Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft antiskid braking

  1. Performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking and of a currently operational antiskid braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the performance of an aircraft tire under cyclic braking conditions and to study the performance of a currently operational aircraft antiskid braking system. Dry, damp, and flooded runway surface conditions were used in the investigation. The results indicated that under cyclic braking conditions the braking and cornering-force friction coefficients may be influenced by fluctuations in the vertical load, flexibility in the wheel support, and the spring coupling between the wheel and the tire-pavement interface. The cornering capability was shown to be negligible at wheel slip ratios well below a locked-wheel skid under all test surface conditions. The maximum available brake-force friction coefficient was shown to be dependent upon the runway surface condition, upon velocity, and, for wet runways, upon tire differences. Moderate reductions in vertical load and brake system pressure did not significantly affect the overall wet-runway performance of the tire.

  2. Dynamics of aircraft antiskid braking systems. [conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Dreher, R. C.; Smith, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    A computer study was performed to assess the accuracy of three brake pressure-torque mathematical models. The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The investigation indicates that the performance of aircraft antiskid braking systems is strongly influenced by tire characteristics, dynamic response of the antiskid control valve, and pressure-torque response of the brake. The computer study employed an average torque error criterion to assess the accuracy of the models. The results indicate that a variable nonlinear spring with hysteresis memory function models the pressure-torque response of the brake more accurately than currently used models.

  3. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: Hydromechanically controlled system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Smith, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The landing-gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. During maximum braking, average braking behavior indexes based upon brake pressure, brake torque, and drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system were generally higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The three braking behavior indexes gave similar results but should not be used interchangeably as a measure of the braking of this antiskid sytem. During the transition from a dry to a flooded surface under heavy braking, the wheel entered into a deep skid but the antiskid system reacted quickly by reducing brake pressure and performed normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface. The brake-pressure recovery following transition from a flooded to a dry surface was shown to be a function of the antiskid modulating orifice.

  4. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces. A slip-velocity-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.; Smith, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The braking and cornering response of a slip velocity controlled, pressure bias modulated aircraft antiskid braking system is investigated. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC 9 series 10 airplane. The landing gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. The parameters, which were varied, included the carriage speed, tire loading, yaw angle, tire tread condition, brake system operating pressure, and runway wetness conditions. The effects of each of these parameters on the behavior of the skid control system is presented. Comparisons between data obtained with the skid control system and data obtained from single cycle braking tests without antiskid protection are examined.

  5. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1995-09-12

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 10 figs.

  6. Electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1995-01-01

    An antiskid braking and traction control system for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes one or more sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensors and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydrualic braking control, or requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs a control strategy based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control the operation of the electric traction motor and to a brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative antiskid braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  7. Research study on antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auselmi, J. A.; Weinberg, L. W.; Yurczyk, R. F.; Nelson, W. G.

    1973-01-01

    A research project to investigate antiskid braking systems for the space shuttle vehicle was conducted. System from the Concorde, Boeing 747, Boeing 737, and Lockheed L-1011 were investigated. The characteristics of the Boeing 737 system which caused it to be selected are described. Other subjects which were investigated are: (1) trade studies of brake control concepts, (2) redundancy requirements trade study, (3) laboratory evaluation of antiskid systems, and (4) space shuttle hardware criteria.

  8. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces - A velocity-rate-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    During maximum braking the average ratio of drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to maximum drag-force friction coefficient available at the tire/runway interface was higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The gross stopping power generated by the brake system on the dry surface was more than twice that obtained on the wet surfaces. With maximum braking applied, the average ratio of side-force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to maximum side-force friction available at the tire/runway interface of a free-rolling yawed tire was shown to decrease with increasing yaw angle. Braking reduced the side-force friction coefficient on a dry surface by 75 percent as the wheel slip ratio was increased to 0.3; on a flooded surface the coefficient dropped to near zero for the same slip ratio. Locked wheel skids were observed when the tire encountered a runway surface transition from dry to flooded, due in part to the response time required for the system to sense abrupt changes in the runway friction; however, the antiskid system quickly responded by reducing brake pressure and cycling normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface.

  9. Some effects of adverse weather conditions on performance of airplane antiskid braking systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of current antiskid braking systems operating under adverse weather conditions was analyzed in an effort to both identify the causes of locked-wheel skids which sometimes occur when the runway is slippery and to find possible solutions to this operational problem. This analysis was made possible by the quantitative test data provided by recently completed landing research programs using fully instrumented flight test airplanes and was further supported by tests performed at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility. The antiskid system logic for brake control and for both touchdown and locked-wheel protection is described and its response behavior in adverse weather is discussed in detail with the aid of available data. The analysis indicates that the operational performance of the antiskid logic circuits is highly dependent upon wheel spin-up acceleration and can be adversely affected by certain pilot braking inputs when accelerations are low. Normal antiskid performance is assured if the tire-to-runway traction is sufficient to provide high wheel spin-up accelerations or if the system is provided a continuous, accurate ground speed reference. The design of antiskid systems is complicated by the necessity for tradeoffs between tire braking and cornering capabilities, both of which are necessary to provide safe operations in the presence of cross winds, particularly under slippery runway conditions.

  10. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, S.R.

    1994-10-25

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control. 123 figs.

  11. Fuzzy logic electric vehicle regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system

    DOEpatents

    Cikanek, Susan R.

    1994-01-01

    An regenerative antiskid braking and traction control system using fuzzy logic for an electric or hybrid vehicle having a regenerative braking system operatively connected to an electric traction motor, and a separate hydraulic braking system includes sensors for monitoring present vehicle parameters and a processor, responsive to the sensors, for calculating vehicle parameters defining the vehicle behavior not directly measurable by the sensor and determining if regenerative antiskid braking control, requiring hydraulic braking control, and requiring traction control are required. The processor then employs fuzzy logic based on the determined vehicle state and provides command signals to a motor controller to control operation of the electric traction motor and to the brake controller to control fluid pressure applied at each vehicle wheel to provide the appropriate regenerative braking control, hydraulic braking control, and traction control.

  12. Recent studies of tire braking performance. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The results from recent studies of some factors affecting tire braking and cornering performance are presented together with a discussion of the possible application of these results to the design of aircraft braking systems. The first part of the paper is concerned with steady-state braking, that is, results from tests conducted at a constant slip ratio or steering angle or both. The second part deals with cyclic braking tests, both single cycle, where brakes are applied at a constant rate until wheel lockup is achieved, and rapid cycling of the brakes under control of a currently operational antiskid system.

  13. Behavior of aircraft antiskid breaking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: A slip-ratio-controlled system with ground speed reference from unbraked nose wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering response of a slip ratio controlled aircraft antiskid braking system with ground speed reference derived from an unbraked nose wheel. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a DC-9 series 10 airplane. During maximum braking, the average ratio of the drag force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to the maximum drag force friction coefficient available was higher on the dry surface than on damp and flooded surfaces, and was reduced with lighter vertical loads, higher yaw angles, and when new tire treads were replaced by worn treads. Similarly, the average ratio of side force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to the maximum side force friction coefficient available to a freely rolling yawed tire decreased with increasing yaw angle, generally increased with ground speed, and decreased when tires with new treads were replaced by those with worn treads.

  14. Anti-skid brake control system for automotive vehicle with feature of assuring prevention of wheel-locking at any driving condition

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuda, T.

    1989-02-14

    An anti-skid brake control system is described for an automotive vehicle, comprising: a hydraulic brake circuit including wheel cylinders for establishing braking pressure for decelerating vehicular wheels; first and second anti-skid brake control valves, each associated at least one of first and second wheel cylinders which are associated with first and second wheels for adjusting braking pressure therein, each of the anti-skid brake control valves being operable to increase braking pressure in the associated wheel cylinder in a first mode position, and to decrease the braking pressure in the associated wheel cylinder in a second mode position; first sensor for monitoring rotation speed of the first wheel for producing a first wheel speed indicative signal; second sensor for monitoring rotation speed of the second wheel for producing a second wheel speed indicative signal; first means for monitoring wheel slippage at the first and second wheels based on the first and second wheel speed indicative signals and detecting a wheel slippage at one of the first and second wheels when the wheel slippage increases across a given slippage threshold for operating the first and second anti-skid brake control valves in the second mode position; and second means for detecting the first and second wheel speed indicative signals for operating the first and second anti-skid brake control valves in the first mode position when a predetermined brake condition is satisfied while the first and second anti-skid brake control valves are in the second mode position, the second means increasing a rate of braking pressure in the first and second wheel cylinders in response to the detection so that the braking pressure in a third wheel cylinder is increased at a greater increasing rate than that in a fourth wheel cylinder.

  15. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  16. Some wear studies on aircraft brake systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    An initial investigation of worn surfaces in friction pads and steel rotors used in current aircraft brakes was carried out using electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis. It consists of the topographical study and the analysis of chemical element distribution. Based upon this initial examination, two approaches, microscopic and macroscopic have been conducted to interpret and formulate the wear mechanism of the aircraft brake materials. Microscopically, the wear particles were examined. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. Macroscopically, it has been found that, for the current copper based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS steel in a caliper brake, the surface temperature raised due to frictional heat is nonlinearly proportional to the load applied and slide time with speed at 1750 rpm. The wear of brake materials is then proportional to this temperature and is also a function of the melting temperature for copper.

  17. Consideration of Materials for Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, M. B.; Ho, T.

    1972-01-01

    An exploratory investigation was conducted concerning materials and their properties for use in aircraft brakes. Primary consideration was given to the heat dissipation and the frictional behavior of materials. Used brake pads and rotors were analyzed as part of the investigation. A simple analysis was conducted in order to determine the most significant factors which affect surface temperatures. It was found that where size and weight restrictions are necessary, the specific heat of the material, and maintaining uniform contact area are the most important factors. A criterion was suggested for optimum sizing of the brake disks. Bench friction tests were run with brake materials. It was found that there is considerable friction variation due to the formation and removal of surface oxide films. Other causes of friction variations are surface softening and melting. The friction behavior at high temperature was found to be more characteristic of the steel surface rather than the copper brake material. It is concluded that improved brake materials are feasible.

  18. Evaluation of materials and design modifications for aircraft brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Kennedy, F. E.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A test program is described which was carried out to evaluate several proposed design modifications and several high-temperature friction materials for use in aircraft disk brakes. The evaluation program was carried out on a specially built test apparatus utilizing a disk brake and wheel half from a small het aircraft. The apparatus enabled control of brake pressure, velocity, and braking time. Tests were run under both constant and variable velocity conditions and covered a kinetic energy range similar to that encountered in aircraft brake service. The results of the design evaluation program showed that some improvement in brake performance can be realized by making design changes in the components of the brake containing friction material. The materials evaluation showed that two friction materials show potential for use in aircraft disk brakes. One of the materials is a nickel-based sintered composite, while the other is a molybdenum-based material. Both materials show much lower wear rates than conventional copper-based materials and are better able to withstand the high temperatures encountered during braking. Additional materials improvement is necessary since both materials show a significant negative slope of the friction-velocity curve at low velocities.

  19. Wheel brakes and their application to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowty, G H

    1928-01-01

    The advantages to be gained from braking have not been ignored, and in the search for a suitable method many schemes have been suggested and tried. Some of the methods discussed in this paper include: 1) increasing the height of the landing gear; 2) air brakes of various forms; 3) sprags on tail skid and axle; and 4) wheel brakes. This report focuses on the design of wheel brakes and wheel brake controls.

  20. Development of aircraft brake materials. [evaluation of metal and ceramic materials in sliding tests simulation of aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    The requirements of brake materials were outlined and a survey made to select materials to meet the needs of high temperature brakes. A number of metals and ceramic materials were selected and evaluated in sliding tests which simulated aircraft braking. Nickel, molybdenum tungsten, Zr02, high temperature cements and carbons were tested. Additives were then incorporated into these materials to optimize their wear or strength behavior with particular emphasis on nickel and molybdenum base materials and a high temperature potassium silicate cement. Optimum materials were developed which improved wear behavior over conventional brake materials in the simulated test. The best materials are a nickel, aluminum oxide, lead tungstate composition containing graphite or molybdenum disulphite; a molybdenum base material containing LPA100 (an intermetallic compound of cobalt, molybdenum, and silicon); and a carbon material (P5).

  1. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  2. Aluminum runway surface as possible aid to aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.; Pinkel, I. I.

    1973-01-01

    Several concepts are described for use singly or in combination to improve aircraft braking. All involve a thin layer of aluminum covering all or part of the runway. Advantage would derive from faster heat conduction from the tire-runway interface. Heating of tread surface with consequent softening and loss of friction coefficient should be reduced. Equations are developed indicating that at least 99 percent of friction heat should flow into the aluminum. Preliminary test results indicate a coefficient of sliding friction of 1.4, with predictably slight heating of tread. Elimination of conventional brakes is at least a remote possibility.

  3. Wear and related characteristics of an aircraft tire during braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Wear and related characteristics of friction and temperature developed during braking of size 22 x 5.5, type aircraft tires are studied. The testing technique involved gearing the tire to a driving wheel of a ground vehicle to provide operations at constant slip ratios on asphalt, concrete, and slurry-seal surfaces. Data were obtained over the range of slip ratios generally attributed to an aircraft braking system during dry runway operations. The results show that the cumulative tire wear varies linearly with distance traveled and the wear rate increases with increasing slip ratio and is influenced by the runway-surface character. Differences in the wear rates associated with the various surfaces suggest that runways can be rated on the basis of tire wear. The results also show that the friction coefficients developed during fixed-slip-ratio operations are in good agreement with those obtained by other investigators during cyclic braking, in that the dry friction is insensitive to the tire tread temperature is shown to increase with increasing slip ratio and, at the higher ratios, to be greater during braking on asphalt and slurry seal than on concrete.

  4. Wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of an aircraft tire undergoing braking and cornering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Yager, T. J.; Riccitiello, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation to evaluate the wear, friction, and temperature characteristics of aircraft tire treads fabricated from different elastomers is presented. The braking and cornering tests performed on aircraft tires retreaded with currently employed and experimental elastomers are described. The tread wear rate is discussed in relation to the slip ratio during braking and yaw angle during cornering. The extent of wear in either operational mode is examined in relation to the runway surface.

  5. Some effects of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction under flooded runway conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrdsong, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study the effect of grooved runway configurations on aircraft tire braking traction on flooded runway surfaces. The investigation was performed, utilizing size 49 x 17, type VII, aircraft tires with an inflation pressure of 170 lb per square inch at ground speeds up to approximately 120 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that when the runway is flooded, grooved surfaces provide better braking traction than an ungrooved surface and, in general, the level of braking traction was found to improve as the tire bearing pressure was increased because of an increase in the groove area of either the surface or the tire tread. Rounding the groove edges tended to degrade the tire braking capability from that developed on the same groove configuration with sharp edges. Results also indicate that braking friction coefficients for the test tires and runway surfaces decreased as ground speed was increased because of the hydroplaning effects.

  6. The design of aircraft brake systems, employing cooling to increase brake life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scaringe, R. P.; Ho, T. L.; Peterson, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    A research program was initiated to determine the feasibility of using cooling to increase brake life. An air cooling scheme was proposed, constructed and tested with various designs. Straight and curved slotting of the friction material was tested. A water cooling technique, similar to the air cooling procedure, was evaluated on a curved slotted rotor. Also investigated was the possibility of using a phase-change material within the rotor to absorb heat during braking. Various phase-changing materials were tabulated and a 50%, (by weight) LiF - BeF2 mixing was chosen. It was shown that corrosion was not a problem with this mixture. A preliminary design was evaluated on an actual brake. Results showed that significant improvements in lowering the surface temperature of the brake occurred when air or water cooling was used in conjunction with curved slotted rotors.

  7. Effects of Anti-Oxidant Migration on Friction and Wear of C/C Aircraft Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Don, Jarlen; Wang, Zhe

    2009-04-01

    The surfaces of carbon-carbon (C/C) aircraft brakes are usually coated with anti-oxidant to protect them from oxidation. These surfaces do not include the friction surfaces since it is known that when anti-oxidant get onto the friction surface, the friction coefficient decreases. The anti-oxidant migration (AOM), however, happens during processing, heat treatment and application. In this study, phosphorus based anti-oxidants inhibited 3-D C/C aircraft brake system was investigated. The effects of their migration on friction and wear in the 3-D C/C brakes were revealed by sub-scale dynamometer tests and microscopic analysis. Dynamometer results showed that when AOM occurred, both landing and taxi coefficients decreased in humid environment and the wear was slightly lowered. Microscopic study showed that under high humidity conditions there was no formation of the friction film.

  8. Fuzzy logic anti-skid control for commercial trucks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akey, Mark L.

    1995-06-01

    A fuzzy logic (FL) anti-skid brake controller (ABS) is proposed as the next generation ABS replacing current generation finite state (FS) control. The FL controller is part of a commercial truck braking system, encompassing reverse front-back braking proportions on an articulated vehicle as compared to that found on fixed, passenger car systems. In this early research, the FL controller must satisfy three goals. The first goal is to produce superior braking distances over that of the finite state controller, specifically under low (mu) conditions. The second goal is to provide superior braking under varying system conditions (road surface conditions, physical brake parameters, wheel velocity sensor parameters). The third goal is to provide a convenient, flexible, and tractable ABS solution which is amenable to redevelopemnt to different vehicular platforms. Monte Carlo simulation results illustrate stopping distance improvements of 5 to 10 % averaged over all (mu) surfaces for varying wheel loads. On low (mu) surfaces, the improvement increases to 15% (up to a full tractor-trailer length). These results are obtained while varying other system parameters demonstrating robustness. Finally, the fuzzy logic rule sets and the overall configuration illustrate a straight-forward design and maturation process for the rule sets.

  9. Thermal conductance of and heat generation in tire-pavement interface and effect on aircraft braking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. D.

    1976-01-01

    A finite-difference analysis was performed on temperature records obtained from a free rolling automotive tire and from pavement surface. A high thermal contact conductance between tire and asphalt was found on a statistical basis. Average slip due to squirming between tire and asphalt was about 1.5 mm. Consequent friction heat was estimated as 64 percent of total power absorbed by bias-ply, belted tire. Extrapolation of results to aircraft tire indicates potential braking improvement by even moderate increase of heat absorbing capacity of runway surface.

  10. The friction and wear of carbon-carbon composites for aircraft brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutton, Toby

    Many carbon-carbon composite aircraft brakes encounter high wear rates during low energy braking operations. The work presented in this thesis addresses this issue, but it also elucidates the microstructural changes and wear mechanisms that take place in these materials during all braking conditions encountered by aircraft brakes. A variety of investigations were conducted using friction and wear testing, as well as examination of wear surfaces and wear debris using OM, SEM, X-RD, TGA and Density Gradient Separation (DOS). Friction and wear tests were conducted on a PAN fibre/CVI matrix carbon-carbon composite (Dunlop) and a pitch fibre/Resin-CVI matrix carbon-carbon composite (Bendix). Extensive testing was undertaken on the Dunlop composites to asses the effects of composite architecture, fibre orientation and heat treatment temperatures on friction and wear. Other friction and wear tests, conducted on the base Dunlop composite, were used to investigate the relative influences of temperature and sliding speed. It was found that the effect of temperature was dominant over composite architecture, fibre orientation and sliding speed in governing the friction and wear performance of the Dunlop composites. The development of bulk temperatures in excess of 110 C by frictional heating resulted in smooth friction and a low wear rate. Reducing heat treatment temperature also reduced the thermal conductivity producing high interface temperatures, low smooth friction coefficients and low wear rates under low energy braking conditions. However, this was at the expense of high oxidative wear rates under higher energy braking conditions. The Bendix composites had lower thermal conductivities than the fully heat treated Dunlop composite and exhibited similar friction and wear behaviour to Dunlop composites heat treated to lower temperatures. Examination of the wear surfaces using OM and SEM revealed particulate or Type I surface debris on wear surfaces tested under low energy

  11. Mechanical testing and modelling of carbon-carbon composites for aircraft disc brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Luke R.

