Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft campaigns including

  1. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  2. The 2002 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.

    2003-04-01

    The final mission in the NASA and USAF sponsored Leonid Multi-Instrument Campaign consisted of two instrumented aircraft that flew from Madrid, Spain, to Omaha, Nebraska, putting 38 participating researchers from seven nationalities in a position to study both November 19, 2002, Leonid meteor storms under excellent observing conditions. Two storms were anticipated to result from Earth's encounter with dust ejected by comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle in 1767 and 1866 (peak at 04:00 and 10:40 UT). Planetary perturbations directed these dust trails in Earth's path. The mission was deployed out of Torrejon de Ardoz, near Madrid, where we were hosted by the Centro de Astrobiologia. In the night of November 19, both aircraft were above clouds en route to Omaha, with a radiant climbing from 35 to 67 degrees and the full Moon relatively low in the sky. All instruments worked as expected. Meteor storms were observed peaking at 04:06 and 10:47 UT, much as predicted. The presentations is a brief overview of experiments and first results, which include new insight into comet dust trail formation and dynamics, comet mass loss, and measurements of elemental abundances of cometary dust and of grain morphology.

  3. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  4. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  5. Insights into Submicron Aerosol Composition and Sources from the WINTER Aircraft Campaign Over the Eastern US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Campos, T. L.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The WINTER aircraft campaign was a recent field experiment to probe the sources and evolution of gas pollutants and aerosols in Northeast US urban and industrial plumes during the winter. A highly customized Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the NCAR C-130 to characterize submicron aerosol composition and evolution. Thirteen research flights were conducted covering a wide range of conditions, including rural, urban, and marine environments during day and night. Organic aerosol (OA) was a large component of the submicron aerosol in the boundary layer. The fraction of OA (fOA) was smaller (35-40%) than in recent US summer campaigns (~60-70%). Biomass burning was observed to be an important source of OA in the boundary layer, which is consistent with recent wintertime studies that show a substantial contribution of residential wood burning to the OA loadings. OA oxygenation (O/C ratio) shows a broad distribution with a substantial fraction of smaller O/C ratios when compared to previous summertime campaigns. Since measurements were rarely made very close to primary sources (i.e. directly above urban areas), this is consistent with oxidative chemistry being slower during winter. SOA formation and aging in the NYC plume was observed during several flights and compared with summertime results from LA (CalNex) and Mexico City (MILAGRO). Additionally, an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) capable of oxidizing ambient air up to several equivalent days of oxidation was deployed for the first time in an aircraft platform. The aerosol outflow of the OFR was sampled with the AMS to provide real-time snapshots of the potential for aerosol formation and aging. For example, a case study of a flight through the Ohio River valley showed evidence of oxidation of SO2 to sulfate. The measured sulfate enhancements were in good agreement with our OFR chemical model. OFR results for SOA will be discussed.

  6. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea-Ice Validation Program: Arctic2006 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a coordinated Arctic sea-ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was the second Alaskan Arctic field campaign for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea-ice products. The first campaign was completed in March 2003. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese Space Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea-ice products to be validated include sea-ice concentration, sea-ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The focus of this campaign was on the validation of snow depth on sea ice and sea-ice temperature. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the six flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements.

  7. Airborne measurements performed by a light aircraft during Pegasos spring 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Riikka; Krejci, Radovan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kangasluoma, Juha; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    To fully understand the chemical and physical processes in atmosphere, measuring only on-ground is not sufficient. To extend the measurements into the lower troposphere, the University of Helsinki has performed airborne campaigns since 2009. During spring 2013, a light aircraft was used to measure the aerosol size distribution over boreal forests as a part of the Pegasos 'Norhern Mission'. The aims of the measurements were to quantify the vertical profiles of aerosols up to the altitude of 3.5 km, to study the new particle formation in the lower troposphere, to measure the planetary boundary layer evolution, and to support the measurements performed by Zeppelin NT. We used a Cessna 172 light aircraft as a platform. An aerosol and gas inlet was mounted under the right wing and the sample air was conducted inside the cabin where most of the instruments were placed. The aerosol measurement instruments included a TSI 3776 condensation particle counter (CPC) with a cut-off size of 3 nm, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with a size range of 10-350 nm, and a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) connected with a TSI 3772 condensation particle counter. As the properties of the PSM measuring in airborne conditions were still under testing during the campaign, the setups of the PSM varied between the measurements. Other instruments on board included a Li-Cor Li-840 H2O/Co2-analyzer, a temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, and a GPS receiver. Total amount of 45 flights with 118 flight hours were performed between 24th April and 15th June 2013. The majority of the flights were flown around SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä, and when possible, the flights were synchronized with the Zeppelin flights. Simultaneously, an extensive field campaign to measure aerosol and gas properties was performed on-ground at SMEAR II station. A time series of airborne aerosol data of around 1.5 months allows us to construct statistical vertical profiles of aerosol size

  8. Coordinating Aircraft During Field Campaigns: Real Time Mission Monitor Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    RTMM has evolved into a powerful and easy to use application in support of planning, situational awareness and strategic decision-making during airborne field campaigns. NASA is very open to sharing these capabilities with any interested group through interagency collaborations in future field activities.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a...

  11. Biogenic Contributions to Summertime Arctic Aerosol: Observations of Aerosol Composition from the Netcare 2014 Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Brauner, R.; Herber, A. B.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is a complex and poorly studied aerosol environment, impacted by strong anthropogenic contributions during winter months and by regional sources in cleaner summer months. In order to gain a predictive understanding of the changing climate in this region, it is necessary to understand the balance between these two aerosol sources to clarify how aerosol might be altered by or contribute to climate change. We present results of vertically resolved, submicron aerosol composition from an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) during the NETCARE 2014 Polar6 aircraft campaign. The campaign was based in the high Arctic, at Resolute, NU (74°N), allowing measurements from 60 to 2900 meters over ice, open water and near the ice-edge. Concurrent measurements aboard the Polar6 included ultrafine and accumulation mode particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, trace gas concentrations and single particle composition. Aerosol vertical profiles measured by the AMS can be broadly characterized into two regimes corresponding to different meteorological conditions: the first with very low aerosol loading (<0.1 μg/m3) at low altitudes compared to that aloft and high numbers of nucleation mode particles, and the second with higher concentrations at lower levels. This second regime was associated with low concentrations of nucleation mode particles, and higher observable levels of methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from AMS measurements at low altitudes. MSA, produced during the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide, is a marker for the contribution of ocean-derived biogenic sulphur to particulate sulphur and could be identified and quantified using the high-resolution AMS. MSA to sulphate ratios were observed to increase towards lower altitudes, suggesting a contribution to aerosol loading from the ocean. In addition, we present measurements of aerosol neutralization and the characteristics of organic aerosol that relate to the growth of

  12. First SNPP Cal/Val Campaign: Satellite and Aircraft Sounding Retrieval Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Goldberg, Mitch; Liu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite ultraspectral infrared sensors provide key data records essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite Environmental Data Record (EDR) is retrieved from calibrated ultraspectral radiance so called Sensor Data Record (SDR). It is critical to understand the accuracy of retrieved EDRs, which mainly depends on SDR accuracy (e.g., instrument random noise and absolute accuracy), an ill-posed retrieval system, and radiative transfer model errors. There are few approaches to validate EDR products, e.g., some common methods are to rely on radiosonde measurements, ground-based measurements, and dedicated aircraft campaign providing in-situ measurements of atmosphere and/or employing similar ultraspectral interferometer sounders. Ultraspectral interferometer sounder aboard aircraft measures SDR to retrieve EDR, which is often used to validate satellite measurements of SDR and EDR. The SNPP Calibration/Validation Campaign was conducted during May 2013. The NASA high-altitude aircraft ER-2 that carried ultraspectral interferometer sounders such as the NASA Atmospheric Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) flew under the SNPP satellite that carries the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS). Here we inter-compare the EDRs produced with different retrieval algorithms from SDRs measured by the sensors from satellite and aircraft. The available dropsonde and radiosonde measurements together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis were also used to draw the conclusion from this experiment.

  13. Insights Into Precipitation Processes As Revealed By Profiling Radar, Disdrometer and Aircraft Observations During The MC3E Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangrande, S. E.; Toto, T.; Mishra, S.; Ryzhkov, A.; Bansemer, A.; Kumjian, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a collaborative campaign led by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. This campaign was held at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) in north-central Oklahoma, with the programs joining forces to deploy an extensive array of airborne, radiosonde and ground-based instrumentation towards an unprecedented set of deep convective environment and cloud property observations. An overarching motivation was to capitalize on the wealth of aircraft observations and new multi-frequency dual-polarization radars to provide insights for improving the treatments of cloud processes in convective models. This study considers a coupled aircraft, radar and surface disdrometer approach for identifying key cloud processes and linking those to possible radar-based microphysical fingerprints and/or cloud properties. Our emphasis is on the MC3E observations collected during aircraft spirals over the column of the ARM CF. We focus on those spirals associated with radar 'bright band' signatures and Doppler spectral anomalies observed within trailing stratifrom precipitation. Two cases are highlighted, one following a weaker convective event, and one following a stronger squall line. For each event, we investigate the usefulness of radar to inform on processes including aggregation and riming as viewed by the vertically-pointing ARM wind profiler (915 MHz) and cloud radar Doppler spectral observations (35 GHz). Matching dual-polarization radar signatures from nearby cm-wavelength radar are also consulted for complementary insights. For one event, the successive Citation II aircraft spirals through the melting layer and associated ground observations indicate a fortunate capture of the transition from a region of riming to one favoring aggregation

  14. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument During the DISCOVER-AQ Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Kaptchen, P. F.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Pickering, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a recently-developed passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases from aircraft. GeoTASO was developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator program and is a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey and the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) satellite missions. The instrument collects spectra of backscattered UV-visible radiation for the detection of tropospheric trace gases such as NO2, ozone, formaldehyde and SO2. GeoTASO flew on the NASA HU-25C Falcon aircraft during the 2013 (Texas) and 2014 (Colorado) DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns, making satellite-analog measurements of trace gases at a spatial resolution of approximately 500x500 m over urban areas, power plants and other industrial sources of pollution. We present the GeoTASO retrieval algorithms, trace gas measurement results, and validation comparisons with ground-based observations and other aircraft instruments during these campaigns.

  15. Aircraft emissions, plume chemistry, and alternative fuels: results from the APEX, AAFEX, and MDW-2009 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S.; Anderson, B.; Knighton, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We describe observations of aircraft emissions from the APEX, JETS-APEX2, APEX3, MDW-2009 and AAFEX campaigns. Direct emissions of HOx precursors are important for understanding exhaust plume chemistry due to their role in determining HOx concentrations. Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde are crucial HOx precursors and thus drivers of plume chemistry. At idle power, aircraft engine exhaust is unique among fossil fuel combustion sources due to the speciation of both NOx and VOCs. The impacts of emissions of HOx precursors on plume chemistry at low power are demonstrated with empirical observations of rapid NO to NO2 conversion, indicative of rapid HOx chemistry. The impacts of alternative fuels (derived from biomass, coal, and natural gas) on emissions of NOx, CO, and speciated VOCs are discussed.

  16. Preliminary results from the Sprites94 aircraft campaign: 2. Blue jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Sentman, D.; Osborne, D.; Hampton, D.; Heavner, M.

    1995-01-01

    Initial observations of a newly documented type of optical emission above thunderstorms are reported. 'Blue jets', or narrowly collimated beams of blue light that appear to propagate upwards from the tops of thunderstorms, were recorded on B/W and color video cameras for the first time during the Sprites94 aircraft campaign, June-July, 1994. The jets appear to propagate upward at speeds of about 100 km/s and reach terminal altitudes of 40-50 m. Fifty six examples were recorded during a 22 minute interval during a storm over Arkansas. We examine some possible mechanisms, but have no satisfactory theory of this phenomenon.

  17. Instrumentation and measurement strategy for the NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, Carsten; Trainer, Michael; de Gouw, Joost A.; Parrish, David D.; Fahey, David W.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Brock, Charles A.; Roberts, James M.; Brown, Steven S.; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Lack, Daniel; Law, Daniel; Hübler, Gerhard; Pollack, Iliana; Sjostedt, Steven; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Liao, Jin; Holloway, John; Peischl, Jeff; Nowak, John B.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Min, Kyung-Eun; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Graus, Martin G.; Richardson, Mathew; Markovic, Milos Z.; Wagner, Nick L.; Welti, André; Veres, Patrick R.; Edwards, Peter; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Gordon, Timothy; Dube, William P.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Brioude, Jerome; Ahmadov, Ravan; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Lin, Jack J.; Nenes, Athanasios; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Mao, Jingqiu; Hatch, Courtney D.

    2016-07-01

    Natural emissions of ozone-and-aerosol-precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are high in the southeastern US. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the southeastern US and summertime photochemistry is rapid. The NOAA-led SENEX (Southeast Nexus) aircraft campaign was one of the major components of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) and was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. Here we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign. The aircraft, its capabilities and standard measurements are described. The instrument payload is summarized including detection limits, accuracy, precision and time resolutions for all gas-and-aerosol phase instruments. The inter-comparisons of compounds measured with multiple instruments on the NOAA WP-3D are presented and were all within the stated uncertainties, except two of the three NO2 measurements. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the southeastern US as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction (Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville shale). We present one example flight on 16 June 2013, which was a daytime flight over the Atlanta region, where several crosswind transects of plumes from the city and nearby point sources, such as power plants, paper mills and landfills, were flown. The area around Atlanta has large biogenic isoprene emissions, which provided an excellent case for studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. In this example flight, chemistry in and outside the Atlanta plumes was observed for several hours after emission. The analysis of this flight showcases the strategies implemented to answer some of the main SENEX science questions.

  18. The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Butow, Steven J.; Fonda, Mark

    Two B707-type research aircraft of the 452^nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base were deployed to study the Leonid meteor storm of 1999 over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered an international team of 35 researchers observing conditions free of clouds and low altitude extinction at a prime location for viewing the storm. This 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign followed a similar effort in 1998, improving upon mission strategy and scope. As before, spectroscopic and imaging experiments targeted meteors and persistent trains, but also airglow, aurora, elves and sprites. The research aimed to address outstanding questions in astrobiology, planetary science, astronomy, and upper atmospheric research. In addition, USAF co-sponsored the mission to provide near real-time flux measurements for space weather awareness. First results are presented in these issues of Earth, Moon, and Planets in preparation for future missions that will target the exceptional Leonid returns of 2001 and 2002. An early review of the scientific achievements in the context of campaign objectives is given.

  19. Distribution of chemical compounds observed in the UTLS during the TACTS campaign using the HALO aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keber, Timo; Boenisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; Bozem, Heiko; Müller, Stefan; Zahn, Andreas; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2014-05-01

    The SPURT (Spurenstofftransport in der Tropopausenregion, trace gas transport in the tropopause region) campaign was the first systematic observational study of extratropical Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) seasonality. A clear seasonality of the composition in and air mass transport into the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) was found. In particular the composition of the LMS showed a sharp transition between July and October. In the course of the summer the LMS is flushed with very young air indicating air mass transport via the tropical pathway. For further investigation of these findings the TACTS (Transport and Composition in the UT/LMS) campaign was designed to improve our understanding of transport timescales, compositions and pathways in the UTLS region during the transition between mid-summer and fall. In order to cover the seasonal transition, TACTS was flown in conjunction with the ESMVal (Earth System Model Validation) mission in late August and September 2012 using the new German research aircraft HALO (The High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft). The TACTS payload with 13 different instruments measuring a wide range of chemical tracers with different lifetimes and different source-sink characteristics provides additional information compared to the SPURT dataset (e.g. very short-lived (VSLS) halocarbons). We will present a comparison between the SPURT dataset and the in-situ measurements during the TACTS campaign. The main focus will be on a comparison of the observed distribution of nitrous oxide (N2O), water vapour, ozone and mean age derived from sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) as function of equivalent latitude and potential temperature. Also comparison of Tracer-Tracer correlations will be shown. Furthermore we discuss the additional information on transport timescale in the LMS provided by the measurements of very short-lived (VSLS) halocarbons.

  20. Preliminary results from the Sprites94 aircraft campaign: 1. Red sprites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.; Wescott, E. M.; Osborne, D. L.; Hampton, D. L.; Heavner, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The dual jet aircraft Sprites94 campaign yielded the first color imagery and unambiguously triangulated physical dimensions and heights of upper atmospheric optical emissions associated with thunderstorm systems. Low light level television images, in both color and in black and white (B/W), obtained during the campaign show that there are at least two distinctively different types of optical emissions spanning part or all of the distance between the anvil tops and the ionosphere. The first of these emissions, dubbed 'sprites' after their elusive nature, are luminous structures of brief (less than 16 ms) duration with a red main body that typically spans the latitude range 50-90 km, and possessing lateral dimensions of 5-30 km. Faint bluish tendrils often extend downward from the main body of sprites, occasionally appearing to reach cloud tops near 20 km. In this paper the principal characteristics of red sprites as observed during the Sprites94 campaign are described. The second distinctive type of emissions, 'blue jets,' are described in a companion paper (Wescott et al., this issue).

  1. Comparison of Pandora spectrometer NO2 measurements to aircraft, satellite, and ground measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ Texas campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, L.; Lefer, B. L.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Janz, S. J.; Ren, X.; Luke, W. T.; Long, R.

    2014-12-01

    Pandora spectrometer measurements are compared to other remotely sensed and in-situ NO2 measurements in the Houston, TX region during the third deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign in September 2013. The network of freeways, petrochemical facilities, and related industries contribute to an ongoing pollution problem in the Houston region with the direct emissions of NOx and VOCs producing secondary pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. The goal of this work is to determine how the Pandora spectrometer column measurements of NO2 compare to in-situ derived and other remotely sensed columns, as well as with ground measurements during this deployment of DISCOVER-AQ. UC Berkeley's LIF measurements of NO2 aboard the NASA P-3B at each spiral site are used to create the aircraft derived profiles of NO2. The aircraft measured profiles include upwind, source, and receptor sites in the region, three times a day, at eight different locations. In addition, we investigate how the NO2 profile shape changes both spatially and temporally, with a focus on the difference between the boundary layer and free troposphere distributions. Pandora measurements are also compared to column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and ACAM aboard the B200 aircraft. Where available, surface measurements are included to supplement aircraft profiles and are correlated to the Pandora column measurements to determine the relationship between the total NO2 column and ground concentrations. Understanding of how these measurements compare spatially and temporally will aid both future Pandora deployments and satellite retrievals.

  2. Global distribution of halogenated tracers in the UTLS region during the TACTS/ESMVal campaigns using the HALO aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keber, Timo; Engel, Andreas; Boenisch, Harald; Sala, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    The Upper Troposphere / Lower Stratosphere (UTLS) represents an important region for the exchange of air between the stratosphere and the troposphere. Tropospheric gaseous compounds such as greenhouse gases and ozone depleting substances (ODS) are transported into the lower stratosphere on different pathways. Especially the two-way horizontal transport across the subtropical jet was further investigated during the "TACTS - Transport and Composition in the UT/LMS" campaign. We will present in-situ measurements of long-lived and very short-lived (VSLS) halocarbons and Sulfurhexafluoride (SF6) in the UTLS region. The measurements were performed with a sophisticated two channel in-situ instrument on board of the new German research aircraft for atmospheric science HALO (The High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft) during the two campaigns TACTS and "ESMVal - Earth System Modell Validation". The first channel is a gas chromatography (GC) system coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) which operates in negative chemical ionization mode. This GC/MS channel is able to measure halocarbons in ambient air with a time resolution of four minutes. For the measurement of SF6 and CFC-12 the second channel provides its own GC system with an electron capture detector (ECD). With the GC/ECD we achieve a time resolution of 60 seconds. The dataset includes 13 flights with a total of 120 flight hours and a coverage from 80° N to 65° S with a maximum altitude of 15 km. The measurements include halogenated hydrocarbons with a wide span of chemical lifetimes reaching from 100 years for CFC-12 to 26 days for CHBr3. On the basis of this distribution we can improve our understanding of transport timescales, compositions and pathways in the UTLS region. Furthermore we discuss the distribution in respect of atmospheric transport and lifetimes.

