Smith, P. R.; Ferrill, R. S.; Randall, C. C.; Tibbetts, J. G.; Patterson, R. W.; Meyer, R. T.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and economics of a twin-engine augmentor wing airplane were evaluated in two phases. Design aspects of the over-the-wing/internally blown flap hybrid, augmentor wing, and mechanical flap aircraft were investigated for 910 m. field length with parametric extension to other field lengths. Fuel savings achievable by application of advanced lift concepts to short-haul aircraft were evaluated and the effect of different field lengths, cruise requirements, and noise levels on fuel consumption and airplane economics at higher fuel prices were determined. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  6. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  7. Wing Rock Prediction Method for a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    are statically stable at lower angles-of-attack. Therefore, it is possible to study basic stable motions of these aircraft without an added stabilizing ... control system. Third, extensive and well validated F-15 and F-4 aerodynamic databases were available. Finally, as part of the AFIT/TPS joint program

  8. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  9. EGADS: A microcomputer program for estimating the aerodynamic performance of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melton, John E.

    1994-01-01

    EGADS is a comprehensive preliminary design tool for estimating the performance of light, single-engine general aviation aircraft. The software runs on the Apple Macintosh series of personal computers and assists amateur designers and aeronautical engineering students in performing the many repetitive calculations required in the aircraft design process. The program makes full use of the mouse and standard Macintosh interface techniques to simplify the input of various design parameters. Extensive graphics, plotting, and text output capabilities are also included.

  10. Consistent approach to describing aircraft HIRF protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimbey, P. R.; Walen, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    The high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) certification process as currently implemented is comprised of an inconsistent combination of factors that tend to emphasize worst case scenarios in assessing commercial airplane certification requirements. By examining these factors which include the process definition, the external HIRF environment, the aircraft coupling and corresponding internal fields, and methods of measuring equipment susceptibilities, activities leading to an approach to appraising airplane vulnerability to HIRF are proposed. This approach utilizes technically based criteria to evaluate the nature of the threat, including the probability of encountering the external HIRF environment. No single test or analytic method comprehensively addresses the full HIRF threat frequency spectrum. Additional tools such as statistical methods must be adopted to arrive at more realistic requirements to reflect commercial aircraft vulnerability to the HIRF threat. Test and analytic data are provided to support the conclusions of this report. This work was performed under NASA contract NAS1-19360, Task 52.

  11. First Assessments of Predicted ICESat-2 Performance Using Aircraft Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Thomas; Markus, Thorsten; Cook, William; Hancock, David; Brenner, Anita; Kelly, Brunt; DeMarco, Eugenia; Reed, Daniel; Walsh, Kaitlin

    2012-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is a next-generation laser altimeter designed to continue key observations of ice sheet elevation change, sea ice freeboard, vegetation canopy height, earth surface elevation, and sea surface height. Scheduled for launch in mid-2016, ICESat-2 will use a high repetition rate (10 kHz), small footprint (10 m nominal ground diameter) laser, and a single-photon-sensitive detection strategy (photon counting) to measure precise range to the earth's surface. Using green light (532 nm), the six beams of ICESat-2 will provide improved spatial coverage compared with the single beam of ICESat, while the differences in transmit energy among the beams provide a large dynamic range. The six beams are arranged into three pairs of beams which allow slopes to measured on an orbit-by-orbit basis. In order to evaluate models of predicted ICESat-2 performance and provide ICESat-2-like data for algorithm development, an airborne ICESat-2 simulator was developed and first flown in 2010. This simulator, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) was most recently deployed to Iceland in April 2012 and collected approx 85 hours of science data over land ice, sea ice, and calibration targets. MABEL uses a similar photon-counting measurement strategy to what will be used on ICESat-2. MABEL collects data in 16 green channels and an additional 8 channels in the infrared aligned across the direction of flight. By using NASA's ER-2 aircraft flying at 20km altitude, MABEL flies as close to space as is practical, and collects data through approx 95% of the atmosphere. We present background on the MABEL instrument, and data from the April 2012 deployment to Iceland. Among the 13 MABEL flights, we collected data over the Greenland ice sheet interior and outlet glaciers in the southwest and western Greenland, sea ice data over the Nares Strait and Greenland Sea, and a number of small glaciers and ice caps in Iceland and Svalbard

  12. Wind tunnel test of model target thrust reversers for the Pratt and Whitney aircraft JT8D-100 series engines installed on a 727-200 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambly, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low speed wind tunnel test of 0.046 scale model target thrust reversers installed on a 727-200 model airplane are presented. The full airplane model was mounted on a force balance, except for the nacelles and thrust reversers, which were independently mounted and isolated from it. The installation had the capability of simulating the inlet airflows and of supplying the correct proportions of primary and secondary air to the nozzles. The objectives of the test were to assess the compatibility of the thrust reversers target door design with the engine and airplane. The following measurements were made: hot gas ingestion at the nacelle inlets; model lift, drag, and pitching moment; hot gas impingement on the airplane structure; and qualitative assessment of the rudder effectiveness. The major parameters controlling hot gas ingestion were found to be thrust reverser orientation, engine power setting, and the lip height of the bottom thrust reverser doors on the side nacelles. The thrust reversers tended to increase the model lift, decrease the drag, and decrease the pitching moment.

  13. Giant airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    It is hardly possible for the most imaginative aeronautical enthusiast to look forward to a time when the airplane will have reached the dimensions commensurate with those already attained by the airship.

  14. Robust Damage-Mitigating Control of Aircraft for High Performance and Structural Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey; Ray, Asok; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and a design methodology for robust damage-mitigating control (DMC) of aircraft. The goal of DMC is to simultaneously achieve high performance and structural durability. The controller design procedure involves consideration of damage at critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. An aeroelastic model of the wings has been formulated and is incorporated into a nonlinear rigid-body model of aircraft flight-dynamics. Robust damage-mitigating controllers are then designed using the H(infinity)-based structured singular value (mu) synthesis method based on a linearized model of the aircraft. In addition to penalizing the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, frequency-dependent weights are placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. Using each controller in turn, the control system is put through an identical sequence of maneuvers, and the resulting (varying amplitude cyclic) stress profiles are analyzed using a fatigue crack growth model that incorporates the effects of stress overload. Comparisons are made to determine the impact of different weights on the resulting fatigue crack damage in the wings. The results of simulation experiments show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  15. Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) Performing the Air Refueling Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    designed as a test of the feasibility of putting fuel on ships in such a way that aircraft could grab it and refuel in-flight on transatlantic flights. On...AR technology has evolved little in the last 50 years; the AF still uses the same basic refueling systems designed for SAC over half a century ago...to say that an additional advantage is the time compression from design , flight testing and operational delivery since the basic airframe has already

  16. Aircraft design for mission performance using nonlinear multiobjective optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dovi, Augustine R.; Wrenn, Gregory A.

    1990-01-01

    A new technique which converts a constrained optimization problem to an unconstrained one where conflicting figures of merit may be simultaneously considered was combined with a complex mission analysis system. The method is compared with existing single and multiobjective optimization methods. A primary benefit from this new method for multiobjective optimization is the elimination of separate optimizations for each objective, which is required by some optimization methods. A typical wide body transport aircraft is used for the comparative studies.

  17. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list with telephone and e-mail contact information... compatibility, and minimum system requirements are also included on the NSP Web site. d. Related...

  18. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list with telephone and e-mail contact information... compatibility, and minimum system requirements are also included on the NSP Web site. d. Related...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list with telephone and e-mail contact information... compatibility, and minimum system requirements are also included on the NSP Web site. d. Related...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 60 - Qualification Performance Standards for Airplane Full Flight Simulators

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NSP Internet Web site address is: http://www.faa.gov/safety/programs_initiatives/aircraft_aviation/nsp/. On this Web site you will find an NSP personnel list with telephone and e-mail contact information... compatibility, and minimum system requirements are also included on the NSP Web site. d. Related...

  1. The Guardian: Preliminary design of a close air support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haag, Jonathan; Huber, David; Mcinerney, Kelly; Mulligan, Greg; Pessin, David; Seelos, Michael

    1991-01-01

    One design is presented of a Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft. It is a canard wing, twin engine, twin vertical tail aircraft that has the capability to cruise at 520 knots. The Guardian contains state of the art flight control systems. Specific highlights of the Guardian include: (1) low cost (the acquisition cost per airplane is $13.6 million for a production of 500 airplanes); (2) low maintenance (it was designed to be easily maintainable in unprepared fields); and (3) high versatility (it can perform a wide range of missions). Along with being a CAS aircraft, it is capable of long ferry missions, battlefield interdiction, maritime attack, and combat rescue. The Guardian is capable of a maximum ferry of 3800 nm, can takeoff in a distance of 1700 ft, land in a ground roll distance of 1644 ft. It has a maximum takeoff weight of 48,753 lbs, and is capable of carrying up to 19,500 lbs of ordinance.

  2. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  3. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  4. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  5. 77 FR 54787 - Airworthiness Directives; M7 Aerospace LLC Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods... damage. (2) Airplane model, serial number, aircraft total flight cycles, and total hours time-in-service.../operators who do not track total aircraft flight cycles (TAC), for the purposes of this AD, use...

  6. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  7. 14 CFR 121.181 - Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En route limitations: One engine inoperative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.181 Airplanes: Reciprocating engine-powered: En... person operating a reciprocating engine powered airplane may take off that airplane at a weight,...

  8. Measured moments of inertia of 32 airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1940-01-01

    A compilation of the experimentally determined moments of inertia of 32 airplanes is presented. The measurements were obtained at the laboratories of the naca by means of a pendulum method. The airplanes tested are representative of several types of aircraft of gross weight less than 10,000 pounds. The results are presented in coefficient as well as in dimensional form. An elementary analysis of the data disclosed the possibility of grouping the results according to wing type of the airplane, as low-wing monoplanes, parasol and high-wing monoplanes, and biplanes. The data are shown to provide a convenient means of rapidly estimating the moments of inertia of other airplanes. A three view drawing of each of the 32 airplanes is included.

  9. An electric control for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.; Edson, R.

    1979-01-01

    An electronic controller for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear was developed. Drop tests of a modified gear from a 2722 Kg (6000 lbm) class of airplane were conducted to illustrate controller performance. The results indicate that the active gear effects a force reduction, relative to that of the passive gear, from 9 to 31 percent depending on the aircraft sink speed and the static gear pressure.