    The objective of this study is to improve the understanding of the stress distributions and failure mechanisms experienced by carbon-carbon composite aircraft brake discs using finite element (FE) analyses. The project has been carried out in association with Dunlop Aerospace as an EPSRC CASE studentship. It therefore focuses on the carbon-carbon composite brake disc material produced by Dunlop Aerospace, although it is envisaged that the approach will have broader applications for modelling and mechanical testing of carbon-carbon composites in general. The disc brake material is a laminated carbon-carbon composite comprised of poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) derived carbon fibres in a chemical vapour infiltration (CVI) deposited matrix, in which the reinforcement is present in both continuous fibre and chopped fibre forms. To pave the way for the finite element analysis, a comprehensive study of the mechanical properties of the carbon-carbon composite material was carried out. This focused largely, but not entirely, on model composite materials formulated using structural elements of the disc brake material. The strengths and moduli of these materials were measured in tension, compression and shear in several orientations. It was found that the stress-strain behaviour of the materials were linear in directions where there was some continuous fibre reinforcement, but non-linear when this was not the case. In all orientations, some degree of non-linearity was observed in the shear stress-strain response of the materials. However, this non-linearity was generally not large enough to pose a problem for the estimation of elastic moduli. Evidence was found for negative Poisson's ratio behaviour in some orientations of the material in tension. Additionally, the through-thickness properties of the composite, including interlaminar shear strength, were shown to be positively related to bulk density. The in-plane properties were mostly unrelated to bulk density over the range of

  12. Application of tire dynamics to aircraft landing gear design analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The tire plays a key part in many analyses used for design of aircraft landing gear. Examples include structural design of wheels, landing gear shimmy, brake whirl, chatter and squeal, complex combination of chatter and shimmy on main landing gear (MLG) systems, anti-skid performance, gear walk, and rough terrain loads and performance. Tire parameters needed in the various analyses are discussed. Two tire models are discussed for shimmy analysis, the modified Moreland approach and the von Schlippe-Dietrich approach. It is shown that the Moreland model can be derived from the Von Schlippe-Dietrich model by certain approximations. The remaining analysis areas are discussed in general terms and the tire parameters needed for each are identified. Accurate tire data allows more accurate design analysis and the correct prediction of dynamic performance of aircraft landing gear.

  13. Experimental investigation of the braking and cornering characteristics of 30 x 11.5-14.5, type 8, aircraft tires with different tread patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering characteristics, including the drag-force and cornering-force friction coefficients, of 30 by 11.5-14.5, type VIII aircraft tires with five different tread patterns. Test data were obtained on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 12 deg at ground speeds from 5 knots to 100 knots. The results of this investigation indicate that a tread pattern consisting of transverse cuts across the entire width of the tread slightly improved the tire traction performance on wet surfaces. The braking and cornering capability of the tires was degraded by thin-film lubrication and tire hydroplaning effects on the wet runway surfaces. The braking capability of the tires decreased when the yaw angle was increased.

  14. Test of swedish anti-skid devices on five different slippery surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gard, G; Lundborg, G

    2001-01-01

    The interest for effective preventive strategies for slips and falls is growing. Much remains to be done, however, to prevent slips and falls in the traffic environment. Some pedestrians are injured because of slippery pavements and roadways. Using an appropriate anti-skid device may reduce the risk of slips and falls on different surfaces outdoors during winter. The aim of this study was to evaluate new anti-skid devices on the Swedish market representing three different designs of anti-skid devices; heel device, fore-foot device and whole-foot device on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The evaluations were done according to subject's perceived walking safety and balance, videorecordings of walking postures and movements, time to take on and off each anti-skid device, advantages/disadvantages with each anti-skid device and a list of priority for own use according to three criteria; safety, balance and appearance. Practical tests were carried out on different slippery surfaces, gravel, sand, salt, snow and ice. The subject's were randomly selected from the registered population over 55 years in a city in northern Sweden. The results showed that eight or more of the ten subjects perceived all four anti-skid devices as fairly good or good regarding walking safety and balance when walking on gravel, sand, and salt. Anti-skid device 3, a whole-foot device was perceived as having none or bad walking safety and balance on snow by seven subjects and anti-skid device 4, a heel device, as having none or bad walking balance on ice by all ten subjects. Eight subjects walked with a normal muscle function in the hip and knee with all anti-skid devices on all surfaces. Small deviations in walking posture and movements were noted in one to two subjects when walking on different surfaces, but no systematic difference between the devices. Anti-skid device 1 'Rewa', a fixed heel device, was perceived as the most rapid one to take on. All four devices

  15. Generation of urban road dust from anti-skid and asphalt concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tervahattu, Heikki; Kupiainen, Kaarle J; Räisänen, Mika; Mäkelä, Timo; Hillamo, Risto

    2006-04-30

    Road dust forms an important component of airborne particulate matter in urban areas. In many winter cities the use of anti-skid aggregates and studded tires enhance the generation of mineral particles. The abrasion particles dominate the PM10 during springtime when the material deposited in snow is resuspended. This paper summarizes the results from three test series performed in a test facility to assess the factors that affect the generation of abrasion components of road dust. Concentrations, mass size distribution and composition of the particles were studied. Over 90% of the particles were aluminosilicates from either anti-skid or asphalt concrete aggregates. Mineral particles were observed mainly in the PM10 fraction, the fine fraction being 12% and submicron size being 6% of PM10 mass. The PM10 concentrations increased as a function of the amount of anti-skid aggregate dispersed. The use of anti-skid aggregate increased substantially the amount of PM10 originated from the asphalt concrete. It was concluded that anti-skid aggregate grains contribute to pavement wear. The particle size distribution of the anti-skid aggregates had great impact on PM10 emissions which were additionally enhanced by studded tires, modal composition, and texture of anti-skid aggregates. The results emphasize the interaction of tires, anti-skid aggregate, and asphalt concrete pavement in the production of dust emissions. They all must be taken into account when measures to reduce road dust are considered. The winter maintenance and springtime cleaning must be performed properly with methods which are efficient in reducing PM10 dust. PMID:16426748

  16. Generation of urban road dust from anti-skid and asphalt concrete aggregates.

    PubMed

    Tervahattu, Heikki; Kupiainen, Kaarle J; Räisänen, Mika; Mäkelä, Timo; Hillamo, Risto

    2006-04-30

    Road dust forms an important component of airborne particulate matter in urban areas. In many winter cities the use of anti-skid aggregates and studded tires enhance the generation of mineral particles. The abrasion particles dominate the PM10 during springtime when the material deposited in snow is resuspended. This paper summarizes the results from three test series performed in a test facility to assess the factors that affect the generation of abrasion components of road dust. Concentrations, mass size distribution and composition of the particles were studied. Over 90% of the particles were aluminosilicates from either anti-skid or asphalt concrete aggregates. Mineral particles were observed mainly in the PM10 fraction, the fine fraction being 12% and submicron size being 6% of PM10 mass. The PM10 concentrations increased as a function of the amount of anti-skid aggregate dispersed. The use of anti-skid aggregate increased substantially the amount of PM10 originated from the asphalt concrete. It was concluded that anti-skid aggregate grains contribute to pavement wear. The particle size distribution of the anti-skid aggregates had great impact on PM10 emissions which were additionally enhanced by studded tires, modal composition, and texture of anti-skid aggregates. The results emphasize the interaction of tires, anti-skid aggregate, and asphalt concrete pavement in the production of dust emissions. They all must be taken into account when measures to reduce road dust are considered. The winter maintenance and springtime cleaning must be performed properly with methods which are efficient in reducing PM10 dust.

  17. Gravity brake

    DOEpatents

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  18. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  19. Braking system

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  20. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brakes. 29.735 Section 29.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes....

  1. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  2. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brakes. 29.735 Section 29.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes....

  3. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brakes. 27.735 Section 27.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For...

  4. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brakes. 27.735 Section 27.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For...

  5. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  6. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  7. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brakes. 27.735 Section 27.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For...

  8. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brakes. 27.735 Section 27.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For...

  9. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  10. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brakes. 29.735 Section 29.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes....

  11. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  12. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brakes. 29.735 Section 29.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes....

  13. 14 CFR 27.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brakes. 27.735 Section 27.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 27.735 Brakes. For...

  14. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake. 27.921 Section 27.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  15. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  16. 14 CFR 29.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brakes. 29.735 Section 29.735 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Landing Gear § 29.735 Brakes....

  17. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor brake. 29.921 Section 29.921 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is...

  18. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  19. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  20. BRAKE DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    O'Donnell, T.J.

    1959-03-10

    A brake device is described for utilization in connection with a control rod. The device comprises a pair of parallelogram link mechanisms, a control rod moveable rectilinearly therebetween in opposite directions, and shoes resiliently supported by the mechanism for frictional engagement with the control rod.

  1. Automotive Brake Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, orginally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to provide mechanics with an understanding of the basic operations of automotive brake systems on military vehicles. The course contains four study units covering hydraulic brakes, air brakes, power brakes, and auxiliary brake systems. A troubleshooting guide for…

  2. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  3. Brake control system modification, augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane (AWJSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amberg, R. L.; Arline, J. A.; Jenny, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The braking system for a short takeoff aircraft is discussed and the deficiencies are described. The installation of a Boeing 727 aircraft brake system was made to correct the deficiencies. Tests of the modified system were conducted using an analog computer/hardware simulator. Actual performance tests were conducted and the characteristics of the system were satisfactory.

  4. 14 CFR 25.507 - Reversed braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reversed braking. 25.507 Section 25.507 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... must be equal to 0.55 times the vertical load at each wheel or to the load developed by 1.2 times...

  5. Brake Fundamentals. Automotive Articulation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Larry; And Others

    Designed for secondary and postsecondary auto mechanics programs, this curriculum guide contains learning exercises in seven areas: (1) brake fundamentals; (2) brake lines, fluid, and hoses; (3) drum brakes; (4) disc brake system and service; (5) master cylinder, power boost, and control valves; (6) parking brakes; and (7) trouble shooting. Each…

  6. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  7. An antilock molecular braking system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ting; Huang, Shou-Ling; Yao, Hsuan-Hsiao; Chen, I-Chia; Lin, Ying-Chih; Yang, Jye-Shane

    2012-08-17

    A light-driven molecular brake displaying an antilock function is constructed by introducing a nonradiative photoinduced electron transfer (PET) decay channel to compete with the trans (brake-off) → cis (brake-on) photoisomerization. A fast release of the brake can be achieved by deactivating the PET process through addition of protons. The cycle of irradiation-protonation-irradiation-deprotonation conducts the brake function and mimics the antilock braking system (ABS) of vehicles. PMID:22853709

  8. A New Dynamometer Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segre, Marco

    1921-01-01

    The mechanism here described belongs to the class of dynamometer brake in which the motive power is transformed into heat in the brake itself. This mechanism was invented by the writer for the purpose of measuring forces in which the two factors, torque and speed, vary within broad limits, the mechanism itself being of simple construction and of still simpler operation.

  9. Improved Electromagnetic Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Toby B.

    2004-01-01

    A proposed design for an electromagnetic brake would increase the reliability while reducing the number of parts and the weight, relative to a prior commercially available electromagnetic brake. The reductions of weight and the number of parts could also lead to a reduction of cost. A description of the commercial brake is prerequisite to a description of the proposed electromagnetic brake. The commercial brake (see upper part of figure) includes (1) a permanent magnet and an electromagnet coil on a stator and (2) a rotor that includes a steel contact plate mounted, with tension spring loading, on an aluminum hub. The stator is mounted securely on a stationary object, which would ordinarily be the housing of a gear drive or a motor. The rotor is mounted on the shaft of the gear drive or motor. The commercial brake nominally operates in a fail-safe (in the sense of normally braking) mode: In the absence of current in the electromagnet coil, the permanent magnet pulls the contact plate, against the spring tension, into contact with the stator. To release the brake, one excites the electromagnet with a current of the magnitude and polarity chosen to cancel the magnetic flux of the permanent magnet, thereby enabling the spring tension to pull the contact plate out of contact with the stator. The fail-safe operation of the commercial brake depends on careful mounting of the rotor in relation to the stator. The rotor/stator gap must be set with a tolerance between 10 and 15 mils (between about 0.25 and about 0.38 mm). If the gap or the contact pad is thicker than the maximum allowable value, then the permanent magnetic field will not be strong enough to pull the steel plate across the gap. (For this reason, any contact pad between the contact plate and the stator must also be correspondingly thin.) If the gap exceeds the maximum allowable value because of shaft end play, it becomes impossible to set the brake by turning off the electromagnet current. Although it may

  10. Braking System for Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krysiak, J. E.; Webb, F. E.

    1987-01-01

    Operating turbine stopped smoothly by fail-safe mechanism. Windturbine braking systems improved by system consisting of two large steel-alloy disks mounted on high-speed shaft of gear box, and brakepad assembly mounted on bracket fastened to top of gear box. Lever arms (with brake pads) actuated by spring-powered, pneumatic cylinders connected to these arms. Springs give specific spring-loading constant and exert predetermined load onto brake pads through lever arms. Pneumatic cylinders actuated positively to compress springs and disengage brake pads from disks. During power failure, brakes automatically lock onto disks, producing highly reliable, fail-safe stops. System doubles as stopping brake and "parking" brake.

  11. Vehicle brake testing system

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Samuel S [Harriman, TN; Hodgson, Jeffrey W [Lenoir City, TN

    2002-11-19

    This invention relates to a force measuring system capable of measuring forces associated with vehicle braking and of evaluating braking performance. The disclosure concerns an invention which comprises a first row of linearly aligned plates, a force bearing surface extending beneath and beside the plates, vertically oriented links and horizontally oriented links connecting each plate to a force bearing surface, a force measuring device in each link, a transducer coupled to each force measuring device, and a computing device coupled to receive an output signal from the transducer indicative of measured force in each force measuring device. The present invention may be used for testing vehicle brake systems.

  12. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbee, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and evaluation results of a DC-9-10 runway directional control simulator are described. An existing wide bodied flight simulator was modified to this aircraft configuration. The simulator was structured to use either two of antiskid simulations; (1) an analog mechanization that used aircraft hardware; or (2) a digital software simulation. After the simulation was developed it was evaluated by 14 pilots who made 818 simulated flights. These evaluations involved landings, rejected takeoffs, and various ground maneuvers. Qualitatively most pilots evaluated the simulator as realistic with good potential especially for pilot training for adverse runway conditions.

  13. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  14. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... dynamic brake does not result in exceeding the allowable stopping distance; (2) The friction brake alone... speed for safe operation of the train using only the friction brake portion of the blended brake with...

  15. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... dynamic brake does not result in exceeding the allowable stopping distance; (2) The friction brake alone... speed for safe operation of the train using only the friction brake portion of the blended brake with...

  16. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  17. Heat distribution in disc brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenda, Frantisek; Soukup, Josef; Kampo, Jan

    2016-06-01

    This article is deals by the thermal analysis of the disc brake with floating caliper. The issue is solved by numerically. The half 2D model is used for solution in program ADINA 8.8. Two brake discs without the ventilation are solved. One disc is made from cast iron and the second is made from stainless steel. Both materials are an isotropic. By acting the pressure force on the brake pads will be pressing the pads to the brake disc. Speed will be reduced (slowing down). On the contact surface generates the heat, which the disc and pads heats. In the next part of article is comparison the maximum temperature at the time of braking. The temperatures of both materials for brake disc (gray cast iron, stainless steel) are compares. The heat flux during braking for the both materials is shown.

  18. Comparative analysis into the tractor-trailer braking dynamics: tractor with single axle brakes, tractor with all wheel brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastasoiu, Mircea; Ispas, Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    The paper elaborates a mathematical model in order to conduct a study into the dynamics of tractor-trailer systems during braking. The braking dynamics is analyzed by considering two versions for the braking system: 1) braking applied on the rear axle and 2) braking applied on all four wheels. In both versions the trailer is braked on all wheels. The mathematical model enables us to determine and graphically illustrate the evolution of the following parameters: braking deceleration, braking speed and the distance traveled by the tractor during braking. The mathematical model elaborated is applied on a tractor-trailer system completing transportation works.

  19. 14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 23.735 Brakes. (a) Brakes must be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main wheel brake assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined under either of the following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements must...

  20. 14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 23.735 Brakes. (a) Brakes must be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main wheel brake assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined under either of the following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements must...

  1. 14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 23.735 Brakes. (a) Brakes must be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main wheel brake assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined under either of the following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements must...

  2. 14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 23.735 Brakes. (a) Brakes must be provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main wheel brake assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined under either of the following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements must...

  3. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... of the service brake pedal or control begins, that is not greater than the distance specified in...

  4. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake performance. 393.52 Section 393.52... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.52 Brake performance. (a) Upon application of its service brakes... of the service brake pedal or control begins, that is not greater than the distance specified in...

  5. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  6. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  7. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  8. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  9. 49 CFR 570.56 - Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system... Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.56 Vacuum brake assist unit and vacuum brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with vacuum brake assist units and vacuum brake...

  10. Tether Deployer And Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Joseph A.; Alexander, Charles M.

    1993-01-01

    Design concept promises speed, control, and reliability. Scheme for deploying tether provides for fast, free, and snagless payout and fast, dependable braking. Developed for small, expendable tethers in outer space, scheme also useful in laying transoceanic cables, deploying guidance wires to torpedoes and missiles, paying out rescue lines from ship to ship via rockets, deploying antenna wires, releasing communication and power cables to sonobuoys and expendable bathythermographs, and in reeling out lines from fishing rods.

  11. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOEpatents

    Venkataperumal, Rama R.; Mericle, Gerald E.

    1981-06-02

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle, with the braking system being responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  12. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    DOEpatents

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  13. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... system, if installed. (f) Kinetic energy capacity—(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption... of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate...

  14. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... system, if installed. (f) Kinetic energy capacity—(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption... of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate...

  15. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... system, if installed. (f) Kinetic energy capacity—(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption... of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate...

  16. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... system, if installed. (f) Kinetic energy capacity—(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption... of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate...

  17. 14 CFR 25.735 - Brakes and braking systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... system, if installed. (f) Kinetic energy capacity—(1) Design landing stop. The design landing stop is an operational landing stop at maximum landing weight. The design landing stop brake kinetic energy absorption... of kinetic energy throughout the defined wear range of the brake. The energy absorption rate...