  3. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  4. Fluxes and concentrations of BVOCs from CABERNET aircraft campaign over California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Karl, T.; Guha, A.; Weber, R.; Jonsson, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft-scale fluxes of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) were measured over California by direct eddy covariance (vDEC approach) using PTR-MS onboard a CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft during June 2011. The CABERNET (California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects) project was focused on areas of California where BVOC emissions are expected to be high based on model estimates in order to improve the accuracy of modeled predictions for these important ozone and aerosol precursor compounds. The campaign succeeded in measuring emissions with the largest coverage with respect to biogenic sources, so far conducted, of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO. In addition, acetaldehyde was measured from rice fields in the delta region. BVOC fluxes were measured over a variety of ecosystems, but the major isoprene emissions observed were from oak woodlands. Isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions and shrublands were generally low. According to MEGAN and BEIGIS models, commonly used in California to predict emissions of BVOC, oak woodlands are dominant contributors of isoprene to the atmosphere. Therefore, isoprene emissions from California oak lands are important for atmospheric photochemistry, particularly at the interface with polluted air from Central Valley regions, whose advected air masses exceeded 80 ppbv of ozone on a sunny day.

  5. Airborne Formaldehyde Measurements Onboard the NASA DC-8 Aircraft During the 2006 INTEX-B Campaign by Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, A.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.

    2007-12-01

    The 2006 Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) Campaign was designed in part to quantify the outflow and evolution of gases and aerosols from aging plumes downwind of major tropical megacities such as Mexico City. Formaldehyde (CH2O), an important reactive gas phase intermediate, is photochemically produced as such plumes age and is involved in a number of important atmospheric processes, such as: hydrocarbon oxidation, ozone production, reactive hydrogen radical formation, and generation of carbon monoxide. This talk will present CH2O results acquired by a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer operated onboard the NASA DC-8 aircraft during this campaign. Airborne CH2O distributions and measurement- model comparisons over a wide geographic region of this study, including Mexico, the Gulf of Mexico, and vast regions over the Pacific Ocean during the second campaign phase, will be presented. Comparisons and contrasts with results from other major metropolitan areas will also be discussed.

  6. Mid tropospheric CO2 concentration observed from space (NOAA-10) and in situ (aircraft campaigns): a first qualitative comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrar, S.; Chédin, A.; Scott, N. A.; Armante, R.; Ciais, P.

    In a recent study, we have shown that atmospheric concentration variations (monthly, seasonal, annual) of CO2 may be retrieved from observations of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) polar meteorological satellite series, in addition to their main mission of measuring atmospheric temperature and moisture global fields. The method developed, a non-linear regression inverse model based on the Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), was applied to the platform NOAA-10, providing global monthly maps of mid-tropospheric mean CO2 concentration over the tropics (20N-20S), at the spatial resolution of 15 longitude by 15 latitude, for the period July 1987 to June 1991. A rough estimate of the method-induced standard deviation of these retrievals (resolution of 15x15 and one month) is of the order of 3.0 ppm (less than 1%). These results have been compared qualitatively (the time periods covered not being the same) to a number of in situ aircraft measurements of the CO2 concentration made approximately at the altitude ``seen'' by the satellite (peak of the response function at about 10 km). These in situ measurements include: properly equipped commercial airliners flying between Japan and Australia (1993-1999), scientific campaigns like TRACE-A PEMWEST A and B, PEMTROPICS A and B, ACE-1, etc. This comparison focuses on the concentration gradients (latitudinal, longitudinal, or along aircraft tracks), and proposes explanations linked to transport, convection, biomass burning, pollution, etc.

  7. Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over East Asia in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  8. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Schlager, H.; Law, K.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Schaefler, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Raut, J.; Marelle, L.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades, which has opened the Arctic Ocean to transit shipping and hydrocarbon extraction. These anthropogenic activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g. aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. However, large knowledge gaps exist how these emissions influence regional air pollution and Arctic climate. Here we present an overview on the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign, which primarily focused on studying emissions from emerging Arctic pollution sources. During the ACCESS campaign in July 2012, the DLR Falcon was based in Andenes, Norway, and was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species). During nine scientific flights, emissions from different ship types (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) were probed off the Norwegian Coast. The emissions from these increasing pollution sources showed distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition. To put the emerging local pollution within a broader context, we also measured sulfur-rich emissions originating from industrial activities on the Kola Peninsula and black carbon containing biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires. We will present an overview on the trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources, and discuss the influence of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  9. Atmospheric Aerosol Sampling with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in Alaska: Instrument Development, Payload Integration, and Measurement Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberie, S. R.; Saiet, E., II; Hatfield, M. C.; Cahill, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols remain one of biggest variables in understanding global climate. The number of feedback loops involved in aerosol processes lead to nonlinear behavior at the systems level, making confident modeling and prediction difficult. It is therefore important to ground-truth and supplement modeling efforts with rigorous empirical measurements. To this end, the Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) at the University of Alaska Fairbanks has developed a new cascade DRUM-style impactor to be mounted aboard a variety of unmanned aircraft and work in tandem with an optical particle counter for the routine collection of atmospheric aerosols. These UAS-based aerosol samplers will be employed for measurement campaigns in traditionally hazardous conditions such as volcanic plumes and over forest fires. Here we report on the development and laboratory calibration of the new instrument, the integration with UAS, and the vertical profiling campaigns being undertaken.

  10. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  11. Computational aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings including geometry nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binyu

    The objective of the present study is to show the ability of solving fluid structural interaction problems more realistically by including the geometric nonlinearity of the structure so that the aeroelastic analysis can be extended into the onset of flutter, or in the post flutter regime. A nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software is developed based on second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain is a pair of energetically conjugated tensors that can accommodate arbitrary large structural deformations and deflection, to study the flutter phenomenon. Since both of these tensors are objective tensors, i.e., the rigid-body motion has no contribution to their components, the movement of the body, including maneuvers and deformation, can be included. The nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software developed in this study is verified with ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and IDEAS for the linear static, nonlinear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear dynamic structural solutions. To solve the flow problems by Euler/Navier equations, the current nonlinear structural software is then embedded into ENSAERO, which is an aeroelastic analysis software package developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The coupling of the two software, both nonlinear in their own field, is achieved by domain decomposition method first proposed by Guruswamy. A procedure has been set for the aeroelastic analysis process. The aeroelastic analysis results have been obtained for fight wing in the transonic regime for various cases. The influence dynamic pressure on flutter has been checked for a range of Mach number. Even though the current analysis matches the general aeroelastic characteristic, the numerical value not match very well with previous studies and needs farther investigations. The flutter aeroelastic analysis results have also been plotted at several time points. The influences of the deforming wing geometry can be well seen

  12. An overview of reactive chlorine measurements during the WINTER C-130 aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Jaegle, L.; Haskins, J.; Shah, V.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Veres, P. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Sullivan, A.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, T. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign, the University of Washington Iodide-adduct high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) was deployed aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. Calibrated measurements of ClNO2, Cl2, HCl, N2O5, HNO3, HONO, among several other compounds, were made at 2Hz on all 13 research flights. ClNO2 and HCl were often the dominant forms of reactive gas-phase chlorine compounds, with ClNO2 routinely reaching >1.5 ppb in the polluted outflow of the eastern U.S. urban corridor. ClNO2 often becomes a substantial fraction (~30%) of NOz (NOz = NOy - NOx) in these plumes at night. Preliminary analyses suggests that ClNO2 production is most efficient in the polluted marine boundary layer, with yields approaching unity and the evolution of nighttime ClNO2 highly correlated with that of HNO3 and particulate nitrate. However, ClNO2 production was observed throughout the region and a significant source of reactive chlorine from coal-fired power plants was directly confirmed with measurements of HCl strongly correlated with SO2. In addition, there is some evidence that biomass or biofuel combustion is a source of reactive chlorine that can lead to ClNO2 production. Examples of the nocturnal and diel evolution of reactive chlorine species are given, and we show to our knowledge the first measurements of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) in the polluted mid-latitude marine boundary layer.

  13. Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, David; Mishra, Subhashree; Mace, Gerald G.

    2013-05-14

    This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected in synoptic cirrus during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS) field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The probability density function (PDF) of ice crystal number concentration (Ni) derived from high frequency (1 Hz) measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from -35°C to -62°C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10-20 L-1 to 200-1000 L-1, while the ice crystal number concentration shows a factor of 6-7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different insitu ice nucleation schemes. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature, by using either an observation based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical theory based spectrum with a relatively low (5%-10%) maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%), shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient and 250 um for the critical ice crystal size can produce good agreements between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of ice crystal number concentration and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    E. J. N. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, M. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, A. Hodgson, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, K. Longo, P. Artaxo and H. Coe Aerosols associated with large scale Biomass Burning (BB) impact upon weather and climate at global and regional scales. However, quantitative evaluation of these effects is impeded by i) a limited understanding of BB processes and ii) a lack of quantitative knowledge of precise BB aerosol physiochemical characteristics, thus resulting in large model uncertainties. One region where these uncertainties are especially manifest is the Amazon Basin (AzB). Intense and widespread burning results in high atmospheric loadings of BB aerosol, which over the course of the dry season develops into a so-called 'regional haze'. This cloaks the AzB in a complex and inhomogeneous mix of BB emissions, characterized by large Aerosol Optical Depths (>1), low visibility and poor air quality. This haze has a substantial impact on the radiation budget over the AzB through direct scattering/absorption and indirect cloud microphysics effects. In order to best constrain the model uncertainties, and given the scale of the AzB earth-atmosphere system, an intensive observation campaign by multiple international institutions was instigated in the South American Biomass Burning Analyses (SAMBBA) project. The findings reported here are from the SAMBBA aircraft campaign, conducted during the 2012 dry season using the large UK research aircraft (FAAM BAe-146). The dense (high AOD), persistent haze expected throughout the campaign was only present for the first five or so days, due to removal via washout/transportation associated with large storms. For the remaining period, a haze was present but much reduced in area and intensity (mostly AOD's <0.6) and far more localized and spatially heterogeneous. Across the three weeks, multiple burns with differing characteristics, origins and processes were sampled, giving rise to haze from various sources, such as rainforest in

  17. The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Butow, Steven J.; Fonda, Mark; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Leonid meteor storm of 1999 was observed from two B707-type research aircraft by a team of 35 scientists of seven nationalities over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18, 1999. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered the best possible observing conditions, free of clouds and at a prime location for viewing the storm. The 1999 mission followed a similar effort in 1998, improving upon mission strategy and scope. As before, spectroscopic and imaging experiments targeted meteors and persistent trains, but also airglow, aurora, elves and sprites. The research aimed to address outstanding questions in Planetary Science, Astronomy, Astrobiology and upper atmospheric research, including Aeronornie. In addition, near real-time flux measurements contributed to a USAF sponsored program for space weather awareness. An overview of the first results is given, which are discussed in preparation for future missions.

  18. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  19. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  20. Characteristics of VLF and ELF sferics associated with TLEs observed in a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Yanagi, Y.; Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    In the period of a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign supported by NHK Cosmic Shore project, June 27 to July 10, 2011, we succeeded in capturing images for over a hundred of TLEs, including sprites, elves and blue jets. In order to investigate characteristics of lightning discharges producing TLEs, we installed a VLF observation system at Yucca Ridge Field Station, CO, and recorded sferics waveforms continuously through out the campaign period. The VLF observation system is composed of two horizontal magnetic loop antennas and a vertical electric dipole antenna, receiver, PC and GPS clock. The higher cutoff and sampling frequencies are 50 kHz and 80 kHz, respectively. In addition, we make use of waveform data recorded by the global ELF observation network (GEON) operated continuously by Hokkaido University. Based on these VLF and ELF waveform data, we can estimate charge moment changes (CMCs). Using not only the CMC values but also the precise location and peak currents of parent lightning discharges provided by existing lightning geolocation network, we can clarify the possible mechanisms, which cause a large variation in structures of TLEs. In this presentation, we introduce the availability of the sferics data recorded by VLF and ELF receivers for the observed TLEs and report the initial results of data analysis, namely, the relationship between the spatio-temporal structures of the representative TLEs observed in the campaign and the characteristics of parent lightning discharges, such as CMC values and associated pulse trains due to the intra-cloud discharge.

  1. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  2. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  3. Development of a High-Resolution H3O+ Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Gas-phase Hydrocarbons and its Application During the 2015 SONGNEX Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stark, H.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (ToF-CIMS) using H3O+ reagent ion chemistry (PTR-MS) are a relatively new technique in detection of gas-phase hydrocarbons, and recent improvements in instrument sensitivity, mass resolution, and ease of field deployment have expanded their use in atmospheric chemistry. The comparatively low-energy H3O+ ionization technique is ideal for measuring complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, and, compared to conventional quadrupole PTRMS, the newest generation of ToF-CIMS measure many more species simultaneously and with a sensitivity that is as high as a quadrupole PTR-MS. We describe here the development of a commercially available ToF CIMS into an H3O+CIMS suitable for deployment on aircraft, and its application during an aircraft campaign studying emissions from oil and natural gas extraction industry. We provide an overview of instrument development and specifications, including design, characterization, and field operation. We then discuss data processing and interpretation. First, we investigate determination of intensities of poorly resolved peaks. The mass resolution of the present instrument (m/Δm ~4500) enables separate analysis of many isobaric peaks, but peaks are also frequently not fully resolved. Using results from laboratory tests, we quantify how the accuracy can be limited by the overlap in neighboring peaks, and compare to theoretical predictions from literature. We then briefly describe our method for quality assurance of reported compounds, and correction for background and humidity effects. Finally, we present preliminary results from the first field deployment of this instrument during the Spring 2015 SONGNEX aircraft campaign. This campaign sampled emissions from oil and natural gas extraction regions and associated infrastructure in the Western and Central United States. We will highlight results that illustrate (1) new scientific capability from improved mass resolution, which

  4. An Overview of the NASA Spring/Summer 2008 Arctic Campaign - ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Clarke, Antony; Crawford, James H.; Dibbs, Jack; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Maring, Hal; Russell, Philip B.; Singh, Hanwant B.

    2008-01-01

    ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) is a major NASA led airborne field campaign being performed in the spring and summer of 2008 at high latitudes (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas/). ARCTAS is a part of the International Polar Year program and its activities are closely coordinated with multiple U. S. (NOAA, DOE), Canadian, and European partners. Observational data from an ensemble of aircraft, surface, and satellite sensors are closely integrated with models of atmospheric chemistry and transport in this experiment. Principal NASA airborne platforms include a DC-8 for detailed atmospheric composition studies, a P-3 that focuses on aerosols and radiation, and a B-200 that is dedicated to remote sensing of aerosols. Satellite validation is a central activity in all these platforms and is mainly focused on CALIPSO, Aura, and Aqua satellites. Major ARCTAS themes are: (1) Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury; (2) Boreal forest fires and their implications for atmospheric composition and climate; (3) Aerosol radiative forcing from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations; and (4) Chemical processes with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens. The spring deployment (April) is presently underway and is targeting plumes of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution and dust from Asia and North America, arctic haze, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and ozone photochemistry involving HOx and halogen radicals. The summer deployment (July) will target boreal forest fires and summertime photochemistry. The ARCTAS mission is providing a critical link to enhance the value of NASA satellite observations for Earth science. In this talk we will discuss the implementation of this campaign and some preliminary results.

  5. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  6. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN.

    SciTech Connect

    BERKOWITZ,C.M.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; DORAN,J.C.; FAST,J.D.

    2002-01-13

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. 3-D visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the application of interactive 3-D visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the ECMWF ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and forecast wind field resolution. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (three to seven days before take-off).

  8. Particle pH Inferred from Aircraft Data: Validation and Geographical, Vertical and Seasonal Characteristics with Case Studies from the WINTER Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Thornton, J. A.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Dibb, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Particle pH is a critical but poorly understood factor that affects many aerosol processes and properties, including aerosol composition, concentrations, geochemical cycles, and aerosol toxicity. Here we assess the prediction of pH from aircraft data, report pH as a function of geographical location and altitude for different seasons, and investigate causes for variability in pH-dependent aerosol components, such as nitrate. pH is generally predicted with a thermodynamic model since it is difficult to measure directly. We used ISORROPIA-II with particle and selected gas inorganic species, along with RH and T as inputs to calculate aerosol pH. Data are from three aircraft studies: WINTER (2015 Feb-Mar) and NEAQS (2004 July-Aug), both over the northeastern US, and SENEX (2013 Jun-July) over the southeastern US. pH was validated by comparing measured and predicted partitioning of ammonia and nitric acid. The effect of inevitable sample heating associated with aircraft measurements was minimal since partitioning of measured semi-volatile components based on ambient T and RH were accurately predicted. Overall, pH determined from WINTER, NEAQS, and SENEX for altitudes up to 5000 m ranged between -0.4 and 1.9 (10-90% percentiles, mean±SD=0.9±1.0), similar to what we have observed at ground-based sites in the southeastern US. Coupling between water vapor concentrations, temperature, particle composition, liquid water content and particle pH on partitioning of nitric acid-nitrate observed during the WINTER campaign will be investigated.

  9. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  10. Sources, Chemistry, and Transport of Pollutants over the Eastern United States During the WINTER 2015 Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegle, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Haskins, J.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Veres, P. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Sullivan, A.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Bililign, S.; Campos, T. L.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wolfe, G. M.; DiGangi, J. P.; Hanisco, T. F.; Leen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emission, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign used the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft to sample the composition of the lower troposphere over the Eastern United States between February 2 and March 13, 2015. The main scientific objectives of WINTER were to: 1) Characterize the chemical transformations of wintertime emissions via multiphase, nocturnal, and photochemical processes, 2) Assess the dominant mechanisms of secondary aerosol formation and quantify the geographical distribution of inorganic and organic aerosol types during winter, 3) Constrain wintertime emission inventories of key pollutants and characterize their export over the North Atlantic. Here, we will present an overview of the WINTER observations obtained during 13 flights near major metropolitan areas (New York City, Washington D.C.-Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Atlanta), along the Ohio River Valley, and in aged pollution plumes over the Atlantic Ocean. We will analyze the WINTER observations using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in a nested-grid configuration with a 25 km horizontal resolution over N. America, focusing in particular on evaluating current anthropogenic emission inventories and the wintertime budget of reactive nitrogen species.

  11. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturer, date of manufacture, model, and serial number. If the item is a vessel, it must include the type... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel....

  12. Navier-Stokes computations about complex configurations including a complete F-16 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Flores, Jolen; Chaderjian, Neal M.; Kaynak, Unver

    1990-01-01

    Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) code solutions gathered from the literature for three-dimensional geometries, including two different wings and a complete F-16A aircraft, are presently discussed. The TNS codes use a zonal grid approach whose number of zones vary from four to 54. The Euler equations are solved in zones away from no-slip surfaces, and the thin-layer TNS equations are solved in all zones immediately adjacent to no-slip surfaces. In the case of 'corner' zones possessing no-slip boundary conditions on two different surfaces, a thin-layer formulation along both directions is employed. Employing these features, a zonal construction with the requisite set of boundary conditions can be devised for almost any application.

  13. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  14. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  15. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  16. 41 CFR 102-33.290 - What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft? 102-33.290 Section 102-33.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.290 - What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft? 102-33.290 Section 102-33.290 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY...

  18. Analytical model for tilting proprotor aircraft dynamics, including blade torsion and coupled bending modes, and conversion mode operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for proprotor aircraft dynamics. The rotor model includes coupled flap-lag bending modes, and blade torsion degrees of freedom. The rotor aerodynamic model is generally valid for high and low inflow, and for axial and nonaxial flight. For the rotor support, a cantilever wing is considered; incorporation of a more general support with this rotor model will be a straight-forward matter.

  19. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

  20. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-02-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  1. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-08-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  2. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  3. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  4. Direct measurements of HONO and NO2 by tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy; Results from two field campaigns sampling aircraft exhaust and ambient urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the main oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. However, gaseous HONO has historically proven difficult to measure accurately and to date there is no standard technique. We describe a new instrument capable of high-frequency measurements of HONO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mixing ratios by tunable infrared differential absorption spectrometry. Mid-infrared light from two continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers traverse a 210 m path through a multi-pass astigmatic cell at reduced pressures for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). We achieve an absorbance precision less than 3×10-6 Hz-1 in one second, which translates to detection limits (S/N=3) of 300 and 30 ppt for HONO and NO2, respectively, in one second. Both lasers and the detector are thermoelectrically cooled, facilitating long-term unattended measurements. We also report preliminary results from two field campaigns; the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment (AAFEX) and the Study of Houston Air Radical Precursors (SHARP). At AAFEX, HONO emission ratios relative to CO2 and NOy observed in commercial aircraft exhaust are larger than in most other combustion sources and likely to play a significant role in regional HOx chemistry. Preliminary analysis from the SHARP campaign shows good agreement in HONO and NO2 levels between various measurement techniques.