  10. Airborne Performance Measurement System Design: C-5 Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    simulator to the aircraft. In addition, these data may be utilized to predict or test the effects of training program *. modifications. The AFHRL...equipment diagnostic for the magnetic tape unit and controller. The second involves modification of the Confidence program to test only the equipment...IND 3 C: 57 S: 01 25-L-OXYGEN-QTY-LOW-LT 1 C: 57 25-L-OXYGEN--QTY- TEST -SW 1 C: 57 75-L-OXYGEN-QTY-IND 3 C: 57 S: 02 75-L-OXYGEN-QTY-LOW-LT 1 C: 57 75-L

  11. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. A user oriented description of the program input requirements, program output, deck setup, and operating instructions is presented.

  12. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data is described. The method estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag.

  13. Assessment of the application of advanced technologies to subsonic CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graef, J. D.; Sallee, G. P.; Verges, J. T.

    1974-01-01

    Design studies of the application of advanced technologies to future transport aircraft were conducted. These studies were reviewed from the perspective of an air carrier. A fundamental study of the elements of airplane operating cost was performed, and the advanced technologies were ranked in order of potential profit impact. Recommendations for future study areas are given.

  14. Weight estimation techniques for composite airplanes in general aviation industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paramasivam, T.; Horn, W. J.; Ritter, J.

    1986-01-01

    Currently available weight estimation methods for general aviation airplanes were investigated. New equations with explicit material properties were developed for the weight estimation of aircraft components such as wing, fuselage and empennage. Regression analysis was applied to the basic equations for a data base of twelve airplanes to determine the coefficients. The resulting equations can be used to predict the component weights of either metallic or composite airplanes.

  15. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  16. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  17. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  18. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  19. 14 CFR 36.1583 - Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... airplanes. 36.1583 Section 36.1583 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Limitations and Information § 36.1583 Noncomplying agricultural and fire fighting airplanes. (a) This section applies to propeller-driven, small airplanes that— (1) Are designed for “agricultural aircraft...

  20. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  1. 14 CFR 26.39 - Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY IMPROVEMENTS FOR TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Fuel Tank Flammability § 26.39 Newly produced airplanes: Fuel tank flammability. (a) Applicability:...

  2. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  3. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  4. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  5. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  6. 14 CFR 125.377 - Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than turbopropeller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered... AIRCRAFT Flight Release Rules § 125.377 Fuel supply: Turbine-engine-powered airplanes other than... takeoff a turbine-powered airplane (other than a turbopropeller-powered airplane) unless, considering...

  7. 77 FR 38467 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP), Model Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... information services, than previous GALP airplane models. This may allow the exploitation of network security... Gulfstream G280 Airplane; Isolation or Aircraft Electronic System Security Protection From Unauthorized... connectivity of the passenger service computer systems to the airplane critical systems and data networks....

  8. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  9. Airplane numerical simulation for the rapid prototyping process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roysdon, Paul F.

    Airplane Numerical Simulation for the Rapid Prototyping Process is a comprehensive research investigation into the most up-to-date methods for airplane development and design. Uses of modern engineering software tools, like MatLab and Excel, are presented with examples of batch and optimization algorithms which combine the computing power of MatLab with robust aerodynamic tools like XFOIL and AVL. The resulting data is demonstrated in the development and use of a full non-linear six-degrees-of-freedom simulator. The applications for this numerical tool-box vary from un-manned aerial vehicles to first-order analysis of manned aircraft. A Blended-Wing-Body airplane is used for the analysis to demonstrate the flexibility of the code from classic wing-and-tail configurations to less common configurations like the blended-wing-body. This configuration has been shown to have superior aerodynamic performance -- in contrast to their classic wing-and-tube fuselage counterparts -- and have reduced sensitivity to aerodynamic flutter as well as potential for increased engine noise abatement. Of course without a classic tail elevator to damp the nose up pitching moment, and the vertical tail rudder to damp the yaw and possible rolling aerodynamics, the challenges in lateral roll and yaw stability, as well as pitching moment are not insignificant. This thesis work applies the tools necessary to perform the airplane development and optimization on a rapid basis, demonstrating the strength of this tool through examples and comparison of the results to similar airplane performance characteristics published in literature.

  10. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  11. Flight-measured lift and drag characteristics of a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaiz, H. H.

    1977-01-01

    Flight measurements of lift, drag, and angle of attack were obtained for the XB-70 airplane, a large, flexible, high supersonic cruise airplane. This airplane had a length of over 57 meters, a takeoff gross mass of over 226,800 kilograms, and a design cruise speed of Mach 3 at an altitude of 21,340 meters. The performance measurements were made at Mach numbers from 0.72 to 3.07 and altitudes from approximately 7620 meters to 21,340 meters. The measurements were made to provide data for evaluating the techniques presently being used to design and predict the performance of aircraft in this category. Such performance characteristics as drag polars, lift-curve slopes, and maximum lift-to-drag ratios were derived from the flight data. The base drag of the airplane, changes in airplane drag with changes in engine power setting at transonic speeds, and the magnitude of the drag components of the propulsion system are also discussed.

  12. Analysis of the effects of boundary-layer control in the take-off and power-off landing performance characteristics of a liaison type of airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Elmer A; Loftin, Laurence K; Racisz, Stanley F; Quinn, John

    1951-01-01

    A performance analysis has been made to determine whether boundary-layer control by suction might reduce the minimum take-off and landing distances of a four-place or five-place airplane or a liaison type of airplane below those obtainable with conventional high-lift devices. The airplane was assumed to have a cruise duration of 5 hours at 60-percent power and to be operating from airstrips having a ground friction coefficient of 0.2 or a combined ground and braking coefficient of 0.4. The payload was fixed at 1500 pounds, the wing span was varied from 25 to 100 feet, the aspect ratio was varied from 5 to 15, and the power was varied from 300 to 1300 horsepower. Maximum lift coefficients of 5.0 and 2.8 were assumed for the airplanes with and without boundary-layer-control --equipment weight was included. The effects of the boundary-layer control on total take-off distance, total power-off landing distance, landing and take-off ground run, stalling speed, sinking speed, and gliding speed were determined.

  13. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  14. 14 CFR 23.71 - Glide: Single-engine airplanes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Glide: Single-engine airplanes. 23.71 Section 23.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Glide: Single-engine airplanes. The maximum horizontal distance traveled in still air, in nautical...

  15. 77 FR 64693 - Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ...-17221; AD 2012-21-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Airplanes... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Hawker Beechcraft Corporation Model G58 airplanes. This AD was prompted by notification from Hawker Beechcraft Corporation that certain affected aircraft were produced...

  16. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  17. Operational Performance of Sensor Systems Used to Determine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Properties as Part of the NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, J. Allen; Rodgers, William G., Jr.; Nolf, Scott; McKissick, Burnell T. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest in the application of remote sensor technology to operational aviation and airport-related activities such as Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Radio Acoustic Sounding Systems (RASS), Doppler-acoustic sodars, Ultrahigh Frequencies (UHF) profilers and lidars have many advantages in measuring wind and temperature profiles in the lower atmospheric boundary layer since they can operate more or less continuously and unattended; however, there are limitations in their operational use at airports. For example, profilers deteriorate (limited altitude coverage or missing) in moderate or greater rain and can be affected by airplane targets in their field of view. Sodars can handle precipitation better but are affected by the high noise environments of airports and strong winds. Morning temperature inversions typically limit performance of RASS, sodars and profilers. Fog affects sonic anemometers. Lidars can have difficulties in clouds, fog or heavy precipitation. Despite their limitations these sensors have proven useful to provide wind and temperature profiles for AVOSS. Capabilities and limitations of these and other sensors used in the AVOSS program are discussed, parameter settings for the sensor systems are documented, and recommendations are made for the most cost-effective group of sensors for the future. The potential use of specially tuned dynamic forecast models and measurements from landing and departing aircraft are addressed.

  18. Physiologic responses of pilots flying high-performance aircraft.

    PubMed

    Comens, P; Reed, D; Mette, M

    1987-03-01

    This study deals with the physiologic responses to stress in F-4 fighter pilots and aircrew engaged in surface attack training (SAT) missions. Blood levels of HDL-cholesterol, LDH and LDH isoenzymes, CPK, and myoglobin were determined before and after each mission. Continuous EKG and transcutaneous PO2 recordings were made during briefing, preflight, and inflight. The personal history and habits of each participant were recorded. Each mission consisted of six successive bomb deliveries at 80-s intervals and at increasingly steep dive angles, each terminating in 5.5-6 +Gz during pull-up. Results revealed no apparent effect on HDL, COP isoenzymes, and LDH isoenzymes. Many myoglobin levels dropped as much as 50%. EKG recordings revealed ST elevations, ST depressions, T wave inversions, and marked sinus arrhythmias in some, while others showed increases in cardiac rate. Pilots flying these SAT missions in F-4C aircraft were found not to be significantly physiologically stressed.

  19. Predicted Performances of Power Line Communication in Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degardin, V.; Junqua, I.; Lienard, M.; Degauque, P.; Bertuol, S.; Genoulaz, J.; Dunand, M.

    2012-05-01

    The possibility of using power line communication to transmit information in a large aircraft is studied. The communication link, which has been identified and chosen in the frame of the TAUPE European project, is the cabin lighting system since its tree shape and large structure allows covering most of the other possible applications. A statistical theoretical analysis, based on the multiconductor transmission line theory, has been carried out to determine the properties of the channel transfer function. This has been done in two steps: First a simplified network was considered to outline the parameters of the network geometry playing an important role on the path loss, and then by modelling a test bench which will be used as a demonstrator. The PLC link has been modelled for predicting data rate and bit error rate, taking the EMC constraints into account.

  20. Flight and wind-tunnel comparisons of the inlet-airframe interaction of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, L. D.; Andriyich-Varda, D.; Whitmore, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    The design of inlets and nozzles and their interactions with the airplane which may account for a large percentage of the total drag of modern high performance aircraft is discussed. The inlet/airframe interactions program and the flight tests conducted is described. Inlet drag and lift data from a 7.5% wind-tunnel model are compared with data from an F-15 airplane with instrumentation to match the model. Pressure coefficient variations with variable cowl angles, capture ratios, examples of flow interactions and angles of attack are for Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 are presented.

  1. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icinig. Flight data wre reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured 'iced' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13173

  2. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icing. Flight data were reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured ""iced'' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower.

  3. Study of a pursuit-evasion guidance law for high performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peggy S.; Menon, P. K. A.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Duke, Eugene L.

    1989-01-01

    The study of a one-on-one aircraft pursuit-evasion guidance scheme for high-performance aircraft is discussed. The research objective is to implement a guidance law derived earlier using differential game theory in conjunction with the theory of feedback linearization. Unlike earlier research in this area, the present formulation explicitly recognizes the two-sided nature of the pursuit-evasion scenario. The present research implements the guidance law in a realistic model of a modern high-performance fighter aircraft. Also discussed are the details of the guidance law, implementation in a highly detailed simulation of a high-performance fighter, and numerical results for two engagement geometries. Modifications of the guidance law for onboard implementation is also discussed.