  18. Chaos in brake squeal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2011-02-01

    Brake squeal has become an increasing concern to the automotive industry because of warranty costs and the requirement for continued interior vehicle noise reduction. Most research has been directed to either analytical and experimental studies of brake squeal mechanisms or the prediction of brake squeal propensity using finite element methods. By comparison, there is a lack of systematic analysis of brake squeal data obtained from a noise dynamometer. It is well known that brake squeal is a nonlinear transient phenomenon and a number of studies using analytical and experimental models of brake systems (e.g., pin-on-disc) indicate that it could be treated as a chaotic phenomenon. Data obtained from a full brake system on a noise dynamometer were examined with nonlinear analysis techniques. The application of recurrence plots reveals chaotic structures even in noisy data from the squealing events. By separating the time series into different regimes, lower dimensional attractors are isolated and quantified by dynamic invariants such as correlation dimension estimates or Lyapunov exponents. Further analysis of the recurrence plot of squealing events by means of recurrence quantification analysis measures reveals different regimes of laminar and random behaviour, periodicity and chaos-forming recurrent transitions. These results help to classify brake squeal mechanisms and to enhance understanding of friction-related noise phenomena.

  19. Brake power servo booster

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, M.; Shimamura, M.

    1988-04-19

    A brake power servo booster is described comprising: a power piston; a power piston return spring; at least two shells enclosing at least a portion of the power piston and defining a constant pressure chamber and a variable pressure chamber; a master cylinder for controlling the application of hydraulic pressure to a brake mechanism; an input shaft; a hollow cylindrical member integrally connected to the input shaft, a stopper member for limiting movement of the hollow cylindrical member in the second direction, a hollow output shaft integrally connected at one end thereof to the power piston; a connecting member integrally connected to the other end of the output shaft and slidably disposed inside the hollow cylindrical member, a valve member, a valve return spring for urging and valve member towards the first and second valve seats; and a key member provided between the connecting member and the hollow cylindrical member for allowing relative displacement between the connecting member and the hollow cylindrical member in the first and second directions within a predetermined range.

  20. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake... STANDARDS Vehicles With GVWR of More Than 10,000 Pounds § 570.57 Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem. The following requirements apply to vehicles with air brake and...

  1. Brakes Specialist. Teacher Edition. Automotive Service Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This document contains teacher's materials for a course on becoming an automotive brakes specialist, based on the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence task lists. The course consists of three instructional units: service brake hydraulic system and wheel bearings, service drum brakes, and service disc brakes. Depending on the…

  2. 30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be...

  3. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brakes: General. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: General. The carrier shall know before each trip that the locomotive brakes and devices...

  4. 30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be...

  5. 30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 57.10004 Section 57.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  6. 30 CFR 56.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 56.10004 Section 56.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  7. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake system. 238.431 Section 238.431... Equipment § 238.431 Brake system. (a) A passenger train's brake system shall be capable of stopping the... train is operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The brake system shall be designed to...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall...

  11. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake system. 238.431 Section 238.431... Equipment § 238.431 Brake system. (a) A passenger train's brake system shall be capable of stopping the... train is operating under worst-case adhesion conditions. (b) The brake system shall be designed to...

  12. 30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall...

  13. 30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 57.10004 Section 57.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  14. 30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall...

  15. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brakes: General. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: General. The carrier shall know before each trip that the locomotive brakes and devices...

  16. 30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be...

  17. 30 CFR 56.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 56.10004 Section 56.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  18. 30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 57.10004 Section 57.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  19. 30 CFR 56.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 56.19004 Section 56.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall be...

  20. 30 CFR 56.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 56.10004 Section 56.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 57.19004 Section 57.19004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19004 Brakes. Any hoist used to hoist persons shall be equipped with a brake or brakes which shall...

  2. 30 CFR 56.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 56.10004 Section 56.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 56.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  3. 30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 57.10004 Section 57.10004 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Aerial Tramways § 57.10004 Brakes. Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  4. 49 CFR 238.431 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) The following requirements apply to blended braking systems: (1) Loss of power or failure of the... control alone. (g) An independent failure-detection system shall compare brake commands with brake system output to determine if a failure has occurred. The failure detection system shall report brake...

  5. 49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 Section 570.58... 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a) Electric brake system integrity. The average brake... reading by the number of brakes and determine the brake amperage value. (b) Electric brake...

  6. 49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 Section 570.58... 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a) Electric brake system integrity. The average brake... reading by the number of brakes and determine the brake amperage value. (b) Electric brake...

  7. Transient switching control strategy from regenerative braking to anti-lock braking with a semi-brake-by-wire system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liang; Li, Xujian; Wang, Xiangyu; Liu, Yahui; Song, Jian; Ran, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Regenerative braking is an important technology in improving fuel economy of an electric vehicle (EV). However, additional motor braking will change the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle, leading to braking instability, especially when the anti-lock braking system (ABS) is triggered. In this paper, a novel semi-brake-by-wire system, without the use of a pedal simulator and fail-safe device, is proposed. In order to compensate for the hysteretic characteristics of the designed brake system while ensure braking reliability and fuel economy when the ABS is triggered, a novel switching compensation control strategy using sliding mode control is brought forward. The proposed strategy converts the complex coupling braking process into independent control of hydraulic braking and regenerative braking, through which a balance between braking performance, braking reliability, braking safety and fuel economy is achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed strategy is effective and adaptable in different road conditions while the large wheel slip rate is triggered during a regenerative braking course. The research provides a new possibility of low-cost equipment and better control performance for the regenerative braking in the EV and the hybrid EV.

  8. Single acting translational/rotational brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W. (Inventor); Fleck, Jr., Vincent J. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A brake system is provided that applies braking forces on surfaces in both the translational and rotational directions using a single acting self-contained actuator that travels with the translational mechanism. The brake engages a mechanical lock and creates a frictional force on the translational structure preventing translation while simultaneously creating a frictional torque that prevents rotation of the vertical support. The system may include serrations on the braking surfaces to provide increased braking forces.

  9. Brake Stops Both Rotation And Translation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allred, Johnny W.; Fleck, Vincent J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Combination of braking and positioning mechanisms allows both rotation and translation before brake engaged. Designed for use in positioning model airplane in wind tunnel. Modified version used to position camera on tripod. Brake fast and convenient to use; contains single actuator energizing braking actions against both rotation and translation. Braking actuator electric, but pneumatic actuator could be used instead. Compact and lightweight, applies locking forces close to load, and presents minimal cross section to airflow.

  10. Regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-01-12

    Disclosed are several embodiments of a regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle. The device includes a plurality of rubber rollers (24, 26) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (14) connectable to the vehicle drivetrain and an output shaft (16) which is drivingly connected to the input shaft by a variable ratio transmission (20). When the transmission ratio is such that the input shaft rotates faster than the output shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy, thereby slowing the vehicle. When the transmission ratio is such that the output shaft rotates faster than the input shaft, the rubber rollers are torsionally relaxed to deliver accumulated energy, thereby accelerating or driving the vehicle.

  11. 77 FR 2659 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... inspection of the torque lug and surrounding components (wheel base, side rim, lock ring) for damage (such as... Cessna Aircraft Co., P.O. Box 7706, Wichita, Kansas 67277-7706; telephone (316) 517-6215; fax (316) 517..., Aircraft Wheels & Brakes, P.O. Box 340, Troy, Ohio 45373-3872; telephone (937) 440-2130; fax (937)...

  12. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  13. Engineering report. Part 2: NASA wheel and brake material tradeoff study for space shuttle type environmental requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bok, L. D.

    1973-01-01

    The study included material selection and trade-off for the structural components of the wheel and brake optimizing weight vs cost and feasibility for the space shuttle type application. Analytical methods were used to determine section thickness for various materials, and a table was constructed showing weight vs. cost trade-off. The wheel and brake were further optimized by considering design philosophies that deviate from standard aircraft specifications, and designs that best utilize the materials being considered.

  14. Compression relief engine brake

    SciTech Connect

    Meneely, V.A.

    1987-10-06

    A compression relief brake is described for four cycle internal-combustion engines, comprising: a pressurized oil supply; means for selectively pressurizing a hydraulic circuit with oil from the oil supply; a master piston and cylinder communicating with a slave piston and cylinder via the hydraulic circuit; an engine exhaust valve mechanically coupled to the engine and timed to open during the exhaust cycle of the engine the exhaust valve coupled to the slave piston. The exhaust valve is spring-based in a closed state to contact a valve seat; a sleeve frictionally and slidably disposed within a cavity defined by the slave piston which cavity communicates with the hydraulic circuit. When the hydraulic circuit is selectively pressurized and the engine is operating the sleeve entraps an incompressible volume of oil within the cavity to generate a displacement of the slave piston within the slave cylinder, whereby a first gap is maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat; and means for reciprocally activating the master piston for increasing the pressure within the previously pressurized hydraulic circuit during at least a portion of the expansion cycle of the engine whereby a second gap is reciprocally maintained between the exhaust valve and its associated seat.

  15. Recent progress towards predicting aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.; White, E. J.

    1981-01-01

    Capability implemented in simulating aircraft ground handling performance is reviewed and areas for further expansion and improvement are identified. Problems associated with providing necessary simulator input data for adequate modeling of aircraft tire/runway friction behavior are discussed and efforts to improve tire/runway friction definition, and simulator fidelity are described. Aircraft braking performance data obtained on several wet runway surfaces are compared to ground vehicle friction measurements. Research to improve methods of predicting tire friction performance are discussed.

  16. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... surface. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service brake system. 570.59 Section 570.59... 10,000 Pounds § 570.59 Service brake system. (a) Service brake performance. Compliance with any...

  17. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  18. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  19. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Front brake lines, protection. 393.44 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line...

  20. 49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control,...

  1. 49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control,...

  2. 49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control,...

  3. 49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control,...

  4. 49 CFR 236.508 - Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. 236.508 Section 236.508 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interference with application of brakes by means of brake valve. The automatic train stop, train control,...

  5. Four-wheel dual braking for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, H. B.

    1981-01-01

    Each master cylinder applies braking power to all four wheels unlike conventional systems where cylinder operates only two wheels. If one master system fails because of fluid loss, other stops car by braking all four wheels although at half force.

  6. 14 CFR 23.735 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... provided. The landing brake kinetic energy capacity rating of each main wheel brake assembly must not be less than the kinetic energy absorption requirements determined under either of the following methods: (1) The brake kinetic energy absorption requirements must be based on a conservative...

  7. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with.... Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes are not to be actuated during the test. (iv) The tests shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 57.14101 Section 57.14101...

  8. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with... stop under normal operating conditions. Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes are not to be actuated... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 56.14101 Section 56.14101...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with.... Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes are not to be actuated during the test. (iv) The tests shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 57.14101 Section 57.14101...

  10. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipped on self-propelled mobile equipment, parking brakes shall be capable of holding the equipment with... stop under normal operating conditions. Parking or emergency (secondary) brakes are not to be actuated... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 56.14101 Section 56.14101...

  11. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... be designed so that: (1) The blending of friction and dynamic brake to obtain the correct retarding... allowable stopping distance; (3) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all operating conditions; and (4) Operation of the friction brake alone does not result in thermal damage...

  12. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... be designed so that: (1) The blending of friction and dynamic brake to obtain the correct retarding... allowable stopping distance; (3) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all operating conditions; and (4) Operation of the friction brake alone does not result in thermal damage...

  13. 30 CFR 57.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes. 57.10004 Section 57.10004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND.... Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  14. 30 CFR 56.10004 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes. 56.10004 Section 56.10004 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND.... Positive-action-type brakes and devices which apply the brakes automatically in the event of a...

  15. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... be designed so that: (1) The blending of friction and dynamic brake to obtain the correct retarding... allowable stopping distance; (3) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all operating conditions; and (4) Operation of the friction brake alone does not result in thermal damage...

  16. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... percentage of its gross weight specified in the table in paragraph (d) of this section; (2) Decelerating to a... vehicle or combination weight. (b) Upon application of its emergency brake system and with no other brake... combination weight Deceleration in feet per second per second Application and braking distance in feet...

  17. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percentage of its gross weight specified in the table in paragraph (d) of this section; (2) Decelerating to a... vehicle or combination weight. (b) Upon application of its emergency brake system and with no other brake... combination weight Deceleration in feet per second per second Application and braking distance in feet...

  18. 49 CFR 393.52 - Brake performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percentage of its gross weight specified in the table in paragraph (d) of this section; (2) Decelerating to a... vehicle or combination weight. (b) Upon application of its emergency brake system and with no other brake... combination weight Deceleration in feet per second per second Application and braking distance in feet...

  19. Compact, Lightweight Servo-Controllable Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovchik, Christopher S.; Townsend, William; Guertin, Jeffrey; Matsuoka, Yoky

    2010-01-01

    Compact, lightweight servo-controllable brakes capable of high torques are being developed for incorporation into robot joints. A brake of this type is based partly on the capstan effect of tension elements. In a brake of the type under development, a controllable intermediate state of torque is reached through on/off switching at a high frequency.

  20. 30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral Resources... and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to MSHA....

  1. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  2. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air...

  3. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake system. 238.231 Section 238.231... Equipment § 238.231 Brake system. Except as otherwise provided in this section, on or after September 9... train's primary brake system shall be capable of stopping the train with a service application from...

  4. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air...

  5. 30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral Resources... and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to MSHA....

  6. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  7. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 56.14101 Section 56.14101 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14101 Brakes. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Self-propelled mobile equipment shall be equipped with a service brake system capable of stopping and holding...

  8. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  9. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 57.14101 Section 57.14101 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14101 Brakes. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Self-propelled mobile equipment shall be equipped with a service brake system capable of stopping and holding...

  11. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air...

  12. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air...

  13. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  14. 30 CFR 56.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 56.14101 Section 56.14101 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14101 Brakes. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Self-propelled mobile equipment shall be equipped with a service brake system capable of stopping and holding...

  15. 30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral Resources... and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to MSHA....

  16. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  17. 49 CFR 229.46 - Brakes: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brakes: general. 229.46 Section 229.46..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.46 Brakes: general. (a) Before each trip, the railroad shall know the following: (1) The locomotive...

  18. 49 CFR 229.53 - Brake gauges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake gauges. 229.53 Section 229.53 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.53 Brake gauges....

  19. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air...

  20. 30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral Resources... and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to MSHA....

  1. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes. 57.14101 Section 57.14101 Mineral... Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14101 Brakes. (a) Minimum requirements. (1) Self-propelled mobile equipment shall be equipped with a service brake system capable of stopping and holding...

  2. 30 CFR 36.29 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes. 36.29 Section 36.29 Mineral Resources... and Design Requirements § 36.29 Brakes. All mobile diesel-powered transportation equipment shall be equipped with adequate brakes acceptable to MSHA....

  3. Elastic Contact Analysis of Functionally Graded Brake Disks Subjected to Thermal and Mechanical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahzamanian, M. M.; Sahari, B. B.; Bayat, M.; Mustapha, F.; Ismarrubie, Z. N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, finite element contact analysis of a functionally graded (FG) brake disk in contact with a pad, subjected to rotation, contact pressure, and frictional heat, is presented. The material properties vary through the thickness according to a power-law characterized by a grading index, n. The contact surfaces are full-ceramic with full-metal free surface. The effects of n on the displacement, contact status, strain and stress are investigated. From the analysis, thermo-elastic and contact results are extremely dependent on n. Hence, n is an important criteria for the design of FG brake disks for automotive and aircraft applications.

  4. Bidirectional drive and brake mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A space transport vehicle is disclosed as including a body which is arranged to be movably mounted on an elongated guide member disposed in outer space and driven therealong. A drive wheel is mounted on a drive shaft and arranged to be positioned in rolling engagement with the elongated guide carrying the vehicle. A brake member is arranged on the drive shaft for movement into and out of engagement with an adjacent surface of the drive wheel. An actuator is mounted on the body to be manually moved back and forth between spaced positions in an arc of movement. A ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is arranged to operate upon movements of the actuator in one direction between first and second positions for coupling the actuator to the drive wheel to incrementally rotate the wheel in one rotational direction and to operate upon movements of the actuator in the opposite direction for uncoupling the actuator from the wheel. The brake member is threadedly coupled to the drive shaft in order that the brake member will be operated only when the actuator is moved on beyond its first and second positions for shifting the brake member along the drive shaft and into frictional engagement with the adjacent surface on the drive wheel.

  5. Brake blending strategy for a hybrid vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Boberg, Evan S.

    2000-12-05

    A hybrid electric powertrain system is provided including a transmission for driving a pair of wheels of a vehicle and a heat engine and an electric motor/generator coupled to the transmission. A friction brake system is provided for applying a braking torque to said vehicle. A controller unit generates control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system for controllably braking the vehicle in response to a drivers brake command. The controller unit determines and amount of regenerative torque available and compares this value to a determined amount of brake torque requested for determining the control signals to the electric motor/generator and the friction brake system.

  6. Rail Brake System Using a Linear Induction Motor for Dynamic Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Yasuaki; Kashiwagi, Takayuki; Tanaka, Minoru; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Sasakawa, Takashi; Fujii, Nobuo

    One type of braking system for railway vehicles is the eddy current brake. Because this type of brake has the problem of rail heating, it has not been used for practical applications in Japan. Therefore, we proposed the use of a linear induction motor (LIM) for dynamic braking in eddy current brake systems. The LIM reduces rail heating and uses an inverter for self excitation. In this paper, we estimated the performance of an LIM from experimental results of a fundamental test machine and confirmed that the LIM generates an approximately constant braking force under constant current excitation. At relatively low frequencies, this braking force remains unaffected by frequency changes. The reduction ratio of rail heating is also approximately proportional to the frequency. We also confirmed that dynamic braking resulting in no electrical output can be used for drive control of the LIM. These characteristics are convenient for the realization of the LIM rail brake system.

  7. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  8. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  9. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line to... provided for use. Every bus shall meet this requirement or comply with the regulations in effect at...

  10. 49 CFR 393.44 - Front brake lines, protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.44 Front brake lines, protection. On every bus, if equipped with air brakes, the braking system shall be so constructed that in the event any brake line to... provided for use. Every bus shall meet this requirement or comply with the regulations in effect at...

  11. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  12. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... subpart. (2) Air brake systems. Buses, trucks and truck-tractors equipped with air brake systems and..., and 393.52 of this subpart. (4) Electric brake systems. Motor vehicles equipped with electric brake... failure requirements of FMVSS No. 105 in effect on the date of manufacture. (2) Air brake systems....

  13. 49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... attachment. Drum brake linings shall be securely attached to brake shoes. Disc brake pads shall be securely... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service brake system. 570.5 Section 570.5... Pounds or Less § 570.5 Service brake system. Unless otherwise noted, the force to be applied...

  14. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure...

  15. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams,...

  16. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams,...

  17. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure...

  18. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams,...

  19. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure...

  20. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams,...

  1. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  2. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  3. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure...

  4. 49 CFR 236.701 - Application, brake; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application, brake; full service. 236.701 Section... § 236.701 Application, brake; full service. An application of the brakes resulting from a continuous or a split reduction in brake pipe pressure at a service rate until maximum brake cylinder pressure...

  5. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  6. 49 CFR 230.77 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 230.77 Section 230.77... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.77 Foundation brake gear. (a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams,...

  7. 49 CFR 393.49 - Control valves for brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Control valves for brakes. 393.49 Section 393.49... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.49 Control valves for brakes. (a) General rule. Except as provided..., which is equipped with power brakes, must have the braking system so arranged that one application...

  8. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles with hydraulic brake systems. (a) Brake system failure indicator. The hydraulic brake system failure...