  5. Investigation of the Ejection and Physical Properties of Large Comet Dust Grains and Their Interaction with Earth's Atmosphere During the 2002 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Russell, R. W.; Yano, H.; Plane, J. M. C.; Murray, I. S.; Taylor, M. J.; Borovicka, J.; Kuenzi, K.; Smith, W. H.; Rairden, R. L.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Betlem, H.; Martinez-Frias, J.

    2003-05-01

    In November 2002, the Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign had its final mission to explore the Leonid meteor storms for what they can tell us about comets, meteors, and how they may have contributed prebiotic compounds to the origin of life. The mission provided an airborne platform to 36 researchers of seven countries. The storms were caused by Earth's crossing of the 1767 and 1866 dust ejecta of comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle. The Center for Astrobiology (CAB) hosted the mission at Torrejon AB in Spain. In a westward flight back to Omaha, Nebraska, the aircraft encountered the first storm at 04:06 UT on Nov. 19, with rates of ZHR 2,300 /hr, and the second peak at 10:47 UT, when rates increased again to ZHR 2,600 /hr. The wealth of faint meteors made the showers difficult to observe from the ground. The narrow and slightly asymmetric flux profiles add to a three-dimensional map of the dust density in 55P/Tempel-Tuttle's one-revolution dust trail. Meteoroid composition and morphology were measured for numerous individual particles. The first near-IR spectra of meteors were recorded. High frame-rate imaging confirmed the formation of a shock-like feature in bright Leonids, adding to a new understanding of the physical conditions in the rarefied flow of meteors. The interaction of meteors with the atmosphere was investigated at optical and sub-mm wavelengths. Optical and mid-IR emissions of persistent trains were recorded. We will briefly review these first results and their implication for comet dust ejection and evolution in the interplanetary and Earth environment. The 2002 Leonid MAC mission was supported by NASA's Astrobiology and Planetary Astronomy programs, by ESA, and by CAB. NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory was operated by NASA DFRC and the NKC-135 "FISTA" aircraft by Edwards AFB. Leonid MAC was organized by the SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center.

  6. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING,...

  7. Relationship between structures of sprite streamers and inhomogeneity of preceding halos captured by high-speed camera during a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Kudo, T.; Shima, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between diffuse glows such as elves and sprite halos and subsequent discrete structure of sprite streamers is considered to be one of the keys to solve the mechanism causing a large variation of sprite structures. However, it's not easy to image at high frame rate both the diffuse and discrete structures simultaneously, since it requires high sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. To capture the real spatial structure of TLEs without influence of atmospheric absorption, spacecraft would be the best solution. However, since the imaging observation from space is mostly made for TLEs appeared near the horizon, the range from spacecraft to TLEs becomes large, such as few thousand km, resulting in low spatial resolution. The aircraft can approach thunderstorm up to a few hundred km or less and can carry heavy high-speed cameras with huge size data memories. In the period of June 27 - July 10, 2011, a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign, in support of NHK Cosmic Shore project, was carried with two jet airplanes under collaboration between NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and universities. On 8 nights out of 16 standing-by, the jets took off from the airport near Denver, Colorado, and an airborne high speed camera captured over 40 TLE events at a frame rate of 8300 /sec. Here we introduce the time development of sprite streamers and the both large and fine structures of preceding halos showing inhomogeneity, suggesting a mechanism to cause the large variation of sprite types, such as crown like sprites.

  8. A simplified flight-test method for determining aircraft takeoff performance that includes effects of pilot technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method for evaluating aircraft takeoff performance from brake release to air-phase height that requires fewer tests than conventionally required is evaluated with data for the XB-70 airplane. The method defines the effects of pilot technique on takeoff performance quantitatively, including the decrease in acceleration from drag due to lift. For a given takeoff weight and throttle setting, a single takeoff provides enough data to establish a standardizing relationship for the distance from brake release to any point where velocity is appropriate to rotation. The lower rotation rates penalized takeoff performance in terms of ground roll distance; the lowest observed rotation rate required a ground roll distance that was 19 percent longer than the highest. Rotations at the minimum rate also resulted in lift-off velocities that were approximately 5 knots lower than the highest rotation rate at any given lift-off distance.

  9. Evaluating ammonia (NH3) predictions in the NOAA National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) using in situ aircraft, ground-level, and satellite measurements from the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, William H.; Bray, Casey D.; Aneja, Viney P.; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is responsible for forecasting elevated levels of air pollution within the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC). The current research uses measurements gathered in the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado field campaign and the concurrent Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) to test performance of the NAQFC CMAQ modeling framework for predicting NH3. The DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE field campaigns were carried out in July and August 2014 in Northeast Colorado. Model predictions are compared with measurements of NH3 gas concentrations and the NH4+ component of fine particulate matter concentrations measured directly by the aircraft in flight. We also compare CMAQ predictions with NH3 measurements from ground-based monitors within the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado geographic domain, and from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Aura satellite. In situ aircraft measurements carried out in July and August of 2014 suggest that the NAQFC CMAQ model underestimated the NH3 concentration in Northeastern Colorado by a factor of ∼2.7 (NMB = -63%). Ground-level monitors also produced a similar result. Average satellite-retrieved NH3 levels also exceeded model predictions by a factor of 1.5-4.2 (NMB = -33 to -76%). The underestimation of NH3 was not accompanied by an underestimation of particulate NH4+, which is further controlled by factors including acid availability, removal rate, and gas-particle partition. The average measured concentration of NH4+ was close to the average predication (NMB = +18%). Seasonal patterns measured at an AMoN site in the region suggest that the underestimation of NH3 is not due to the seasonal allocation of emissions, but to the overall annual emissions estimate. The underestimation of NH3 varied across the study domain, with the largest differences occurring in a region of intensive agriculture near Greeley, Colorado, and in the vicinity of Denver. The

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  13. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  14. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft...) Any supplemental information (such as geographical area and population served, number of...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft...) Any supplemental information (such as geographical area and population served, number of...

  17. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  18. Practical ranges of loudness levels of various types of environmental noise, including traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise.

    PubMed

    Salomons, Erik M; Janssen, Sabine A

    2011-06-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  19. Effects of flight instrumentation errors on the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives. [including Monte Carlo analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. H.; Hodge, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    An error analysis program based on an output error estimation method was used to evaluate the effects of sensor and instrumentation errors on the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed using simulated flight data for a high performance military aircraft, a large commercial transport, and a small general aviation aircraft for typical cruise flight conditions. The effects of varying the input sequence and combinations of the sensor and instrumentation errors were investigated. The results indicate that both the parameter accuracy and the corresponding measurement trajectory fit error can be significantly affected. Of the error sources considered, instrumentation lags and control measurement errors were found to be most significant.

  20. 41 CFR 102-33.290 - What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other disclaimers... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government...

  1. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  2. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43..., PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. D Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of... general condition, apparent and obvious defects, and insecurity of attachment. (d) Each person...

  3. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43..., PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. D Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of... general condition, apparent and obvious defects, and insecurity of attachment. (d) Each person...

  4. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  5. Student Parabolic Flight Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentse, N. S. M.; Ockels, W. J.

    2002-01-01

    After the successful Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns held in 1994 and 1995, the European Space Agency resumed their organisation of parabolic flight campaigns, dedicated to students of all ESA member states on an annual basis. The Student Parabolic Flight Campaigns are in order to promote microgravity research among students, tomorrow's scientists, since students can bring new ideas and initiatives to the space industry. Already four parabolic flight campaigns have flown and the 2002 student parabolic flight campaign has just flown in September. Thirty experiments are selected to fly in each campaign using the criteria of originality, demonstration of zero G, technical complexity and outreach performed by the team. Each experiment team consists of four university students. This is the chance for students to have the real weightlessness experience on board of the A300 ZERO-G aircraft. In addition, for one or two of the very best student experiments from each campaign, there will be the possibility to re-fly themselves and their experiment on ESA's Professional Parabolic Flight Campaigns. Eventually, one student experiment will be flying to the International Space Station. Conclusively, students' experiments can get fundamentally new and exciting results!

  6. Evaluation of GOME satellite measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO using regional data from aircraft campaigns in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. V.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Sturges, E. D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B. P.

    2004-12-01

    We compare tropospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument with in situ measurements over eastern Texas and the southeast United States. On average, the GOME and in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns are consistent despite pronounced sampling differences. The geometric mean in situ to GOME ratios over the campaign are 1.08 for NO2 and 0.84 for HCHO, with corresponding geometric standard deviations of 1.27 and 1.38. The correlation of the observed column spatial variability between the two NO2 measurement sets is encouraging before (r2 = 0.54, n = 18) and after (r2 = 0.67, n = 18) correcting for a sampling bias. Mean relative vertical profiles of HCHO and NO2 calculated with a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-CHEM) and used in the GOME retrieval are highly consistent with in situ measurements; differences would affect the retrieved NO2 and HCHO columns by a few percent. GOME HCHO columns over eastern Texas include contributions from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions but are dominated by biogenic VOC emissions at the regional scale in August-September when HCHO columns are within 20% of those over the southeastern United States. In situ measurements show that during summer the lowest 1500 m (the lower mixed layer) contains 75% of the tropospheric NO2 column over Houston and Nashville, and 60% of the HCHO column over Houston. Future validation of space-based measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns over polluted regions should include coincident in situ measurements that span the entire satellite footprint, especially in the heterogeneous mixed layer.

  7. Evaluation of GOME Satellite Measurements of Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO using Regional Data from Aircraft Campaigns in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. V.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T.B.; Nicks, D.K.; Chance, K.; Kurosu, T.P.; Jacob, D.J.; Sturges, E.D.; Fried, A.; Wert, B.P.

    2004-01-01

    We compare tropospheric measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde (HCHO) from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite instrument with in situ measurements over eastern Texas and the southeast United States. On aveiage, the GOME and in situ measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns are consistent despite pronounced sampling differences. The geometric mean in situ to GOME ratios over the campaign are 1.08 for NO2 and 0.84 for HCHO, with corresponding geometric standard deviations of 1.27 and 1.38. The correlation of the observed column spatial variability between the two NO2 measurement sets is encouraging before (r2 = 0.54, n = 18) and after (r2 = 0.67, n = 18) correcting for a sampling bias. Mean relative vertical profiles of HCHO and NO2 calculated with a global three-dimensional model (GEOS-CHEM) and used in the GOME retrieval are highly consistent with in situ measurements; differences would affect the retrieved NO2 and HCHO columns by a few percent. GOME HCHO columns over eastern Texas include contributions from anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions but are dominated by biogenic VOC emissions at the regional scale in August-September when HCHO columns are within 20% of those over the southeastern United States. In situ measurements show that during summer the lowest 1500 m (the lower mixed layer) contains 75% of the tropospheric NO2 column over Houston and Nashville, and 60% of the HCHO column over Houston. Future validation of space-based measurements of tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns over polluted regions should include coincident in situ measurements that span the entire satellite footprint, especially in the heterogeneous mixed layer.

  8. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  9. 11 CFR 113.5 - Restrictions on use of campaign funds for flights on noncommercial aircraft (2 U.S.C. 439a(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(iv); (2) Noncommercial travel as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), and the... on a comparable aircraft of comparable size, as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(c), is paid by the... date the flight began, except as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(b)(3); or (3) Provided by the...

  10. 11 CFR 113.5 - Restrictions on use of campaign funds for flights on noncommercial aircraft (2 U.S.C. 439a(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(iv); (2) Noncommercial travel as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), and the... on a comparable aircraft of comparable size, as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(c), is paid by the... date the flight began, except as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(b)(3); or (3) Provided by the...

  11. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  12. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  13. DIAL with heterodyne detection including speckle noise: Aircraft/shuttle measurements of O3, H2O, and NH3 with pulsed tunable CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Staton, L. D.; Bair, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Atmospheric trace constituent measurements with higher vertical resolution than attainable with passive radiometers are discussed. Infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which depends on Mie scattering from aerosols, has special advantages for tropospheric and lower stratospheric applications and has great potential importance for measurements from shuttle and aircraft. Differential absorption lidar data reduction involves comparing large amplitude signals which have small differences. The accuracy of the trace constituent concentration inferred from DIAL measurements depends strongly on the errors in determining the amplitude of the signals. Thus, the commonly used SNR expression (signal divided by noise in the absence of signal) is not adequate to describe DIAL measurement accuracy and must be replaced by an expression which includes the random coherent (speckle) noise within the signal. A comprehensive DIAL computer algorithm is modified to include heterodyne detection and speckle noise. Examples for monitoring vertical distributions of O3, H2O, and NH3 using a ground-, aircraft-, or shuttle-based pulsed tunable CO2 laser DIAL system are given.

  14. Constraining CO2 tower measurements in an inhomogeneous area with anthropogenic emissions using a combination of car-mounted instrument campaigns, aircraft profiles, transport modeling and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA CO2 observation network in Oregon has been enhanced by 3 new towers in 2012. The tallest tower in the network (270 m), located in Silverton in the Willamette Valley is affected by anthropogenic emissions from Oregon's busiest traffic routes and urban centers. In summer 2012, we conducted a measurement campaign using a car-mounted PICARRO CRDS CO2/CO analyzer. Over 3 days, the instrument was driven over 1000 miles throughout the northwestern portion of Oregon measuring the CO/ CO2 ratios on main highways, back roads in forests, agricultural sites, and Oregon's biggest urban centers. By geospatial analyses we obtained ratios of CO/ CO2 over distinct land cover types divided into 10 classes represented in the study area. Using the coupled WRF-STILT transport model we calculated the footprints of nearby CO/ CO2 observation towers for the corresponding days of mobile road measurements. Spatiotemporally assigned source areas in combination with the land use classification were then used to calculate specific ratios of CO (anthropogenic origins) and CO2 to separate the anthropogenic portion of CO2 from the mixing ratio time series measured at the tower in Silverton. The WRF modeled boundary layer heights used in out study showed some differences compared to the boundary layer heights derived from profile data of wind, temperature, and humidity measured with an airplane in August, September, and November 2012, repeatedly over 5 tower locations. A Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN) was used to correct the boundary layer height calculated with WRF with a temporal resolution of 20 minutes and a horizontal resolution of 4 km. For that purpose the BRANN was trained using height profile data from the flight campaigns and spatiotemporally corresponding meteorological data from WRF. Our analyses provide information needed to run inverse modeling of CO2 exchange in an area that is affected by sources that cannot easily be considered by biospheric models

  15. Comparison of the chemical evolution and characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Extensive investigations of boreal fire plume evolution were undertaken during ARCTAS-B, where four distinct fire plumes that were intercepted by the aircraft over a range of down-wind distances (0.1 to 16 hr transport times) were studied in detail. Based on these analyses, there was no evidence for ozone production and a box model simulation of the data confirmed that net ozone production was slow (on average 1 ppbv h-1 in the first 3 h and much lower afterwards) due to limited NOx. Peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations (PAN) increased with plume age and the box model estimated an average production rate of ~80 pptv h-1 in the first 3 h. Like ozone, there was also no evidence for net secondary inorganic or organic aerosol formation. There was no apparent increase in aerosol mass concentrations in the boreal fire plumes due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation; however, there were indications of chemical processing of the organic aerosols. In addition to the detailed studies of boreal fire plume evolution, about 500 smoke plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft were segregated by fire source region. The normalized excess mixing ratios (i.e. ΔX/ΔCO) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone, PAN) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared.

  16. Multimedia campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Research Medical Center is part of one of the nation's largest health systems, Health Corporation of America, with hospitals across the South and Midwest. Research Medical Center recently launched a multimedia campaign featuring real doctors and touting the tagline, "These are the doctors you want." Following the October 2006 launch of the campaign, the hospital embarked on a regional publicity effort to promote the local doctors featured in the campaign. PMID:17361792

  17. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  18. Enhanced Sulfur dioxide in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere Uplifted by Deep Convection and Cyclones - Results from Recent Aircraft Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlager, H.

    2014-12-01

    Aircraft observations from recent field studies are reported of pollution layers in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over Europe, the Arctic and the Arabic Sea with enhanced sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios originating from emissions in East Asia uplifted by deep convection and frontal systems. Elevated SO2 emissions from southern East Asia (India, southern China) were detected in the outflow of the Asian Summer Monsoon over the Arabic Sea. Transport and dispersion model simulations and satellite imagery indicate that the polluted air was uplifted by convection close to the Himalayas and in the Gulf of Bengal. The vertical transport of emissions from northern East Asia (Japan, northern China, Korea) occurred in warm conveyor belts associated with cyclones in the northwestern Pacific. The pollution layers observed extent from about 8 km altitude up to 3 km above the thermal tropopause. Simultaneous SO2 and aerosol measurements indicate efficient SO2 conversion to sulfate aerosol during the horizontal transport in the tropopause region to Europe and the Arctic. Implications of the enhanced SO2 and sulfate aerosol in the tropopause region will be discussed.

  19. Effects of Ageing on Aerosol Composition and Size Distribution Based on Regional Scale Aircraft Observations During the 2002 and 2004 ICARTT Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, L.; Daum, P.; Springston, S.; Lee, Y.; Wang, J.

    2005-12-01

    In the summers of 2002 and 2004 the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample aerosols and aerosol precursors in the Midwest and Eastern U.S. We present data on the spatial distribution of aerosols and their physical and chemical properties. Most of the sub-micron size aerosol consists of organics and sulfate. Only a minor fraction of the organic aerosol can be attributed to primary emissions. Formation of secondary organic aerosol is observed as an increase in the organic to CO ratio as a function of photochemical age. Organic aerosol is measured using an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). We present comparisons between the AMS and a PCASP, DMA, and nephelometer - as this bears upon our conclusions. Production of aerosol sulfate can likewise be observed as a change in the sulfate to CO ratio but is more easily studied by following the time evolution of a point source plume such as was done for the Homer and Keystone power plants, located east of Pittsburgh. Concomitant with the addition of aerosol mass are changes in size spectra and optical properties.

  20. Pride Campaign Overcomes Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    A San Jose high school's campaign to develop student pride in the school and its appearance includes publicity measures, painting garbage cans in school colors, and cafeteria supervision. Results in diminishing acts of vandalism have been encouraging. (MJL)

  1. Stellar and Planetary Properties of K2 Campaign 1 Candidates and Validation of 17 Planets, Including a Planet Receiving Earth-like Insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Johnson, John Asher; Hogg, David W.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Mann, Andrew W.

    2015-08-01

    The extended Kepler mission, K2, is now providing photometry of new fields every three months in a search for transiting planets. In a recent study, Foreman-Mackey and collaborators presented a list of 36 planet candidates orbiting 31 stars in K2 Campaign 1. In this contribution, we present stellar and planetary properties for all systems. We combine ground-based seeing-limited survey data and adaptive optics imaging with an automated transit analysis scheme to validate 21 candidates as planets, 17 for the first time, and identify 6 candidates as likely false positives. Of particular interest is K2-18 (EPIC 201912552), a bright (K = 8.9) M2.8 dwarf hosting a 2.23 ± 0.25 {R}\\oplus planet with {T}{eq}=272+/- 15 K and an orbital period of 33 days. We also present two new open-source software packages which enable this analysis. The first, isochrones, is a flexible tool for fitting theoretical stellar models to observational data to determine stellar properties using a nested sampling scheme to capture the multimodal nature of the posterior distributions of the physical parameters of stars that may plausibly be evolved. The second is vespa, a new general-purpose procedure to calculate false positive probabilities and statistically validate transiting exoplanets.

  2. Aerosol properties computed from aircraft-based observations during the ACE- Asia campaign. 2; A case study of lidar ratio closure and aerosol radiative effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzmanoski, Maja; Box, M. A.; Schmid, B.; Box, G. P.; Wang, J.; Russell, P. B.; Bates, D.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Flagan, R. C.