  4. Multilevel modelling of aircraft noise on performance tests in schools around Heathrow Airport London

    PubMed Central

    Haines, M; Stansfeld, S; Head, J; Job, R

    2002-01-01

    Design: This is a cross sectional study using the National Standardised Scores (SATs) in mathematics, science, and English (11 000 scores from children aged 11 years). The analyses used multilevel modelling to determine the effects of chronic aircraft noise exposure on childrens' school performance adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic and school factors in 123 primary schools around Heathrow Airport. Schools were assigned aircraft noise exposure level from the 1994 Civil Aviation Authority aircraft noise contour maps. Setting: Primary schools. Participants: The sample were approximately 11 000 children in year 6 (approximately 11 years old) from 123 schools in the three boroughs surrounding Heathrow Airport. Main results: Chronic exposure to aircraft noise was significantly related to poorer reading and mathematics performance. After adjustment for the average socioeconomic status of the school intake (measured by percentage of pupils eligible for free school meals) these associations were no longer statistically significant. Conclusions: Chronic exposure to aircraft noise is associated with school performance in reading and mathematics in a dose-response function but this association is confounded by socioeconomic factors. PMID:11812814

  5. Parametric study of variation in cargo-airplane performance related to progression from current to spanloader designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, T. A.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric analysis was made to investigate the relationship between current cargo airplanes and possible future designs that may differ greatly in both size and configuration. The method makes use of empirical scaling laws developed from statistical studies of data from current and advanced airplanes and, in addition, accounts for payload density, effects of span distributed load, and variations in tail area ratio. The method is believed to be particularly useful for exploratory studies of design and technology options for large airplanes. The analysis predicts somewhat more favorable variations of the ratios of payload to gross weight and block fuel to payload as the airplane size is increased than has been generally understood from interpretations of the cube-square law. In terms of these same ratios, large all wing (spanloader) designs show an advantage over wing-fuselage designs.

  6. Parametric Study for Increasing On-Station Duration via Unconventional Aircraft Launch Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Moses, Robert W.; Croom, Mark A.; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The need for better atmospheric predictions is causing the atmospheric science community to look for new ways to obtain longer, higher-resolution measurements over several diurnal cycles. The high resolution, in-situ measurements required to study many atmospheric phenomena can be achieved by an Autonomous Aerial Observation System (AAOS); however, meeting the long on-station time requirements with an aerial platform poses many challenges. Inspired by the half-scale drop test of the deployable Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mars airplane, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine the possibility of increasing on-station time by launching an airplane directly at the desired altitude. The ARES Mars airplane concept was used as a baseline for Earth atmospheric flight, and parametric analyses of fundamental configuration elements were performed to study their impact on achieving desired on-station time with this class of airplane. The concept involved lifting the aircraft from the ground to the target altitude by means of an air balloon, thereby unburdening the airplane of ascent requirements. The parameters varied in the study were aircraft wingspan, payload, fuel quantity, and propulsion system. The results show promising trends for further research into aircraft-payload design using this unconventional balloon-based launch approach.

  7. Parametric study for increasing on-station duration via unconventional aircraft launch approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Moses, Robert W.; Croom, Mark A.; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2004-12-01

    The need for better atmospheric predictions is causing the atmospheric science community to look for new ways to obtain longer, higher-resolution measurements over several diurnal cycles. The high resolution, in-situ measurements required to study many atmospheric phenomena can be achieved by an Autonomous Aerial Observation System (AAOS); however, meeting the long on-station time requirements with an aerial platform poses many challenges. Inspired by the half-scale drop test of the deployable Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mars airplane, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine the possibility of increasing on-station time by launching an airplane directly at the desired altitude. The ARES Mars airplane concept was used as a baseline for Earth atmospheric flight, and parametric analyses of fundamental configuration elements were performed to study their impact on achieving desired on-station time with this class of airplane. The concept involved lifting the aircraft from the ground to the target altitude by means of an air balloon, thereby unburdening the airplane of ascent requirements. The parameters varied in the study were aircraft wingspan, payload, fuel quantity, and propulsion system. The results show promising trends for further research into aircraft-payload design using this unconventional balloon-based launch approach.

  8. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  9. A concept for adaptive performance optimization on commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Michael R.; Enns, Dale F.

    1995-01-01

    An adaptive control method is presented for the minimization of drag during flight for transport aircraft. The minimization of drag is achieved by taking advantage of the redundant control capability available in the pitch axis, with the horizontal tail used as the primary surface and symmetric deflection of the ailerons and cruise flaps used as additional controls. The additional control surfaces are excited with sinusoidal signals, while the altitude and velocity loops are closed with guidance and control laws. A model of the throttle response as a function of the additional control surfaces is formulated and the parameters in the model are estimated from the sensor measurements using a least squares estimation method. The estimated model is used to determine the minimum drag positions of the control surfaces. The method is presented for the optimization of one and two additional control surfaces. The adaptive control method is extended to optimize rate of climb with the throttle fixed. Simulations that include realistic disturbances are presented, as well as the results of a Monte Carlo simulation analysis that shows the effects of changing the disturbance environment and the excitation signal parameters.

  10. 75 FR 7996 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125-02...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Limited to, Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 42 Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... reported on Diamond Aircraft Industries DA 42 airplanes equipped with TAE 125 engines. The investigations...-flight shutdown incidents have been reported on Diamond Aircraft Industries DA 42 airplanes equipped...

  11. NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft familiarization document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design features and general characteristics of the NASA/Army XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft are described. This aircraft was conceived as a proof-of-concept vehicle and a V/STOL research tool for integrated wind tunnel, flight-simulation, and flight-test investigations. Discussions of special design provisions and safety considerations necessary to perform these missions are included in this report. In addition to predictions of aircraft and engine performance for the hover, helicopter, and airplane flight modes, analytical estimates of the structural and dynamic limitations of the XV-15 are provided.

  12. Airfoil modification effects on subsonic and transonic pressure distributions and performance for the EA-6B airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.

    1995-01-01

    Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.

  13. The Effect of Stages and Levels of Automation and Reliability on Workload and Performance for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS THESIS MARCH 2015 Stephen P. Katrein, 2d Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENV-MS-15-M-201 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...RELIABILITY ON WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE FOR REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Systems...STAGES AND LEVELS OF AUTOMATION AND RELIABILITY ON WORKLOAD AND PERFORMANCE FOR REMOTELY PILOTED AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Stephen P. Katrein, BS

  14. A Flight Study of the Effects on Tracking Performance of Changes in the Lateral-oscillatory Characteristics of a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Rudolph D , Jr; Mcneill, Walter E; Drinkwater, Fred J , III

    1953-01-01

    A study of the effects of variations in lateral-oscillatory characteristics on air-to-air tracking performance has been made, using a conventional, propeller-driven fighter airplane equipped with servo devices for varying these characteristics in flight. Tracking runs were made both in smooth air and in simulated rough air. The lateral-oscillation period, damping, and roll coupling were varied over wide ranges during the investigation.

  15. Airborne Laboratory Measurement of Aircraft Performance and Stability and Control for Light Aircraft. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-24

    B-4 TESI PLAN I-IPAIIMJ:NI OF ALKoNAI’lICS SIERRA C2/iR I.IMITED PERFORMANCE VVALUArON i "! )W I’r I ON .\\ I irni ted...pr .-%Iled 1, thtn pilot. ri ov i do, asset te tape Piliver for each f I~liht . (opt ini I igv 0 o d t o iomi or roa.d i vi), it whiiclr tite ij

  16. Preliminary performance appraisal of Navy V/STOL transport and search-type airplanes using hydrogen fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    First-cut estimates are given of the performance advantages of liquid-hydrogen-fueled, ejector wing, V/STOL aircraft designed for shipboard delivery and search-type missions. Results indicate that the use of LH2 could reduce gross weights 30 percent, empty weights 15 percent, and energy consumption 10 percent for a fixed payload and mission. If gross weight is fixed, the delivery range could be increased about 60 percent or the hover time during a search mission doubled. No analysis or discussion of the economic and operational disadvantages is presented.

  17. Development of lightweight, fire-retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Ougland, R. M.; Karch, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive fire resistance and mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesive to Nomex honeycomb and foam core. The test results were used to select a combination of materials that would improve the fire safety of the airplane without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels. A test panel is being service evaluated in a commercial aircraft.

  18. 14 CFR 135.183 - Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance requirements: Land aircraft operated over water. 135.183 Section 135.183 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING...

  19. Current Methods for Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Icing alters the shape and surface characteristics of aircraft components, which results in altered aerodynamic forces and moments caused by air flow over those iced components. The typical effects of icing are increased drag, reduced stall angle of attack, and reduced maximum lift. In addition to the performance changes, icing can also affect control surface effectiveness, hinge moments, and damping. These effects result in altered aircraft stability and control and flying qualities. Over the past 80 years, methods have been developed to understand how icing affects performance, stability and control. Emphasis has been on wind tunnel testing of two-dimensional subscale airfoils with various ice shapes to understand their effect on the flow field and ultimately the aerodynamics. This research has led to wind tunnel testing of subscale complete aircraft models to identify the integrated effects of icing on the aircraft system in terms of performance, stability, and control. Data sets of this nature enable pilot in the loop simulations to be performed for pilot training, or engineering evaluation of system failure impacts or control system design.

  20. Braking, steering, and wear performance of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary steering, braking, and tread wear performance results from testing of radial-belted and bias-ply aircraft tires at NASA Langley are described. An overview of the joint NASA/FAA/industry START program is presented. Attention is given to the Langley Test Facility, equipment and future activities.

  1. Application of a cost/performance measurement system on a research aircraft project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fundamentals of the cost/performance management system used in the procurement of two tilt rotor aircraft for a joint NASA/Army research project are discussed. The contractor's reporting system and the GPO's analyses are examined. The use of this type of reporting system is assessed. Recommendations concerning the use of like systems on future projects are included.

  2. Fabrication of Fabry-Perot Interferometer Sensors and Characterization of their Performances for Aircraft Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pendergrass, LeRuth Q.

    1995-01-01

    This work provides the information for fabricating Fabry-Perot Interferometer sensors and their performances. The Fabry-Perot Interferometer sensors developed here will be used for the detection of flaws in aircraft structures. The sequel also contains discussion of the experimental setups for the Ultrasonic technique and the Fabry-Perot Interferometer.