  9. Preliminary test results of the joint FAA-USAF-NASA runway research program. Part 1: Traction measurements of several runways under wet and dry conditions with a Boeing 727, a diagonal-braked vehicle, and a mu-meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.; Yager, T. J.; Sleeper, R. K.; Merritt, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    The stopping distance, brake application velocity, and time of brake application were measured for two modern jet transports, along with the NASA diagonal-braked vehicle and the British Mu-Meter on several runways, which when wetted, cover the range of slipperiness likely to be encountered in the United States. Tests were designed to determine if correlation between the aircraft and friction measuring vehicles exists. The test procedure, data reduction techniques, and preliminary test results obtained with the Boeing 727, the Douglas DC-9, and the ground vehicles are given. Time histories of the aircraft test run parameters are included.

  10. Space shuttle wheels and brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carsley, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter wheels were subjected to a combination of tests which are different than any previously conducted in the aerospace industry. The major testing difference is the computer generated dynamic landing profiles used during the certification process which subjected the wheels and tires to simulated landing loading conditions. The orbiter brakes use a unique combination of carbon composite linings and beryllium heat sink to minimize weight. The development of a new lining retention method was necessary in order to withstand the high temperature generated during the braking roll. As with many programs, the volume into which this hardware had to fit was established early in the program, with no provisions made for growth to offset the continuously increasing predicted orbiter landing weight.

  11. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  12. Dynamics of Braking Vehicles: From Coulomb Friction to Anti-Lock Braking Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and…

  13. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., separate. (c) Emergency brake requirements, vacuum brakes. Every truck tractor and truck when used for towing other vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes, shall have, in addition to the single control...

  14. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., separate. (c) Emergency brake requirements, vacuum brakes. Every truck tractor and truck when used for towing other vehicles equipped with vacuum brakes, shall have, in addition to the single control...

  15. Bidirectional Drive-And-Brake Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    1991-01-01

    Vehicle that crawls along monorail combines features of both bicycle and railroad handcar. Bidirectional drive-and-brake mechanism includes selectable-pawl-and-ratchet overrunning clutch (drive mechanism) and mating stationary and rotating conical surfaces pressing against each other (brake mechanism). Operates similarly to bicycle drive-and-brake mechanism except limits rotation of sprocket in both directions and brakes at both limits. Conceived for use by astronaut traveling along structure in outer space, concept also applied on Earth to make very small railraod handcars or crawling vehicles for use on large structures, in pipelines under construction, or underwater.

  16. Research on Heat-Mechanical Coupling of Ventilated Disc Brakes under the Condition of Emergency Braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Xuelong; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Wenxian; Zhang, Yang

    Taking the ventilated disc brake in some company as research object, and using UG to build 3D models of brake disc and pad, and making use of ABAQUS/Standard to set up two parts' finite element model, via the decelerated motion of actual simulation brake disc, which gets ventilated disc brake in the case of emergency breaking in time and space distribution of conditions of temperature and stress field, summarizes the distribution of temperature field and stress field, proves complex coupling between temperature, stress, and supplies the direct basis for brake's fatigue life analysis.

  17. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  18. Effect of surface texture and working gap on the braking performance of the magnetorheological fluid brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Na; Li, Dong Heng; Li Song, Wan; Chao Xiu, Shi; Zhi Meng, Xiang

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, the effect of the surface textures of braking disc on the braking performance is experimentally investigated under the conditions of different working gaps and applied currents. For this purpose, a new configuration of magnetorheological fluid brake (MRB) with adjustable working gap is developed to improve the manufacturing accuracy and cost, and to reduce the problem of replacing the braking disc. In addition, the braking discs with three types of surface texture are designed and machined. Based on the test bed developed for the proposed MRB, a series of experiments are carried out on the manufactured prototype and the results are presented to obtain the relationship among the surface texture of the braking disc, applied current, working gap and the braking performance. The results show that the braking torque is significantly influenced by the working gap and surface texture of the braking disc, and the maximum braking torque is obtained on the conditions of 0.25 mm working gap and the braking disc with square surface texture.

  19. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 braking index within the MDR model. Four microscopic equations of state are employed as input to two different computational codes that solve Einstein's equations numerically, either exactly or using the perturbative Hartle-Thorne method, to calculate the

  20. Method and apparatus for electromagnetically braking a motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Radford, Nicolaus A (Inventor); Permenter, Frank Noble (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An electromagnetic braking system and method is provided for selectively braking a motor using an electromagnetic brake having an electromagnet, a permanent magnet, a rotor assembly, and a brake pad. The brake assembly applies when the electromagnet is de-energized and releases when the electromagnet is energized. When applied the permanent magnet moves the brake pad into frictional engagement with a housing, and when released the electromagnet cancels the flux of the permanent magnet to allow a leaf spring to move the brake pad away from the housing. A controller has a DC/DC converter for converting a main bus voltage to a lower braking voltage based on certain parameters. The converter utilizes pulse-width modulation (PWM) to regulate the braking voltage. A calibrated gap is defined between the brake pad and permanent magnet when the brake assembly is released, and may be dynamically modified via the controller.

  1. NASA Boeing 737 Aircraft Test Results from 1996 Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1996-01-01

    A description of the joint test program objectives and scope is given together with the performance capability of the NASA Langley B-737 instrumented aircraft. The B-737 test run matrix conducted during the first 8 months of this 5-year program is discussed with a description of the different runway conditions evaluated. Some preliminary test results are discussed concerning the Electronic Recording Decelerometer (ERD) readings and a comparison of B-737 aircraft braking performance for different winter runway conditions. Detailed aircraft parameter time history records, analysis of ground vehicle friction measurements and harmonization with aircraft braking performance, assessment of induced aircraft contaminant drag, and evaluation of the effects of other factors on aircraft/ground vehicle friction performance will be documented in a NASA Technical Report which is being prepared for publication next year.

  2. Diesel Technology: Brakes. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilley, Robert; Scarberry, Terry; Kellum, Mary

    This document contains teacher and student materials for a course on brakes in the diesel technology curriculum. The course consists of 12 units organized in three sections. The three units of the introductory section cover: (1) brakes; (2) wheel bearings and seals; and (3) antilock brake systems. The second section, Hydraulic Brakes, contains the…

  3. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brakes to be operative. 393.48 Section 393.48... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.48 Brakes to be operative. (a) General rule. Except as provided in... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A...

  4. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brakes to be operative. 393.48 Section 393.48... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.48 Brakes to be operative. (a) General rule. Except as provided in... times be capable of operating. (b) Devices to reduce or remove front-wheel braking effort. A...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 27.1151 Section 27... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff....

  6. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as defined in § 232.5, shall receive a brake test performed by...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 27.1151 Section 27... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff....

  8. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as defined in § 232.5, shall receive a brake test performed by...

  9. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as defined in § 232.5, shall receive a brake test performed by...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 27.1151 Section 27... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff....

  11. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required brake systems. 393.40 Section 393.40... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor vehicle must have brakes adequate to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of motor vehicles. Each...

  12. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  13. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 29.1151 Section 29... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before take-off....

  15. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as defined in § 232.5, shall receive a brake test performed by...

  16. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 27.1151 Section 27... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff....

  18. 49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 Section 570.58... 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a) Electric brake system integrity. The average brake amperage value shall be not more than 20 percent above, and not less than 30 percent below, the...

  19. 49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 Section 570.58... 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a) Electric brake system integrity. The average brake amperage value shall be not more than 20 percent above, and not less than 30 percent below, the...

  20. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  1. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  2. 49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a) Every commercial motor vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels. This requirement also applies...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 29.1151 Section 29... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before take-off....

  4. 14 CFR 29.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 29.1151 Section 29... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before take-off....

  5. 49 CFR 570.58 - Electric brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Electric brake system. 570.58 Section 570.58... 10,000 Pounds § 570.58 Electric brake system. (a) Electric brake system integrity. The average brake amperage value shall be not more than 20 percent above, and not less than 30 percent below, the...

  6. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Class II brake test. 238.317 Section 238.317... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.317 Class II brake test. (a) A Class II brake test shall be.... In these circumstances, a Class II brake test shall be performed prior to the train's departure...

  7. 14 CFR 27.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 27.1151 Section 27... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before takeoff....

  8. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required brake systems. 393.40 Section 393.40... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor vehicle must have brakes adequate to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of motor vehicles. Each...

  9. 14 CFR 29.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 29.1151 Section 29... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before take-off....

  10. 49 CFR 393.42 - Brakes required on all wheels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brakes required on all wheels. 393.42 Section 393... ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.42 Brakes required on all wheels. (a) Every commercial motor vehicle shall be equipped with brakes acting on all wheels. This requirement also applies...

  11. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Required brake systems. 393.40 Section 393.40... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.40 Required brake systems. (a) Each commercial motor vehicle must have brakes adequate to stop and hold the vehicle or combination of motor vehicles. Each...

  12. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1151 - Rotor brake controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rotor brake controls. 29.1151 Section 29... Rotor brake controls. (a) It must be impossible to apply the rotor brake inadvertently in flight. (b) There must be means to warn the crew if the rotor brake has not been completely released before take-off....

  14. 49 CFR 232.215 - Transfer train brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer train brake tests. 232.215 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER NON-PASSENGER... brake tests. (a) A transfer train, as defined in § 232.5, shall receive a brake test performed by...

  15. 49 CFR 229.57 - Foundation brake gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foundation brake gear. 229.57 Section 229.57..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.57 Foundation brake gear. A lever, rod, brake beam, hanger, or pin may not be worn through more than 30...

  16. Brakes. Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 6. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allain, Robert

    This module is the sixth of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Eight units cover: introduction to automotive brake systems; disc and drum brake system components and how they operate; properties of brake fluid and procedures for bleeding the brake system; diagnosing and determining needed repairs on…

  17. Modeling regenerative braking and storage for vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, F.; Donnelly, K.

    1997-12-31

    The fuel savings benefits of regenerative braking and storage for vehicles are often described but not quantified. For example, the federal government and automobile manufacturers are sponsoring a Program for a New Generation of Vehicles (PGNV) with a goal of obtaining a performance of 80 mpg in a family size car. It is typically suggested that such a vehicle will be a hybrid engine and electric drive with regenerative braking. The authors note that while regenerative braking has the potential of saving fuel, it may also do more harm than good as a result of additional weight, less than ideal charge/discharge efficiency on the batteries or storage flywheels and the limited portion of the entire driving cycle when regenerative braking can be utilized. The authors also noted that if regenerative braking can have a net benefit, it would be on a heavy vehicle such as a municipal bus because of the frequent stop and go requirements for both traffic light and passengers. Thus the authors initiated a study of regenerative braking on such a vehicle. The resulting analysis presented in this paper includes data following municipal buses to define the driving cycle, modeling the bus power requirements from weight, aerodynamics and rolling resistance, and then calculating the fuel saving that could result from an ideal regenerative braking system.

  18. Screw-released roller brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A screw-released roller brake including an input drive assembly, an output drive assembly, a plurality of locking sprags, a mechanical tripper nut for unlocking the sprags, and a casing therefor. The sprags consist of three dimensional (3-D) sprag members having pairs of contact surface regions which engage respective pairs of contact surface regions included in angular grooves or slots formed in the casing and the output drive assembly. The sprags operate to lock the output drive assembly to the casing to prevent rotation thereof in an idle mode of operation. In a drive mode of operation, the tripper is either self actuated or motor driven and is translated linearly up and down against a spline and at the limit of its travel rotates the sprags which unlock while coupling the input drive assembly to the output drive assembly so as to impart a turning motion thereto in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction.

  19. Thermal analysis and temperature characteristics of a braking resistor for high-speed trains for changes in the braking current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dae-Dong; Kang, Hyun-Il; Shim, Jae-Myung

    2015-09-01

    Electric brake systems are used in high-speed trains to brake trains by converting the kinetic energy of a railway vehicle to electric energy. The electric brake system consists of a regenerative braking system and a dynamic braking system. When the electric energy generated during the dynamic braking process is changed to heat through the braking resistor, the braking resistor can overheat; thus, failures can occur to the motor block. In this paper, a braking resistor for a high-speed train was used to perform thermal analyses and tests, and the results were analyzed. The analyzed data were used to estimate the dependence of the brake currents and the temperature rises on speed changes up to 300 km/h, at which a test could not be performed.

  20. Optimal design and selection of magneto-rheological brake types based on braking torque and mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Q. H.; Lang, V. T.; Choi, S. B.

    2015-06-01

    In developing magnetorheological brakes (MRBs), it is well known that the braking torque and the mass of the MRBs are important factors that should be considered in the product’s design. This research focuses on the optimal design of different types of MRBs, from which we identify an optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass. In the optimization, common types of MRBs such as disc-type, drum-type, hybrid-type, and T-shape types are considered. The optimization problem is to find an optimal MRB structure that can produce the required braking torque while minimizing its mass. After a brief description of the configuration of the MRBs, the MRBs’ braking torque is derived based on the Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of the magnetorheological fluid. Then, the optimal designs of the MRBs are analyzed. The optimization objective is to minimize the mass of the brake while the braking torque is constrained to be greater than a required value. In addition, the power consumption of the MRBs is also considered as a reference parameter in the optimization. A finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is used to obtain optimal solutions for the MRBs. Optimal solutions of MRBs with different required braking torque values are obtained based on the proposed optimization procedure. From the results, we discuss the optimal selection of MRB types, considering braking torque and mass.

  1. Dynamics of braking vehicles: from Coulomb friction to anti-lock braking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavares, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The dynamics of braking of wheeled vehicles is studied using the Coulomb approximation for the friction between road and wheels. The dependence of the stopping distance on the mass of the vehicle, on the number of its wheels and on the intensity of the braking torque is established. It is shown that there are two regimes of braking, with and without sliding. The advantage of using an anti-lock braking system (ABS) is put in evidence, and a quantitative estimate of its efficiency is proposed and discussed.

  2. 30 CFR 57.14101 - Brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conducted with the transmission in the gear appropriate for the speed the equipment is traveling except for equipment which is designed for the power train to be disengaged during braking. (v) Testing speeds shall...

  3. 14 CFR 27.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  4. 14 CFR 29.921 - Rotor brake.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.921 Rotor brake. If there is a means to control the rotation of the rotor drive system independently of the engine, any limitations...

  5. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  6. Method and apparatus for wind turbine braking

    DOEpatents

    Barbu, Corneliu; Teichmann, Ralph; Avagliano, Aaron; Kammer, Leonardo Cesar; Pierce, Kirk Gee; Pesetsky, David Samuel; Gauchel, Peter

    2009-02-10

    A method for braking a wind turbine including at least one rotor blade coupled to a rotor. The method includes selectively controlling an angle of pitch of the at least one rotor blade with respect to a wind direction based on a design parameter of a component of the wind turbine to facilitate reducing a force induced into the wind turbine component as a result of braking.

  7. Oscillatory flow braking: inner magnetosphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, E. V.; Nakamura, R.; Baumjohann, W.; Angelopoulos, V.

    2013-12-01

    We search for damped oscillatory flow braking events observed by THEMIS/ARTEMIS in the near-Earth plasma sheet when their counterpart in the inner magnetosphere was observed. By comparing the particle and magnetic field data in the two locations we analyze the feedback of the inner magnetosphere to plasma sheet oscillatory flow braking. We discuss the possible role of the oscillatory flow events for plasma injection into the inner magnetosphere.

  8. Rotary Speed Sensor for Antilocking Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Sensor based on fluidic principles produces negative pressure approximately proportional to rotational speed. Sensor developed as part of antilocking brake system for motorcycles. Uses inlet pressure rather than outlet pressure as braking-control signal, eliminating pressure pulsations caused by pump vanes and ensuring low-noise signal. Sensor is centrifugal air pump turned by one of motorcycle wheels. Air enters pump through orifice plates, and suction taken off through port in pump inlet plenum.

  9. Automated visual inspection of brake shoe wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shengfang; Liu, Zhen; Nan, Guo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-10-01

    With the rapid development of high-speed railway, the automated fault inspection is necessary to ensure train's operation safety. Visual technology is paid more attention in trouble detection and maintenance. For a linear CCD camera, Image alignment is the first step in fault detection. To increase the speed of image processing, an improved scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) method is presented. The image is divided into multiple levels of different resolution. Then, we do not stop to extract the feature from the lowest resolution to the highest level until we get sufficient SIFT key points. At that level, the image is registered and aligned quickly. In the stage of inspection, we devote our efforts to finding the trouble of brake shoe, which is one of the key components in brake system on electrical multiple units train (EMU). Its pre-warning on wear limitation is very important in fault detection. In this paper, we propose an automatic inspection approach to detect the fault of brake shoe. Firstly, we use multi-resolution pyramid template matching technology to fast locate the brake shoe. Then, we employ Hough transform to detect the circles of bolts in brake region. Due to the rigid characteristic of structure, we can identify whether the brake shoe has a fault. The experiments demonstrate that the way we propose has a good performance, and can meet the need of practical applications.

  10. Modelling and validation of magnetorheological brake responses using parametric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, Zainordin A.; A, Abdullah M.; K, Hudha

    2013-12-01

    Magnetorheological brake (MR Brake) is one x-by-wire systems which performs better than conventional brake systems. MR brake consists of a rotating disc that is immersed with Magnetorheological Fluid (MR Fluid) in an enclosure of an electromagnetic coil. The applied magnetic field will increase the yield strength of the MR fluid where this fluid was used to decrease the speed of the rotating shaft. The purpose of this paper is to develop a mathematical model to represent MR brake with a test rig. The MR brake model is developed based on actual torque characteristic which is coupled with motion of a test rig. Next, the experimental are performed using MR brake test rig and obtained three output responses known as angular velocity response, torque response and load displacement response. Furthermore, the MR brake was subjected to various current. Finally, the simulation results of MR brake model are then verified with experimental results.

  11. C/C composite brake disk nondestructive evaluation by IR thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Tsuchin P.; Poudel, Anish; Filip, Peter

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses the non-destructive evaluation of thick Carbon/Carbon (C/C) composite aircraft brake disks by using transient infrared thermography (IRT) approach. Thermal diffusivity measurement technique was applied to identify the subsurface anomalies in thick C/C brake disks. In addition, finite element analysis (FEA) modeling tool was used to determine the transient thermal response of the C/C disks that were subjected to flash heating. For this, series of finite element models were built and thermal responses with various thermal diffusivities subjected to different heating conditions were investigated. Experiments were conducted to verify the models by using custom built in-house IRT system and commercial turnkey system. The analysis and experimental results showed good correlation between thermal diffusivity value and anomalies within the disk. It was demonstrated that the step-heating transient thermal approach could be effectively applied to obtain the whole field thermal diffusivity value of C/C composites.

  12. 49 CFR 570.57 - Air brake system and air-over-hydraulic brake subsystem.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reading. (2) The air brake system compressor shall increase the air pressure in the reservoir(s) from the... time allowed for air pressure buildup shall not exceed 45 seconds. (3) The warning device (visual or audible) connected to the brake system air pressure source shall be activated when air pressure is...

  13. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOEpatents

    Davis, R.I.

    1990-10-16

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more road wheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the road wheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the road wheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded. 8 figs.

  14. Adaptive controller for regenerative and friction braking system

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Roy I.

    1990-01-01

    A regenerative and friction braking system for a vehicle having one or more roadwheels driven by an electric traction motor includes a driver responsive device for producing a brake demand signal having a magnitude corresponding to the level of braking force selected by the driver and friction and regenerative brakes operatively connected with the roadwheels of the vehicle. A system according to this invention further includes control means for operating the friction and regenerative braking subsystems so that maximum brake torques sustainable by the roadwheels of the vehicle without skidding or slipping will not be exceeded.