    2005-01-01

    For a vertical profile with three distinct layers (marine boundary, pollution and dust), observed during the ACE-Asia campaign, we carried out a comparison between the modeled lidar ratio vertical profile and that obtained from collocated airborne NASA AATS-14 sunphotometer and shipborne Micro-Pulse Lidar (MPL) measurements. Vertically resolved lidar ratio was calculated from two size distribution vertical profiles - one obtained by inversion of sunphotometer-derived extinction spectra, and one measured in-situ - combined with the same refractive index model based on aerosol chemical composition. The aerosol model implies single scattering albedos of 0.78 - 0.81 and 0.93 - 0.96 at 0.523 microns (the wavelength of the lidar measurements), in the pollution and dust layers, respectively. The lidar ratios calculated from the two size distribution profiles have close values in the dust layer; they are however, significantly lower than the lidar ratios derived from combined lidar and sunphotometer measurements, most probably due to the use of a simple nonspherical model with a single particle shape in our calculations. In the pollution layer, the two size distribution profiles yield generally different lidar ratios. The retrieved size distributions yield a lidar ratio which is in better agreement with that derived from lidar/sunphotometer measurements in this layer, with still large differences at certain altitudes (the largest relative difference was 46%). We explain these differences by non-uniqueness of the result of the size distribution retrieval and lack of information on vertical variability of particle refractive index. Radiative transfer calculations for this profile showed significant atmospheric radiative forcing, which occurred mainly in the pollution layer. We demonstrate that if the extinction profile is known then information on the vertical structure of absorption and asymmetry parameter is not significant for estimating forcing at TOA and the surface

  3. Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Approximately 500 smoke plumes from biomass burning emissions that varied in age from minutes to days were segregated by fire source region and urban emission influences. The normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMR) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen and ozone) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared. A detailed statistical analysis of the different plume categories for different gaseous and aerosol species is presented in this paper. The comparison of NEMR values showed that CH4 concentrations were higher in air-masses that were influenced by urban emissions. Fresh biomass burning plumes mixed with urban emissions showed a higher degree of oxidative processing in comparison with fresh biomass burning only plumes. This was evident in higher concentrations of inorganic aerosol components such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, but not reflected in the organic components. Lower NOx NEMRs combined with high sulfate, nitrate and ammonium NEMRs in aerosols of plumes subject to long-range transport, when comparing all plume categories, provided evidence of advanced processing of these plumes.

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  6. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  7. An Overview of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Adriani, Alberto; Amanatidis, Georgios T.; Anderson, James G.; Braathen, Geir O.; Brune, William H.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Craig, Michael T.; DeCola, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    Between November 1999 and April 2000, two major field experiments, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) and the Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000), collaborated to form the largest field campaign yet mounted to study Arctic ozone loss. This international campaign involved more than 500 scientists from over 20 countries spread across the high and mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The main scientific aims of SOLVE-THESEO 2000 were to study (a) the processes leading to ozone loss in the Arctic vortex and (b) the effect on ozone amounts over northern mid-latitudes. The campaign included satellites, heavy lift balloon launches, 6 different aircraft, ground stations, and scores of ozone-sonde. Campaign activities were principally conducted in 3 intensive measurement phases centered on early December 1999, late January 2000, and early March 2000. Observations made during the campaign showed that temperatures were unusually cold in the polar lower stratosphere over the course of the 1999-2000 winter. These cold temperatures resulted in the formation of extensive polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) across the Arctic. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surfaces of the PSC particles produced high levels of reactive chlorine within the polar vortex by early January. This reactive chlorine catalytically destroyed about 60% of the ozone in a layer near 20 km between late January and mid-March 2000.

  8. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  9. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  10. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  11. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City. PMID:12288124

  12. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  13. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  14. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Science and Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; T Jackson; B.Kustas; PJ Lamb; GM McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Turner

    2007-06-30

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign is a field experiment designed to collect a comprehensive data set that can be used to quantify the interactions that occur between the atmosphere, biosphere, land surface, and subsurface. A particular focus will be on how these interactions modulate the abundance and characteristics of small and medium size cumuliform clouds that are generated by local convection. These interactions are not well understood and are responsible for large uncertainties in global climate models, which are used to forecast future climate states. The campaign will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations.

  15. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    demonstrated for the first time the potential to retrieve sea ice thickness from SMOS data. However, the product retrieval algorithm had never been validated using independent airborne measurements in the Arctic region. Therefore, the SMOSice airborne campaign will take place over sea-ice south east of Svalbard during the last week of March 2014. CryoVEx 2014 is a large collaborative effort to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission CryoSat-2. ESA has supported extensive CryoSat-2 pre-launch validation campaigns by providing simultaneous overflights of surface experiments performed by CryoSat Validation Retrieval Team (CVRT) members in Greenland, Canada, Svalbard and the Arctic Ocean in 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Since CryoSat-2's launch, the field campaigns have been significantly augmented including a close collaboration with NASA's Operation Icebridge since 2011 and continued in 2014. Collectively, these activities are known as CryoVEx (CryoSat-2 Validation Experiment). The aim of this large-scale CryoVEx2014 ground and airborne campaign is to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice along the CryoSat-2 ground track. A range of sensors installed in different aircraft included simple cameras to get a visual record of the sea ice, laser scanners to clearly map the height of the ice, an ice-thickness sensor (EM-Bird), ESA's radar altimeter (ASIRAS) and NASA's snow and Ku-band radars, which mimic CryoSat's measurements but at a higher resolution. Results from previous campaigns have shown the ability to detect centimetre differences between sea-ice and thin ice/water which in turn allowed for an accurate estimation of actual sea ice thickness. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int].

  16. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  17. Comparison of the Chemical and Physical Evolution and Characteristics of 495 Biomass Burning Plumes Intercepted by the NASA DC-8 Aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Weber, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Vay, S. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning events include anthropogenic burning, such as bio-fuel or prescribed burning, and natural fires. Emissions from either type of burning are a significant source for a wide range of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles that can have important health and climate impacts.This study compares the different chemical and aerosol components of 495 biomass-burning plumes that were intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) experiment. The ARCTAS experiment was conducted in three phases: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A. (3 to 19 April, 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July, 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, U.S.A. (18 to 24 June, 2008). Many different fire emissions were intercepted during this study. The plumes were classified into different categories: Plumes that were present due to long range transport from their source of emission were categorized into Asian, Siberian, European and a mix of Asian and Siberian plumes. Boreal fires from ARCTAS-B were divided into two groups: Fresh and Aged. This was based on the transport age of the plumes from the location of the plume intercept to the source of emission. During ARCTAS-CARB, biomass-burning emissions were segregated into two main categories: those that were influence by urban emissions versus the plumes that had smaller urban emission influences. Each of the ARCTAS-CARB plume categories noted above were further subdivided into fresh or more aged plumes. A statistical summary of the emission or enhancement ratios based on changes relative to CO, for various trace gas species and aerosol chemical components was produced for each smoke plume category. A high degree of variability in emission ratios was observed for all types of plumes; however, the following conclusions were formulated after a

  18. A Survey of NASA’s Tropical Atmospheric Research Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubin He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Graves, S.; Conover, H.; Blakeslee, R.; Goodman, M.

    2009-12-01

    Field research campaigns are essential for observing and measuring actual Earth system phenomena and validation of computer models that simulate Earth systems. Ultimately, field data help improve the nation's ability to predict climate change and its impacts. Since 1998 NASA has conducted a number of field campaigns directed toward understanding the life cycle and processes of tropical storm systems. Sponsored through NASA’s Research and Analysis (R&A) programs the field campaigns employed an integrated mix of instrument scientists, aircraft crew and managers, atmospheric modelers, atmospheric and oceanographic scientists, and data & information technologists. Each field campaign employed multiple instruments situated on space borne platforms, aircraft and on the Earth’s surface. Typically these include the NASA ER2 research aircraft, a DC-8 airliner refitted with scientific instrumentation, NASA’s Earth observation satellites such as Aqua, Terra and TRMM, and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles such as the ALTUS II and Global Hawk. This survey begins with a description of the third convection and moisture experiment (CAMEX-3). In 1998 CAMEX-3 successfully studied Hurricanes Bonnie, Danielle, Earl and Georges producing high spatial and temporal information of hurricane structure, dynamics, and motion. These data, when analyzed within the context of more traditional aircraft, satellite, and ground-based radar observations, provided additional insight to hurricane modelers and forecasters who continually strive to improve hurricane predictions. The next field campaign in 2001 was known as CAMEX-4. CAMEX-4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone development, tracking, intensification, and land falling impacts. NASA research aircraft flew over, through, and around hurricanes as they approached landfall in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and along the east coast of the United States. The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission in 2005 focused on the study of

  19. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  20. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  1. 11 CFR 9002.11 - Qualified campaign expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified campaign expense. 9002.11 Section 9002.11 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.11 Qualified campaign expense. (a) Qualified campaign expense means any expenditure, including a purchase,...

  2. High energy radiation from aircraft-triggered lightning and thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, Alexander P. J.; de Boer, Alte I.; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS http://ildas.nlr.nl/) was developed in an EU FP6 project to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. The system contains one E-field and eight H-field sensors distributed over the fuselage. It has recently been extended to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x-ray photons above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on an A-350 aircraft. When triggered by lightning and digitizes data synchronously with 10 ns intervals. Twelve continuously monitoring photon energy channels were implemented for X-ray detectors operating at slower rate (15 ms, pulse counting). In spring of 2014 and 2015 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells recording the data from the sensors. Total of 93 lightning strikes to the aircraft are recorded. Eighteen of them are also detected by WWLLN network. One strike consists of six individual strokes within 200 ms that were all synchronously identified by WWLLN. The WWLLN inter-stroke distance is much larger than the aircraft movement. Three of these strokes generated X-ray bursts. One exceptionally bright X-ray pulse of more than 8 MeV has been detected in association with another strike; it probably saturated the detector's photomultiplier. Neither long gamma-ray glow, nor positron annihilation have been detected during the campaign. An explanation is sought in the typical altitude profile of these test flights.

  3. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  4. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  5. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  6. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section...

  7. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  8. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  9. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  10. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of ... the campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply ...

  11. Who Runs Presidential Campaigns?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindsvatter, Peter S.

    Presidential campaigns in the last decade have provided evidence of the rising influence of the mass media campaign and of campaign consultants. The media, through their power of access to the people, manipulate the public's recognition of a candidate by the amount of coverage given. Newspaper endorsements and the reporting of media-conducted…

  12. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  13. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  14. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  15. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  16. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  17. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  19. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  20. The MEGAPOLI Paris campaign for urban aerosol characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, M.; Baltensperger, U.; Borbon, A.; Sciare, J.; Gros, V.; Baklanov, A.; Lawrence, M.; Pandis, S.

    2009-04-01

    Within the FP7 MEGAPOLI project, an intensive field campaign will be conducted in the Greater Paris region during July 2009 and January/February 2010. The aim is to quantify sources of primary and secondary aerosol, and the interaction with gaseous precursors, in and around a large agglomeration and to document its evolution in the megacity plume. Greater Paris has been chosen for such a campaign because it is a major and dense pollution source (more than 10 million inhabitants), surrounded by rural areas and relatively flat terrain. A particular focus will be put on organic carbon, for which secondary formation, but also primary emissions are still not well quantified. Detailed aerosol measurements and gaseous precursor measurements will be conducted at an urban and a sub-urban site, from two mobile platforms and from the French ATR-42 research aircraft (for plume characterisation). State of the art instrumentation will allow determination of aerosol chemical composition, either with very high frequency (several minutes to half an hour), or with large chemical detail (several dozens of organic compounds from filter samples). In addition, the size distribution, optical and hygroscopic and mixing properties will be determined in order to relate the aerosol chemical composition to its potential radiative and climate impact in the urban region and its plume. Gas phase measurements will focus especially on detailed VOC measurements in order to relate SOA build-up to gaseous precursor species abundance. A network of backscatter lidars including fixed station (urban, sub-urban) and mobile platforms (car and aircraft, see Cuesta et al., this session) will give the access to the aerosol vertical distribution in the region and to variations of the boundary layer height at the urban / rural interface. All in all, the campaign will be the most intensive urban aerosol characterisation experiment ever conducted over Europe. The present paper will present an overview over

  1. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  2. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  3. Preparing the DC-8 for Operation IceBridge Antarctic 2011 Campaign

    NASA Video Gallery

    In preparation for Operation IceBridge's Antarctica 2011 campaign, flight crews at NASA Dryden worked to outfit the DC-8 aircraft -- NASA's long-haul "workhorse" -- with an array of different instr...

  4. Cloud Physics Lidar Measurements During the SAFARI-2000 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGill, Matthew; Hlavka, Dennis; Hart, William; Spinhirne, James; Scott, Stan; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new remote sensing instrument, the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) has been built for use on the ER-2 aircraft. The first deployment for CPL was the SAFARI-2000 field campaign during August-September 2000. The CPL is a three-wavelength lidar designed for studies of cirrus, subvisual cirrus, and boundary layer aerosols. The CPL utilizes a high repetition rate, low pulse energy laser with photon counting detectors. A brief description of the CPL instrument will be given, followed by examples of CPL data products. In particular, examples of aerosol backscatter, including boundary layer smoke and cirrus clouds will be shown. Resulting optical depth estimates derived from the aerosol measurements will be shown. Comparisons of the CPL optical depth and optical depth derived from microPulse Lidar and the AATS-14 sunphotomer will be shown.

  5. Lessons from Past Literacy Campaigns: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes literacy campaigns in developing countries since early postcolonial efforts. Sees the Experimental World Literacy Programme as a turning point, reflecting lessons learned from past failures. Identifies features of successful campaigns, including political will, resource mobilization, timing, decentralized implementation, realistic…

  6. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Michael; Kollias, Pavlos; Giangrande, Scott

    2014-04-01

    The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place from April 22 through June 6, 2011, centered at the ARM Southern Great Plains site (http://www.arm.gov/sites/sgp) in northcentral Oklahoma. MC3E was a collaborative effort between the ARM Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The campaign leveraged the largest ground-based observing infrastructure available in the central United States, including recent upgrades through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, and additional radar and in situ precipitation instrumentation. The overarching goal of the campaign was to provide a three-dimensional characterization of convective clouds and precipitation for the purpose of improving the representation of convective lifecycle in atmospheric models and the reliability of satellite-based retrievals of precipitation.

  7. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  8. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  9. ESA airborne campaigns in support of Earth Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tania; Davidson, Malcolm; Schuettemeyer, Dirk; Perrera, Andrea; Bianchi, Remo

    2013-04-01

    comprised three airborne campaigns in Greenland from April to June 2012 separated by roughly one month and preliminary results showed the instrument capability to detect ice motion. CryoVEx 2012 was a large collaborative effort to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission CryoSat. The aim of this large-scale Arctic campaign was to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice exactly below the CryoSat-2 path. A range of sensors installed on different aircraft included simple cameras to get a visual record of the sea ice, laser scanners to clearly map the height of the ice, an ice-thickness sensor (EM-Bird), ESA's radar altimeter (ASIRAS) and NASA's snow and Ku-band radars, which mimic CryoSat's measurements but at a higher resolution. Preliminary results reveal the ability to detect centimetre differences between sea-ice and thin ice/water which in turn allow for the estimation of actual sea ice thickness. In support of two currently operating EE Missions: SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) and GOCE (Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer), DOMECair airborne campaign will take place in Antarctica, in the Dome C region during the middle of January 2013. The two main objectives are to quantify and document the spatial variability in the DOME C area, important to establish long-term cross-calibrated multi-mission L-band measurement time-series (SMOS) and fill in the gap in the high-quality gravity anomaly maps in Antarctica since airborne gravity measurements are sparse (GOCE). Key airborne instruments in the campaign are EMIRAD-2 L-band radiometer, designed and operated by DTU and a gravimeter from AWI. ESA campaigns have been fundamental and an essential part in the preparation of new Earth Observation missions, as well as in the independent validation of their measurements and quantification of error sources. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the

  10. The 1971 Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Budd L., Ed.

    Results of a study of the campaigns to eliminate illiteracy in five districts of Tanzania are reported. Using case study methods, researchers from the Institute of Adult Education followed a common outline in collecting data from the Mafia, Ukerewe, Masasi, Kilimanjaro, and Pare Districts regarding their literacy campaigns. The outline was 1.…

  11. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  12. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  13. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  14. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  15. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  16. JORNEX: An airborne campaign to quantify rangeland vegetation change and plant community-atmospheric interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ritchie, J.C.; Rango, A.; Kustas, W.P.

    1996-11-01

    The Jornada Experimental Range in New Mexico provides a unique opportunity to integrate hydrologic-atmospheric fluxes and surface states, vegetation types, cover, and distribution, and vegetation response to changes in hydrologic states and atmospheric driving forces. The Jornada Range is the site of a long-term ecological research program to investigate the processes leading to desertification. In concert with ongoing ground measurements, remotely sensed data are being collected from ground, airborne, and satellite platforms during JORNEX (the JORNada Experiment) to provide spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation state using laser altimeter and multispectral aircraft and satellite data and surface energy balance estimates from a combination of parameters and state variables derived from remotely sensed data. These measurements will be used as inputs to models to quantify the hydrologic budget and the plant response to changes in components in the water and energy balance. Intensive three day study periods for ground and airborne campaigns have been made in May 1995 (dry season) and September 1995 (wet season), February 1996 (Winter) and are planned for wet and dry seasons of 1996. An airborne platform is being used to collect thermal, multispectral, 3-band video, and laser altimetry profile data. Bowen ratio-energy balance stations were established in shrub and grass communities in May 1995 and are collecting data continuously. Additional energy flux measurements were made using eddy correlation techniques during the September 1995 campaign. Ground-based measurements during the intensive campaigns include thermal and multispectral measurements made using yoke-based platforms and hand-held instruments, LAI, and other vegetation data. Ground and aircraft measurements are acquired during Landsat overpasses so the effect of scale on measurements can be studied. This paper discusses preliminary results from the 1995 airborne campaign. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  17. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  18. An Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The primary objective of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume. Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, significant knowledge gaps and uncertainties still exist in the process-level understanding of: 1) SOA formation, 2) BC mixing state evolution, and 3) the optical and hygroscopic properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosols. The CARES 2010 field study was designed to address several specific science questions under these three topics. During summer the Sacramento-Blodgett Forest corridor effectively serves as a mesoscale daytime flow reactor in which the urban aerosols undergo significant aging as they are transported to the northeast by upslope flow. The CARES campaign observation strategy consisted of the DOE G-1 aircraft sampling upwind, within, and outside of the evolving Sacramento urban plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The G-1 payload consisted of a suite of instruments to measure trace gases, aerosol size distribution, composition, and optical properties. The NASA B-200 aircraft carrying a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties. The aircraft measurements were complemented by heavily-instrumented ground sites within the Sacramento urban area and at a downwind site in Cool, California, to characterize the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol

  19. Planned Improvements for the WB-57F Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccus, S.; Roberts, A.; Ross, M.

    2003-12-01

    NASA WB-57F aircraft have supported the atmospheric science community for over 30 years. Recent attention has focused on the chemistry and dynamics of the UTLS region of the atmosphere and several NASA sponsored field campaigns (ACCENT, CRYSTAL-FACE) have made critical use of the WB-57F's unique ability to carry large (3 ton) payloads during extended cruise at all altitudes from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere (20 km ceiling). In addition, the WB-57F's robust structure permits a large number and variety of instruments to be carried at inlet-favorable locations on the aircraft. In order to further improve the WB-57F's performance and unique utility to the atmospheric research and spacecraft validation communities, NASA is planning several upgrades to the WB-57F including state-of-the-art avionics and autopilot, landing gear replacement, maximum gross weight increase, engine replacement, and ultrapod installation. We will review the present WB-57F performance, plans for upcoming science campaigns, and plans for increased WB-57F payload, range, endurance, and ceiling resulting from the upgrades.

  20. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  1. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  4. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  5. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  6. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  7. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  10. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  12. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  13. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  14. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  15. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  16. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  18. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  19. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  20. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  1. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  2. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  3. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  6. Inhomogeneous cirrus clouds during the AIRTOSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Matthias; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The aircraft campaign AIRTOSS-ICE in May and September 2013 provided measurement data of cirrus clouds over North Sea and Baltic Sea in various meteorological situations. The measurements were carried out with a Learjet and a towed sensor shuttle below the aircraft [2]. This configuration allows us to obtain almost horizontally collocated measurements at different vertical levels (inside and outside clouds). Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, as ice water content, ice crystal number concentrations, diameter and shape of ice crystals were measured. In this study we concentrate on the comparison of in situ measurements with model simulations. For these case studies, the issue about the main formation mechanism (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous or both) will be addressed. In a first step the meteorological conditions leading to the cirrus formation are analyzed using meteorological analyses as obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF). The ECMWF wind fields are then used to calculate backward trajectories with the Lagrangian analysis tool LAGRANTO [4]. From these investigations the large-scale/mesoscale motions are derived and analyzed. Finally, the meteorological analyses and measurements (temperature, wind, humidity) are used as initial conditions for cirrus cloud simulations where the small scale motions are derived and analyzed. We used EULAG as LES model, including a state-of-the-art ice microphysics scheme [3] for 2D and 3D idealized and quasi-realistic simulations. In order to address the impact of dynamics vs. microphysics (i.e. heterogeneous nucleation [1]), we investigated different environmental conditions. The microphysical and macrophysical properties of the simulated cloud are finally compared to the measurements, in order to get some information about the most probable scenarios. References [1] D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, C. Hoose, E. J. Jensen, M. H. Diao, M. A. Zondlo, J. B. Smith, C. H. Twohy, and D. M. Murphy

  7. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, S. J.; Blakeslee, R. J.; Bailey, J. C.; Carey, L. D.; Hoeller, H.; Albrecht, R. I.; Machado, L. A.; Morales, C.; Pinto, O.; Saba, M. M.; Naccarato, K.; Hembury, N.; Nag, A.; Heckman, S.; Holzworth, R. H.; Rudlosky, S. D.; Betz, H.; Said, R.; Rauenzahn, K.