  3. Current Methods Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability, Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Icing alters the shape and surface characteristics of aircraft components, which results in altered aerodynamic forces and moments caused by air flow over those iced components. The typical effects of icing are increased drag, reduced stall angle of attack, and reduced maximum lift. In addition to the performance changes, icing can also affect control surface effectiveness, hinge moments, and damping. These effects result in altered aircraft stability and control and flying qualities. Over the past 80 years, methods have been developed to understand how icing affects performance, stability, and control. Emphasis has been on wind-tunnel testing of two-dimensional subscale airfoils with various ice shapes to understand their effect on the flowfield and ultimately the aerodynamics. This research has led to wind-tunnel testing of subscale complete aircraft models to identify the integrated effects of icing on the aircraft system in terms of performance, stability, and control. Data sets of this nature enable pilot-in-the-loop simulations to be performed for pilot training or engineering evaluation of system failure impacts or control system design.

  4. Computer program to perform cost and weight analysis of transport aircraft. Volume 2: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An improved method for estimating aircraft weight and cost using a unique and fundamental approach was developed. The results of this study were integrated into a comprehensive digital computer program, which is intended for use at the preliminary design stage of aircraft development. The program provides a means of computing absolute values for weight and cost, and enables the user to perform trade studies with a sensitivity to detail design and overall structural arrangement. Both batch and interactive graphics modes of program operation are available.

  5. Summary of directional divergence characteristics of several high performance aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greer, H. D.

    1972-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the high-angle-of-attack characteristics of a number of high-performance aircraft as determined from model force tests and free-flight model tests and correlates these characteristics with the dynamic directional-stability parameter. This correlation shows that the dynamic directional-stability parameter correlates fairly well with directional divergence. Data are also presented to show the effect of some airframe modifications on the directional divergence potential of the configuration. These results show that leading-edge slates seem to be the most effective airframe modification for reducing or eliminating the directional divergence potential of aircraft with moderately swept wings.

  6. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  7. Performance and Environmental Assessment of an Advanced Aircraft with Open Rotor Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Haller, William J.; Hendricks, Eric S.; Tong, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Application of high speed, advanced turboprops, or "propfans," to transonic transport aircraft received significant attention during the 1970s and 1980s when fuel efficiency was the driving focus of aeronautical research. Unfortunately, after fuel prices declined sharply there was no longer sufficient motivation to continue maturing this technology. Recent volatility in fuel prices and increasing concern for aviation s environmental impact, however, have renewed interest in unducted, open rotor propulsion. Because of the renewed interest in open rotor propulsion, the lack of publicly available up-to-date studies assessing its benefits, and NASA s focus on reducing fuel consumption, a preliminary aircraft system level study on open rotor propulsion was initiated to inform decisions concerning research in this area. New analysis processes were established to assess the characteristics of open rotor aircraft. These processes were then used to assess the performance, noise, and emissions characteristics of an advanced, single-aisle aircraft using open rotor propulsion. The results of this initial study indicate open rotor engines have the potential to provide significant reductions in fuel consumption and landing-takeoff cycle NOX emissions. Noise analysis of the study configuration indicates that an open rotor aircraft in the single-aisle class would be able to meet current noise regulations with margin.

  8. Influence of landing gear flexibility on aircraft performance during ground roll

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, M. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis is made of the influence of landing gear deflection characteristics on aircraft performance on the ground up to rotation. A quasi-steady dynamic equilibrium state is assumed, including other simplifying assumptions such as calm air conditions and normal aircraft lift and drag. Ground incidence is defined as the angle made by the mean aerodynamic chord of the wing with respect to the ground plane, and equations are given for force and balance which determine the quasi-equilibrium conditions for the aircraft during ground roll. Results indicate that the landing gear deflections lead to a substantial increase in the angle of attack, and the variation in the ground incidence due to landing gear flexibility could be as much as + or - 50%, and the reduction in tail load requirements almost 25%.

  9. Optimum Wing Shape Determination of Highly Flexible Morphing Aircraft for Improved Flight Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Weihua; Swei, Sean Shan-Min; Zhu, Guoming G.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, optimum wing bending and torsion deformations are explored for a mission adaptive, highly flexible morphing aircraft. The complete highly flexible aircraft is modeled using a strain-based geometrically nonlinear beam formulation, coupled with unsteady aerodynamics and six-degrees-of-freedom rigid-body motions. Since there are no conventional discrete control surfaces for trimming the flexible aircraft, the design space for searching the optimum wing geometries is enlarged. To achieve high performance flight, the wing geometry is best tailored according to the specific flight mission needs. In this study, the steady level flight and the coordinated turn flight are considered, and the optimum wing deformations with the minimum drag at these flight conditions are searched by utilizing a modal-based optimization procedure, subject to the trim and other constraints. The numerical study verifies the feasibility of the modal-based optimization approach, and shows the resulting optimum wing configuration and its sensitivity under different flight profiles.

  10. Research on flight stability performance of rotor aircraft based on visual servo control method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yanan; Chen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    control method based on visual servo feedback is proposed, which is used to improve the attitude of a quad-rotor aircraft and to enhance its flight stability. Ground target images are obtained by a visual platform fixed on aircraft. Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) algorism is used to extract image feature information. According to the image characteristic analysis, fast motion estimation is completed and used as an input signal of PID flight control system to realize real-time status adjustment in flight process. Imaging tests and simulation results show that the method proposed acts good performance in terms of flight stability compensation and attitude adjustment. The response speed and control precision meets the requirements of actual use, which is able to reduce or even eliminate the influence of environmental disturbance. So the method proposed has certain research value to solve the problem of aircraft's anti-disturbance.

  11. Precision controllability of the F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sisk, T. R.; Matheny, N. W.

    1979-01-01

    A flying qualities evaluation conducted on a preproduction F-15 airplane permitted an assessment to be made of its precision controllability in the high subsonic and low transonic flight regime over the allowable angle of attack range. Precision controllability, or gunsight tracking, studies were conducted in windup turn maneuvers with the gunsight in the caged pipper mode and depressed 70 mils. This evaluation showed the F-15 airplane to experience severe buffet and mild-to-moderate wing rock at the higher angles of attack. It showed the F-15 airplane radial tracking precision to vary from approximately 6 to 20 mils over the load factor range tested. Tracking in the presence of wing rock essentially doubled the radial tracking error generated at the lower angles of attack. The stability augmentation system affected the tracking precision of the F-15 airplane more than it did that of previous aircraft studied.

  12. A performance improvement case study in aircraft maintenance and its implications for hazard identification.

    PubMed

    Ward, Marie; McDonald, Nick; Morrison, Rabea; Gaynor, Des; Nugent, Tony

    2010-02-01

    Aircraft maintenance is a highly regulated, safety critical, complex and competitive industry. There is a need to develop innovative solutions to address process efficiency without compromising safety and quality. This paper presents the case that in order to improve a highly complex system such as aircraft maintenance, it is necessary to develop a comprehensive and ecologically valid model of the operational system, which represents not just what is meant to happen, but what normally happens. This model then provides the backdrop against which to change or improve the system. A performance report, the Blocker Report, specific to aircraft maintenance and related to the model was developed gathering data on anything that 'blocks' task or check performance. A Blocker Resolution Process was designed to resolve blockers and improve the current check system. Significant results were obtained for the company in the first trial and implications for safety management systems and hazard identification are discussed. Statement of Relevance: Aircraft maintenance is a safety critical, complex, competitive industry with a need to develop innovative solutions to address process and safety efficiency. This research addresses this through the development of a comprehensive and ecologically valid model of the system linked with a performance reporting and resolution system.

  13. 14 CFR 129.25 - Airplane security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplane security. 129.25 Section 129.25 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND FOREIGN OPERATORS OF U.S.-REGISTERED AIRCRAFT ENGAGED IN COMMON CARRIAGE General § 129.25...

  14. Interaction Between Air Propellers and Airplane Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durand, W F

    1927-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was the determination of the character and amount of interaction between air propellers as usually mounted on airplanes and the adjacent parts of the airplane structure - or, more specifically, those parts of the airplane structure within the wash of the propeller, and capable of producing any significant effect on propeller performance. In report no. 177 such interaction between air propellers and certain simple geometrical forms was made the subject of investigation and report. The present investigation aims to carry this general study one stage further by substituting actual airplane structures for the simple geometrical forms. From the point of view of the present investigation, the airplane structures, viewed as an obstruction in the wake of the propeller, must also be viewed as a necessary part of the airplane and not as an appendage which might be installed or removed at will. (author)

  15. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  16. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  17. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  18. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  19. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  20. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1041 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... manager may permit the operation of an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are... the Administrator. (b) No program manager may permit the operation of a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least 25 hours...

  2. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  3. 14 CFR 135.145 - Aircraft proving and validation tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... operate an aircraft, other than a turbojet aircraft, for which two pilots are required by this chapter for... route airports as determined by the Administrator. (b) No certificate holder may operate a turbojet airplane if it has not previously proved a turbojet airplane in operations under this part in at least...

  4. Assessment of aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelms, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of V/STOL and STOVL fighter/attack aircraft was assessed. Aerodynamic and propulsion/airframe integration activities are described and small and large scale research programs are considered. Uncertainties affecting aerodynamic performance that are associated with special configuration features resulting from the V/STOL requirement are addressed. Example uncertainties relate to minimum drag, wave drag, high angle of attack characteristics, and power induced effects.

  5. Results of T56 Engine Performance Monitoring Trial in Hercules Aircraft, February-July 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Engine Removals/Rejections 2 3.1.1 Resume 5 3.2 Faults not Associated with Engine Removals 5 * NOTATION REFERENCES I TABLES FIGURES APPENDIX 1 ANNEX A...in those cases in which performance monitoring could have been expected to reflect the fault , the appropriate engine performance trend plots were...the appropriate EL 500. (ihis form is used by aircrew and maiintenazice personnel to record any aircraft/ engine fault and its subsequent

  6. Using Intelligent Simulation to Enhance Human Performance in Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William B.; Norton, Jeffrey E.