  15. Braking Index of Isolated Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, Oliver; Stone, Jirina; Urbanec, Martin; Urbancova, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω, and their time derivatives which show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. The exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of debate in detail, but the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR). The energy loss by a rotating pulsar is proportional to a model dependent power of Ω. This relation leads to the power law Ω˙ = -K Ωn where n is called the braking index, equal to the ratio (ΩΩ̈)/ Ω˙2 . The simple MDR model predicts the value of n = 3, but observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n, individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 < n < 2.8, which is consistently less than the predictions of the MDR model. In this work, we study the dynamical limits of the MDR model as a function of angular velocity. The effects of variation in the rest mass, the moment of inertia, and the dependence on a realistic Equation of State of the rotating star are considered. Furthermore, we introduce a simulated superfluid effect by which the angular momentum of the core is eliminated from the calculation.

  16. Electromagnetic brake/clutch device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An electromagnetic brake/clutch device includes a drive shaft supported by at least one bearing for transmitting torque, a housing, affixed to prevent its rotation, surrounding the drive shaft, and an electromagnetically activated device within the housing to selectively prevent and allow rotation of the drive shaft. The electromagnetically activated device includes a plurality of cammed rollers to prevent counter-clockwise rotation of the drive shaft. The drive shaft includes a circumferential disk and the housing includes a reaction ring for engagement with the plurality of cammed rollers. The plurality of cammed rollers are released from engagement with the circumferential disk and the reaction ring by a plurality of tripping mechanisms within the housing. The tripping action uses the locking force to act as a release force merely by changing the boundary conditions of the roller interface angles. The tripping mechanisms include trippers for disengaging the plurality of cammed rollers and an anvil shaped portion for providing lateral movement of the trippers. The plurality of cammed rollers is preloaded to engagement with the circumferential disk and reaction ring by a spring, and is located with respect to an adjacent tripping mechanism with another spring.

  17. Vehicle transfer gear and drive line brake mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, D.L.; Windish, W.E.

    1986-03-25

    This patent describes a vehicle transfer gear and drive line brake mechanism including a depending gear transfer train and a drive line brake assembly for respectively propelling and stopping movement of a vehicle. The gear transfer train has an output gear connected to an output shaft disposed on a lower axis and the drive line brake assembly is connected to the output shaft and disposed on the lower axis. The improvement described here consists of: housing means for defining an enclosed compartment containing the gear transfer train and the drive line brake assembly in juxtaposed relation and a common lubrication fluid. The housing means includes a main case defining an opening on the lower axis. The drive line brake assembly includes a brake body releasably secured to the case in closing relationship to the opening and annular plates and discs, the drive line brake assembly being modularized and being removable with the brake body from the output shaft independent of the output gear.

  18. 49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the... an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is...

  19. 49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the... an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is...

  20. 49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the... an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is...

  1. 49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the... an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is...

  2. 49 CFR 232.109 - Dynamic brake requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is being received at the... an electrical integrity test of the dynamic brake to determine if electrical current is...

  3. Thermomechanical processes in the friction heating of disk brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, A. A.; Gorbacheva, N. V.; Ivanik, E. G.

    1997-01-01

    Thermomechanical processes are studied at the contact area of a metal brake disk and brake block during braking. Expressions are obtained for both the temperature and the thermal displacement in the center of the contact area caused by the effect of the friction heat source, whose power is a linear function of time.

  4. 49 CFR 393.40 - Required brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... motor vehicle must meet the applicable service, parking, and emergency brake system requirements....49, and 393.52 of this subpart. (c) Parking brakes. Each commercial motor vehicle must be equipped with a parking brake system that meets the applicable requirements of § 393.41. (d) Emergency...

  5. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  6. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  7. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  8. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  9. 49 CFR 570.6 - Brake power unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Pounds or Less § 570.6 Brake power unit. (a) Vacuum hoses shall not be collapsed, abraded, broken, improperly mounted, or audibly leaking. With residual vacuum exhausted and a constant 25 pound force on the... engine and apply service brakes several times to destroy vacuum in system. Depress brake pedal with...

  10. 49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47... Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives with cabs designed for occupancy by only one person, each road locomotive shall be equipped with a brake pipe valve that is accessible to a member of the...

  11. 49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47... Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives with cabs designed for occupancy by only one person, each road locomotive shall be equipped with a brake pipe valve that is accessible to a member of the...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  15. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1404 - Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. 75.1404... Automatic brakes; speed reduction gear. Each locomotive and haulage car used in an underground coal mine... brakes, locomotives and haulage cars shall be subject to speed reduction gear, or other similar...

  17. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person...

  18. An Instructor's Guide for a Program in Brake Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Secondary Curriculum Development.

    The instructor's guide is designed to present an understanding of the automotive hydraulic brake system and to help individuals develop new skills for employment in this specialized field of automotive service. Applicable for secondary or adult education, this guide describes: the brake system, types of brakes, diagnosis and correction of brake…

  19. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  20. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  1. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  2. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  3. 49 CFR 238.319 - Running brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Running brake test. 238.319 Section 238.319... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.319 Running brake test. (a) As soon as conditions safely permit, a running brake test shall be performed on each passenger train after the train has received,...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  6. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  7. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1) This section contains the minimum intervals at which the brake equipment on various types...

  8. 49 CFR 236.507 - Brake application; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake application; full service. 236.507 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.507 Brake application; full service... application of the brakes....

  9. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  11. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1) This section contains the minimum intervals at which the brake equipment on various types...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  13. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1) This section contains the minimum intervals at which the brake equipment on various types...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  16. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1) This section contains the minimum intervals at which the brake equipment on various types...

  17. 49 CFR 236.507 - Brake application; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake application; full service. 236.507 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.507 Brake application; full service... application of the brakes....

  18. 30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  19. 49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Qualifications of brake inspectors. 396.25 Section..., REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.25 Qualifications of brake inspectors. (a) Motor carriers and intermodal equipment providers must ensure that all inspections, maintenance, repairs or service to the brakes of...

  20. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping...

  2. 49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.47 Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives with cabs designed for occupancy by only one person,...

  3. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping...

  5. 49 CFR 236.507 - Brake application; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake application; full service. 236.507 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.507 Brake application; full service... application of the brakes....

  6. 30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  7. 30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  10. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  13. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  14. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  15. 49 CFR 236.507 - Brake application; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake application; full service. 236.507 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.507 Brake application; full service... application of the brakes....

  16. 49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.47 Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives with cabs designed for occupancy by only one person,...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  18. 49 CFR 236.507 - Brake application; full service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake application; full service. 236.507 Section... Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.507 Brake application; full service... application of the brakes....

  19. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  20. 49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Qualifications of brake inspectors. 396.25 Section..., REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.25 Qualifications of brake inspectors. (a) Motor carriers and intermodal equipment providers must ensure that all inspections, maintenance, repairs or service to the brakes of...

  1. 30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  2. 30 CFR 75.1400-1 - Hoists; brakes, capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoists; brakes, capability. 75.1400-1 Section 75.1400-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... Hoists; brakes, capability. Brakes on hoists used to transport persons shall be capable of stopping...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  4. 30 CFR 56.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 56.14113 Section 56.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to prevent...

  5. 30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  6. 49 CFR 229.47 - Emergency brake valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency brake valve. 229.47 Section 229.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Brake System § 229.47 Emergency brake valve. (a) Except for locomotives with cabs designed for occupancy by only one person,...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  10. 30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  11. 49 CFR 238.309 - Periodic brake equipment maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic brake equipment maintenance. 238.309... Maintenance Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.309 Periodic brake equipment maintenance. (a) General. (1) This section contains the minimum intervals at which the brake equipment on various types...

  12. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 56.14102 Section 56.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14102 - Brakes for rail equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Brakes for rail equipment. 57.14102 Section 57.14102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14102 Brakes for rail equipment. Braking...

  15. 30 CFR 57.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 57.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  16. 30 CFR 57.14113 - Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inclined conveyors: backstops or brakes. 57.14113 Section 57.14113 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...: backstops or brakes. Backstops or brakes shall be installed on drive units of inclined conveyors to...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1401 - Automatic controls and brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Automatic controls and brakes. 77.1401 Section... MINES Personnel Hoisting § 77.1401 Automatic controls and brakes. Hoists and elevators shall be equipped with overspeed, overwind, and automatic stop controls and with brakes capable of stopping the...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19065 - Lowering conveyances by the brakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lowering conveyances by the brakes. 56.19065... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19065 Lowering conveyances by the brakes. Conveyances shall not be lowered by the brakes alone except during emergencies....

  19. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... car air brake tests. (a) Single car air brake tests shall be performed by a qualified person...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 57.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance...

  1. 30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance...

  2. 30 CFR 57.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 57.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance...

  4. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will be operated, but not less... compressed air for more than four hours prior to being added to the train. The notice required by this... the case of tread or disc brakes by determining that the brake shoe or pad provides pressure to...

  5. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... held in the applied position by energy other than fluid pressure, air pressure, or electric energy. The... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Air-braked power units manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and air-braked trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975. Each air-braked bus, truck...

  6. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... held in the applied position by energy other than fluid pressure, air pressure, or electric energy. The... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Air-braked power units manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and air-braked trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975. Each air-braked bus, truck...

  7. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will be operated, but not less... compressed air for more than four hours prior to being added to the train. The notice required by this... the case of tread or disc brakes by determining that the brake shoe or pad provides pressure to...

  8. 49 CFR 238.313 - Class I brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will be operated, but not less... compressed air for more than four hours prior to being added to the train. The notice required by this... the case of tread or disc brakes by determining that the brake shoe or pad provides pressure to...

  9. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... held in the applied position by energy other than fluid pressure, air pressure, or electric energy. The... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Air-braked power units manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and air-braked trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975. Each air-braked bus, truck...

  10. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... held in the applied position by energy other than fluid pressure, air pressure, or electric energy. The... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Air-braked power units manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and air-braked trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975. Each air-braked bus, truck...

  11. 49 CFR 393.41 - Parking brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... held in the applied position by energy other than fluid pressure, air pressure, or electric energy. The... requirements of paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Air-braked power units manufactured on or after March 1, 1975, and air-braked trailers manufactured on or after January 1, 1975. Each air-braked bus, truck...

  12. Hydrobus, gyrobus use brake-generated energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, D.

    1980-04-01

    M.A.N. of Munich is developing a hydrobus concept, involving hydraulic pressure as the storage medium, and a gyrobus system with flywheel energy storage. Mercedes-Benz is also working on a gyrobus design. The hydraulic storage regenerative-braking design and the flywheel storage in the gyrobus are explained.

  13. Wind-Tunnel Investigations of Diving Brakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fucha, D.

    1942-01-01

    Unduly high diving speeds can be effectively controlled by diving brakes but their employment involves at the same time a number of disagreeable features: namely, rotation of zero lift direction, variation of diviving moment, and, the creation of a potent dead air region.

  14. 49 CFR 238.231 - Brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger... location so that nothing may interfere with the air flow to brake cylinder and inspected pursuant to the requirements contained in § 238.313 (j). (c) Passenger equipment shall be provided with an emergency...

  15. Experimental investigation of an accelerometer controlled automatic braking system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Sleeper, R. K.; Nayadley, J. R., Sr.

    1972-01-01

    An investigation was made to determine the feasibility of an automatic braking system for arresting the motion of an airplane by sensing and controlling braked wheel decelerations. The system was tested on a rotating drum dynamometer by using an automotive tire, wheel, and disk-brake assembly under conditions which included two tire loadings, wet and dry surfaces, and a range of ground speeds up to 70 knots. The controlling parameters were the rates at which brake pressure was applied and released and the Command Deceleration Level which governed the wheel deceleration by controlling the brake operation. Limited tests were also made with the automatic braking system installed on a ground vehicle in an effort to provide a more realistic proof of its feasibility. The results of this investigation indicate that a braking system which utilizes wheel decelerations as the control variable to restrict tire slip is feasible and capable of adapting to rapidly changing surface conditions.

  16. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  17. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness. PMID:20728647

  18. Pedestrian injury mitigation by autonomous braking.

    PubMed

    Rosén, Erik; Källhammer, Jan-Erik; Eriksson, Dick; Nentwich, Matthias; Fredriksson, Rikard; Smith, Kip

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the potential effectiveness of a pedestrian injury mitigation system that autonomously brakes the car prior to impact. The effectiveness was measured by the reduction of fatally and severely injured pedestrians. The database from the German In-Depth Accident Study (GIDAS) was queried for pedestrians hit by the front of cars from 1999 to 2007. Case by case information on vehicle and pedestrian velocities and trajectories were analysed to estimate the field of view needed for a vehicle-based sensor to detect the pedestrians one second prior to the crash. The pre-impact braking system was assumed to activate the brakes one second prior to crash and to provide a braking deceleration up to the limit of the road surface conditions, but never to exceed 0.6 g. New impact speeds were then calculated for pedestrians that would have been detected by the sensor. These calculations assumed that all pedestrians who were within a given field of view but not obstructed by surrounding objects would be detected. The changes in fatality and severe injury risks were quantified using risk curves derived by logistic regression of the accident data. Summing the risks for all pedestrians, relationships between mitigation effectiveness, sensor field of view, braking initiation time, and deceleration were established. The study documents that the effectiveness at reducing fatally (severely) injured pedestrians in frontal collisions with cars reached 40% (27%) at a field of view of 40 degrees. Increasing the field of view further led to only marginal improvements in effectiveness.

  19. 49 CFR 571.135 - Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... service brake system, such as a pump, that automatically supplies energy in the event of a primary brake.... Brake power unit means a device installed in a brake system that provides the energy required to actuate... only of modulating the energy application level. Braking ratio means the deceleration of the...

  20. 76 FR 7623 - Parts and Accessories Necessary for Safe Operation; Brakes; Application for Exemption From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...-mounted electric brake controllers, which monitor and actuate trailer brakes based on inertial forces developed in response to the braking action of the towing vehicle. While trailer-mounted electric brake controllers function like an electric surge brake, the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations...

  1. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  2. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  3. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  4. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  5. 49 CFR 393.45 - Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... applicable requirements of FMVSS No. 106 (49 CFR 571.106). (b) Brake tubing and hose installation. Brake... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Brake tubing and hoses; hose assemblies and end... REGULATIONS PARTS AND ACCESSORIES NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Brakes § 393.45 Brake tubing and hoses;...

  6. A method to achieve comparable thermal states of car brakes during braking on the road and on a high-speed roll-stand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The temperature of a brake friction surface influences significantly the braking effectiveness. The paper describes a heat transfer process in car brakes. Using a developed program of finite element method, the temperature distributions in brake rotors (disc and drum brake) of a light truck have been calculated. As a preliminary consistency criterion of the brake thermal state in road and roll-stand braking conditions, a balance of the energy cumulated in the brake rotor has been taken into account. As the most reliable consistency criterion an equality of average temperatures of the friction surface has been assumed. The presented method allows to achieve on a roll-stand the analogical thermal states of automotive brakes, which are observed during braking in road conditions. Basing on this method, it is possible to calculate the braking time and force for a high-speed roll-stand. In contrast to the previous papers of the author, new calculation results have been presented.

  7. Wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    SciTech Connect

    Migliore, P G; Miller, L S; Quandt, G A

    1995-04-01

    Five trailing-edge devices were investigated to determine their potential as wind-turbine aerodynamic brakes, and for power modulation and load alleviation. Several promising configurations were identified. A new device, called the spoiler-flap, appears to be the best alternative. It is a simple device that is effective at all angles of attack. It is not structurally intrusive, and it has the potential for small actuating loads. It is shown that simultaneous achievement of a low lift/drag ratio and high drag is the determinant of device effectiveness, and that these attributes must persist up to an angle of attack of 45{degree}. It is also argued that aerodynamic brakes must be designed for a wind speed of at least 45 m/s (100 mph).

  8. Plasma Braking Due to External Magnetic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassinetti, L.; Olofsson, Kejo; Brunsell, P. R.; Khan, M. W. M.; Drake, J. R.

    2010-11-01

    The RFP EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a comprehensive active feedback system (128 active saddle coils in the full-coverage array) and active control of both resonant and non-resonant MHD modes has been demonstrated. The feedback algorithms, based on modern control methodology such as reference mode tracking (both amplitude and phase), are a useful tool to improve the ``state of the art'' of the MHD mode control. But this tool can be used also to improve the understanding and the characterization of other phenomena such as the ELM mitigation with a resonant magnetic perturbation or the plasma viscosity. The present work studies plasma and mode braking due to static RMPs. Results show that a static RMP produces a global braking of the flow profile. The study of the effect of RMPs characterized by different helicities will also give information on the plasma viscosity profile. Experimental results are finally compared to theoretical models.

  9. A high performance pneumatic braking system for heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jonathan I.; Cebon, David

    2010-12-01

    Current research into reducing actuator delays in pneumatic brake systems is opening the door for advanced anti-lock braking algorithms to be used on heavy goods vehicles. However, these algorithms require the knowledge of variables that are impractical to measure directly. This paper introduces a sliding mode braking force observer to support a sliding mode controller for air-braked heavy vehicles. The performance of the observer is examined through simulations and field testing of an articulated heavy vehicle. The observer operated robustly during single-wheel vehicle simulations, and provided reasonable estimates of surface friction from test data. The effect of brake gain errors on the controller and observer are illustrated, and a recursive least squares estimator is derived for the brake gain. The estimator converged within 0.3 s in simulations and vehicle trials.

  10. Asbestos in brakes: exposure and risk of disease.

    PubMed

    Lemen, Richard A

    2004-03-01

    Asbestos has been incorporated into friction products since the early 1900s. Epidemiological studies have been equivocal in their analysis of the incidence of disease among mechanics servicing brakes. Decomposition of asbestos occurs during the normal usage of the brake due to thermal decomposition into forsterite, although not all asbestos is so converted. Short fibers, below 5 microm in length, are also found in brake products. Several facts are discussed including the toxicity of the remaining asbestos fibers, short asbestos fibers, and the health implications of exposure to forsterite. Control methodologies, when used appropriately, have reduced exposure to asbestos during brake servicing, but have not been able to entirely eliminate exposure to asbestos, thus bring into question the controlled use of asbestos for friction product such as brakes. Even the so called "controlled" use of asbestos containing brakes poses a health risk to workers, users, and their families. PMID:14991849

  11. Longitudinal wheel slip during ABS braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartikainen, Lassi; Petry, Frank; Westermann, Stephan

    2015-02-01

    Anti-lock braking system (ABS) braking tests with two subcompact passenger cars were performed on dry and wet asphalt, as well as on snow and ice surfaces. The operating conditions of the tyres in terms of wheel slip were evaluated using histograms of the wheel slip data. The results showed different average slip levels for different road surfaces. It was also found that changes in the tyre tread stiffness affected the slip operating range through a modification of the slip value at which the maximum longitudinal force is achieved. Variation of the tyre footprint length through modifications in the inflation pressure affected the slip operating range as well. Differences in the slip distribution between vehicles with different brake controllers were also observed. The changes in slip operating range in turn modified the relative local sliding speeds between the tyre and the road. The results highlight the importance of the ABS controller's ability to adapt to changing slip-force characteristics of tyres and provide estimates of the magnitude of the effects of different tyre and road operating conditions.

  12. Squeal noise in simple numerical brake models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberst, S.; Lai, J. C. S.