    2011-12-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of São Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be

  8. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  9. Effectiveness of a solar action campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a Solar Action Campaign implemented to facilitate the commercialization of Solar Energy in a large metropolitan area. The campaign was developed by the staff of the Crosby Gardens Environmental Library. Crosby Gardens is an urban environmental and cultural park. The Solar Action Campaign in Toledo, Ohio, included the coordination of a variety of activities and events designed to stimulate consumer awareness of the Solar Energy applications in the area. Activities included coordinating two workshops, production of media tools, a sunshine awards banquet, and an intensive media campaign. The Solar Week in Toledo provided the stimulus for coalitions to be built, intensive information exchange, and most importantly - media coverage.

  10. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  11. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  12. Calibration of the total carbon column observing network using aircraft profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Stephens, B. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Uchino, O.; Abshire, J. B.; Bernath, P.; Biraud, S. C.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Boone, C.; Bowman, K. P.; Browell, E. V.; Campos, T.; Connor, B. J.; Daube, B. C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Diao, M.; Elkins, J. W.; Gerbig, C.; Gottlieb, E.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiménez, R.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kort, E.; Macatangay, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Moore, F.; Morino, I.; Park, S.; Robinson, J.; Roehl, C. M.; Sawa, Y.; Sherlock, V.; Sweeney, C.; Tanaka, T.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) produces precise measurements of the column average dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2O at a variety of sites worldwide. These observations rely on spectroscopic parameters that are not known with sufficient accuracy to compute total columns that can be used in combination with in situ measurements. The TCCON must therefore be calibrated to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in situ trace gas measurement scales. We present a calibration of TCCON data using WMO-scale instrumentation aboard aircraft that measured profiles over four TCCON stations during 2008 and 2009. The aircraft campaigns are the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START-08), which included a profile over the Park Falls site, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO-1) campaign, which included profiles over the Lamont and Lauder sites, a series of Learjet profiles over the Lamont site, and a Beechcraft King Air profile over the Tsukuba site. These calibrations are compared with similar observations made during the INTEX-NA (2004), COBRA-ME (2004) and TWP-ICE (2006) campaigns. A single, global calibration factor for each gas accurately captures the TCCON total column data within error.

  13. Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using Aircraft Profile Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wunch, Debra; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Stephens, Britton B.; Fischer, Marc L.; Uchino, Osamu; Abshire, James B.; Bernath, Peter; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Boone, Chris; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Browell, Edward V.; Campos, Teresa; Connor, Brian J.; Daube, Bruce C.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Diao, Minghui; Elkins, James W.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gottlieb, Elaine; Griffith, David W. T.; Hurst, Dale F.; Jimenez, Rodrigo; Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Kort, Eric; Macatangay, Ronald; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Moore, Fred; Morino, Isamu; Park, Sunyoung; Robinson, John; Roehl, Coleen M.; Sawa, Yusuke; Sherlock, Vanessa; Sweeney, Colm; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2010-03-26

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) produces precise measurements of the column average dry-air mole fractions of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O at a variety of sites worldwide. These observations rely on spectroscopic parameters that are not known with sufficient accuracy to compute total columns that can be used in combination with in situ measure ments. The TCCON must therefore be calibrated to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in situ trace gas measurement scales. We present a calibration of TCCON data using WMO-scale instrumentation aboard aircraft that measured profiles over four TCCON stations during 2008 and 2009. The aircraft campaigns are the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START-08), which included a profile over the Park Falls site, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO-1) campaign, which included profiles over the Lamont and Lauder sites, a series of Learjet profiles over the Lamont site, and a Beechcraft King Air profile over the Tsukuba site. These calibrations are compared with similar observations made during the INTEX-NA (2004), COBRA-ME (2004) and TWP-ICE (2006) campaigns. A single, global calibration factor for each gas accurately captures the TCCON total column data within error.

  14. Free Speech and Campaign Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Harry, Jr.

    The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971, a political campaign reform measure, was enacted to limit campaign contributions and independent expenditures, to mandate disclosure of contributors, and to establish public financing of campaigns, all to minimize the opportunity for political corruption. Unfortunate implications of such reform on the…

  15. Model Assessment of the Impact on Ozone of Subsonic and Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm; Weisenstein, Debra; Danilin, Michael; Scott, Courtney; Shia, Run-Lie

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for work performed between June 1999 through May 2000. The work represents continuation of the previous contract which encompasses five areas: (1) continued refinements and applications of the 2-D chemistry-transport model (CTM) to assess the ozone effects from aircraft operation in the stratosphere; (2) studying the mechanisms that determine the evolution of the sulfur species in the aircraft plume and how such mechanisms affect the way aircraft sulfur emissions should be introduced into global models; (3) the development of diagnostics in the AER 3-wave interactive model to assess the importance of the dynamics feedback and zonal asymmetry in model prediction of ozone response to aircraft operation; (4) the development of a chemistry parameterization scheme in support of the global modeling initiative (GMI); and (5) providing assessment results for preparation of national and international reports which include the "Aviation and the Global Atmosphere" prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "Assessment of the effects of high-speed aircraft in the stratosphere: 1998" by NASA, and the "Model and Measurements Intercomparison II" by NASA. Part of the work was reported in the final report. We participated in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and we continue with our analyses of the data.

  16. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  17. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience gained with numerous composite aircraft structures is discussed. Both commercial transports and helicopters are included. Design concepts with significant mass savings and appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures are among the factors considered. Also, a major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites is described, including preliminary results. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs are also discussed.

  18. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  19. Combat aircraft noise: The operator's perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogg, R.

    1992-04-01

    Combat aircraft are not subject to the same noise reduction regulations as civil aircraft. Additionally, combat aircraft are operated closer to their performance limits and at high power settings for extended periods. There is general pressure to reduce noise of all kinds, but particularly noise from low flying aircraft. Although there is little that can be done to quiet in-service engines, operational palliatives, such as noise abatement procedures and restrictions on low flying, have been introduced. Moreover, there has been a concerted education and public relations campaign, and numerous airspace management changes have been introduced to reduce the impact of low flying on the population. These subjects were considered during a Pilot Study into aircraft noise under the auspices of the NATO Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society; the findings of the Study are discussed, giving both the international viewpoint and the UK perspective in particular. Some options for the reduction of low flying are also considered, but so long as military aircraft need to fly low to evade enemy air defences, low flying will remain a principal tactic of NATO air forces, and peacetime training will remain an essential military requirement. Thus, noise from low flying combat aircraft will remain a sensitive issue, and ways of reducing it will continue to be of importance for many years to come.

  20. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  1. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  2. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  3. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  4. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  5. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components,...

  6. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  7. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  8. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  9. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  10. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  11. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  12. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  13. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  14. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  15. The 1990 forest ecosystem dynamics multisensor aircraft campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Darrel L.; Ranson, K. Jon

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of the Forest Ecosystem Dynamics (FED) research activity is to develop a better understanding of the dynamics of forest ecosystem evolution over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Primary emphasis is being placed on assessing the ecosystem dynamics associated with the transition zone between northern hardwood forests in eastern North America and the predominantly coniferous forests of the more northerly boreal biome. The approach is to combine ground-based, airborne, and satellite observations with an integrated forest pattern and process model which is being developed to link together existing models of forest growth and development, soil processes, and radiative transfer.

  16. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  17. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  18. Toward Improved CFD Predictions of Slender Airframe Aerodynamics Using the F-16XL Aircraft (CAWAPI-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Rizzi, Arthur; Davis, M. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A coordinated project has been underway to improve CFD predictions of slender airframe aerodynamics. The work is focused on two flow conditions and leverages a unique flight data set obtained with an F-16XL aircraft. These conditions, a low-speed high angleof- attack case and a transonic low angle-of-attack case, were selected from a prior prediction campaign wherein the CFD failed to provide acceptable results. In this paper the background, objectives and approach to the current project are presented. The work embodies predictions from multiple numerical formulations that are contributed from multiple organizations, and the context of this campaign to other multi-code, multiorganizational efforts is included. The relevance of this body of work toward future supersonic commercial transport concepts is also briefly addressed.

  19. Inoculation in Political Campaign Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfau, Michael; Burgoon, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Posits a strategy of resistance to the influence of attack messages in political campaigns. Finds that political campaign messages can be designed to inoculate supporters of candidates against subsequent attack messages of opposing candidates. (MS)

  20. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus. PMID:26268253

  1. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  2. Characteristics of future aircraft impacting aircraft and airport compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of an opinion survey of selected individuals at the decision-making level within the five major manufacturers of transport aircraft in the United States and Europe. Opinions were obtained concerning both possible and probable existence of over 50 compatibility-related characteristics of transport aircraft in use in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. The maximum size of aircraft is expected to increase, at a roughly uniform rate, to the year 2010 by 85 percent in passengers, 55 percent in airfreighter payload, and 35 percent in gross weight weight. Companion to the expected growth in payloads and gross weight was the identification of probable increases in aircraft geometrical dimensions and component capability, and use of fully double-decked passenger compartments. Wing span will increase considerably more than normally expected to provide wings of higher aspect ratio. New aircraft features coming into probable use include large turboprops, synthetic jet-A fuel, winglets, wake-vortex-reducing devices and laminar flow control. New operational concepts considered probable include steep approaches, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiway towing for the aircraft, plus passenger bypass of the terminal building, expedited handling of belly cargo and an intermodal cargo container for the payloads.

  3. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  4. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  5. ACTS mobile propagation campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldhirsh, Julius; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented for three propagation measurement campaigns involving a mobile receiving laboratory and 20 GHz transmissions from the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS). Four 1994 campaigns were executed during weekly periods in and around Austin, Texas in February and May, in Central Maryland during March, and in Fairbanks, Alaska and environs in June. Measurements tested the following effects at 20 GHz: (1) attenuation due to roadside trees with and without foliage, (2) multipath effects for scenarios in which line-of-sight paths were unshadowed, (3) fades due to terrain and roadside obstacles, (4) fades due to structures in urban environs, (5) single tree attenuation, and (6) effects of fading at low elevation angles (8 deg in Fairbanks, Alaska) and high elevation angles (55 deg in Austin, Texas). Results presented here cover sampled measurements in Austin, Texas for foliage and non-foliage cases and in Central Maryland for non-foliage runs.

  6. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  7. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  8. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  9. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  10. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  11. High-Resolution Entrainment in Stratocumulus During the POST Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    In July and August of 2008 an NSF-supported field campaign called POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top) was conducted off the California coast using the fully-instrumented Twin Otter aircraft from the Naval Post Graduate School. POST provided the first opportunity to closely co-locate on an aircraft high-rate and time synchronized microphysics (PVM; LWC and effective radius) and thermodynamics (UFT; Ultra-Fast Temperature) probes and a gust probe to produce measurements of entrainment fluxes and features over entrainment scales thought to be important in warm stratocumulus (Sc). This combination of probes permitted investigating the properties of individual entrained parcels Seventeen flights were conducted during POST in a quasi-Lagrangian fashion in largely unbroken stratocumulus. The horizontal fight path was adjusted to follow the mean air velocity in the Sc. The vertical flight path concentrated on flying between 100-m above and below the cloud-top interface; and some additional profiles were flown to various higher and lower levels where flux runs were made. This presentation describes the analysis of this unique and excellent data set including the following: The data permitted testing Lilly's classical theory for the entrainment velocity where its application requires strong jumps of temperature and moisture across the inversion located above cloud top, a linear flux of the entrained scalar below cloud top, and entrained parcels that descend. All flights showed Sc with wind shear and mixing at cloud top with some strong enough to dissipate the Sc. The relationship between shear and entrainment velocity is described. The pdf of the horizontal size of entrainment parcels vs entrainment flux is established for all flights to help in choosing grid-sizes for modeling. High -resolution in-cloud temperature and LWC measurements in entrained parcels reveal the relative importance of radiative cooling vs cooling by liquid water evaporation in causing buoyancy reversal

  12. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS spring-2008 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2009-10-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of the major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year, aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. Part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°), the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with the experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the

  13. Analysis of snow bidirectional reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2010-05-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1° angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles φ<40°), the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the slope

  14. Analysis of Snow BRF from Spring-2008 ARCTAS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R. A.; Brandt, R. E.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D. K.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on April 7 and 15 by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1o angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was in a good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on April 15. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study accuracy of analytical Li Sparse-Ross Thick (LSRT), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Analytical Asymptotic Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles j < 40°), the best fit MRPV and LSRT models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering directions. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the slope distribution function and by adding a simple

  15. Analysis of Snow Bidirectional Reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Redemann, J.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2010-01-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1 degree angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles phi less than 40 degrees), the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within 0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution

  16. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  17. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  18. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  19. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  20. The 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study. Volume 2: Data listings for NASA Cessna aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Lee, R. B., III; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The data reported are these measured onboard the NASA Langley chartered Cessna aircraft. Data include ozone, nitrogen oxides, light scattering coefficient, temperature, dewpoint, and aircraft altitude.

  1. Implications of the ISOCLOUD campaigns at the AIDA Cloud Chamber for ice growth in cold cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Kara; Clouser, Benjamin; Sarkozy, Laszlo; Wagner, Steven; Ebert, Volker; Kerstel, Erik; Saathoff, Harald; Möhler, Ottmar; Moyer, Elisabeth

    2015-04-01

    In-situ water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) have routinely observed anomalous supersaturations on the order of 10-20particles when temperatures were below 200 K, raising questions about the physics of how ice forms at cold temperatures in the atmosphere1,2,3,4. The ISOCLOUD campaigns in 2012-2013 at the AIDA Aerosol and Cloud Chamber sought to investigate ice growth at cold temperatures by simulating cirrus clouds at temperatures and pressures characteristic of the upper troposphere. Experiments tested both homogeneous nucleation of sulfate aerosols and heterogeneous nucleation with various ice nuclei, including mineral dust and organic aerosols with and without nitric acid coatings. Optical instruments, both in-situ (TDLAS) and extractive (TDLAS and OFCEAS), measured ice particle number density, water vapor, total water, and water vapor isotopic concentrations, with multiple instruments measuring water. In a series of cirrus formation experiments, we observed no evidence of anomalous saturation vapor pressure and no evidence of ice growth inhibition at low temperatures for the parameter space tested during the ISOCLOUD campaigns. That is, we see no evidence for temperature dependence in the deposition coefficient. In these experiments we determined the deposition coefficient from bulk parameters of the gas (vapor concentration and ice number density). The ISOCLOUD experiments were particularly suited to deposition coefficient measurements since they involved lower pressures and often lower temperatures than previous similar campaigns, producing lower error bars.5 These results can aid in the interpretation of data from aircraft campaigns in the UTLS by solidifying our understanding of the microphysics of ice formation at cold temperatures. [1] Gao, R. et al., Science, 303, no. 6567, 516-520, (2004). [2] Jensen, E. et al., Atmos. Chem. Phys., 5, 851-862, (2005). [3] Peter, T. et al., Science, 314, no. 5804, 1399

  2. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 5: Definition of stowed rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of folding tilt rotor (stowed rotor) aircraft are presented. The effects of design cruise speed on the gross weight of a conceptual design stowed rotor aircraft are shown and a comparison is made with a conventional (non-folding) tilt rotor aircraft. A flight research stowed rotor design is presented. The program plans, including costs and schedules, are shown for the research aircraft development and a wind tunnel plan is presented for a full scale test of the aircraft.

  3. European parabolic flight campaigns with Airbus ZERO-G: Looking back at the A300 and looking forward to the A310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards.

  4. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  5. NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Aircraft Satellite Data Link (ASDL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, J. R.; Darby, E. R.; Dugranrut, J. D.; Goldstein, A. S.

    1984-05-01

    The NOAA Aircraft Satellite Data Link (ASDL) is described, includes the data routing, aircraft system and one minute data explanations, types of messages, and radar image transmission. An aircraft ASDL operator's guide with examples of specific message formats are presented.

  6. 78 FR 38076 - NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems Subcommittee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Aeronautics Committee; Unmanned Aircraft Systems... Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Subcommittee... meeting includes the following topics: ] Review of NASA Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration...

  7. Ethical issues in government sponsored public health campaigns.

    PubMed

    Faden, R R

    1987-01-01

    Health communications campaigns are a major strategy used by governments to promote health. This article discusses key issues in the ethics of health communications campaigns, including the compatibility of health campaigns with the principle of respect for autonomy and how conflicts with this principle can be justified. Five potential justifications for state-sponsored health communications campaigns are reviewed: the public's health as an independent value; collective efficiency and majoritarian preferences; third party or state's interests; harm to the health of others; and countering the short-term contingencies of a market. PMID:3557982

  8. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  9. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  10. TYCHO Brahe's Copernican Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.; Voelkel, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Historians of astronomy have generally assumed that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems give equivalent predictions of planetary positions, but Tycho Brahe knew that in the Ptolemaic arrangement Mars' distance was always greater than the sun's, whereas in the Copernican system Mars at opposition approached to half the sun's distance. Because Tycho accepted the traditional solar distance scale, 20 times too small, he expected to measure a Martian diurnal parallax of 4.5' at opposition if the Copernican system was true. (In reality the horizontal parallax was too small to measure by naked-eye observations.) Hence, during the golden decade of the 1580s at Hven, Tycho undertook a major campaign to find Mars' parallax. Observations at the opposition of 1582-83 failed, according to a letter he wrote in 1584. The campaign at the next opposition led to frustration, but after the 1587 opposition he claimed that in fact he had already found the parallax in 1582. Was Tycho merely prevaricating because he wanted to have an observational basis for his new Tychonic cosmology? During this decade Tycho gradually became aware of the role of refraction, and much of the new instrumentation built at Stjerneborg seems to have been motivated by this problem. Using an erroneously chosen refraction table Tycho apparently convinced himself of a large parallax for Mars. He may well have discovered his error by 1592, for he never again claimed to have found the large parallax. Because of the failure of this major goal, Tycho's reputation as a very smart and program-motivated observer has suffered, but because of this particular observational campaign, there were ultimately enough astonishingly accurate Mars observations for Kepler's later studies to succeed in finding the law of areas and the elliptical form of planetary orbits.

  11. The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) FTS: Results From the 2012/13 Alaska Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosu, Thomas P.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Stephen J.

    2014-05-01

    The Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) is an aircraft-based Earth Venture 1 mission to study the carbon balance of the Alaskan Arctic ecosystem, with a particular focus on carbon release from melting permafrost. Operating from its base in Fairbanks, AK, the CARVE aircraft covers a range of principle flight paths in the Alaskan interior, the Yukon River valley, and the northern Alaska coast around Barrow and Dead Horse. Flight paths are chosen to maximize ecosystem variability and cover burn-recovery/regrowth sequences. CARVE observations cover the Arctic Spring/Summer/Fall seasons, with multiple flights per season and principle flight path. Science operations started in May 2012 and are currently envisaged to continue until 2015. The CARVE suite of instruments includes flask measurements, in situ gas analyzers for CO2, CH4 and CO observations, and a three-band polarizing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) for column measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, their interfering species (e.g., H2O), and O2. The FTS covers the spectral regions of 4,200-4,900 cm-1, 5,800-6,400 cm-1, and 12,900-13,200 cm-1, with a spectral resolution of 0.2 cm-1. Aircraft-based FTS science observations in Alaska have been performed since 23-05-2012. First-version data products from all CARVE instruments derived from observations during the 2012 campaign were publicly released earlier in 2013. The FTS has performed well during flight conditions, particularly with respect to vibration damping. Outstanding challenges include the need for improved spectral and radiometric calibration, as well as compensating for low signal-to-noise spectra acquired under Alaskan flight conditions. We present results from FTS column observations of CO2, CH4, and CO, observed during the 2012 and 2013 campaigns, including preliminary comparisons of CARVE FTS measurements with satellite observations of CO2 from TANSO/GOSAT and CO from MOPITT.