    1992-01-01

    Human factors research and development investigates the capabilities and limitations of the human within a system. Of the many variables affecting human performance in the aviation maintenance system, training is among the most important. The advent of advanced technology hardware and software has created intelligent training simulations. This paper describes one advanced technology training system under development for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  7. D-558-2 Aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    longitudinal (pitch) motions; wing and tail loads, lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds; and the effects of the rocket exhaust plume on lateral dynamic stability throughout the speed range. (Plume effects were a new experience for aircraft.) The number three aircraft also gathered information about the effects of external stores (bomb shapes, drop tanks) upon the aircraft's behavior in the transonic region (roughly 0.7 to 1.3 times the speed of sound). In correlation with data from other early transonic research aircraft such as the XF-92A, this information contributed to solutions to the pitch-up problem in swept-wing aircraft. The three airplanes flew a total of 313 times--123 by the number one aircraft (Bureau No. 37973--NACA 143), 103 by the second Skyrocket (Bureau No. 37974--NACA 144), and 87 by airplane number three (Bureau No. 37975--NACA 145). Skyrocket 143 flew all but one of its missions as part of the Douglas contractor program to test the airplane's performance. NACA aircraft 143 was initially powered by a Westinghouse J-34-40 turbojet engine configured only for ground take-offs, but in 1954-55 the contractor modified it to an all-rocket air-launch capability featuring an LR8-RM-6, 4-chamber Reaction Motors engine rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust at sea level (the Navy designation for the Air Force's LR-11 used in the X-1). In this configuration, NACA research pilot John McKay flew the airplane only once for familiarization on September 17, 1956. The 123 flights of NACA 143 served to validate wind-tunnel predictions of the airplane's performance, except for the fact that the airplane experienced less drag above Mach 0.85 than the wind tunnels had indicated. NACA 144 also began its flight program with a turbojet powerplant. NACA pilots Robert A. Champine and John H. Griffith flew 21 times in this configuration to test airspeed calibrations and to research longitudinal and lateral stability and control

  8. Attention in aviation. [to aircraft design and pilot performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    The relevance of four principles or mechanisms of human attention to the design of aviation systems and the performance of pilots in multitask environments, including workload prediction and measurement, control-display integration, and the use of voice and head-up displays is discussed. The principles are: the mental energy that supplies task performance (resources), the resulting cross-talk between tasks as they are made more similar (confusion), the combination of different task elements (integration), and the way in which one task is processed and another is ignored (selection or tunneling). The introduction of greater levels of complexity into the validation of attentional theories in order to approach the demands of the cockpit or ATC console is proposed.

  9. Visual Effects in the High Performance Aircraft Cockpit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    Convergence: To be 10cm or less. Media and Fundi There should be no evidence of pathology which could impair visual performance either at the time of...that our prevention actions are not based only on a few spectacular, media interesting, accidents. 3. Visual related accidents/incidents As described...From Air Scoop DOCs TURN (Lt. Col. 3.D. Stevenson): There’s a trend developing which the flying safety folks and I have noted in recent mis- hap reports

  10. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 3: Library of maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. The use of two data base files to represent the engine and the inlet/nozzle/aftbody performance characteristics is discussed. The existing library of performance characteristics for inlets and nozzle/aftbodies and an example of the 1000 series of engine data tables is presented.

  11. Airplane Upset Training Evaluation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gawron, Valerie J.; Jones, Patricia M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Airplane upset accidents are a leading factor in hull losses and fatalities. This study compared five types of airplane-upset training. Each group was composed of eight, non-military pilots flying in their probationary year for airlines operating in the United States. The first group, 'No aero / no upset,' was made up of pilots without any airplane upset training or aerobatic flight experience; the second group, 'Aero/no upset,' of pilots without any airplane-upset training but with aerobatic experience; the third group, 'No aero/upset,' of pilots who had received airplane-upset training in both ground school and in the simulator; the fourth group, 'Aero/upset,' received the same training as Group Three but in addition had aerobatic flight experience; and the fifth group, 'In-flight' received in-flight airplane upset training using an instrumented in-flight simulator. Recovery performance indicated that clearly training works - specifically, all 40 pilots recovered from the windshear upset. However few pilots were trained or understood the use of bank to change the direction of the lift vector to recover from nose high upsets. Further, very few thought of, or used differential thrust to recover from rudder or aileron induced roll upsets. In addition, recovery from icing-induced stalls was inadequate.

  12. 76 FR 55293 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries... Diamond Aircraft Industries (DAI), model DA-40NG airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual... stamped and returned to the commenter. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry GmbH...

  13. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  14. Point and path performance of light aircraft: A review and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Summey, D. C.; Johnson, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The literature on methods for predicting the performance of light aircraft is reviewed. The methods discussed in the review extend from the classical instantaneous maximum or minimum technique to techniques for generating mathematically optimum flight paths. Classical point performance techniques are shown to be adequate in many cases but their accuracies are compromised by the need to use simple lift, drag, and thrust relations in order to get closed form solutions. Also the investigation of the effect of changes in weight, altitude, configuration, etc. involves many essentially repetitive calculations. Accordingly, computer programs are provided which can fit arbitrary drag polars and power curves with very high precision and which can then use the resulting fits to compute the performance under the assumption that the aircraft is not accelerating.

  15. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  16. D-558-2 Aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    gathered a great deal of data about pitch-up and the coupling of lateral (yaw) and longitudinal (pitch) motions; wing and tail loads, lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics of swept-wing aircraft at transonic and supersonic speeds; and the effects of the rocket exhaust plume on lateral dynamic stability throughout the speed range. (Plume effects were a new experience for aircraft.) The number three aircraft also gathered information about the effects of external stores (bomb shapes, drop tanks) upon the aircraft's behavior in the transonic region (roughly 0.7 to 1.3 times the speed of sound). In correlation with data from other early transonic research aircraft such as the XF-92A, this information contributed to solutions to the pitch-up problem in swept-wing aircraft. The three airplanes flew a total of 313 times--123 by the number one aircraft (Bureau No. 37973--NACA 143), 103 by the second Skyrocket (Bureau No. 37974--NACA 144), and 87 by airplane number three (Bureau No. 37975--NACA 145). Skyrocket 143 flew all but one of its missions as part of the Douglas contractor program to test the airplane's performance. NACA aircraft 143 was initially powered by a Westinghouse J-34-40 turbojet engine configured only for ground take-offs, but in 1954-55 the contractor modified it to an all-rocket air-launch capability featuring an LR8-RM-6, 4-chamber Reaction Motors engine rated at 6,000 pounds of thrust at sea level (the Navy designation for the Air Force's LR-11 used in the X-1). In this configuration, NACA research pilot John McKay flew the airplane only once for familiarization on September 17, 1956. The 123 flights of NACA 143 served to validate wind-tunnel predictions of the airplane's performance, except for the fact that the airplane experienced less drag above Mach 0.85 than the wind tunnels had indicated. NACA 144 also began its flight program with a turbojet powerplant. NACA pilots Robert A. Champine and John H. Griffith flew 21 times in this configuration to test

  17. Noise of High-Performance Aircraft at Afterburner

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-11

    next progress report. Through the advocacy of Dr. John Spyropulos and the excellent cooperation of Mr. Allan Aubert, we received a set of F -18E jet...noise data for study. The principal objective of our study is to find out if the dominant noise components of the F -18E, especially at high power...setting, are the same as those of a high temperature supersonic laboratory jet. Previously, we have performed a similar study of the noise of a F -22A

  18. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  19. Investigation of High-alpha Lateral-directional Control Power Requirements for High-performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high-angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high-angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes ground-based piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  20. 77 FR 74579 - Airworthiness Directives; Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by prescribing regulations for practices, methods, and... Document GAC-AC-G450-OPS-0001. (h) Revision of Aircraft Flight Manual (AFM) Before further flight after the... test (SPOST) of the flap/stabilizer electronic control unit (FSECU), and revising the airplane...

  1. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  2. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  3. 14 CFR 121.199 - Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff... OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Airplane Performance Operating Limitations § 121.199 Nontransport category airplanes: Takeoff limitations. (a) No person operating...

  4. First Assessments of ICESat-2 Performance Using Aircraft Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Tom; Markus, Thorsten; Brunt, Kelly M.; Hancock, David; Brenner, Anita C.

    2011-01-01

    The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) Is a next-generation laser altimeter designed to continue key observations of ice sheet elevation change, sea ice freeboard, vegetation canopy height, earth surface elevation, and sea surface height. Scheduled for launch in early 2016, ICESat-2 will use a high repetition rate (approximately 10 kHz), small footprint (10m diameter) laser, and a single-photon-sensitive detection strategy (photon counting) to measure precise ranges to the earth's surface. Operating in the green (approximately 532nm), the six beams of ICESat-2 will provide improved spatial coverage compared with ICESat while the differences in transmit energy among the beams provide a large dynamic range. In order to evaluate models of predicted ICESat-2 performance, and provide ICESat-2-like data for algorithm development an airborne ICESat-2 simulator was developed and first flown in 2010, this simulator, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL) has now had three deployments in the western US, and will be deployed to the polar regions in spring of 2012. MABEL uses a similar measurement strategy to what will be used on ICESat-2. MABEL collects more spatially-dense data than ICESat-2 (approximately 2-cm along track) with a smaller 2m diameter footprint in 16 green channels and an additional 8 channels in the infrared. The comparison between frequencies allows for analysis of possible penetration of green energy into water or snow. We present MABEL data collected over deserts, forests, ocean water, lakes. snow covered mountains, and saft flats, provide examples of how these data are being used to develop algorithms that derive geophysical products from ICESat 2 and assess expected performances.

  5. Reliable formulae for estimating airplane performance and the effects of changes in weight, wing area, or power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, Walter S

    1924-01-01

    This report contains the derivation and the verification of formulae for predicting the speed range ratio, the initial rate of climb, and the absolute ceiling of an airplane. Curves used in the computation are given in NACA-TR-171. Standard formulae for service ceiling, time of climb, cruising range, and endurance are also given in the conventional forms.

  6. Real-Time Adaptive Control Allocation Applied to a High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Bundick, W. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development and application of one approach to the control of aircraft with large numbers of control effectors. This approach, referred to as real-time adaptive control allocation, combines a nonlinear method for control allocation with actuator failure detection and isolation. The control allocator maps moment (or angular acceleration) commands into physical control effector commands as functions of individual control effectiveness and availability. The actuator failure detection and isolation algorithm is a model-based approach that uses models of the actuators to predict actuator behavior and an adaptive decision threshold to achieve acceptable false alarm/missed detection rates. This integrated approach provides control reconfiguration when an aircraft is subjected to actuator failure, thereby improving maneuverability and survivability of the degraded aircraft. This method is demonstrated on a next generation military aircraft Lockheed-Martin Innovative Control Effector) simulation that has been modified to include a novel nonlinear fluid flow control control effector based on passive porosity. Desktop and real-time piloted simulation results demonstrate the performance of this integrated adaptive control allocation approach.

  7. 75 FR 9327 - Aircraft Noise Certification Documents for International Operations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... the aircraft flight manual and approved as part of the aircraft's airworthiness certification, and... Airplane Flight Manual (AFM) or Rotorcraft Flight Manual (RFM) as part of an aircraft's certification... operating under part 121, a carrier is allowed to create an Aircraft Operations Manual (AOM) or a...

  8. Report on ice formation on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1939-01-01

    The physical phenomena involved in the icing of aircraft have been analyzed and measured. Recommendations on warning devices are made as well as the different types of ice and glazing that can occur on airplanes are examined and discussed.