    2015-09-01

    Since the early 1920s, automotive disc brake squeal has caused warranty issues and customer dissatisfaction. Despite a good deal of progress achieved, predicting brake squeal propensity is as difficult as ever as not all mechanisms and interactions are known owing to their highly fugitive complex nature. In recent years, research has been focused on the prediction of unstable vibration modes by the complex eigenvalue analysis (CEA) for the mode-coupling type of instability. There has been very limited consideration given to the calculation of the acoustic radiation properties due to friction contact between a pad and a rotor. Recent analyses using a forced response analysis with harmonic contact pressure excitation indicates negative dissipated energy at some pad eigenfrequencies predicted to be stable by the CEA. A transient nonlinear time domain analysis with no external excitation indicates that squeal could develop at these eigenfrequencies. Here, the acoustic radiation characteristics of those pad modes are determined by analysing the acoustic power levels and radiation efficiencies of simplified brake models in the form of a pad rubbing on a plate or on a disc using the acoustic boundary element method based on velocities extracted from the forced response analysis. Results show that unstable pad modes trigger unstable disc vibrations resulting in instantaneous mode squeal similar to those observed experimentally. Changes in the radiation efficiency with pressure variations are smaller than those with friction coefficient variations and are caused by the phase difference of the velocities out-of-plane vibration between the pad and the disc.

  13. Tau as a Potential Control Variable for Visually Guided Braking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Paul B.; Harris, Mike G.

    2006-01-01

    D. N. Lee (1976) described a braking strategy based on optical expansion in which the driver brakes so that the target's time-to-contact declines around a constant slope in the range -0.5 less than or equal to tau less than 0. The present results from a series of braking simulations confirm and extend earlier reports (E. H. Yilmaz & W. H. Warren,…

  14. A proposal for dynamic calibration of brake tester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Paulo L. S.; Couto, Paulo R. G.; Cabral, Luiz C.; Reis, Ronaldo G.; Zillner, Marcos

    2015-10-01

    In Brazil there are about 400 security inspection lines carrier operating in Inspection Bodies accredited by Cgcre Inmetro [1]. The equipment in this proposal is a Brake Tester that measure vehicle braking forces and it is a component of an inspection line. This paper proposes a dynamic Brake Tester calibration using a reference torque transducer. This article can also be the basis for future discussions of the revised standard manufacturing of vehicle inspection line according to ABNT NBR 14040 [2].

  15. NASA evaluation of Type 2 chemical depositions. [effects of deicer deposition on aircraft tire friction performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Howell, W. Edward; Webb, Granville L.

    1993-01-01

    Recent findings from NASA Langley tests to define effects of aircraft Type 2 chemical deicer depositions on aircraft tire friction performance are summarized. The Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is described together with the scope of the tire cornering and braking friction tests conducted up to 160 knots ground speed. Some lower speed 32 - 96 km/hr (20 - 60 mph) test run data obtained using an Instrumented Tire Test Vehicle (ITTV) to determine effects of tire bearing pressure and transverse grooving on cornering friction performance are also discussed. Recommendations are made concerning which parameters should be evaluated in future testing.

  16. Hierarchical Control Strategy for the Cooperative Braking System of Electric Vehicle.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiankun; He, Hongwen; Liu, Wei; Guo, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a hierarchical control strategy for cooperative braking system of an electric vehicle with separated driven axles. Two layers are defined: the top layer is used to optimize the braking stability based on two sliding mode control strategies, namely, the interaxle control mode and signal-axle control strategies; the interaxle control strategy generates the ideal braking force distribution in general braking condition, and the single-axle control strategy can ensure braking safety in emergency braking condition; the bottom layer is used to maximize the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency with a reallocated braking torque strategy; the reallocated braking torque strategy can recovery braking energy as much as possible in the premise of meeting battery charging power. The simulation results show that the proposed hierarchical control strategy is reasonable and can adapt to different typical road surfaces and load cases; the vehicle braking stability and safety can be guaranteed; furthermore, the regenerative braking energy recovery efficiency can be improved.

  17. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  18. Indonesian commercial bus drum brake system temperature model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, D. B.; Haryanto, I.; Laksono, N. P.

    2016-03-01

    Brake system is the most significant aspect of an automobile safety. It must be able to slow the vehicle, quickly intervening and reliable under varying conditions. Commercial bus in Indonesia, which often stops suddenly and has a high initial velocity, will raise the temperature of braking significantly. From the thermal analysis it is observed that for the bus with the vehicle laden mass of 15 tons and initial velocity of 80 km/h the temperature is increasing with time and reaches the highest temperature of 270.1 °C when stops on a flat road and reaches 311.2 °C on a declination road angle, ø, 20°. These temperatures exceeded evaporation temperature of brake oil DOT 3 and DOT 4. Besides that, the magnitude of the braking temperature also potentially lowers the friction coefficient of more than 30%. The brakes are pressed repeatedly and high-g decelerations also causes brake lining wear out quickly and must be replaced every 1 month as well as the emergence of a large thermal stress which can lead to thermal cracking or thermal fatigue crack. Brake fade phenomenon that could be the cause of many buses accident in Indonesia because of the failure of the braking function. The chances of accidents will be even greater when the brake is worn and not immediately replaced which could cause hot spots as rivets attached to the brake drum and brake oil is not changed for more than 2 years that could potentially lower the evaporation temperature because of the effect hygroscopic.

  19. Optical classification for quality and defect analysis of train brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glock, Stefan; Hausmann, Stefan; Gerke, Sebastian; Warok, Alexander; Spiess, Peter; Witte, Stefan; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we present an optical measurement system approach for quality analysis of brakes which are used in high-speed trains. The brakes consist of the so called brake discs and pads. In a deceleration process the discs will be heated up to 500°C. The quality measure is based on the fact that the heated brake discs should not generate hot spots inside the brake material. Instead, the brake disc should be heated homogeneously by the deceleration. Therefore, it makes sense to analyze the number of hot spots and their relative gradients to create a quality measure for train brakes. In this contribution we present a new approach for a quality measurement system which is based on an image analysis and classification of infra-red based heat images. Brake images which are represented in pseudo-color are first transformed in a linear grayscale space by a hue-saturation-intensity (HSI) space. This transform is necessary for the following gradient analysis which is based on gray scale gradient filters. Furthermore, different features based on Haralick's measures are generated from the gray scale and gradient images. A following Fuzzy-Pattern-Classifier is used for the classification of good and bad brakes. It has to be pointed out that the classifier returns a score value for each brake which is between 0 and 100% good quality. This fact guarantees that not only good and bad bakes can be distinguished, but also their quality can be labeled. The results show that all critical thermal patterns of train brakes can be sensed and verified.

  20. AGFATL- ACTIVE GEAR FLEXIBLE AIRCRAFT TAKEOFF AND LANDING ANALYSIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    The Active Gear, Flexible Aircraft Takeoff and Landing Analysis program, AGFATL, was developed to provide a complete simulation of the aircraft takeoff and landing dynamics problem. AGFATL can represent an airplane either as a rigid body with six degrees of freedom or as a flexible body with multiple degrees of freedom. The airframe flexibility is represented by the superposition of up to twenty free vibration modes on the rigid-body motions. The analysis includes maneuver logic and autopilots programmed to control the aircraft during glide slope, flare, landing, and takeoff. The program is modular so that performance of the aircraft in flight and during landing and ground maneuvers can be studied separately or in combination. A program restart capability is included in AGFATL. Effects simulated in the AGFATL program include: (1) flexible aircraft control and performance during glide slope, flare, landing roll, and takeoff roll under conditions of changing winds, engine failures, brake failures, control system failures, strut failures, restrictions due to runway length, and control variable limits and time lags; (2) landing gear loads and dynamics for up to five gears; (3) single and multiple engines (maximum of four) including selective engine reversing and failure; (4) drag chute and spoiler effects; (5) wheel braking (including skid-control) and selective brake failure; (6) aerodynamic ground effects; (7) aircraft carrier operations; (8) inclined runways and runway perturbations; (9) flexible or rigid airframes; 10) rudder and nose gear steering; and 11) actively controlled landing gear shock struts. Input to the AGFATL program includes data which describe runway roughness; vehicle geometry, flexibility and aerodynamic characteristics; landing gear(s); propulsion; and initial conditions such as attitude, attitude change rates, and velocities. AGFATL performs a time integration of the equations of motion and outputs comprehensive information on the airframe

  1. 49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; and (3) Is capable of performing the assigned brake service or inspection by reason of experience... experience or a combination thereof totaling at least one year. Such training or experience may consist of... commercial training program designed to train students in brake maintenance or inspection similar to...

  2. 49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; and (3) Is capable of performing the assigned brake service or inspection by reason of experience... experience or a combination thereof totaling at least one year. Such training or experience may consist of... commercial training program designed to train students in brake maintenance or inspection similar to...

  3. 49 CFR 396.25 - Qualifications of brake inspectors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...; and (3) Is capable of performing the assigned brake service or inspection by reason of experience... experience or a combination thereof totaling at least one year. Such training or experience may consist of... commercial training program designed to train students in brake maintenance or inspection similar to...

  4. Method and apparatus for braking a derrick winch

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, J.F.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes an apparatus for braking a derrick winch with a winch brake. It comprises: a control lever remotely located from the winch; a servo-control circuit connecting the lever and brake for actuating the brake in response to movement of the lever, and including: a torque motor having a shaft mechanically coupled to the control lever; a brake activating device for actuating the winch brake; a first position transducer for sensing the position of the control lever; a second position transducer for sensing the position of the winch brake; a first force transducer for measuring the force applied to the winch brake; a first comparator; a second comparator. The first comparator being connected to receive signals from the first and second position transducers and to deliver an error signal to the torque motor and to the second comparator. The second comparator being connected to receive signals from the first comparator and from the first force transducer and to deliver an error signal to the actuating device.

  5. Control of asbestos exposure during brake drum service

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehy, J.W.; Cooper, T.C.; O'Brien, D.M.; McGlothlin, J.D.; Froehlich, P.A.

    1989-08-01

    Earlier studies of airborne asbestos exposure to mechanics during brake maintenance operations showed overexposure to asbestos fibers during brake servicing, especially brake assembly cleaning. Because an estimated 150,000 brake mechanics and garage workers in the U.S. are potentially exposed to asbestos, a known carcinogen, and the lack of information available on the effectiveness of available controls, an evaluation of these methods was initiated. Detailed field surveys were conducted at five facilities employing five methods for controlling exposure to asbestos during brake repair. These included the use of two commercial enclosure devices with ventilation provided by HEPA filter-equipped vacuum, a HEPA filter-equipped vacuum alone, a brush with recirculating cleaning solution, and cleaning solvents in aerosol cans. These controls were evaluated while servicing brakes to automobiles, pickup trucks, vans, and vehicles with a 4-wheel rear axle. Detailed evaluations of these control measures involved a program consisting of traditional air sampling methods, incorporating phase contrast microscopy (PCM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a real-time analysis of brake dust exposure. Personal and area air samples were collected during brake repair to each vehicle.

  6. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or transmission of response or control signals to the vehicle's antilock brake system (49 CFR 571.121... meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5... indicator system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.3). (c) Air brake...

  7. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or transmission of response or control signals to the vehicle's antilock brake system (49 CFR 571.121... meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5... indicator system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.3). (c) Air brake...

  8. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or transmission of response or control signals to the vehicle's antilock brake system (49 CFR 571.121... meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5... indicator system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.3). (c) Air brake...

  9. 49 CFR 393.55 - Antilock brake systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or transmission of response or control signals to the vehicle's antilock brake system (49 CFR 571.121... meets the requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.5... indicator system that meets the requirements of FMVSS No. 105 (49 CFR 571.105, S5.3). (c) Air brake...

  10. 16 CFR 1512.5 - Requirements for braking system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Bicycles shall be equipped with front- and rear-wheel brakes or rear-wheel brakes only. (b) Handbrakes. Handbrakes shall be tested at least ten times by applying a force sufficient to cause the handlever to... the same handbrake force applied in accordance with the rocking test, § 1512.18(d)(2)(iii);...

  11. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic signal... and release of the brakes on the last car in the train; and (6) The communicating signal system is... be used to verify the set and release on cars so equipped. However, the observation of the...

  12. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a pneumatic signal... and release of the brakes on the last car in the train; and (6) The communicating signal system is... be used to verify the set and release on cars so equipped. However, the observation of the...

  13. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  14. 49 CFR 238.317 - Class II brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....315(a)(1); (3) When previously tested units (i.e., cars that received a Class I brake test within the... hours) are added to the train; (4) When cars or equipment are removed from the train; and (5) When an... locomotives that utilize an electric signal to communicate a service brake application and only a...

  15. Modified hydraulic braking system limits angular deceleration to safe values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, R. S.; Council, M.; Green, P. M.

    1966-01-01

    Conventional spring actuated, hydraulically released, fail-safe disk braking system is modified to control the angular deceleration of a massive antenna. The hydraulic system provides an immediate preset pressure to the spring-loaded brake shoes and holds it at this value to decelerate the antenna at the desired rate.

  16. DC torque motor actuated anti-lock brake controller

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, P.D.; Kade, A.

    1989-02-21

    A wheel lock control system is described for limiting the brake pressure applied to the brake of a vehicle wheel traveling over a road surface, the system comprising: an actuator for controlling the brake pressure to the brake of the wheel, the actuator including a torque motor for generating a motor torque in response to motor current to control the applied brake pressure in accordance with the value of the motor torque, the motor torque having a value proportional to the value of the motor current; means for determining the tire torque tending to accelerate the wheel during the application of brake pressure; means for storing the value of motor current corresponding to the maximum determined value of tire torque; means for detecting an incipient wheel lockup condition; and means for establishing the motor current following a detected incipient wheel lockup condition at a value having a predetermined relationship to the stored value of motor current to control the brake pressure at a predetermined braking condition.

  17. Braking system for use with an arbor of a microscope

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, Duane U.

    1984-01-01

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling device causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  18. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...

  19. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...

  20. 49 CFR 232.305 - Single car air brake tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated document from the... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Single car air brake tests. 232.305 Section 232... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION BRAKE SYSTEM SAFETY STANDARDS FOR FREIGHT AND OTHER...

  1. 49 CFR 393.48 - Brakes to be operative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (regardless of whether or not an antilock system failure has occurred on any axle). The device must not be operable by the driver except upon application of the control that activates the braking system. The device... with air brakes) or 85 percent of the maximum system pressure (for vehicles which are not equipped...

  2. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (f) A Class IA brake test shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will... test; and (iii) The train has not been disconnected from a source of compressed air for more than four... has been off a source of compressed air for more than four hours. (b) A commuter or...

  3. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... protection valve or similar device shall operate automatically when the air pressure on the towing vehicle is... independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking... safeguarded against backflow of air to the towing vehicle upon reduction of the towing vehicle air...

  4. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (f) A Class IA brake test shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will... test; and (iii) The train has not been disconnected from a source of compressed air for more than four... has been off a source of compressed air for more than four hours. (b) A commuter or...

  5. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... protection valve or similar device shall operate automatically when the air pressure on the towing vehicle is... independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking... safeguarded against backflow of air to the towing vehicle upon reduction of the towing vehicle air...

  6. 49 CFR 393.43 - Breakaway and emergency braking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... protection valve or similar device shall operate automatically when the air pressure on the towing vehicle is... independent of brake air, hydraulic, and other pressure, and independent of other controls, unless the braking... safeguarded against backflow of air to the towing vehicle upon reduction of the towing vehicle air...

  7. 49 CFR 238.315 - Class IA brake test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (f) A Class IA brake test shall be performed at the air pressure at which the train's air brakes will... test; and (iii) The train has not been disconnected from a source of compressed air for more than four... has been off a source of compressed air for more than four hours. (b) A commuter or...

  8. Compressed gas system operates semitrailer brakes during winching operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tupper, W. E.

    1964-01-01

    To move van-type semi-trailers into and out of confined spaces, an auxiliary braking system is mounted on a standard dolly converter. Compressed nitrogen is used to actuate the brakes which are used in conjunction with a power winch.

  9. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... any tube, hose or other part. (1) Inspection procedure. With the engine running in vehicles equipped... position to the floorboard or other object that restricts pedal travel. The brake pedal reserve test is not..., tubes and tube assemblies. Hydraulic brake hoses shall not be mounted so as to contact the vehicle...

  10. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... any tube, hose or other part. (1) Inspection procedure. With the engine running in vehicles equipped... position to the floorboard or other object that restricts pedal travel. The brake pedal reserve test is not..., tubes and tube assemblies. Hydraulic brake hoses shall not be mounted so as to contact the vehicle...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19006 - Automatic hoist braking devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic hoist braking devices. 56.19006 Section 56.19006 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19006 Automatic hoist braking devices. Automatic hoists shall be provided with...

  12. Design optimization of a magnetorheological brake in powered knee orthosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hao; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2015-04-01

    Magneto-rheological (MR) fluids have been utilized in devices like orthoses and prostheses to generate controllable braking torque. In this paper, a flat shape rotary MR brake is designed for powered knee orthosis to provide adjustable resistance. Multiple disk structure with interior inner coil is adopted in the MR brake configuration. In order to increase the maximal magnetic flux, a novel internal structure design with smooth transition surface is proposed. Based on this design, a parameterized model of the MR brake is built for geometrical optimization. Multiple factors are considered in the optimization objective: braking torque, weight, and, particularly, average power consumption. The optimization is then performed with Finite Element Analysis (FEA), and the optimal design is obtained among the Pareto-optimal set considering the trade-offs in design objectives.

  13. A Comparative Study on Automotive Brake Testing Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, Bhau Kashinath; Patil, Satyajit Ramchandra; Sawant, Suresh Maruti

    2016-06-01

    Performance testing of automotive brakes involves determination of stopping time, distance and deceleration level. Braking performance of an automobile is required to be ensured for various surfaces like dry, wet, concrete, bitumen etc. as well as for prolonged applications. Various brake testing standards are used worldwide to assure vehicle and pedestrian safety. This article presents methodologies used for automotive service brake testing for two wheelers. The main contribution of this work lies in comparative study of three main brake testing standards; viz. Indian Standards, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards and European Economic Commission Standards. This study shall help the policy makers to choose the best criteria out of these three while formulating newer edition of testing standards.

  14. Thermal Analysis and Cooling Optimization of the Magnetorheological Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, W. L.; Wang, W. Y.; Jin, X.

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the heat transfer of the magnetorheological brake, the brake was simplified to a two dimensional axisymmetric finite element model. The steady state solutions of temperature were calculated and the cloud figures of temperature of disk were plotted. The results of simulation show that the maximum temperature is 131.7°C. Based on the results of the analysis and the structure characteristics of the brake, a cooling device was design for reducing the temperature of MR brake. And then the configuration of the cooling device was optimized for lower maximum working temperature and less weight by the response surface optimization method based on finite element. Finally, the optimal geometric parameters of the magneto-rheological brake are obtained.

  15. Analysis of heat conduction in a disk brake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talati, Faramarz; Jalalifar, Salman

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, the governing heat equations for the disk and the pad are extracted in the form of transient heat equations with heat generation that is dependant to time and space. In the derivation of the heat equations, parameters such as the duration of braking, vehicle velocity, geometries and the dimensions of the brake components, materials of the disk brake rotor and the pad and contact pressure distribution have been taken into account. The problem is solved analytically using Green’s function approach. It is concluded that the heat generated due to friction between the disk and the pad should be ideally dissipated to the environment to avoid decreasing the friction coefficient between the disk and the pad and to avoid the temperature rise of various brake components and brake fluid vaporization due to excessive heating.