  12. GRIP Collaboration Portal: Information Management for a Hurricane Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Smith, T.; Goodman, H. M.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, carried out in August and September of 2010, was a complex operation, involving three aircraft and their crews based at different airports, a dozen instrument teams, mission scientists, weather forecasters, project coordinators and a variety of other participants. In addition, GRIP was coordinated with concurrent airborne missions: NOAA’s IFEX and then NSF-funded PREDICT. The GRIP Collaboration Portal was developed to facilitate communication within and between the different teams and serve as an information repository for the field campaign, providing a single access point for project documents, plans, weather forecasts, flight reports and quicklook data. The portal was developed using the Drupal open source content management framework. This presentation will cover both technology and participation issues. Specific examples include: Drupal’s large and diverse open source developer community is an advantage in that we were able to reuse many modules rather than develop capabilities from scratch, but integrating multiple modules developed by many people adds to the overall complexity of the site. Many of the communication capabilities provided by the site, such as discussion forums and blogs, were not used. Participants were diligent about posting necessary documents, but the favored communication method remained email. Drupal's developer-friendly nature allowed for quick development of the customized functionality needed to accommodate the rapidly changing requirements of GRIP experiment. DC-8 Overflight of Hurricane Earl during GRIP Mission

  13. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  14. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  15. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  16. Aircraft noise prediction program theoretical manual, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorumski, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft noise prediction theoretical methods are given. The prediction of data which affect noise generation and propagation is addressed. These data include the aircraft flight dynamics, the source noise parameters, and the propagation effects.

  17. How to Run a Successful School Levy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Judith K.

    This document describes the public relations strategies employed by the Lakewood (Ohio) City School district to obtain voter support for a school levy. Various aspects of this successful campaign are described, including the formation of administrative committees to oversee campaign activities, steering and citizens' committees, the use of…

  18. Organizing for Change: PEER's Guide to Campaigning for Equal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-McCormick, Lynda; And Others

    This manual is a workbook designed to prepare and help citizens' groups to campaign for equal education for children of both sexes in their communities' public elementary and secondary schools. The manual is divided into two major sections. Section I, "Planning Your Campaign," includes chapters on (1) goal setting; (2) analyzing the community,…

  19. Statewide Implementation of the 1% or Less Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, Jay; Maglione, Christine; Barnett, Jodi D.; Cabot, Cynthia; Jackson, Susan; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The 1% or Less Campaign is an effective research-tested program for reducing saturated fat intake by encouraging individuals to switch to low-fat milk. All published studies have been conducted in small communities with mostly White populations. The 6-week intervention included a media campaign, public relations, and taste tests. Campaign…

  20. The International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) - First results from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Fox, Stuart; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations bear the potential to measure properties of non-thin ice clouds like mass content and mean particle size. The next generation of European meteorological satellites, the MetOp-SG series, will carry the first satellite-borne submillimeter sounder, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). An airborne demonstrator, the International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR), is operated together with other remote sensing instruments and in-situ probes on the FAAM aircraft. Scientific measurements from two campaings in the North Atlantic region, STICCS and COSMIC, are available so far. Here we will introduce the ISMAR instrument, present the acquired measurements from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns and show some first results. This will include estimation of instrument performance, first analysis of clear-sky and cloudy cases and discussion of selected features observed in the measurements (e.g. polarisation signatures).

  1. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  2. When Literacy Campaigns Gave Birth to a Women's Movement. "Jago Bahana" in Dumka, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Chand, P. G. Vijaya Sherry; Sharma, Rajeev

    1999-01-01

    A literacy campaign in an Indian village led to training and education for women's empowerment. Activities included a savings/banking program, resource person training, health screenings, antiviolence and substance abuse campaigns, and gender sensitization. (SK)

  3. Web-focused campaign. Revitalized Web site helps ease advertising costs.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    After a successful branding campaign, Saint Thomas Health Services in Nashville has launched a recruiting campaign that emphasizes a new careers Web site. Smaller newspaper ads now lead folks to the Web. Information there includes testimonials. PMID:17821933

  4. Comparison of in-situ, aircraft, and satellite based land surface temperature measurements over a mixed agricultural region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, P.; Baker, B.; Kochendorfer, J.; Dumas, E.; Meyers, T. P.; Guillevic, P. C.; Corda, S.; Muratore, J. F.; Simmons, D.

    2013-12-01

    Land surface temperature (LST) is a key variable in the study of the exchange of energy and water between the land surface and the atmosphere, and it influences land surface physical processes at regional and global scales. With the objective of quantifying the spatial variability and overall representativeness of single-point surface temperature measurements and to improve the accuracy of satellite LST measurements, airborne campaigns were conducted over a mixed agricultural area near Bondville, Illinois during 2012 and 2013. During the campaigns, multiple measurements of surface temperature were made using infra-red temperature sensors at micrometeorological tower sites, which include NOAA's Climate Reference Network (CRN) and nearby flux tower sites, and onboard an instrumented Piper Navajo airborne research aircraft. In addition to this, daily LST products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua Earth Observing System satellites were used. The aircraft-based and satellite-based LST measurements were compared with the in situ, tower-based LST measurements. Observations indicate large spatial and temporal variability of land surface temperature over the Bondville area. Our results show good agreement between in situ, aircraft and satellite measurements. The agreement was better with the LST data from the flux tower than those from CRN tower.

  5. Comparison of Satellite and Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Microphysical Properties in Icing Conditions During ATREC/AIRS-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2004-01-01

    Satellites are ideal for continuous monitoring of aircraft icing conditions in many situations over extensive areas. The satellite imager data are used to diagnose a number of cloud properties that can be used to develop icing intensity indices. Developing and validating these indices requires comparison with objective "cloud truth" data in addition to conventional pilot reports (PIREPS) of icing conditions. Minnis et al. examined the relationships between PIREPS icing and satellite-derived cloud properties. The Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) and the second Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS-II) field programs were conducted over the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada during late 2003 and early 2004. The aircraft and surface measurements are concerned primarily with the icing characteristics of clouds and, thus, are ideal for providing some validation information for the satellite remote sensing product. This paper starts the process of comparing cloud properties and icing indices derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) with the aircraft in situ measurements of several cloud properties during campaigns and some of the The comparisons include cloud phase, particle size, icing intensity, base and top altitudes, temperatures, and liquid water path. The results of this study are crucial for developing a more reliable and objective icing product from satellite data. This icing product, currently being derived from GOES data over the USA, is an important complement to more conventional products based on forecasts, and PIREPS.

  6. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  9. Biogenic VOCs including monoterpenes and functionalized aromatic compounds within mid-troposphere boreal biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvis, Ruth; Hopkins, James; Lewis, Ally; Andrews, Stephen; Punjabi, Shalini; Bauguitte, Stephan; Lee, James; Palmer, Paul; Parrington, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Boreal forest fires are a significant source of chemicals to the atmosphere including numerous VOCs (volatile organic compounds) such as monoterpenes and aromatics compounds. These compounds can have a significant effect on the formation of ozone in the atmosphere and some are implicated in the generation of secondary oxidation products, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols. Observations made during the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of Boreal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellite) campaign are presented. Data was collected onboard the UK Research Aircraft using a fast response in situ GCMS; this campaign was the first time this instrument was deployed in the field. Enhanced mixing ratios of aliphatic hydrocarbons, isoprene and monoterpenes were observed in both fresh and aged biomass burning plumes, in addition to a range of aromatic compounds such as naphthalene, benzaldehyde and acetophenone. Secondary oxidation products were also observed including methacrolein and methyl vinyl ketone. Emission ratios of organic compounds to carbon monoxide concentrations were calculated and where possible compared to literature. For most simple hydrocarbon emission ratios a very good agreement with previous measurements were observed.

  10. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  11. MTU-Kestrel airborne hyperspectral imaging campaigns of the Lake Superior ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. Bruce; Slough, William J.; Rohde, Charles A.; Pilant, Andrew; Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Jones, Al; Butler, Eugene W.

    1999-10-01

    The clear waters of Lake Superior constitute the heart of one of the most significant fresh water ecosystems in the world. Lake Superior is the world's largest lake by surface area (82,100 km2) holding approximately 10% of the earth's freshwater (12,230 km3) that is not locked into glaciers or ice caps. Although Superior is arguably the most significant fresh water ecosystem on earth, questions relating to the lake and its watershed remain unanswered, including the effects of human habitation, exploitation, and economic potential of the region. There is a great diversity of scientific disciplines with a common interest in remote sensing of the Lake Superior ecosystem which have the need for data at all spatial, spectral, and temporal scales-from scales supplied by satellites, ships or aircraft at low spatial, spectral or temporal resolution, to a requirement for synoptic high resolution spatial (approximately 1 meter)/spectral (1 - 10 nm) data. During May and August of 1998, two week-long data collection campaigns were performed using the Kestrel airborne visible hyperspectral imager to acquire hyperspectral data of a broad taxonomy of ecologically significant targets, including forests, urban areas, lakeshore zones and rivers, mining industry tailing basins, and the Lake itself. We will describe the Kestrel airborne hyperspectral sensor, the collection and data reduction methodology, and flight imagery from both campaigns.

  12. NASA progress in aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, J. P.; Padula, S. L.; Zorumski, W. E.

    1981-01-01

    Langley Research Center efforts to develop a methodology for predicting the effective perceived noise level (EPNL) produced by jet-powered CTOL aircraft to an accuracy of + or - 1.5 dB are summarized with emphasis on the aircraft noise prediction program (ANOPP) which contains a complete set of prediction methods for CTOL aircraft including propulsion system noise sources, aerodynamic or airframe noise sources, forward speed effects, a layered atmospheric model with molecular absorption, ground impedance effects including excess ground attenuation, and a received noise contouring capability. The present state of ANOPP is described and its accuracy and applicability to the preliminary aircraft design process is assessed. Areas are indicated where further theoretical and experimental research on noise prediction are needed. Topics covered include the elements of the noise prediction problem which are incorporated in ANOPP, results of comparisons of ANOPP calculations with measured noise levels, and progress toward treating noise as a design constraint in aircraft system studies.

  13. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  14. The Cal Poly aircraft design program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandlin, Doral R.; Van't Riet, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Discussed is the aircraft design program at Cal Poly, SLO. The history of the program and the impact of the NASA/USRA ADP are presented. Examples of student design accomplishments are included. Questions on how the aircraft design education process can be improved are postulated.

  15. Preliminary Results from the Summer 2014 ADELE (Airborne Detection of Energetic Lightning Emissions) Campaign Aboard the NOAA Hurricane Hunters' P3 Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowers, G. S.; Kelley, N. A.; Martinez-McKinney, G. F.; Smith, D. M.; Buzbee, P.; Dwyer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    ADELE (Airborne Detection for Energetic Lightning Emissions) is an instrument designed to make observations from aircraft altitudes of high energy radiation from lightning related phenomena that include TGFs (Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes), intense sub-millisecond bursts of gamma-rays with energies up to 40 MeV; gamma-ray glows, long duration continuous emissions of gamma-rays; and stepped leader enhancements, gamma-ray emissions coincident with lightning stepped leaders. The instrumentation is three energetic particle detectors each composed of a scintillating material coupled to a photomultiplier tube. The pulse heights from each PMT are discriminated into 4 to 8 energy channels, corresponding roughly to an energy range of 100 keV to 10 MeV. The time resolution for each channel is 50 microseconds. We will discuss preliminary results from the 2014 campaign aboard a NOAA "Hurricane Hunters" P3 aircraft that began on 5 July.

  16. DBSAR's First Multimode Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rincon, Rafael F.; Vega, Manuel; Buenfil, Manuel; Geist, Alessandro; Hilliard, Lawrence; Racette, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The Digital Beamforming SAR (DBSAR) is an airborne imaging radar system that combines phased array technology, reconfigurable on-board processing and waveform generation, and advances in signal processing to enable techniques not possible with conventional SARs. The system exploits the versatility inherently in phased-array technology with a state-of-the-art data acquisition and real-time processor in order to implement multi-mode measurement techniques in a single radar system. Operational modes include scatterometry over multiple antenna beams, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) over several antenna beams, or Altimetry. The radar was flight tested in October 2008 on board of the NASA P3 aircraft over the Delmarva Peninsula, MD. The results from the DBSAR system performance is presented.

  17. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  18. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  19. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  20. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  1. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  2. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A critical perspective on the drug czar's antidrug media campaign.

    PubMed

    DeJong, W; Wallack, L

    1999-01-01

    The US government's Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) launched its new antidrug media campaign in July 1998. The campaign is likely to increase awareness of the youth drug problem, but shortcomings in the campaign's early implementation raise questions about its potential for changing behavior. Shortcomings include: a) The first wave of ONDCP's television advertisements are focused on reinforcing problem awareness but do not model skills or provide other information necessary for behavior change; b) the campaign provides insufficient focus on promoting drug treatment and citizen involvement in local prevention activities, including political action; c) the campaign is being implemented without a major new investment in drug-treatment programs or community-based prevention programs; d) The campaign does not substantively address alcohol and tobacco, which pose a clear threat to health and serve as a "gateway" to illicit drug use; and e) the first wave of television advertisements use exaggerated fear appeals, a strategy shown by research rarely to be successful. Only time will tell whether the ONDCP media campaign will succeed or fail. Using past research as a guide, there is legitimate reason for concern that the campaign will not live up to expectations. PMID:10977283

  4. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  5. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  6. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  7. Second SNPP Cal/Val Campaign: Environmental Data Retrieval Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Kizer, Susan H.; Goldberg, Mitch D.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite ultraspectral infrared sensors provide key data records essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Soumi NPP) satellite Environmental Data Records (EDRs) are retrieved from calibrated ultraspectral radiance or Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Understanding the accuracy of retrieved EDRs is critical. The second Suomi NPP Calibration/Validation field campaign was conducted during March 2015 with flights over Greenland. The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft carrying ultraspectral interferometer sounders such as the National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) flew under the Suomi NPP satellite that carries the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). Herein we inter-compare the EDRs produced from different retrieval algorithms employed on these satellite and aircraft campaign data. The available radiosonde measurements together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses are used to assess atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals from the aircraft and satellite platforms. Preliminary results of this experiment under a winter, Arctic environment are presented.

  8. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  9. Comparisons of cirrus cloud formation and evolution lifetime between five field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, M.; Zondlo, M. A.; DiGangi, J. P.; O'Brien, A.; Heymsfield, A.; Rogers, D. C.; Beaton, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    In order to understand the microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, it is important to understand the formation and evolution of the environments where ice crystals form and reside on the microscale (~100 m). Uncertainties remain in simulating/parameterizing the evolution of ice crystals, which require more analyses in the Lagrangian view. However, most in situ observations are in the Eulerian view and are restricted from examining the lifecycle of cirrus clouds. In this work, a new method of Diao et al. GRL (2013)* is used to separate out five phases of ice crystal evolution, using the horizontal spatial relationships between ice supersaturated regions (ISSRs) and ice crystal regions (ICRs). In-situ, aircraft-based observations from five flight campaigns are used to compare the evolution processes of ISSRs and ICRs, which include the National Science Foundation HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) Global campaign (2009-2011 Arctic to Antarctic over the central Pacific Ocean), the Stratosphere Troposphere Analyses Regional Transport 2008 (START08) campaign (2008 North America), the Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) campaign (2010 tropical western Atlantic), the Tropical Ocean Troposphere Exchange of Reactive Halogen Species and Oxygenated VOC (2012 Costa Rica), and the Deep Convection, Clouds, and Chemistry (DC3) campaign (2011 Interior North America). To understand the evolution of ICRs and ISSRs on the microscale, we compare the microphysical evolution processes inside ISSRs and ICRs in terms of relative humidity with respect to ice (RHi), ice crystal mean diameter (Dc) and ice crystal number density (Nc) at different meteorological and dynamical backgrounds during these five campaigns. Different phases of ice nucleation and evolution are contrasted to understand how cirrus clouds evolve from clear-sky ISS into fully developed clouds, and finally into sedimentation/evaporation phase. The results show that the ratios of

  10. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  11. Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.

  12. Stealth Aircraft Technology. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, manufacture, and history of aircraft incorporating stealth technology. Citations focus on construction materials, testing, aircraft performance, and technology assessment. Fighter aircraft, bombers, missiles, and helicopters represent coverage. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  13. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  14. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  15. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  16. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  17. A NASA study of the impact of technology on future multimission aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samuels, Jeffrey J.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual aircraft design study was recently completed which compared three supersonic multimission tactical aircraft. The aircraft were evaluated in two technology timeframes and were sized with consistent methods and technology assumptions so that the aircraft could be compared in operational utility or cost analysis trends. The three aircraft are a carrier-based Fighter/Attack aircraft, a land-based Multirole Fighter, and a Short Takeoff/Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. This paper describes the design study ground rules used and the aircraft designed. The aircraft descriptions include weights, dimensions and layout, design mission and maneuver performance, and fallout mission performance. The effect of changing technology and mission requirements on the STOVL aircraft and the impact of aircraft navalization are discussed. Also discussed are the effects on the STOVL aircraft of both Thrust/Weight required in hover and design mission radius.

  18. Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.

  19. Ground testing and campaign intercomparisons with the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Rochette, Luc; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Tian, Jialin

    2014-10-01

    The NASA / JPSS Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 19 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flying aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (SNPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, with a primary focus on postmission ground testing and characterization performed subsequent to the recently conducted Suomi NPP (SNPP) airborne field campaign.

  20. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR...

  1. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  2. Exploring the potential of the RPA system SUMO for multipurpose boundary-layer missions during the BLLAST campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuder, Joachim; Båserud, Line; Jonassen, Marius O.; Kral, Stephan T.; Müller, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June and July 2011 the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) performed a total number of 299 scientific flights during the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) campaign in southern France. Three different types of missions were performed: vertical profiling of the mean meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and wind), horizontal surveys of the surface temperature and horizontal transects for the estimation of turbulence. The manuscript provides an introduction to the corresponding SUMO operations, including regulatory issues and the coordination of manned and unmanned airborne operations for boundary-layer research that have been pioneered during the BLLAST campaign. The main purpose of the SUMO flight strategy was atmospheric profiling at high temporal resolution. A total of 168 profile flights were performed during the campaign with typically more than 10 flights per Intensive Observational Period (IOP) day. The collected data allow for a detailed study of boundary-layer structure and dynamics and will be used for further analysis, e.g. the determination of profiles of sensible and latent heat fluxes. First, tests of a corresponding method have shown very promising results and have provided surface-flux values in close agreement with those from ground-based eddy-covariance measurements. In addition, 74 horizontal surveys of the IR emission of the surface were performed at altitudes of around 65 m. Each of those surveys covers a typical area of around 1 km2 and allows for an estimation of the surface-temperature variability, important information for the assessment of the heterogeneity of the surface forcing as a function of soil and vegetation properties. The comparison with other surface-temperature measurements shows that the raw data of the airborne and ground observations can differ considerably, but that even a very simple multiple regression method can reduce those

  3. Overview of the Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Regina; Catoire, Valery; Brocchi, Vanessa; Dulac, Francois; Hamonou, Eric; Canonici, Jean-Christophe; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Massart, Sebastien; Piguet, Bruno; Dayan, Uri; Nabat, Pierre; Sciare, Jean; Ramonet, Michel; di Sarra, Alcide; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kleanthous, Savvas; Pikridas, Michael; Attié, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne campaign has been set up to investigate the variability of constituents (pollutants and greenhouse gases) and aerosols between the West and the East of the Mediterranean Basin in summer 2014. This campaign occurred in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CHARMEX) as part of the Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) programme. During the campaign, several instruments including the Spectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude (SPIRIT) instrument onboard the SAFIRE Falcon-20 aircraft measured aerosols, winds, radiation, humidity and chemical compounds such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, and CO2. The campaign took place from 6 to 10 August 2014 from Toulouse (France) to Larnaca (Cyprus) and back, via Menorca (Spain), Lampedusa (Italy) and Heraklion (Crete). The aircraft flew at about 5000 m altitude above sea level to go and at about 9000 m altitude to return. The campaign also provided some vertical profilings from the surface to about 12 km in the vicinity of the landing sites listed above. The present paper shows an overview of the measurements and of the scientific results obtained during GLAM combining space-borne and surface station measurements, modelling (MOCAGE and ALADIN-CLIMAT) and chemical forecasts and analyses from Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) run by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Along an East-West axis or along the vertical, we analyze different processes. Among the different processes that have been studied in detail, we will particularly focus on aerosol results concentrating on the intercontinental transport and comparisons with surface stations. Combining GLAM, back-trajectories, satellite and model data, we demonstrate that the biomass burning from northern America, desert dust from Sahara and O3-depleted maritime boundary layer air masses

  4. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  5. Analysis and testing of aeroelastic model stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of a stability augmentation system for aircraft flight control were performed. The flutter suppression system and synthesis conducted on a scale model of a supersonic wing for a transport aircraft are discussed. Mechanization and testing of the leading and trailing edge surface actuation systems are described. The ride control system analyses for a 375,000 pound gross weight B-52E aircraft are presented. Analyses of the B-52E aircraft maneuver load control system are included.