  9. 78 FR 78705 - Airworthiness Directives; Airbus Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... the first option would give operators a chance to fly a ferry flight to a more equipped resourced base... airplanes to a base where repairs, alterations, or maintenance can be performed. These airplanes may not....S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. (2) You must use this service information as applicable to do...

  10. Disorienting effects of aircraft catapult launchings: III. Cockpit displays and piloting performance.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    1977-09-01

    Accelerations closely approximating those encountered in catapult launchings of carrier-based aircraft were generated on the Naval Air Development Center's human centrifuge Dynamic Flight Simulator. Flight instruments, controls, and flight dynamics of an A-7 aircraft were provided to four experienced Naval Aviators, who exercised closed-loop control of a simulated climbout immediately after they were exposed to the accelerations. Four experimental conditions were employed for each aviator: 1) no operational flight instruments, 2) conventional flight instruments, 3) a single carrier takeoff director display operating concurrently. Measures of flight parameters, including indicated airspeed, angle of attack, rate of climb, altitude, pitch attitude, and pitch trim adjustment were monitored throughout the simulation. Subjective reactions and piloting performance were examined under each of the four conditions. Results indicate that the carrier takeoff director display significantly reduced pilot workload and enhanced performance during the climbout.

  11. Graphical User Interface for the NASA FLOPS Aircraft Performance and Sizing Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavelle, Thomas M.; Curlett, Brian P.

    1994-01-01

    XFLOPS is an X-Windows/Motif graphical user interface for the aircraft performance and sizing code FLOPS. This new interface simplifies entering data and analyzing results, thereby reducing analysis time and errors. Data entry is simpler because input windows are used for each of the FLOPS namelists. These windows contain fields to input the variable's values along with help information describing the variable's function. Analyzing results is simpler because output data are displayed rapidly. This is accomplished in two ways. First, because the output file has been indexed, users can view particular sections with the click of a mouse button. Second, because menu picks have been created, users can plot engine and aircraft performance data. In addition, XFLOPS has a built-in help system and complete on-line documentation for FLOPS.

  12. Evaluation of bio-inspired morphing concepts with regard to aircraft dynamics and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam M.; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2004-07-01

    This paper will discuss the application of various bio-inspired morphing concepts to unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) designs. Several analysis tools will be introduced to calculate the aerodynamic benefits, dynamic response, and mission-level benefits of morphing shape changes. Empirical relations are employed to calculate the effects of various geometry changes on the aerodynamics of the vehicle. A six-degree-of-freedom simulation will evaluate the stability and dynamic response of each vehicle configuration as well as "snapshots" of the morphing change. Subsequently, an aircraft performance analysis will be conducted for various shape configurations. Specifically, the performance of a bio-inspired wing is compared to conventional designs. The aircraft dynamic improvements that morphing technologies introduce will be discussed.

  13. The Development and Use of a Flight Optimization System Model of a C-130E Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, Jeremy D.

    1995-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Langley Research Center conducts a variety of aircraft design and analyses studies. These studies include the prediction of characteristics of a particular conceptual design, analyses of designs that already exist, and assessments of the impact of technology on current and future aircraft. The FLight OPtimization System (FLOPS) is a tool used for aircraft systems analysis and design. A baseline input model of a Lockheed C-130E was generated for the Flight Optimization System. This FLOPS model can be used to conduct design-trade studies and technology impact assessments. The input model was generated using standard input data such as basic geometries and mission specifications. All of the other data needed to determine the airplane performance is computed internally by FLOPS. The model was then calibrated to reproduce the actual airplane performance from flight test data. This allows a systems analyzer to change a specific item of geometry or mission definition in the FLOPS input file and evaluate the resulting change in performance from the output file. The baseline model of the C-130E was used to analyze the effects of implementing upper wing surface blowing on the airplane. This involved removing the turboprop engines that were on the C-130E and replacing them with turbofan engines. An investigation of the improvements in airplane performance with the new engines could be conducted within the Flight Optimization System. Although a thorough analysis was not completed, the impact of this change on basic mission performance was investigated.

  14. An experimental evaluation of the performance deficit of an aircraft engine starter turbine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hass, J. E.; Roelke, R. J.; Hermann, P.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental investigation was made to determine the reasons for the low aerodynamic performance of a 13.5 centimeter tip diameter aircraft engine starter turbine. The investigation consisted of an evaluation of both the stator and the stage. An approximate ten percent improvement in turbine efficiency was obtained when the honeycomb shroud over the rotor blade tips was filled to obtain a solid shroud surface.

  15. A multi-layer robust adaptive fault tolerant control system for high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, Ying

    Modern high-performance aircraft demand advanced fault-tolerant flight control strategies. Not only the control effector failures, but the aerodynamic type failures like wing-body damages often result in substantially deteriorate performance because of low available redundancy. As a result the remaining control actuators may yield substantially lower maneuvering capabilities which do not authorize the accomplishment of the air-craft's original specified mission. The problem is to solve the control reconfiguration on available control redundancies when the mission modification is urged to save the aircraft. The proposed robust adaptive fault-tolerant control (RAFTC) system consists of a multi-layer reconfigurable flight controller architecture. It contains three layers accounting for different types and levels of failures including sensor, actuator, and fuselage damages. In case of the nominal operation with possible minor failure(s) a standard adaptive controller stands to achieve the control allocation. This is referred to as the first layer, the controller layer. The performance adjustment is accounted for in the second layer, the reference layer, whose role is to adjust the reference model in the controller design with a degraded transit performance. The upmost mission adjust is in the third layer, the mission layer, when the original mission is not feasible with greatly restricted control capabilities. The modified mission is achieved through the optimization of the command signal which guarantees the boundedness of the closed-loop signals. The main distinguishing feature of this layer is the the mission decision property based on the current available resources. The contribution of the research is the multi-layer fault-tolerant architecture that can address the complete failure scenarios and their accommodations in realities. Moreover, the emphasis is on the mission design capabilities which may guarantee the stability of the aircraft with restricted post

  16. A Performance Measurement System for the Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Air Station or ship and performs intermediate level maintenance on aircraft remuovable V components such as engines, avionic ec•uipment, ejection...seats, etc. In resource management terminolcgy, a shore-based AIMD is Al a cost center of a Naval Air Station which is designated as a responsibility...parent Naval Air Station . Thus, the purpose of the management control process is to accomplish the stated organizational objectives, effectively and

  17. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  18. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  19. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  20. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  1. 14 CFR 121.195 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.195 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Destination airports. (a) No person operating a turbine engine powered airplane may take off that airplane...

  2. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  3. 14 CFR 121.197 - Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing... Performance Operating Limitations § 121.197 Airplanes: Turbine engine powered: Landing limitations: Alternate... turbine engine powered airplane unless (based on the assumptions in § 121.195 (b)) that airplane at...

  4. Predicted Performance of a Thrust-Enhanced SR-71 Aircraft with an External Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed a preliminary performance analysis of the SR-71 aircraft for use as a launch platform for high-speed research vehicles and for carrying captive experimental packages to high altitude and Mach number conditions. Externally mounted research platforms can significantly increase drag, limiting test time and, in extreme cases, prohibiting penetration through the high-drag, transonic flight regime. To provide supplemental SR-71 acceleration, methods have been developed that could increase the thrust of the J58 turbojet engines. These methods include temperature and speed increases and augmentor nitrous oxide injection. The thrust-enhanced engines would allow the SR-71 aircraft to carry higher drag research platforms than it could without enhancement. This paper presents predicted SR-71 performance with and without enhanced engines. A modified climb-dive technique is shown to reduce fuel consumption when flying through the transonic flight regime with a large external payload. Estimates are included of the maximum platform drag profiles with which the aircraft could still complete a high-speed research mission. In this case, enhancement was found to increase the SR-71 payload drag capability by 25 percent. The thrust enhancement techniques and performance prediction methodology are described.

  5. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  6. Predicting Tail Buffet Loads of a Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Robert W.; Pototzky, Anthony S.

    2006-01-01

    Buffet loads on aft aerodynamic surfaces pose a recurring problem on most twin-tailed fighter airplanes: During maneuvers at high angles of attack, vortices emanating from various surfaces on the forward parts of such an airplane (engine inlets, wings, or other fuselage appendages) often burst, immersing the tails in their wakes. Although these vortices increase lift, the frequency contents of the burst vortices become so low as to cause the aft surfaces to vibrate destructively. Now, there exists a new analysis capability for predicting buffet loads during the earliest design phase of a fighter-aircraft program. In effect, buffet pressures are applied to mathematical models in the framework of a finite-element code, complete with aeroelastic properties and working knowledge of the spatiality of the buffet pressures for all flight conditions. The results of analysis performed by use of this capability illustrate those vibratory modes of a tail fin that are most likely to be affected by buffet loads. Hence, the results help in identifying the flight conditions during which to expect problems. Using this capability, an aircraft designer can make adjustments to the airframe and possibly the aerodynamics, leading to a more robust design.

  7. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation

  8. Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) technology to an advanced subsonic transport project-longitudinal handling qualities study of a relaxed-stability airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The results of a piloted simulation of longitudinal handling qualities of an airplane with relaxed static stability are described. This task was performed under the Integrated Application of Active Controls (IAAC) Technology Project within the NASA Energy Efficient Transport Program. A representative medium range transport airplane, the Boeing Model 757, was simulated. Evaluations were made of the unaugmented airplane and of the airplane with an Essential Pitch Augmented Stability (PAS) System and with a Primary PAS System at various center of gravity (cg) conditions. Level 2 pilot ratings were attained with cg locations aft to about 57% mean aerodynamic chord (MAC) or 6% aft of the neutral point for unaugmented landing approach. For Mach = 0.80, unaugmented cruise Level 2 ratings were attained to 47% MAC or 5% forward of the maneuver point. The augmented airplane model provided handling qualities close to or within the Level 1 boundary at all cg locations for both Essential and Primary PAS. Analyses of the test conditions when compared with existing handling qualities criteria based on classical unaugmented airplane characteristics agreed well with the pilot ratings. The unaugmented results are comparable to those reported by both the Douglas Aircraft Company and Lockheed California Company from simulation investigations of transport configurations with roughly similar dimensional and mass characteristics.

  9. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  10. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  11. A Theory for the Roll-Ratchet Phenomenon in High Performance Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1997-01-01

    Roll-ratchet refers to a high frequency oscillation which can occur in pilot-in-the-loop control of roll attitude in high performance aircraft. The frequencies of oscillation are typically well beyond those associated with the more familiar pilot-induced oscillation. A structural model of the human pilot which has been employed to provide a unified theory for aircraft handling qualities and pilot-induced oscillations is employed here to provide a theory for the existence of roll-ratchet. It is hypothesized and demonstrated using the structural model that the pilot's inappropriate use of vestibular acceleration feedback can cause this phenomenon, a possibility which has been discussed previously by other researchers. The possible influence of biodynamic feedback on roll ratchet is also discussed.