  16. Design of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gang, Han Gyeol; Choi, Seung-Bok; Sohn, Jung Woo

    2016-04-01

    In this work, a new type of haptic master featuring small-sized MR brake is proposed and its performances are evaluated. The proposed haptic master consists of base frame, stick grip and small-sized four MR brakes for 3-DOF rotational motion and 1-DOF gripper motion. To obtain large braking torque under limited small size of MR brake, dual tapered shape inner magnetic core is proposed and its performance is evaluated via both numerical estimation and experimental test. After design and implementation of control algorithm, it has been demonstrated through experiment that the proposed actuator has good performances on tracking control of desired torques. Then, a new haptic master device is designed and constructed by adopting the proposed MR brakes and light weight frame structures. It is verified that the proposed haptic master device is effective for the real application in the field.

  17. Temperature distribution in an aircraft tire at low ground speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. L.; Tanner, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to define temperature profiles of 22 x 5.5, type 7, bias ply aircraft tires subjected to freely rolling, yawed rolling, and light braking conditions. Temperatures along the inner wall of freely rolling tires were greater than those near the outer surface. The effect of increasing tire deflection was to increase the temperature within the shoulder and sidewall areas of the tire carcass. The effect of cornering and braking was to increase the treat temperature. For taxi operations at fixed yaw angles, temperature profiles were not symmetric. Increasing the ground speed produced only moderate increases in tread temperature, whereas temperatures in the carcass shoulder and sidewall were essentially unaffected.

  18. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  19. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  20. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-01-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  1. The effect of runway surface and braking on Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Robert H.; Stubbs, Sandy M.

    1992-10-01

    In 1988, a 1067 m long touchdown zone on each end of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) was modified from its original heavy-broom finish with transverse grooves configuration to a longitudinal corduroy surface texture with no transverse grooves. The intent of this modification was to reduce the spin-up wear on the Orbiter main gear tires and provide for somewhat higher crosswind capabilities at that site. The modification worked well, so it was proposed that the remainder of the runway be modified as well to permit even higher crosswind landing capability. Tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) to evaluate the merit of such a modification. This paper discusses the results of these tests, and explains why the proposed modification did not provide the expected improvement and thus was not implemented. Also, in an ongoing program to evaluate the origin of various tire wear phenomenon, a series of tests was conducted to evaluate the effect of braking on tire wear. Finally, a modified tire is discussed in terms of its wear performance under rollout and braking operations.

  2. Optimal design of a disc-type MR brake for middle-sized motorcycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Quoc-Hung; Jeon, Juncheol; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2011-03-01

    This research work focuses on optimal design of a disc-type magneto-rheological (MR) brake that can replace a conventional hydraulic brake (CHB) of middle-sized motorcycles. Firstly, a MR brake configuration is proposed considering the available space and the simplicity to replace a CHB by the proposed MR brake. An optimal design of the proposed MR brake is then performed considering the required braking torque, operating temperature, mass and size of the brake. In order to perform the optimization of the brake, the braking torque of the brake is analyzed based on Herschel-Bulkley rheological model of MR fluid. The constrain on operating temperature of the MR brake is determined by considering the steady temperature of the brake when the motorcycle is cruising and the temperature increase during a braking process. An optimization procedure based on finite element analysis integrated with an optimization tool is employed to obtain optimal geometric dimensions of the MR brake. Optimal solution of the MR brake is then presented and simulated performance of the optimized brake is shown with remarkable discussions.

  3. EEG potentials predict upcoming emergency brakings during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haufe, Stefan; Treder, Matthias S.; Gugler, Manfred F.; Sagebaum, Max; Curio, Gabriel; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2011-10-01

    Emergency braking assistance has the potential to prevent a large number of car crashes. State-of-the-art systems operate in two stages. Basic safety measures are adopted once external sensors indicate a potential upcoming crash. If further activity at the brake pedal is detected, the system automatically performs emergency braking. Here, we present the results of a driving simulator study indicating that the driver's intention to perform emergency braking can be detected based on muscle activation and cerebral activity prior to the behavioural response. Identical levels of predictive accuracy were attained using electroencephalography (EEG), which worked more quickly than electromyography (EMG), and using EMG, which worked more quickly than pedal dynamics. A simulated assistance system using EEG and EMG was found to detect emergency brakings 130 ms earlier than a system relying only on pedal responses. At 100 km h-1 driving speed, this amounts to reducing the braking distance by 3.66 m. This result motivates a neuroergonomic approach to driving assistance. Our EEG analysis yielded a characteristic event-related potential signature that comprised components related to the sensory registration of a critical traffic situation, mental evaluation of the sensory percept and motor preparation. While all these components should occur often during normal driving, we conjecture that it is their characteristic spatio-temporal superposition in emergency braking situations that leads to the considerable prediction performance we observed.

  4. Vehicle Hybrid Braking Control Using Sliding Mode Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Misawa; Kanai, Yuki; Shiraki, Ryoko; Mori, Yasuchika

    Anti-lock brake system and brake-by-wire are proposed in the vehicle control using a brake, and the braking power is expected to be improved more than ever. The researches such as an application to the ABS of Siliding mode control which considered a actuator dynamics and a hybrid control of the brake using model reference adaptive control are done so far. However, in the former case, speed following that becomes a target exists physically impossible situation by saturation of tire frictional force because only speed following is done. In the latter, the model error is caused because the simulation model and the controller design model are different. Therefore, there is a problem that an accurate follow cannot be done. In this paper, the braking control is performed using the sliding mode control which has high robustness for disturbance that fulfils matching conditions. In so doing, it aims at the achievement of optimal braking control to switch wheel speed following to slip ratio following.

  5. Cornering characteristics of a 40 by 14-16 type 7 aircraft tire and a comparison with characteristics of a C40 by 14-21 cantilever aircraft tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Dreher, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to determine the cornering characteristics of a 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire. These characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained for the tire operating on dry, damp and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 20 deg and at ground speeds from 5 to 100 knots, both with and without braking. The results of this investigation indicated that the cornering capability of the 40 x 14-16 type VII aircraft tire is degraded by high ground speeds, thin-film lubrication and tire hydroplaning effects on the wet surfaces, and brake torque. The cornering capability is greatly diminished when locked-wheel skids are encountered.

  6. Brake lock mechanism for the two axis pointing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posey, Alan; Clark, Mike; Mignosa, Larry

    1991-01-01

    Six months prior to shipment of the Broadband X-ray Telescope to the Kennedy Space Center for flight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, a major system failure occurred. During modal survey testing of the telescope's gimbal pointing system, the roll axis brake unexpectedly released. Low level vibration and static preloads present during the modal survey were within the expected flight environment. Brake release during shuttle liftoff or ascent was an unacceptable risk to mission success; thus, a Brake Lock Mechanism (BLM) was developed.

  7. Gravitational waves from pulsars with measured braking index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Araujo, José C. N.; Coelho, Jaziel G.; Costa, Cesar A.

    2016-09-01

    We study the putative emission of gravitational waves (GWs) in particular for pulsars with measured braking index. We show that the appropriate combination of both GW emission and magnetic dipole brakes can naturally explain the measured braking index, when the surface magnetic field and the angle between the magnetic dipole and rotation axes are time dependent. Then we discuss the detectability of these very pulsars by aLIGO and the Einstein Telescope. We call attention to the realistic possibility that aLIGO can detect the GWs generated by at least some of these pulsars, such as Vela, for example.

  8. Residual stresses in a cast iron automotive brake disc rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripley, Maurice I.; Kirstein, Oliver

    2006-11-01

    Runout, and consequent juddering and pulsation through the brake pedal, is a multi-million dollar per year warranty problem for car manufacturers. There is some suspicion that the runout can be caused by relaxation of residual casting stresses when the disc is overheated during severe-braking episodes. We report here neutron-diffraction measurements of the levels and distribution of residual strains in a used cast iron brake disc rotor. The difficulties of measuring stresses in grey cast iron are outlined and three-dimensional residual-strain distributions are presented and their possible effects discussed.

  9. Tribomaterial factors in space mechanism brake performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawthorne, H. M.

    1990-01-01

    The asbestos/phenolic pads of Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) brakes are unsuitable for use in long life space mechanisms because their friction decreases on extended sliding in high vacuum. Dehydration of the material and accumulation of wear debris in the conforming interface of this tribosystem induces the permanent friction changes. Other polymer and some ceramic based materials exhibit similar frictional torque behavior due to the development of minimal contact patches by the interfacial debris. In contrast, high friction occurs when other ceramics form many small contacts throughout fine debris beds. Generating this latter interfacial structure during run-in ensures that the in-vacuo friction remains stable thereafter. Such materials with low wear rates are potential candidates for friction elements in SSRMS and similar mechanisms.

  10. A Pulsar Eases Off the Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, pulsar PSR 18460258 unexpectedly launched into a series of energetic X-ray outbursts. Now a study has determined that this event may have permanently changed the behavior of this pulsar, raising questions about our understanding of how pulsars evolve.Between CategoriesA pulsar a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation can be powered by one of three mechanisms:Rotation-powered pulsars transform rotational energy into radiation, gradually slowing down in a predictable way.Accretion-powered pulsars convert the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation.Magnetars are powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic fields.Astronomical classification often results in one pesky object that doesnt follow the rules. In this case, that object is PSR 18460258, a young pulsar categorized as rotation-powered. But in 2006, PSR 18460258 suddenly emitted a series of short, hard X-ray bursts and underwent a flux increase behavior that is usually only exhibited by magnetars. After this outburst, it returned to normal, rotation-powered-pulsar behavior.Since the discovery of this event, scientists have been attempting to learn more about this strange pulsar that seems to straddle the line between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars.Unprecedented DropOne way to examine whats going on with PSR 18460258 is to evaluate whats known as its braking index, a measure of how quickly the pulsars rotation slows down. For a rotation-powered pulsar, the braking index should be roughly constant. The pulsar then slows down according to a fixed power law, where the slower it rotates, the slower it slows down.In a recent study, Robert Archibald (McGill University) and collaborators report on 7 years worth of timing observations of PSR 18460258 after its odd magnetar-like outburst. They then compare these observations to 6.5 years of data from before the outburst. The team finds that the braking index for this bizarre

  11. Braking formula for electrons of relativistic speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bethe, H.; Bartschat, Klaus

    2014-12-01

    The current translation is by Klaus Bartschat, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Drake University, Des Moines, Iowa 50311, USA. An attempt has been made to preserve Bethe's writing style as much as possible, including his use of "Volt" instead of "electron volt". Even though the term "stopping power" is quite common in present scientific English, we generally use "braking [capability]" rather than "stopping [power]", in order to emphasize the act [and ability] of slowing down the particle rather than the ultimate result of bringing it to a complete halt. Also, a few typographical errors were kept in the English translation to ensure the translation replicates the original paper. Please, see Section 3 of the annotation to Bethe's article [Fontes, C.J., Bostock, C.J. and Bartschat, K. 2014. Eur. Phys. J. H, 39: 517-536] for a list. The references were converted to EPJH style, and the footnotes are numbered consecutively.

  12. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  13. Driver Behavioral Changes through Interactions with an Automatic Brake System for Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Makoto; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Inagaki, Toshiyuki

    This paper discusses driver's behavioral changes as a result of driver's use of an automatic brake system for preventing a rear-end collision from occurring. Three types of automatic brake systems are investigated in this study. Type 1 brake system applies a strong automatic brake when a collision is very imminent. Type 2 brake system initiates brake operation softly when a rear-end crash may be anticipated. Types 1 and 2 are for avoidance of a collision. Type 3 brake system, on the other hand, applies a strong automatic brake to reduce the damage when a collision can not be avoided. An experiment was conducted with a driving simulator in order to analyze the driver's possible behavioral changes. The results showed that the time headway (THW) during car following phase was reduced by use of an automatic brake system of any type. The inverse of time to collision (TTC), which is an index of the driver's brake timing, increased by use of Type 1 brake system when the deceleration rate of the lead vehicle was relatively low. However, the brake timing did not change when the drivers used Type 2 or 3 brake system. As a whole, dangerous behavioral changes, such as overreliance on a brake system, were not observed for either type of brake system.

  14. Experimental investigation of the cornering of a C40 x 14-21 cantilever aircraft tire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreher, R. C.; Tanner, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to define the cornering characteristics of a size C40 x14-21 aircraft tire of cantilever design. These characteristics, which include the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque, were obtained for the tire operating on dry, damp, and flooded runway surfaces over a range of yaw angles from 0 deg to 20 deg and at ground speeds of 5 to 100 knots, both with and without braking. The results of this investigation show that the cornering-force and drag-force friction coefficients and self-alining torque were influenced by the yaw angle, ground speed, brake torque, surface wetness, and the locked-wheel condition.

  15. 27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL, BRAKE AIR CYLINDER. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  16. 28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. UPPER STATION, LOWER FLOOR, BULL WHEEL ROOM, SAFETY BRAKE ADJUSTING MACHINERY. - Monongahela Incline Plane, Connecting North side of Grandview Avenue at Wyoming Street with West Carson Street near Smithfield Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  17. 4. FLOOR 3; GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWS WALLOWER, BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FLOOR 3; GENERAL VIEW LOOKING NORTH SHOWS WALLOWER, BRAKE LEVER, CASE FOR SCREENER, TOP OF GRAIN ELEVATOR, LAYSHAFT WHICH POWERS THE SCREENER AND ELEVATOR - Hayground Windmill, Windmill Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  18. 11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. STOVE NUT USED IN THE MILL WHEN THE BRAKE WHEEL DROVE ONE PAIR OF MILLSTONES DIRECTLY; FOUND ON THE FIRST FLOOR OF THE WINDMILL AT WATERMILL - Windmill at Water Mill, Montauk Highway & Halsey Lane, Water Mill, Suffolk County, NY

  19. Metals associated with stormwater-relevant brake and tire samples

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Erica R.; Money, Jon E.; Green, Peter G.; Young, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Properly apportioning the loads of metals in highway stormwater runoff to the appropriate sources requires accurate data on source composition, especially regarding constituents that help to distinguish among sources. Representative tire and brake samples were collected from privately owned vehicles and aqueous extracts were analyzed for twenty-eight elements. Correlation principal components analysis (PCA) revealed that tires were most influenced by Zn, Pb, and Cu, while brakes were best characterized by Na and Fe followed by Ba, Cu, Mg, Mn, and K; the latter three may be due to roadside soil contributions. Notably elevated Cd contributions were found in several brake samples. A targeted Cd-plated brake rotor was sampled, producing results consistent with the elevated levels found in the larger sample population. This enriched source of Cd is of particular concern due to high toxicity of Cd in aquatic ecosystems. PMID:19709720

  20. 14 CFR 23.493 - Braked roll conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and ground contacts must be those described in § 23.479 for level landings. (c) A drag reaction equal... at the ground contact point of each wheel with brakes, except that the drag reaction need not...

  1. 22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. General view inside air brake shop section of roundhouse. View to west. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  2. 6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF THE BRAKE SHOE ON THE EAST DRUM AT THE STEWARD MINE, LOOKING EAST. THE EAST DRUM WAS UNDER SHOT, THE WEST OVERSHOT - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  3. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... cracks that do not impair attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the...

  4. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... cracks that do not impair attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the...

  5. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... cracks that do not impair attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the...

  6. 49 CFR 570.5 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR 571.105, on every new passenger car manufactured on or after January 1, 1968, and on other types...) Friction materials. On each brake the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one...

  7. 49 CFR 570.59 - Service brake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Friction materials. On each brake, the thickness of the lining or pad shall not be less than one thirty... cracks that do not impair attachment. The wire in wire-backed lining shall not be visible on the...

  8. Experimental investigations for uncertainty quantification in brake squeal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, A.; Massa, F.; Lallemand, B.; Tison, T.

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to improve the correlation between the experimental and the numerical prediction of unstable frequencies for automotive brake systems considering uncertainty. First, an experimental quantification of uncertainty and a discussion analysing the contributions of uncertainty to a numerical squeal simulation are proposed. Frequency and transient simulations are performed considering nominal values of model parameters, determined experimentally. The obtained results are compared with those derived from experimental tests to highlight the limitation of deterministic simulations. The effects of the different kinds of uncertainty detected in working conditions of brake system, the pad boundary condition, the brake system material properties and the pad surface topography are discussed by defining different unstable mode classes. Finally, a correlation between experimental and numerical results considering uncertainty is successfully proposed for an industrial brake system. Results from the different comparisons reveal also a major influence of the pad topography and consequently the contact distribution.

  9. COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COUNTERWEIGHT, CONNECTED TO HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM, IN REAR OF VAULT MOTOR ROOM, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  10. View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of main hoist wire rope drum and brakes, open contact boards are in view at the far right wall - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Portal Gantry Crane No. 42, Pier 5, Farragut Avenue, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. 6. North wall and east end of air brake shop ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. North wall and east end of air brake shop section of roundhouse at center. East end of boiler shop section of roundhouse to the right of air brake shop. East end of blacksmith shop section of roundhouse at far right. View to southeast. - Duluth & Iron Range Rail Road Company Shops, Roundhouse, Southwest of downtown Two Harbors, northwest of Agate Bay, Two Harbors, Lake County, MN

  12. Investigation of aerodynamic braking devices for wind turbine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, D.A.

    1997-04-01

    This report documents the selection and preliminary design of a new aerodynamic braking system for use on the stall-regulated AWT-26/27 wind turbines. The goal was to identify and design a configuration that offered improvements over the existing tip brake used by Advanced Wind Turbines, Inc. (AWT). Although the design objectives and approach of this report are specific to aerodynamic braking of AWT-26/27 turbines, many of the issues addressed in this work are applicable to a wider class of turbines. The performance trends and design choices presented in this report should be of general use to wind turbine designers who are considering alternative aerodynamic braking methods. A literature search was combined with preliminary work on device sizing, loads and mechanical design. Candidate configurations were assessed on their potential for benefits in the areas of cost, weight, aerodynamic noise, reliability and performance under icing conditions. As a result, two configurations were identified for further study: the {open_quotes}spoiler-flap{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}flip-tip.{close_quotes} Wind tunnel experiments were conducted at Wichita State University to evaluate the performance of the candidate aerodynamic brakes on an airfoil section representative of the AWT-26/27 blades. The wind tunnel data were used to predict the braking effectiveness and deployment characteristics of the candidate devices for a wide range of design parameters. The evaluation was iterative, with mechanical design and structural analysis being conducted in parallel with the braking performance studies. The preliminary estimate of the spoiler-flap system cost was $150 less than the production AWT-26/27 tip vanes. This represents a reduction of approximately 5 % in the cost of the aerodynamic braking system. In view of the preliminary nature of the design, it would be prudent to plan for contingencies in both cost and weight.