  6. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  7. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  8. Global sensitivity analysis of ozone, HO2, and OH during ARCTAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, K. E.; Mao, J.; Brune, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling the chemical state of the atmosphere is a complicated endeavor due to the complex, non-linear interactions between meteorology, emissions, and kinetics that govern trace gas concentrations. Given the rapid environmental changes taking place, the Arctic is one area of particular interest with regards to climate and atmospheric composition. To observe these changes to the Arctic atmosphere, NASA funded the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign (2008). As part of the mission, measurements of oxidative factors (hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) abundances) were taken using the Airborne Tropospheric Hydrogen Oxides Sensor (ATHOS) aboard the NASA DC-8. Using GEOS-Chem, a popular global chemical transport model, we perform a global sensitivity analysis for the period of the ARCTAS campaign, allowing for non-linear interactions between input factors to be accounted and quantified in the analysis. Sensitivities are determined for around 50 model input factors and for combinations of pairs of input factors using the Random Sampling - High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR) method. We calculate the uncertainty in these oxidative factors, and in ozone, ozone production rate, and hydroxyl production rate and find the sensitivity of these oxidative factors and the differences between the measured and modeled oxidative factors to model inputs in meteorology, emissions, and chemistry. This presentation will include a solid estimate of GEOS-Chem model uncertainty for the period of the ARCTAS campaign, the emissions, meteorology, or chemistry to which oxidative properties are most sensitive for these periods, and the factors to which the differences between the modeled and measured oxidative factors are most sensitive.

  9. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  10. Toward scramjet aircraft. [progress in engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for civil, military, and remotely-piloted aviation above Mach 5 is discussed with reference to the scramjet. Actively cooled aircraft structures of low weight are described, together with jet nozzle design and combustion parameters. The scramjet is seen as operating alone or in tandem with ramjet propulsion, which would power an aircraft up to scramjet speeds. Attention is given to the specific impulse of the scramjet engine, with hydrogen as the primary fuel. Applications include: advanced reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, strategic cruise (both aircraft and missiles), highly-maneuverable interceptor missiles, transports, aircraft-type launch vehicles, first stages for Space Shuttle launching craft, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Research has focused on increasing the propulsion power of the scramjet engine, while reducing drag on the accompanying airframe.

  11. NASA Wake Vortex Research for Aircraft Spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, R. Brad; Hinton, David A.; Stuever, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several inter-related areas to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These areas include current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors, and operationally acceptable aircraft/wake interaction criteria. In today's ATC system, the AVOSS could inform ATC controllers when a fixed reduced separation becomes safe to apply to large and heavy aircraft categories. With appropriate integration into the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS), AVOSS dynamic spacing could be tailored to actual generator/follower aircraft pairs rather than a few broad aircraft categories.

  12. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  13. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  14. Testing the Validity of Campaign Ad Exposure Measures: A Family Planning Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures. PMID:27337154

  15. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  16. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  17. OLYMPEX: A Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation Campaign on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.; Lundquist, J. D.; Mass, C.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission was successfully launched at 1837 UTC 27 February 2014 with the first space-borne Ku/Ka band Dual Frequency Precipitation Radar and a passive microwave radiometer (channels ranging from 10-183 GHz). The primary objective of the Core satellite is to measure rain and snow globally, determine its 3D structure, and act as the calibration satellite for a constellation of GPM passive microwave satellites. In order to assess how remotely sensed precipitation can be applied to a range of data applications, ground validation (GV) field campaigns are crucial. As such, the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) is planned for November 2015 - February 2016. The Olympic Peninsula in Washington State is an ideal location to conduct a GV campaign. It is situated within an active mid-latitude winter storm track and receives among the highest annual precipitation amounts in North America. In one compact area, the Olympic peninsula ranges from ocean to coast to land to mountains. It contains a permanent snowfield and numerous associated river basins. This unique venue will enable the field campaign to monitor both upstream precipitation characteristics and processes over the ocean and their modification over complex terrain. The scientific goals of the OLYMPEX field campaign include physical validation of satellite algorithms, precipitation mechanisms in complex terrain, hydrological applications, and modeling studies. In order to address these goals, a wide variety of existing and new observations are planned. These include surface observing networks of meteorological stations, rain and snow gauges, surface microphysical measurements, and snowpack surveys. Several radars will be deployed including the NASA S-Band dual-polarimetric and NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarimetric Doppler radars, the Canadian x-band radar, and other mobile radars. Several instrumented aircraft are likely to participate such as the NASA DC-8 and the

  18. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  19. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  20. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  1. Aircraft emission measurements by remote sensing methodologies at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts from measurements taken under operating conditions, to calculate precisely the emission inventories of airports, are not available up to now. To determine these data, measurement campaigns were performed on idling aircraft at major European airports using non-intrusive spectroscopic methods like Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Emission indices for CO and NO x were calculated and compared to the values given in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) database. The emission index for CO for 36 different aircraft engine types and for NO x (24 different engine types) were determined. It was shown that for idling aircraft, CO emissions are underestimated using the ICAO database. The emission indices for NO x determined in this work are lower than given in the ICAO database. In addition, a high variance of emission indices in each aircraft family and from engine to engine of the same engine type was found. During the same measurement campaigns, the emission indices for CO and NO of eight different types of auxilliary power units were investigated.

  2. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except (1) civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the United...

  3. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except— (1) Civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the...

  4. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except— (1) Civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the...

  5. STDN network operations procedure for Apollo range instrumentation aircraft, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, A. R.; Pfeiffer, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo range instrumentation aircraft (ARIA) fleet which consists of four EC-135N aircraft used for Apollo communication support is discussed. The ARIA aircraft are used to provide coverage of lunar missions, earth orbit missions, command module/service module separation to spacecraft landing, and assist in recovery operations. Descriptions of ARIA aircraft, capabilities, and instrumentation are included.

  6. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  7. MACHYDRO-90 - The microwave aircraft experiment for hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1991-01-01

    MACHYDRO-90 is a multisensor aircraft campaign (MAC) that was held in central Pennsylvania over an eleven day period in July 1990. The emphasis of the campaign was on the microwave measurements of soil moisture, although other aspects of hydrology and microwave-target interactions were also studied. A description is given of the experiment, its organization, and the meteorological conditions during the eleven days. Preliminary results are also presented from PBMR (Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer) and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) measurements of soil moisture. These results are portrayed in the context of the hydrology, which, during this experiment, exhibited dry and wet extremes.

  8. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  9. Measurements of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Ozone and Aerosol Precursors during the SENEX (Southeast Nexus) Campaign 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions of ozone and aerosol precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are the highest in the southeast of the U.S. and rival those found in tropical forests. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the Southeast and photochemistry is rapid. The southeast U.S. has not warmed like other parts of the U.S. in response to global climate change, and the temperature anomaly has been suggested to be related to aerosols derived from a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors. The NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign took place in June-July 2013 in the southeast U.S. as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). The NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between May 27 and July 10, 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. To investigate the combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions several flights were designed to follow the emissions of cities and power plants as they are transported over forested regions in the Southeast. For example, over-flights of Atlanta, Birmingham and Nashville were performed and the plumes were followed to the forested areas with high isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The same was done for several power plants such as EC Gaston, Scherer and Johnsonville. In the anthropogenic plumes, effects such as the modulation of the isoprene chemistry by high NOx and particle formation and growth were investigated. The same strategy was used for three nighttime flights over Atlanta, Birmingham and the New Madrid and White Bluff power plants. Flights over and downwind of St Lois and Indianapolis were used as a contrast in areas with smaller biogenic emissions. Other anthropogenic emissions sources that were investigated during SENEX included bio refineries, paper mills, coalmines, poultry and pork farming. Also biomass burning emissions were observed during one daytime and one nighttime flight. Another focus of the SENEX campaign was to determine the emissions of natural gas and oil production from the

  10. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  11. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  12. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  13. Field Campaign Guidelines (ARM Climate Research Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this document is to establish a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking database tool and are tailored to meet the scope of each specific field campaign.

  14. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  15. Computing Linear Mathematical Models Of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Derivation and Definition of Linear Aircraft Model (LINEAR) computer program provides user with powerful, and flexible, standard, documented, and verified software tool for linearization of mathematical models of aerodynamics of aircraft. Intended for use in software tool to drive linear analysis of stability and design of control laws for aircraft. Capable of both extracting such linearized engine effects as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects, and including these effects in linear model of system. Designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables used in particular model. Also provides flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both state and observation equations. Written in FORTRAN.

  16. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  17. Remotely piloted aircraft in the civil environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, T. J.; Nelms, W. P.; Karmarkar, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    Improved remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs), i.e., incorporating reductions in size, weight, and cost, are becoming available for civilian applications. Existing RPA programs are described and predicted into the future. Attention is given to the NASA Mini-Sniffer, which will fly to altitudes of more than 20,000 m, sample the atmosphere behind supersonic cruise aircraft, and telemeter the data to ground stations. Design and operating parameters of the aircraft are given, especially the optical sensing systems, and civilian RPA uses are outlined, including airborne research, remote mapping, rescue, message relay, and transportation of need materials. Civil regulatory factors are also dealt with.

  18. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  19. [Ethics and efficacy in sexual health campaigns].

    PubMed

    Rascón, José Jara; Sandoica, Esmeralda Alonso

    2008-01-01

    The effectiveness of the diverse campaigns of sexual education carried out in Spain in the last 15 years scarcely has been analyzed. These campaigns have been directed fundamentally to adolescent people and its declared purpose has consisted of promoting the called "safe sex" being based only in the information on methods of barrier. Trying to clarify the efficacy of these campaigns, in the present work the epidemiological data contributed by the Department of Health and the National Institute of the Spanish Youth have been retrospectively investigated. As far as it can be measured, the evolution of the consequences of the sexual practices of the adolescents (abortions and unintended pregnancies) in the sanitary environment were also analyzed. Likewise, the data of the National Registry of Epidemiological Surveillance on the evolution of sexually transmitted diseases are collected. The results obtained of this analysis show that in teenages between 15 and 19 years, a progressive increase in the percentage of abortions regarding the total number of pregnancies has grown from 20% in 1990 to 44% in 2000 arriving at 46.6% in 2003. These data correspond with an progressive increase also related to the total number of abortions in Spain, reaching 13.7% in 2005. Likewise, the consumption of the postcoital pills for adolescents is analyzed. It has passed from 160.000 prescriptions in 2001 to nearly half a million units in 2005. This means the demand of this resource in the last 5 years has multiplied by three without achieving a stabilization in the number of new abortions per year. The evolution of the declared sexually transmitted diseases shows an increase of 79% in the infections by syphilis and a 45.8% in uncomplicated gonorrhoea. As conclusions, since an ethical perspective and since the perspective of sanitary efficiency, it can be affirmed that the validity of the campaigns of "safe sex" remains in doubt after analyzing the available data. The refusal to include in

  20. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  1. Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3

  2. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  3. Method and device for landing aircraft dependent on runway occupancy time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghalebsaz Jeddi, Babak (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A technique for landing aircraft using an aircraft landing accident avoidance device is disclosed. The technique includes determining at least two probability distribution functions; determining a safe lower limit on a separation between a lead aircraft and a trail aircraft on a glide slope to the runway; determining a maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate on the runway based on the safe lower limit and the probability distribution functions; directing the trail aircraft to enter the glide slope with a target separation from the lead aircraft corresponding to the maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate; while the trail aircraft is in the glide slope, determining an actual separation between the lead aircraft and the trail aircraft; and directing the trail aircraft to execute a go-around maneuver if the actual separation approaches the safe lower limit. Probability distribution functions include runway occupancy time, and landing time interval and/or inter-arrival distance.

  4. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  5. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  6. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  7. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  8. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  9. The 2011 Draconids: The First European Airborne Meteor Observation Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Koten, Pavel; Margonis, Anastasios; Toth, Juraj; Rudawska, Regina; Gritsevich, Maria; Zender, Joe; McAuliffe, Jonathan; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Jenniskens, Peter; Koschny, Detlef; Colas, Francois; Bouley, Sylvain; Maquet, Lucie; Leroy, Arnaud; Lecacheux, Jean; Borovicka, Jiri; Watanabe, Junichi; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    On 8 October 2011, the Draconid meteor shower (IAU, DRA) was predicted to cause two brief outbursts of meteors, visible from locations in Europe. For the first time, a European airborne meteor observation campaign was organized, supported by ground-based observations. Two aircraft were deployed from Kiruna, Sweden, carrying six scientists, 19 cameras and eight crew members. The flight geometry was chosen such that it was possible to obtain double-station observations of many meteors. The instrument setup on the aircraft as well as on the ground is described in full detail. The main peak from 1900-dust ejecta happened at the predicted time and at the predicted rate. The second peak was observed from the earlier flight and from the ground, and was caused most likely by trails ejected in the nineteenth century. A total of 250 meteors were observed, for which light curve data were derived. The trajectory, velocity, deceleration and orbit of 35 double station meteors were measured. The magnitude distribution index was high, as a result of which there was no excess of meteors near the horizon. The light curve proved to be extremely flat on average, which was unexpected. Observations of spectra allowed us to derive the compositional information of the Draconids meteoroids and showed an early release of sodium, usually interpreted as resulting from fragile meteoroids. Lessons learned from this experience are derived for future airborne meteor shower observation campaigns.

  10. Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, J.

    2006-08-01

    In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

  11. Broadening Participation in Citizen Science Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    While successful citizen-science campaigns have demonstrable effectiveness in engaging their participants in scientific projects, and research suggests that participants learn about both scientific processes and content, many campaigns struggle to engage participants from communities that have been historically under-represented in science. This is both puzzling and unfortunate: puzzling because citizen-scientist programs are often built around phenomena that are part of many people's daily lives and unfortunate because these programs offer a new and effective approach to scientific outreach and education that could, potentially, offer new avenues to include historically underserved communities in science. This poster will explore the demographics of several well-known citizen science programs, compare them to national trends, and use this comparison to suggest goals for diversifying citizen-science participation. It will review research on minority participation in formal and informal geoscience and science education programs to identify barriers to broader participation and offer some strategies for diversifying citizen science programs. It will highlight participatory research methodologies as used in resource conservation and public health, and explore their relevance to citizen science program. The overall goal of the poster is not to suggest a singular answer or even promote best practices, since much of what works well is likely to be place-based and context dependence. Instead, we seek to raise questions, offer approaches and spark a dialogue among citizen-science practitioners that will encourage new approaches and ultimately result in broader engagement in citizen-science campaigns.

  12. ParticipACTION: A mass media campaign targeting parents of inactive children; knowledge, saliency, and trialing behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In late 2007, Canada's ParticipACTION national physical activity mass media campaign was re-launched, with an initial campaign targeting parents of elementary school-aged children. The campaign informed them about the risks of physical inactivity for children and youth. The purpose of this study was to assess campaign awareness and understanding following the campaign, and to identify whether exposure to this campaign was likely associated with behaviour change. Methods A convenience sample of 1,500 adults was recruited though an existing panel (n = 60,000) of Canadian adults to participate in online surveys. Initial campaign exposure included "prompted" and "unprompted" recall of specific physical activity messages from the 2007 ParticipACTION campaign, knowledge of the benefits of PA, saliency, and initial trial behaviours to help their children become more active. Results One quarter of respondents showed unprompted recall of specific message content from the ParticipACTION campaign, and prompted recall was 57%. Message recall and understanding was associated with knowledge about physical activity, and that in turn was related to high saliency. Saliency was associated with each of the physical activity-related trial behaviours asked. Conclusion Campaign awareness and understanding was high following this ParticipACTION campaign, and was associated with intermediate campaign outcomes, including saliency and trial behaviours. This is relevant to campaign evaluations, as it suggests that an initial focus on influencing awareness and understanding is likely to lead to more substantial change in campaign endpoints. PMID:19995459

  13. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  14. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations Of Brightness Temperatures And Ocean Surface Wind Speed And Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP And HS3 Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, L.; Biswas, S. K.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R. M.; Black, P. G.; Albers, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA's GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  15. The Demeter micro satellite launch campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, V.; Kainov, V.; Thoby, M.; Silkin, O.; Solovey, V.

    The CNES Micro satellite DEMETER is planned for launch by the end of June 2004 on a DNEPR launcher, from the Baíkonur cosmodrome. DEMETER will be the main payload among nine co-passengers. DEMETER, initiated by CNES in 1998, is the first model of the MYRIADE micro satellites line of product; at the time when this abstract is issued, the satellite is going through the final integration tests, as well as the last system validation phase. The space head module of the launcher has been developed by the Ukrainian YSDO company, and a successful fit check test campaign has been performed in December 2003 and January 2004 that allowed confirming the compatibility of the payloads with their launcher interface. The launch campaign is in process of preparation, implying a close partnership between the satellite team at CNES and Russian and Ukrainian launcher authorities: DEMETER is a pioneer not only for the satellite concept itself, but also for being the first satellite of this range (3 axis stabilized, including an hydrazine propulsion system and developed by a national space agency) being launched on a Russian space adapted intercontinental ballistic missile SS18. The launch service is contracted and managed by ISC Kosmotras, and it will also be the first sun synchronous orbit launch for DNEPR. Thus the launch preparation proved to be a very challenging endeavour providing all the actors with very rich human experience, as well as technical exchanges, in the fields of launcher technology and interfaces, facilities adaptation, logistics and project coordination. In the coming paper, a short presentation of the DEMETER satellite and of the DNEPR launcher will be made, but the main purpose is to present: the launch campaign preparation milestones, the launch campaign itself and related preliminary results and the lessons learnt from this first CNES/DNEPR experience to open the way to the future MYRIADE launches. A common CNES/KOSMOTRAS presentation is proposed at the

  16. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  17. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  18. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  19. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  20. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  1. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  2. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  3. Integrated lift/drag controller for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.; Seckel, E.; Ellis, D. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A system for altering the lift/drag characteristics of powered aircraft to provide a safe means of glide path control includes a control device integrated for coordination action with the aircraft throttle. Such lift/drag alteration devices as spoilers, dive brakes, and the like are actuated by manual operation of a single lever coupled with the throttle for integrating, blending or coordinating power control. Improper operation of the controller is inhibited by safety mechanisms.

  4. Ion recombination in aircraft exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Mirabel, P.

    In this article, a model which examines the evolution of ion concentrations in a hot aircraft exhaust plume on the ground is proposed. The model includes plume dilution and ion-ion recombination with coefficients which vary with temperature. A comparison of the model is made with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines. From this comparison, an ion emission index of the order of 8 1016 ions/kg(fuel) inferred.