  12. A.I.-based real-time support for high performance aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vidal, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    Artificial intelligence (AI) based software and hardware concepts are applied to the handling system malfunctions during flight tests. A representation of malfunction procedure logic using Boolean normal forms are presented. The representation facilitates the automation of malfunction procedures and provides easy testing for the embedded rules. It also forms a potential basis for a parallel implementation in logic hardware. The extraction of logic control rules, from dynamic simulation and their adaptive revision after partial failure are examined. It uses a simplified 2-dimensional aircraft model with a controller that adaptively extracts control rules for directional thrust that satisfies a navigational goal without exceeding pre-established position and velocity limits. Failure recovery (rule adjusting) is examined after partial actuator failure. While this experiment was performed with primitive aircraft and mission models, it illustrates an important paradigm and provided complexity extrapolations for the proposed extraction of expertise from simulation, as discussed. The use of relaxation and inexact reasoning in expert systems was also investigated.

  13. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  14. Calculated performance of a mercury-compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R B

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made at a flight Mach number of 1.5, an altitude of 45,000 feet, a turbine-inlet temperature of 1460 degrees R, of a mercury compressor-jet powered airplane using a nuclear reactor as an energy source. The calculations covered a range of turbine-exhaust and turbine-inlet pressures and condenser-inlet Mach numbers. For a turbine--inlet pressure of 40 pounds per square inch absolute, a turbine-exhaust pressure of 14 pounds per square inch absolute, and a condenser-inlet Mach number of 0.23 the calculated airplane gross weight required to carry a 20,000 pound payload was 322000 pounds and the reactor heat release per unit volume was 8.9 kilowatts per cubic inch. These do not represent optimum operating conditions.

  15. Effect of lead-aircraft ground-speed on self-spacing performance using a cockpit display of traffic information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A simulator investigation was conducted to determine the effect of the lead-aircraft ground-speed quantization level on self-spacing performance using a Cockpit Display of Traffic Information (CDTI). The study utilized a simulator employing cathode-ray tubes for the primary flight and navigation displays and highly augmented flight control modes. The pilot's task was to follow, and self-space on, a lead aircraft which was performing an idle-thrust profile descent to an instrument landing system (ILS) approach and landing. The spacing requirement was specified in terms of both a minimum distance and a time interval. The results indicate that the ground-speed quantization level, lead-aircraft scenario, and pilot technique had a significant effect on self-spacing performance. However, the ground-speed quantization level only had a significant effect on the performance when the lead aircraft flew a fast final approach.

  16. Studies for determining the optimum propulsion system characteristics for use in a long range transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brines, G. L.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of propulsion systems for the next generation of near-sonic long range transport aircraft indicates that socially responsive noise and emission goals can be achieved within the probable limits of acceptable airplane performance and economics. Technology advances needed in the 1975-1985 time period to support the development of these propulsion systems are identified and discussed. The single most significant result is the low noise, high performance potential of a low tip speed, spaced, two-stage fan.

  17. Loitering and range performance of turbojet-powered aircraft determined by off-design engine cycle analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koutz, Stanley L; Hensley, Reece V

    1952-01-01

    The loitering and range performance of airplanes equipped with several different turbojet engines was analytically investigated by applying the results of off-design cycle analyses to specific airplane characteristics. The method of off-design cycle analysis is presented herein and is verified by a check with experimental data. For all engines considered, the loitering and the range fuel flows obtained with rated tail-pipe nozzle area, variable engine speed operations were within 2 or 3 percent of the optimum fuel flow obtainable with any method of engines operation. The optimum loitering altitude generally occurred between approximately 25,000 and 35,000 feet with corresponding optimum flight Mach numbers of 0.4 to 0.65. In general, the optimum range fuel flows occurred at 3000 to 5000 feet higher altitude and at approximately 0.15 higher flight Mach numbers than the optimum loitering fuel flow.

  18. Exploratory piloted simulator study of the effects of winglets on handling qualities of a representative agricultural airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogburn, M. E.; Brown, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on handling qualities of adding winglets to a representative agricultural aircraft configuration during swath-run maneuvering were evaluated. Aerodynamic data used in the simulation were based on low-speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale airplane and a subscale model. The Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale, supplementary pilot comments, and pilot vehicle performance data were used to describe the handling qualities of the airplane with the different wing-tip configurations. Results showed that the lateral-directional handling qualities of the airplane were greatly affected by the application of winglets and winglet cant angle. The airplane with winglets canted out 20 deg exhibited severely degraded lateral directional handling qualities in comparison to the basic airplane. When the winglets were canted inward 10 deg, the flying qualities of the configuration were markedly improved over those of the winglet-canted-out configuration or the basic configuration without winglets, indicating that proper tailoring of the winglet design may afford a potential benefit in the area of handling qualities.

  19. Quiet aircraft design and operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aircraft noise technology to the design and operation of aircraft is discussed. Areas of discussion include the setting of target airplane noise levels, operational considerations and their effect on noise, and the sequencing and timing of the design and development process. Primary emphasis is placed on commercial transport aircraft of the type operated by major airlines. Additionally, noise control engineering of other types of aircraft is briefly discussed.

  20. The effects of aircraft certification rules on general aviation accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Carolina Lenz

    -Square test indicated that there was no significant difference in the number of accidents among the different certification categories when either Controlled Flight into Terrain or Structural Failure was listed as cause. However, there was a significant difference in the frequency of accidents with regard to Loss of Control and Engine Failure accidents. The results of the ANCOVA test indicated that there was no significant difference in the accident rate with regard to Loss of Control, Controlled Flight into Terrain, or Structural Failure accidents. There was, however, a significant difference in Engine Failure accidents between Experimental-Amateur Built and the other categories.The text mining analysis of the narrative causes of Loss of Control accidents indicated that only the Civil Air Regulations 3 category airplanes had clusters of words associated with visual flight into instrument meteorological conditions. Civil Air Regulations 3 airplanes were designed and manufactured prior to the 1960s and in most cases have not been retrofitted to take advantage of newer technologies that could help prevent Loss of Control accidents. The study indicated that General Aviation aircraft certification rules do not have a statistically significant effect on aircraft accidents except for Loss of Control and Engine Failure. According to the literature, government oversight could have become an obstacle in the implementation of safety enhancing equipment that could reduce Loss of Control accidents. Oversight should focus on ensuring that Experimental-Amateur Built aircraft owners perform a functional test that could prevent some of the Engine Failure accidents.

  1. Navigation performance of the Triscan concept for shipboard VTOL aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgee, L. A.; Schmidt, S. F.; Miyashiro, S. K.

    1978-01-01

    The paper deals with the Triscan concept - a dual-antenna microwave landing guidance system, using triangulation for close-in accuracy - developed to facilitate the landing of VTOL aircraft on ships in all-weather conditions. Analysis of the navigation performance of an onboard system receiving data from Triscan and data-linked information regarding the motion of the ship showed that the approach navigation performance depends on the approach path profile flown, the magnitude of the measurement bias error, and the navigation system's knowledge of the shipboard landing pad motion, which was implemented through the concept of a landing pad deviation vector.

  2. Vehicle Design Evaluation Program (VDEP). A computer program for weight sizing, economic, performance and mission analysis of fuel-conservative aircraft, multibodied aircraft and large cargo aircraft using both JP and alternative fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, B. H.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center vehicle design evaluation program (VDEP-2) was expanded by (1) incorporating into the program a capability to conduct preliminary design studies on subsonic commercial transport type aircraft using both JP and such alternate fuels as hydrogen and methane;(2) incorporating an aircraft detailed mission and performance analysis capability; and (3) developing and incorporating an external loads analysis capability. The resulting computer program (VDEP-3) provides a preliminary design tool that enables the user to perform integrated sizing, structural analysis, and cost studies on subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Both versions of the VDEP-3 Program which are designated preliminary Analysis VDEP-3 and detailed Analysis VDEP utilize the same vehicle sizing subprogram which includes a detailed mission analysis capability, as well as a geometry and weight analysis for multibodied configurations.

  3. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  4. Common display performance requirements for military and commercial aircraft product lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoener, Steven J.; Behrens, Arthur J.; Flint, John R.; Jacobsen, Alan R.

    2001-09-01

    Obtaining high quality Active Matrix Liquid Crystal (AMLCD) glass to meet the needs of the commercial and military aerospace business is a major challenge, at best. With the demise of all domestic sources of AMLCD substrate glass, the industry is now focused on overseas sources, which are primarily producing glass for consumer electronics. Previous experience with ruggedizing commercial glass leads to the expectation that the aerospace industry can leverage off the commercial market. The problem remains, while the commercial industry is continually changing and improving its products, the commercial and military aerospace industries require stable and affordable supplies of AMLCD glass for upwards of 20 years to support production and maintenance operations. The Boeing Engineering and Supplier Management Process Councils have chartered a group of displays experts from multiple aircraft product divisions within the Boeing Company, the Displays Process Action Team (DPAT), to address this situation from an overall corporate perspective. The DPAT has formulated a set of Common Displays Performance Requirements for use across the corporate line of commercial and military aircraft products. Though focused on the AMLCD problem, the proposed common requirements are largely independent of display technology. This paper describes the strategy being pursued within the Boeing Company to address the AMLCD supply problem and details the proposed implementation process, centered on common requirements for both commercial and military aircraft displays. Highlighted in this paper are proposed common, or standard, display sizes and the other major requirements established by the DPAT, along with the rationale for these requirements.

  5. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Airplane Directorate, Aircraft Certification Service, 901 Locust, Room 301, Kansas City, MO 64106... low-wing, five-plus-two-place (2 children), single-engine turbofan- powered aircraft. It incorporates.... The turbofan engine is mounted on the upper fuselage/tail cone along the aircraft centerline. It...