  13. How Drivers Respond to Alarms Adapted to Their Braking Behaviour?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Genya; Itoh, Makoto

    Determining appropriate alarm timing for Forward Collision Warning Systems (FCWS) may play an important role in enhancing system acceptance by drivers. It is not always true that a common alarm trigger logic is suitable for all drivers, because presented alarms may be differently viewed for each driver, i.e., paying attention or requiring appropriate actions. The current study focused on adaptive alarm timing which was adjusted in response to braking behaviour for collision avoidance for the individual. In Experiment I, the braking performance of individual driver was measured repeatedly to assess the variation of each performance. We utilised the following two indices: elapsed time from the deceleration of the lead car to release of the accelerator (accelerator release time) and elapsed time to application of the brakes (braking response time). Two alarm timings were then determined based on these two indices: (i) the median of the accelerator release time of the driver and (ii) the median of the braking response time of the driver. Experiment II compared the two alarm timings for each driver in order to investigate which timing is more appropriate for enhancing driver trust in the driver-adaptive FCWS and the system effectiveness. The results showed that the timing of the accelerator release time increased the trust ratings more than the timing of braking response. The timing of the braking response time induced a longer response time to application of the brakes. Moreover, the degree to which the response time was longer depended on alarm timing preference of the driver. The possible benefit and drawback of driver-adaptive alarm timing are discussed.

  14. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  15. Infrared characterization of thermal gradients on disc brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panier, Stephane; Dufrenoy, Philippe; Bremond, Pierre

    2003-04-01

    The heat generated in frictional organs like brakes and clutches induces thermal distortions which may lead to localized contact areas and hot spots developments. Hot spots are high thermal gradients on the rubbing surface. They count among the most dangerous phenomena in frictional organs leading to damage, early failure and unacceptable braking performances such as brake fade or undesirable low frequency vibrations called hot judder. In this paper, an experimental study of hot spots occurrence in railway disc brakes is reported on. The aim of this study was to better classify and to explain the thermal gradients appearance on the surface of the disc. Thermograph measurements with an infrared camera have been carried out on the rubbing surface of brake discs on a full-scale test bench. The infrared system was set to take temperature readings in snap shot mode precisely synchronized with the rotation of the disc. Very short integration time allows reducing drastically haziness of thermal images. Based on thermographs, a classification of hot-spots observed in disc brakes is proposed. A detailed investigation of the most damaging thermal gradients, called macroscopic hot spots (MHS) is given. From these experimental researches, a scenario of hot spots occurrence is suggested step by step. Thanks to infrared measurements at high frequency with high resolution, observations give new highlights on the conditions of hot spots appearance. Comparison of the experimental observations with the theoretical approaches is finally discussed.

  16. Hard Braking Events Among Novice Teenage Drivers By Passenger Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Wang, Jing; Klauer, Sheila G.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary In a naturalistic study of teenage drivers (N = 42) hard braking events of ≤−0.45 g were assessed over the first 6 months of licensure. A total of 1,721 hard braking events were recorded. The video footage of a sample (816) of these events was examined to evaluate validity and reasons for hard braking. Of these, 788 (96.6%) were estimated valid, of which 79.1% were due to driver misjudgment, 10.8% to risky driving behavior, 5.3% to legitimate evasive maneuvers, and 4.8% to distraction. Hard braking events per 10 trips and per 100 miles were compared across passenger characteristics. Hard braking rates per 10 trips among newly licensed teenagers during the first 6 months of licensure were significantly higher when driving with teen passengers and lower with adult passengers than driving alone; rates per 100 miles were lower with adult passengers than with no passengers. Further examination of the results indicates that rates of hard braking with teenage passengers were significantly higher compared with no passengers: 1) for male drivers; 2) during the first month of licensure. The data suggest that that novice teenage driving performance may not be as good or safe when driving alone or with teenage passengers than with adult passengers and provide support for the hypothesis that teenage passengers increase driving risks, particularly during the first month of licensure. PMID:21243109

  17. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  18. Control performance of an electrorheological valve based vehicle anti-lock brake system, considering the braking force distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. B.; Lee, T. H.; Lee, Y. S.; Han, M. S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the braking control performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electrorheological (ER) fluid. As a first step, a cylindrical type of ER valve is devised and its pressure controllability is experimentally confirmed. Then, a hydraulic booster for amplifying the field-dependent pressure drop obtained from the ER valve is constructed and its pressure amplification is demonstrated by presenting the pressure tracking control performance. Subsequently, the governing equation of the rear wheel model is derived by considering the braking force distribution, and a sliding mode controller for achieving the desired slip rate is designed. The controller is then realized through the hardware-in-the-loop simulation method and controlled responses are presented in the time domain. In addition, computer animations for the braking performance under unladen and laden conditions are presented, and a comparison of the proportioning valve and the proposed ER valve pressure modulator is made.

  19. A design study for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Humphreys, D. E.; Montoya, R. J.; Rickard, W. W.; Wilkinson, I. E.

    1973-01-01

    The activities during a four-year study by doctoral students to evolve in detail a design for a simple-to-fly, constant attitude light airplane are described. The study indicated that such aircraft could materially reduce the hazards to light airplane occupants which arise from the high pilot work load and poor visibility that occur during landing. Preliminary cost studies indicate that in volume production this system would increase the cost of the aircraft in roughly the same fashion that automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, and cruise control increase the cost of a compact car.

  20. Wear Modalities and Mechanisms of the Mining Non-asbestos Composite Brake Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jiusheng; Yin, Yan; Zhu, Zhencai; Tong, Minming; Lu, Yuhao; Peng, Yuxing

    2013-08-01

    The mining brake material is generally made of composite materials and its wear has important influences on the braking performance of disc brakes. In order to improve the braking reliability of mine hoisters, this paper did some tribological investigations on the mining brake material to reveal its wear modalities and mechanisms. The mining non-asbestos brake shoe and 16Mn steel were selected as braking pairs and tested on a pad-on-disc friction tester. And a SEM was used to observe the worn surface of the brake shoe. It is shown that the non-asbestos brake material has mainly five wear modalities: adhesive wear, abrasive wear, cutting wear, fatigue wear and high heat wear. At the front period of a single braking the wear modality is mainly composed of some light mechanical wear such as abrasive, cutting and point adhesive. With the temperature rising at the back period it transforms to some heavy mechanical wear such as piece adhesive and fatigue. While in several repeated brakings once the surface temperature rises beyond the thermal-decomposition point of the bonding material, the strong destructive high heat wear takes leading roles on the surface. And a phenomenon called friction catastrophe (FC) occurs easily, which as a result causes a braking failure. It is considered that the friction heat has important influences on the wear modalities of the brake material. And the reduction of friction heat must be an effective technical method for decreasing wear and avoiding braking failures.

  1. The braking performance of a vehicle anti-lock brake system featuring an electro-rheological valve pressure modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seung-Bok; Sung, Kum-Gil; Cho, Myung-Soo; Lee, Yang-Sub

    2007-08-01

    This paper presents the braking performances of a vehicle anti-lock brake system (ABS) featuring an electro-rheological (ER) valve pressure modulator. As a first step, the principal design parameters of the ER valve and hydraulic booster are appropriately determined by considering the Bingham property of the ER fluid and the braking pressure variation during the ABS operation. An ER fluid composed of chemically treated starch particles and silicone oil is used. An electrically controllable pressure modulator is then constructed and its pressure controllability is empirically evaluated. Subsequently, a quarter-car wheel slip model is established and integrated with the governing equation of the pressure modulator. A sliding mode controller for slip rate control is designed and implemented via the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS). In order to demonstrate the superior braking performance of the proposed ABS, a full car model is derived and a sliding mode controller is formulated to achieve the desired yaw rate. The braking performances in terms of braking distance and step input steering are evaluated and presented in time domain through full car simulations.

  2. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  3. Climbing efficiency of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C C

    1927-01-01

    The object of this report was to indicate that we frequently only make use of 50 percent of the maximum brake horsepower of the engine in taking off the ground, that this loss is not inevitable, and that the effort to get engines of low weight per horsepower by boosting revolutions is of very little use to bombers and commercial airplanes.

  4. An integrated control strategy for the composite braking system of an electric vehicle with independently driven axles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Fengchun; Liu, Wei; He, Hongwen; Guo, Hongqiang

    2016-08-01

    For an electric vehicle with independently driven axles, an integrated braking control strategy was proposed to coordinate the regenerative braking and the hydraulic braking. The integrated strategy includes three modes, namely the hybrid composite mode, the parallel composite mode and the pure hydraulic mode. For the hybrid composite mode and the parallel composite mode, the coefficients of distributing the braking force between the hydraulic braking and the two motors' regenerative braking were optimised offline, and the response surfaces related to the driving state parameters were established. Meanwhile, the six-sigma method was applied to deal with the uncertainty problems for reliability. Additionally, the pure hydraulic mode is activated to ensure the braking safety and stability when the predictive failure of the response surfaces occurs. Experimental results under given braking conditions showed that the braking requirements could be well met with high braking stability and energy regeneration rate, and the reliability of the braking strategy was guaranteed on general braking conditions.

  5. Intelligently Controllable Walker with Magnetorheological Fluid Brake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takehito; Tanida, Sosuke; Tanaka, Toshimasa; Kobayashi, Keigo; Mitobe, Kazuhisa

    Caster walkers are supporting frames with casters and wheels. These tools are regularly utilized as life support tools or walking rehabilitation tools in hospitals, nursing homes and individual residences. Users of the walkers can easily move it thanks to its wheels and casters. However falling accidents often happen when it moves without users. The falling accident is very serious problem and one of leading causes of secondary injuries. In the other case, it is hard to move to desired directions if users have imbalance in their motor functions or sensory functions, e.g., hemiplegic patients. To improve safeness and operability of the walkers, we installed compact MR fluid brakes on the wheels and controlled walking speed and direction of the walker. We named this intelligently controllable walker, “i-Walker” and discussed on the control methods and experimental results in this paper. Preliminary trials for direction control of the first-generation of the i-Walker (i-Walker1) are presented. On the basis of the results, we improved the control method and hardware of the i-Walker1, and developed the second-generation (i-Walker2). System description and experimental results of the i-Walker2 are also described. The i-Walker2 has better operability and lower energy consumption than that of the i-Walker1. The line-tracing controller of the i-Walker2 well controls human motions during walking experiments on the target straight line.

  6. Piecewise polynomial chaos expansion with an application to brake squeal of a linear brake system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrouy, E.; Dessombz, O.; Sinou, J.-J.

    2013-02-01

    This paper proposes numerical developments based on polynomial chaos (PC) expansions to process stochastic eigenvalue problems efficiently. These developments are applied to the problem of linear stability calculations for a simplified brake system: the stability of a finite element model of a brake is investigated when its friction coefficient or the contact stiffness are modeled as random parameters. Getting rid of the statistical point of view of the PC method but keeping the principle of a polynomial decomposition of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, the stochastic space is decomposed into several elements to realize a low degree piecewise polynomial approximation of these quantities. An approach relying on continuation principles is compared to the classical dichotomy method to build the partition. Moreover, a criterion for testing accuracy of the decomposition over each cell of the partition without requiring evaluation of exact eigenmodes is proposed and implemented. Several random distributions are tested, including a uniform-like law for description of friction coefficient variation. Results are compared to Monte Carlo simulations so as to determine the method accuracy and efficiency. Some general rules relative to the influence of the friction coefficient or the contact stiffness are also inferred from these calculations.

  7. A farewell to brake reaction times? Kinematics-dependent brake response in naturalistic rear-end emergencies.

    PubMed

    Markkula, Gustav; Engström, Johan; Lodin, Johan; Bärgman, Jonas; Victor, Trent

    2016-10-01

    Driver braking behavior was analyzed using time-series recordings from naturalistic rear-end conflicts (116 crashes and 241 near-crashes), including events with and without visual distraction among drivers of cars, heavy trucks, and buses. A simple piecewise linear model could be successfully fitted, per event, to the observed driver decelerations, allowing a detailed elucidation of when drivers initiated braking and how they controlled it. Most notably, it was found that, across vehicle types, driver braking behavior was strongly dependent on the urgency of the given rear-end scenario's kinematics, quantified in terms of visual looming of the lead vehicle on the driver's retina. In contrast with previous suggestions of brake reaction times (BRTs) of 1.5s or more after onset of an unexpected hazard (e.g., brake light onset), it was found here that braking could be described as typically starting less than a second after the kinematic urgency reached certain threshold levels, with even faster reactions at higher urgencies. The rate at which drivers then increased their deceleration (towards a maximum) was also highly dependent on urgency. Probability distributions are provided that quantitatively capture these various patterns of kinematics-dependent behavioral response. Possible underlying mechanisms are suggested, including looming response thresholds and neural evidence accumulation. These accounts argue that a naturalistic braking response should not be thought of as a slow reaction to some single, researcher-defined "hazard onset", but instead as a relatively fast response to the visual looming cues that build up later on in the evolving traffic scenario. PMID:27450793

  8. Thermophysical Properties of Automotive Metallic Brake Disk Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. W.; Park, K.; Lee, S. H.; Kang, K. H.; Lim, K. T.

    2008-12-01

    The temperature distribution, the thermal deformation, and the thermal stress of automotive brake disks have quite close relations with car safety; therefore, much research in this field has been performed. However, successful and satisfactory results have not been obtained because the temperature-dependent thermophysical properties of brake disk materials are not sufficiently known. In this study, the thermophysical properties (thermal diffusivity, the specific heat, and the coefficient of thermal expansion) of three kinds of iron alloy series brake disk materials, FC250, FC170, and FCD50, and two kinds of aluminum alloy series brake disk materials, Al MMC and A356, were measured in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C, and the thermal conductivity was calculated using the measured thermal diffusivity, specific heat capacity, and density. As expected, the results show that the two series have significant differences in respect of the thermophysical properties, and to reduce the thermal deformation of the brake disk, the aluminum alloys with a high thermal conductivity and the iron alloys with low thermal expansion are recommended.

  9. Prosthetic leg powered by MR brake and SMA wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, The; Munguia, Vicente; Calderon, Jose

    2014-04-01

    Current knee designs for prosthetic legs rely on electric motors for both moving and stationary states. The electric motors draw an especially high level of current to sustain a fixed position. The advantage of using magnetorheological (MR) fluid is that it requires less current and can have a variable braking torque. Besides, the proposed prosthetic leg is actuated by NiTinol wire, a popular shape memory alloy (SMA). The incorporation of NiTinol gives the leg more realistic weight distribution with appropriate arrangement of the batteries and wires. The prosthesis in this research was designed with MR brake as stopping component and SMA wire network as actuating component at the knee. The MR brake was designed with novel non-circular shape for the rotor that improved the braking torque while minimizing the power consumption. The design also helped simplify the control of braking process. The SMA wire network was design so that the knee motion was actively rotated in both directions. The SMA wires were arranged and played very similar role as the leg's muscles. The study started with the overall solid design of the knee including both MR and SMA parts. Theoretical models were derived and programmed in Simulink for both components. The simulation was capable of predicting the power required for moving the leg or hold it in a fixed position for a certain amount of time. Subsequently, the design was prototyped and tested to validate the theoretical prediction. The theoretical models were updated accordingly to correlate with the experimental data.

  10. Unusual Braking Indices in Young X-ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederic Archibald, Robert; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Ferdman, Robert; Guillot, Sebastien; Harrison, Fiona; Keane, Evan; Pivovaroff, Michael; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tomsick, John

    2016-04-01

    Pulsars spin down over time. By measuring braking indices of pulsars, effectively the change in the spin-down rate over time, we can probe the underlying driving engine of the spin-down. For a magnetic dipole in a vacuum, n is predicted to be 3. To date, all measured braking indices are less than 3, which can be explained, e.g. by particle winds, changes in the magnetic field. In all models of braking indices, n should be nearly constant on year time-scales. Here, I will discuss two recent observation results that challenge this model, interestingly both coming from young X-ray pulsars with no detected radio emission. The first, a long-lived decrease in the braking index of PSR J1846-0258 following a burst of magnetar-like activity, and secondly, the first stationary braking index greater than three. Understanding neutron-star spin evolution is key to constraining these objects' long-term energy output and has relevance to topics ranging from pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants to core-collapse supernova rates, physics, and expected outcomes.

  11. 29 CFR 1919.22 - Requirements governing braking devices and power sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Requirements governing braking devices and power sources. All types of winches and cranes shall be provided... motion and set the brakes without any action on the part of the operator. Current for operation...

  12. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  13. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  14. 49 CFR 393.47 - Brake actuators, slack adjusters, linings/pads and drums/rotors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... steering axle of a truck, truck-tractor or bus shall not be less than 4.8 mm (3/16 inch) at the shoe center....6 mm (1/16 inch) or less for hydraulic disc, drum and electric brakes. (2) Non-steering axle brakes... for drum brakes); or less than 3.2 mm (1/8 inch) for disc brakes. Hydraulic or electric...

  15. Brake Design-an Object-Oriented Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpobi, John A.

    2011-10-01

    An object-oriented approach methodology is presented in this work that was applied in developing the computer software for the analysis and design of brakes. This was done using Microsoft Visual Basic (object-oriented) programming language. In designing the software, the various classes of brakes were considered. The mathematical expressions that govern the relationship between force, torque, pressure, heat generated and energy were assembled and carefully programmed. To enhance the ability to visually display and interpret the solutions obtained, graphical features were incorporated in the software. Benchmark problems were used to test the software's robustness, accuracy and efficiency. The results show that the software is highly accurate, efficient and robust. The usage of the software greatly increases the accuracy, and reduces the complexity and time spent in the analysis and design of brakes.

  16. Thermal Modeling of Disc Brake Rotor in Frictional Contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Belhocine; Ghazaly, Nouby Mahdi

    2013-01-01

    Safety aspect in automotive engineering has been considered as a number one priority in development of new vehicle. Each single system has been studied and developed in order to meet safety requirement. Instead of having air bag, good suspension systems, good handling and safe cornering, there is one most critical system in the vehicle which is brake systems. The objective of this work is to investigate and analyze the temperature distribution of rotor disc during braking operation using ANSYS Multiphysics. The work uses the finite element analysis techniques to predict the temperature distribution on the full and ventilated brake disc and to identify the critical temperature of the rotor. The analysis also gives us, the heat flux distribution for the two discs.

  17. Regenerative braking device with rotationally mounted energy storage means

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1982-03-16

    A regenerative braking device for an automotive vehicle includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (30) and an output shaft (32), clutches (50, 56) and brakes (52, 58) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. In a second embodiment the clutches and brakes are dispensed with and the variable ratio transmission is connected directly across the input and output shafts. In both embodiments the rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft rotates faster or relative to the output shaft and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft rotates faster or relative to the input shaft.

  18. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  19. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  20. Terminal area considerations for an advanced CTOL transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sussman, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    Projected future conditions at large urban airports were used to identify design objectives for a long-haul, advanced transport airplane introduced for operation in the mid-1980s. Operating constraints associated with airport congestion and aircraft noise and emissions were of central interest. In addition, some of the interaction of these constraints with aircraft fuel usage were identified. The study allowed for advanced aircraft design features consistent with the future operating period. A baseline 200 passenger airplane design was modified to comply with design requirements imposed by terminal area constraints. Specific design changes included: (1) modification of engine arrangement; wing planform; (2) drag and spoiler surfaces; (3) secondary power systems; (4) brake and landing gear characteristics; and (5) the aircraft avionics. These changes, based on exploratory design estimates and allowing for technology advance, were judged to enable the airplane to: reduce wake turbulence; handle steeper descent paths with fewer limitation due to engine characteristics; reduce runway occupancy times; improve community noise contours; and reduce the total engine emittants deposited in the terminal area. The penalties to airplane performance and operating cost associated with improving the terminal area characteristics of the airplane were assessed. Finally, key research problems requiring solution in order to validate the assumed advanced airplane technology were identified.