  6. Exploring QDES as a Tool for Determining Limits of Achievable Performance in Aircraft Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Standard Feedback Diagram y: Sensed Outputs. Output signals that are accessible to the controller. These must be measurable. For the aircraft longitudinal axis...of an aircraft to pushover more than two or tbree g’s is not of great operational importance. 4.3 Aircraft Model The aircraft longitudinal model used...Appendix (A), section (A.1). 4.4 Inner Loop Pitch SAS Theory Control of an aircraft longitudinal axis which exhibits the classical Short Period and Phugoid

  7. Role of Meteorology in Flights of a Solar-Powered Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, Casey

    2004-01-01

    In the summer of 2001, the Helios prototype solar-powered uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) [a lightweight, remotely piloted airplane] was deployed to the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), at Kauai, Hawaii, in an attempt to fly to altitudes above 100,000 ft (30.48 km). The goal of flying a UAV to such high altitudes has been designated a level-I milestone of the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. In support of this goal, meteorologists from NASA Dryden Flight Research Center were sent to PMRF, as part of the flight crew, to provide current and forecast weather information to the pilots, mission directors, and planners. Information of this kind is needed to optimize flight conditions for peak aircraft performance and to enable avoidance of weather conditions that could adversely affect safety. In general, the primary weather data of concern for ground and flight operations are wind speeds (see Figure 1). Because of its long wing span [247 ft (.75 m)] and low weight [1,500 to 1,600 lb (about 680 to 726 kg)], the Helios airplane is sensitive to wind speeds exceeding 7 kn (3.6 m/s) at the surface. Also, clouds are of concern because they can block sunlight needed to energize an array of solar photovoltaic cells that provide power to the airplane. Vertical wind shear is very closely monitored in order to prevent damage or loss of control due to turbulence.

  8. Optimum design considerations of a gust alleviator for aircraft. [for aircraft stability of short takeoff aircraft during atmospheric turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehman, W. I.

    1976-01-01

    A gust alleviation system for aircraft flying in turbulent air was analyzed. A vane sensor (with noise) was used to measure vertical gusts, and elevators and flaps were used to reduce the root-mean-square value of the normal accelerations associated with the aircraft response to gusts. Since turbulence has stochastic properties, stochastic control theory was used in the analysis. A quadratic performance-index function involving normal acceleration and control deflections was minimized. Application of the analysis was illustrated by a short take-off and landing (STOL) airplane in flight through turbulent air. Effects of varying the noise characteristics of the vane sensor and of a weighting matrix in the performance-index function were determined. Calculations were performed as required by stochastic control theory to obtain the root-mean-square response of the airplane to turbulence. Results show that good alleviation was calculated when the intensity of the measurement noise was about 3.6 percent of the vane deflection angles.

  9. Takeoff and landing performance and noise measurements of a deflected slipstream STOL airplane with interconnected propellers and rotating cylinder flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiberg, J. A.; Giulianetti, D.; Gambucci, B.; Innis, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    A YOV-10A aircraft was modified to incorporate rotating cylinder flaps and interconnected propellers with Lycoming T-53-L11 engines. Flight tests were made to evaluate the low speed handling qualities and performance characteristics. The flight test results indicated that landings could be made with approach speeds of 55 to 65 knots (CL = 4.5) and descent angles of 6 deg to 8 deg for total flap angles of 60 deg to 75 deg. At higher flap angles, deterioration of stability and control characteristics precluded attempts at landing. The noise level on the ground under an 8 deg landing approach path was below 86 PNdB at distances beyond 1 nautical mile from touchdown. Takeoffs were made with 30 deg to 45 deg flaps at lift off speeds of 75 to 80 knots and climb angles of 4 deg to 8 deg. Noise levels were below 83 PNdB at 3.5 nautical miles from the start of ground roll.

  10. An Integrated Approach for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    imon, Donald L.; Armstrong, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    A Kalman filter-based approach for integrated on-line aircraft engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics is presented. This technique is specifically designed for underdetermined estimation problems where there are more unknown system parameters representing deterioration and faults than available sensor measurements. A previously developed methodology is applied to optimally design a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of tuning parameters, appropriately sized to enable estimation. The estimated tuning parameters can then be transformed into a larger vector of health parameters representing system performance deterioration and fault effects. The results of this study show that basing fault isolation decisions solely on the estimated health parameter vector does not provide ideal results. Furthermore, expanding the number of the health parameters to address additional gas path faults causes a decrease in the estimation accuracy of those health parameters representative of turbomachinery performance deterioration. However, improved fault isolation performance is demonstrated through direct analysis of the estimated tuning parameters produced by the Kalman filter. This was found to provide equivalent or superior accuracy compared to the conventional fault isolation approach based on the analysis of sensed engine outputs, while simplifying online implementation requirements. Results from the application of these techniques to an aircraft engine simulation are presented and discussed.

  11. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  12. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Longitudinal Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control difference airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control throttle position and another to control elevator position. These two controllers were used to control flight path angle and airspeed for both a piston powered single engine airplane simulation and a business jet simulation. Overspeed protection and stall protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic longitudinal controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very difference characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes including configuration changes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle lever travel, etc.). The controllers also handled configuration changes without mode switching or knowledge of the current configuration. This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  13. Fuzzy Logic Decoupled Lateral Control for General Aviation Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerksen, Noel

    1997-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a human pilot uses the same set of generic skills to control a wide variety of aircraft. If this is true, then it should be possible to construct an electronic controller which embodies this generic skill set such that it can successfully control different airplanes without being matched to a specific airplane. In an attempt to create such a system, a fuzzy logic controller was devised to control aileron or roll spoiler position. This controller was used to control bank angle for both a piston powered single engine aileron equipped airplane simulation and a business jet simulation which used spoilers for primary roll control. Overspeed, stall and overbank protection were incorporated in the form of expert systems supervisors and weighted fuzzy rules. It was found that by using the artificial intelligence techniques of fuzzy logic and expert systems, a generic lateral controller could be successfully used on two general aviation aircraft types that have very different characteristics. These controllers worked for both airplanes over their entire flight envelopes. The controllers for both airplanes were identical except for airplane specific limits (maximum allowable airspeed, throttle ]ever travel, etc.). This research validated the fact that the same fuzzy logic based controller can control two very different general aviation airplanes. It also developed the basic controller architecture and specific control parameters required for such a general controller.

  14. Effect of at-the-source noise reduction on performance and weights of a tilt-rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.

    1975-01-01

    Reduction of far-field acoustic signature through modification of basic design parameters (tip speed, number of blades, disc loading and rotor blade area) was examined, using a tilt-rotor flight research aircraft as a baseline configuration. Of those design parameters, tip speed appeared as the most important. Next, preliminary design of two aircraft was performed, postulating the following reduction of noise level from that of the baseline machine, at 500 feet from the spot of OGE hover. In one aircraft, the PNL was lowered by 10 PNdB and in the other, OASPL decreased by 10 dB. The resulting weight and performance penalties were examined. Then, PNL and EPNL aspects of terminal operation were compared for the baseline and quieter aircraft.

  15. Icarus Rewaxed: A high speed, low-cost general aviation aircraft for Aeroworld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrens, Bryan; Hueckel, Macy; Fulkerson, Dan; Barents, Matt; Capozzi, Brian; Ramsey, Keri

    1994-01-01

    Icarus Rewaxed is a single engine, six passenger, general aviation airplane. With a cruise velocity of 72 ft/s, the Icarus can compete with the performance of any other airplane in its class with an eye on economics and safety. It has a very competitive initial price ($3498.00) and cost per flight ($6.36-8.40). Icarus can serve all airports in Aeroworld with a takeoff distance of 25.4 feet and maximum range of 38,000 feet. It is capable of taking off from an unprepared field with a grass depth of 3 inches. Icarus Rewaxed fills the market need for a high-speed, low cost aircraft. It provides customers with a general aviation craft that can compete in the existing performance market with the added security of an advanced structure. With the use of advanced materials, the maneuvering capability of the Icarus is increased, as it can withstand greater load factors than previous aircraft.

  16. NASA/USRA high altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Michael; Gudino, Juan; Chen, Kenny; Luong, Tai; Wilkerson, Dave; Keyvani, Anoosh

    1990-01-01

    At the equator, the ozone layer ranges from approximately 80,000 to 130,000+ feet which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum of a 6,000 mile range. The low Mach number, payload, and long cruising time are all constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. A pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the above requirements, a joined-wing, a bi-plane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The techniques used have been deemed reasonable within the limits of 1990 technology. The performance of each configuration is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project requirements. In the event that a requirement can not be obtained within the given constraints, recommendations for proposal modifications are given.

  17. Improving the Performance of Multi-engined Airplanes by Means of Idling Propellers : the "free-wheel" Propeller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pillard, M

    1930-01-01

    In order to demonstrate the importance of free-wheeling propellers, this report considers the braking effect of a propeller on a stopped engine when the propeller is rigidly connected with the engine shaft and also when mounted on a free-wheel hub. The cases of propellers of asymmetric and symmetric section are discussed. The author describes the mechanism of the free-wheel propeller as constructed for this test. The results obtained with the device mounted on a 1,000 horsepower two-engine airplane are given.

  18. The feasibility of a high-altitude aircraft platform with consideration of technological and societal constraints. Thesis - Kansas Univ.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of remotely piloted aircraft performing year around missions at an altitude of 70,000 feet is determined. Blimp and airplane type vehicles employing solar-voltaic, microwave, or nuclear propulsion systems were considered. A payload weighing 100 pounds and requiring 1000 watts of continuous power was assumed for analysis purposes. Results indicate that a solar powered aircraft requires more solar cell area than is available on conventional aircraft configurations if designed for the short days and high wind speeds associated with the winter season. A conventionally shaped blimp that uses solar power appears feasible if maximum airspeed is limited to about 100 ft/s. No viable airplane configuration that uses solar power and designed to withstand the winter environment was found. Both a conventionally shaped blimp and airplane appear feasible using microwave power. Nuclear powered aircraft of these type are also feasible. Societal attitudes toward the use of solar power in high altitude aircraft appear favorable. The use of microwave power for this purpose is controversial, even though the ground station required would transmit power at levels comparable to existing satellite communications stations.

  19. 14 CFR 21.185 - Issue of airworthiness certificates for restricted category aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-driven small airplanes (except airplanes designed for “agricultural aircraft operations,” as defined in § 137.3 of this chapter, as effective on January 1, 1966, or for dispensing fire fighting materials... requirements of this section. For import airplanes, compliance with this paragraph is shown if the country...

  20. Turbulence modeling of free shear layers for high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sondak, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The High Performance Aircraft (HPA) Grand Challenge of the High Performance Computing and Communications (HPCC) program involves the computation of the flow over a high performance aircraft. A variety of free shear layers, including mixing layers over cavities, impinging jets, blown flaps, and exhaust plumes, may be encountered in such flowfields. Since these free shear layers are usually turbulent, appropriate turbulence models must be utilized in computations in order to accurately simulate these flow features. The HPCC program is relying heavily on parallel computers. A Navier-Stokes solver (POVERFLOW) utilizing the Baldwin-Lomax algebraic turbulence model was developed and tested on a 128-node Intel iPSC/860. Algebraic turbulence models run very fast, and give good results for many flowfields. For complex flowfields such as those mentioned above, however, they are often inadequate. It was therefore deemed that a two-equation turbulence model will be required for the HPA computations. The k-epsilon two-equation turbulence model was implemented on the Intel iPSC/860. Both the Chien low-Reynolds-number model and a generalized wall-function formulation were included.