  5. The Australian national binge drinking campaign: campaign recognition among young people at a music festival who report risky drinking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Australian Government launched a mass media campaign in 2009 to raise awareness of the harms and costs associated risky drinking among young Australians. The aim of this study was to assess if young people attending a music festival who report frequent risky single occasions of drinking (RSOD) recognise the key message of the campaign, "Binge drinking can lead to injuries and regrets", compared to young people who report less frequent RSOD. Methods A cross-sectional behavioural survey of young people (aged 16-29 years) attending a music festival in Melbourne, Australia, was conducted in January 2009. We collected basic demographics, information on alcohol and other drug use and sexual health and behaviour during the previous 12 months, and measured recognition of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign key message. We calculated the odds of recognition of the key slogan of the Australian National Binge Drinking Campaign among participants who reported frequent RSOD (defined as reported weekly or more frequent RSOD during the previous 12 months) compared to participants who reported less frequent RSOD. Results Overall, three-quarters (74.7%) of 1072 participants included in this analysis recognised the campaign message. In the adjusted analysis, those reporting frequent RSOD had significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message compared to those not reporting frequent RSOD (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.9), whilst females had significantly greater odds of recognising the campaign message compared to males (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.4-2.1). Conclusions Whilst a high proportion of the target group recognised the campaign, our analysis suggests that participants that reported frequent RSOD - and thus the most important group to target - had statistically significantly lower odds of recognising the campaign message. PMID:21689457

  6. Lightning as an Aircraft Hazard: (Latest citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning lightning strikes as an aircraft hazard. Aircraft designs to prevent or withstand lightning strikes, statistics on lightning strikes of aircraft, detection of strikes, remote monitoring and detection of lightning, initiation of lightning strikes by aircraft, effects of lightning strikes on aircraft structural and electronic components, modeling, and simulation of lightning strikes on aircraft are discussed. Remote detection of storms with regard to aircraft safety are discussed in another bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  8. Ice Nuclei in Mid-Latitude Cirrus: Preliminary Results from a New Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) Aircraft Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K. D.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Kulkarni, G.; Lawson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cirrus cloud properties are strongly governed by the mechanism of ice particle formation and by the number and effectiveness of ambient ice nuclei. Airborne measurements of ice nuclei reveal new nucleation mechanisms, provide constraints on microphysical models, and guide laboratory investigations. For over two decades the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) inlet has remained the prevailing approach for sampling cloud particles to measure ice nuclei from an aircraft platform. However, traditional CVI inlets have fundamental limitations when operating on high speed aircraft, where only a small fraction of ambient cloud particles are typically sampled. A novel 'folded' CVI was constructed and deployed during the NASA MACPEX 2011 campaign. The flow design of this inlet effectively doubles the CVI length and thereby increases the size range of captured cirrus particles. Additional design elements such as an internal vortex flow, a neon carrier gas, and an infrared laser further improve the capture and evaporation of ice crystals. Preliminary results of ice nuclei composition measured by the PALMS single-particle mass spectrometer are presented from the MACPEX campaign. Examples of ice nuclei from mid-latitude cirrus are shown, including mineral dust, organic-rich aerosol with amine and diacid components, and lead-containing aerosol.

  9. Philippine campaign boosts child immunizations.

    PubMed

    Manuel-santana, R

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, USAID awarded the Philippines a 5-year, US $50 million Child Survival Program targeting improvement in immunization coverage of children, prenatal care coverage for pregnant women, and contraceptive prevalence. Upon successful completion of performance benchmarks at the end of each year, USAID released monies to fund child survival activities for the following year. This program accomplished a major program goal, which was decentralization of health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning in its determination of allocation of resources. Social marketing activities contributed greatly to success in achieving the goal of boosting the immunization coverage rate for the 6 antigens listed under the Expanded Program for Immunization (51%-85% of infants, 1986-1991). In fact, rural health officers in Tarlac Province in Central Luzon went from household to household to talk to mothers about the benefits of immunizing a 1-year-old child, thereby contributing greatly to their achieving a 95% full immunization coverage rate by December 1991. Social marketing techniques included modern marketing strategies and multimedia channels. They first proved successful in metro Manila which, at the beginning of the campaign, had the lowest immunization rate of all 14 regions. Every Wednesday was designated immunization day and was when rural health centers vaccinated the children. Social marketing also successfully publicized oral rehydration therapy (ORT), breast feeding, and tuberculosis control. Another contributing factor to program success in child survival activities was private sector involvement. For example, the Philippine Pediatric Society helped to promote ORT as the preferred treatment for acute diarrhea. Further, the commercial sector distributed packets of oral rehydration salts and even advertised its own ORT product. At the end of 2

  10. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease. PMID:23962490

  11. Automated decision algorithm applied to a field experiment with multiple research objectives: The DC3 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlon, C. J.; Small, A.; Bose, S.; Young, G. S.; Verlinde, J.

    2013-12-01

    In airborne field campaigns, investigators confront complex decision challenges concerning when and where to deploy aircraft to meet scientific objectives within constraints of time and budgeted flight hours. An automated flight decision recommendation system was developed to assist investigators leading the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in spring--summer 2012. In making flight decisions, DC3 investigators needed to integrate two distinct, potentially competing objectives: to maximize the total harvest of data collected, and also to maintain an approximate balance of data collected from each of three geographic study regions. Choices needed to satisfy several constraint conditions including, most prominently, a limit on the total number of flight hours, and a bound on the number of calendar days in the field. An automated recommendation system was developed by translating these objectives and bounds into a formal problem of constrained optimization. In this formalization, a key step involved the mathematical representation of investigators' scientific preferences over the set of possible data collection outcomes. Competing objectives were integrated into a single metric by means of a utility function, which served to quantify the value of alternative data portfolios. Flight recommendations were generated to maximize the expected utility of each daily decision, conditioned on that day's forecast. A calibrated forecast probability of flight success in each study region was generated according to a forecasting system trained on numerical weather prediction model output, as well as expected climatological probability of flight success on future days. System performance was evaluated by comparing the data yielded by the actual DC3 campaign, compared with the yield that would have been realized had the algorithmic recommendations been followed. It was found that the algorithmic system would have achieved 19%--59% greater utility than the decisions

  12. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements

  13. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  14. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  15. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  16. Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )

    1992-02-01

    Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

  17. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  18. Atmospheric River Observations with the HAMSR Aircraft Microwave Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. T.; Schreier, M. M.; Dang, H. V. T.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2001 to serve as an aircraft based hurricane observatory. It initially flew on the high altitude ER-2 and later on the DC-8. More recently it was modified to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. It uses the most advanced technology and is among the most sensitive instruments of its kind. In addition to a number of NASA hurricane field campaigns - mostly in the North Atlantic, HAMSR has participated in two atmospheric river campaigns off the California coast, one in 2011 (WISPAR) and one in 2015 (CalWater2). We will discuss observations from the 2015 campaign, with particular focus on a flight over an atmsospheric river making landfall in central California in early February, as well as compare with highlights from the 2011 flights. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  19. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  20. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  1. Keep Your Campaign Aim True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mary Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Asking constituents to rally around a cause and make stretch gifts when they're already suffering unprecedented hits to their personal finances sounds more like a fool's errand than a best practice in fundraising. The economic crisis has added a tricky new aspect to operating in campaign mode, but savvy fundraisers haven't given up, scaled back,…

  2. Up, Up & Away. Strategic Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Catherine L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses a ballooning analogy to offer nine suggestions for universities conducting major fund-raising campaigns: study the map and choose a direction; test the prevailing winds; choose and train your crew; gear up for the journey; stay on course; make every bit count; change course as needed; and capitalize on your successful landing. (DB)

  3. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  4. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission...;having general applicability and legal effect, most of which are keyed #0;to and codified in the Code...

  5. e-Campaigning: The Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Sonali

    The practices of E-Campaigning are gradually gaining momentum in the world. This paper discusses the Democratic campaign of the 2008 American Presidential Election. It contends that the effective use of E-Campaigning techniques was the key to their success. It also deliberates upon the tremendous increase in public involvement over the Internet during the campaigning period. Also, it predicts the future of E-Campaigning and gives an in depth analysis of what the world can expect to see in future elections. Lastly, it examines the relation between E-Campaigning and E-Democracy in the context of the aftermath of the election.

  6. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  7. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  8. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  9. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  10. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  11. OLYMPEX: A Ground Validation Campaign on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Lundquist, J. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is scheduled for launch in early 2014. It's primary objective is to measure rain and snow globally especially in areas lacking surface observations or ground-based radar coverage. The GPM satellites will need to be able to detect solid and liquid precipitation over a wide range of intensities, locations and regimes. The core satellite of GPM will carry a passive microwave radiometer, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the first space-borne Ku/Ka band Dual Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). To satisfy the GPM measurement requirements and to assess how remotely sensed precipitation can be applied to a range of data applications (e.g. determining storm structures and monitoring flooding events and droughts) ground validation (GV) field campaigns are vital. As such, the Olympic Mountains GV Experiment (OLYMPEX) is planned for November 2015 - February 2016. The Olympic Peninsula is an ideal location to conduct a GV campaign. It is situated in the northwest corner of Washington State within an active mid-latitude winter storm track. It receives among the highest annual precipitation amounts in North America ranging from over 2500 mm on the coast to 4000 mm in the mountainous interior. In one compact area, the Olympic peninsula ranges from ocean to coast to land to mountains. This unique venue will enable the field campaign to monitor both upstream precipitation characteristics and processes over the ocean and their modification over complex terrain. Measuring precipitation from space in coastal and mountainous regions is challenging; however, the unique characteristics of the Olympic Peninsula make OLYMPEX a unique and viable opportunity to address these challenges and quantify the sources of variability and uncertainty in coastal and complex terrain. The scientific goals of the OLYMPEX field campaign include physical validation of satellite algorithms, precipitation processes in complex terrain, hydrological

  12. The GLORIE Campaign: Assessment of the Capabilities of Airborne GNSS-R for Land Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Motte, E.; Zribi, M., Sr.; Fanise, P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In June and July 2015 an intensive flight campaign was conducted over the south west of France to test the sensitivity of Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) to the geophysical parameters of continental surfaces. Namely, the parameters of interest were soil moisture, soil roughness, plant water content, forest biomass and level of inland water bodies and rivers. We used the GLORI polarimetric GNSS-R instrument, collecting raw 10MSPS 2-bit IQ direct (RHCP, zenith) and reflected (RHCP and LHCP, nadir) signals at GPS L1 frequency aboard the ATR-42 aircraft of the SAFIRE fleet. Simultaneous measurement of aircraft attitude and position were recorded. The flight plan included flyovers of several areas of interests, with collocated ground truth measurements of soil moisture, soil roughness, cultivated biomass, and forest biomass. Also flyovers of ponds, lakes and river were included for power calibration and altimetry retrievals. In total, 6 flights were performed between June 19th and July 6th, representing more than 15 hours of raw data. A conventional GNSS-R processing of the data was performed in order to compute the direct and reflected complex waveforms. A preliminary data analysis based on the variations of the ratio of reflected maximum correlation amplitude in the LHCP antenna to direct maximum correlated amplitude shows measurements sensitivity to soil type, land use and incidence angle. Also, first altimetric retrievals using phase-delay techniques shows very promising results over calm waters. Current work is ongoing in order to fit the observed polarimetric measurements with innovative bistatic scattering models capable of taking into account complex geometries and land use configurations.

  13. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  14. Ozone intercomparisons from the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, D.; Evans, W.; Louisnard, N.; Pollitt, S.; Traub, W.; Waters, J.

    Intercomparisons of remote and in-situ techniques used to measure stratospheric ozone are made using results obtained on the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign of 1982 and 1983. Two in-situ and four remote instruments participated. These included ECC ozonesondes, a UV absorption photometer, and microwave emission, IR emission, and absorption spectrometers. Differences are generally less than 15 percent, and are within the quoted error bars. Flights which involved different sets of instruments were made on four separate days, and results are intercompared in plots of ozone density versus altitude. A careful assessment of errors was made for each instrument, and a plot of absolute errors versus altitude is given.

  15. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  16. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  17. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  18. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  19. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  20. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  1. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  4. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  5. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  6. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  7. Heart Health: The Heart Truth Campaign 2009

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story Heart Health The Heart Truth Campaign 2009 Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table ... one of the celebrities supporting this year's The Heart Truth campaign. Both R&B singer Ashanti (center) ...

  8. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Mayer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA 's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. Multiple aircraft are involved in most NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. A flight planning tools is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama ]Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with New Java Script frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. Adapting new technologies for the Waypoint Planning Tool ensures its success in helping scientist reach their

  9. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

  10. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  11. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  12. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  13. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  14. Aircraft overflight study. Effect of aircraft altitude upon sound levels at the ground

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, G.S.; Horonjeff, R.D.

    1992-03-01

    The report summarizes that literature review, discussing sound divergence, atmospheric absorption, attenuation due to intervening hills and heavily wooded areas, soft-ground attenuation, and the acoustical descriptors that are of potential concern to the Park Service as the aircraft flies by. Finally, the report concludes with a summary of the effect of aircraft altitude upon sound levels on the ground, taking all these factors into account. Included in the summary is a discussion of the potential acoustical effectiveness of using altitude as a mitigation measure for any adverse effects of aircraft sound within the National Park System.

  15. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  16. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  17. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  18. Small Scale Motions Observed by Aircraft in the Tropical Tropopause Layer - Convective and Non-Convective Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, J.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect evidence indicates a role for vertical mixing in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). In particular, detailed model studies suggest that such vertical mixing may be required to explain the value of the water vapor minimum in the TTL. There have been previous observations during the STEP Tropical aircraft campaign (1987) of bursts of high frequency activity associated with convectively generated gravity waves in the tropical western Pacific. Higher frequency, higher quality measurements from NASA high altitude aircraft (ER-2, WB-57, and Global Hawk) have been made available in the last 20 years. These include measurements of vertical velocity and other meteorological parameters. Most recently, during the ATTREX Global Hawk aircraft mission (Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment), there have been extensive measurements at all altitudes of the TTL in both convective (winter western Pacific) and less convective (winter eastern Pacific) regions. This presentation represents an initial analysis of high frequency small scale (a few km max) meteorological measurements from the ATTREX dataset. We obtain some basic information about the distribution and character of high frequency activity in vertical velocity in the TTL. In particular, we focus on relating the high frequency activity to nearby tropical convection and to vertical shears associated with gravity and inertia-gravity waves.

  19. Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology: NOAA's Application of the Global Hawk Aircraft for High Impact Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Dunion, J. P.; Black, M. L.; Kenul, P.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program has begun the project Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) to evaluate the potential of high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft like the Global Hawk to improve forecasts of high-impact weather events and mitigate any degradations in the forecasts that might occur if there were a gap in satellite coverage. The first phase of the project is occurring this August and September using the NASA Global Hawk to study the impact of targeted observations of hurricanes and tropical cyclones. This follows several successful research missions conducted by both NASA and NOAA. Instruments on the aircraft for SHOUT include the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS or dropsondes), the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR, a microwave sounder), the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP, a scanning Doppler precipitation radar), and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP). The observations are being utilized for real-time forecasting, ingestion into operational weather models, and in post mission impact studies. Data impact is being evaluated through a combination of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) and Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). This presentation describes observations collected during this year's campaign, utilization of the data at the National Hurricane Center, and the results of preliminary data impact assessments of the data from SHOUT and previous experiments.

  20. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  1. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  2. Steps for Launching a Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safranek, Thomas W.; Usyk, Patricia A.

    The capital campaign in the Catholic elementary and secondary school must be viewed as an essential component in the total development program. This document addresses many of the specifics regarding the proper positioning steps and procedures for a capital campaign. The introductory chapter provides a historical overview of the capital campaign.…

  3. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  4. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  5. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  6. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  8. Inter-comparison of glyoxal retrievals from MAX-DOAS during the MAD-CAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Wagner, Thomas; Lampel, Johannes; van Roozendael, Michel; Richter, Andreas; Sinha, Vinayak; Xie, Pinhua; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years the smallest α-dicarbonyl compound glyoxal (CHOCHO) has received attention in order to inform relevant atmospheric chemistry processes such as oxidative capacity and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A method to detect glyoxal in the atmosphere is through the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) applied to solar scattered light passive remote sensing measurements on different platforms, including ground based, aircrafts, and satellites. Although these measurements are often described still many questions about DOAS fitting parameters need to be investigated. We present results from a comprehensive Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) comparison effort during the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) held at the Max Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany with an intensive operation period from June to August 2013. We evaluate the comparison for glyoxal differential Slant Column Densities (dSCD) from 6 different research groups during the MAD-CAT campaign. The data analysis is performed following three retrieval common settings. In general, good agreement between different groups is found, especially for days with low cloud coverage. Based on the diurnal variability of the glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratio we identified that Mainz is influenced mostly by anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC) emission type. Also, for most of the days glyoxal was often clearly above the respective detection limits. We will present results of sensitivity studies in order to know influence of the wavelength window, dependence of the NO2 air mass factor, cross correlation with H2O, among others. Finally, synthetic spectra created with the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model using measurement related inputs are analysed and first results are presented.

  9. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  10. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  11. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation.…

  12. CASE Campaign Standards: Management and Reporting Standards for Educational Fund-Raising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document establishes guidance for managing educational fund-raising campaigns and standards for reporting campaign gifts in the United States and Canada. The guidelines offer an objective means to compare one campaign to another and a rational way to discern how well a campaign has met its goals. The standards depend upon three fundamental…

  13. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  14. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 9: Piloted simulator evaluation of the Boeing Vertol model 222 tilt rotor aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenstein, H.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Mollenkof, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a real time piloted simulation to investigate the handling qualities and performance of a tilting rotor aircraft design are presented. The aerodynamic configuration of the aircraft is described. The procedures for conducting the simulator evaluation are reported. Pilot comments of the aircraft handling qualities under various simulated flight conditions are included. The time histories of selected pilot maneuvers are shown.

  15. Large Eddy Simulations of Continental Boundary Layer Clouds Observed during the RACORO Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, S.; Fridlind, A. M.; Lin, W.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Toto, T.; Liu, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Three cases of boundary layer clouds are analyzed in the FAst-physics System TEstbed and Research (FASTER) project, based on continental boundary-layer-cloud observations during the RACORO Campaign [Routine Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Facility (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations] at the ARM Climate Research Facility's Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The three 60-hour case study periods are selected to capture the temporal evolution of cumulus, stratiform, and drizzling boundary-layer cloud systems under a range of conditions, intentionally including those that are relatively more mixed or transitional in nature versus being of a purely canonical type. Multi-modal and temporally varying aerosol number size distribution profiles are derived from aircraft observations. Large eddy simulations (LESs) are performed for the three case study periods using the GISS Distributed Hydrodynamic Aerosol and Radiative Modeling Application (DHARMA) model and the WRF-FASTER model, which is the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model implemented with forcing ingestion and other functions to constitute a flexible LES. The two LES models commonly capture the significant transitions of cloud-topped boundary layers in the three periods: diurnal evolution of cumulus layers repeating over multiple days, nighttime evolution/daytime diminution of thick stratus, and daytime breakup of stratus and stratocumulus clouds. Simulated transitions of thermodynamic structures of the cloud-topped boundary layers are examined by balloon-borne soundings and ground-based remote sensors. Aircraft observations are then used to statistically evaluate the predicted cloud droplet number size distributions under varying aerosol and cloud conditions. An ensemble approach is used to refine the model configuration for the combined use of observations with parallel LES and single-column model simulations. See Lin et al. poster for single

  16. Downwind Trace Gas Vertical Profiles in SE Australia Associated with SAFARI 2000 Dry Season Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pak, B. C.; Langenfelds, R. L.; Young, S. A.; Francey, R. J.; Meyer, M.; Kivlighon, L. M.; Cooper, L. N.; Dunse, B. L.; Allison, C. E.; Steele, L. P.; Galbally, I. E.; Weeks, I. A.

    2001-12-01

    In association with the SAFARI 2000 Dry Season campaign in Africa, the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) division of Atmospheric Research conducted aircraft measurements downwind, over Australia. Five missions were conducted using a Piper Navajo twin-engine aircraft to measure trace gas vertical profiles from near surface up to 7 km above Cape Grim (41oS, 144oE) and Melbourne (38oS, 145oE) regions. Air collected in glass flasks were analysed for CO2 and its stable isotopes (d13C and d18O of CO2), CH4, CO, H2 and N2O. Air collected in passivated canisters were analysed for C2 and C3 hydrocarbons. Ozone was monitored continuously in four of these missions and ground-based LIDAR was also employed in the Melbourne region in three occasions. Previous study on trace gas vertical profiles above Cape Grim between 1992 and 1997 had established using emission ratios that burning in Africa and S America are contributing to the enhanced mid-tropospheric content of various trace gases in SE Australia. Now the SAFARI 2000 in-situ data complemented with downwind observations in Australia provides the opportunity to more closely link the observed mid-tropospheric anomalies at Cape Grim to specific surface emissions and atmospheric processes. Combined with our previous data, this investigation of biomass burning impacts is extended for the whole period from 1992 to 2000. In this respect, we plan to collaborate with groups measuring the same trace gases in-situ during SAFARI 2000 (including ozone and VOCs) and compare the observations to simulated results from the UC Irvine chemistry transport model. Data requests for the vertical profile data could be addressed to B.C. Pak or R.L. Langenfelds via email: bpak@halo.ps.uci.edu, ray.langenfelds@dar.csiro.au

  17. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  18. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  19. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  20. Associations Between the Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Campaign and Calls to Related Crisis Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Stephens, Brady; Draper, John; Kemp, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Transit Authority Suicide Prevention (TASP) campaign was launched by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in a limited number of U.S. cities to promote the use of crisis lines among veterans of military service. Methods We obtained the daily number of calls to the VCL and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) for six implementation cities (where the campaign was active) and four control cities (where there was no TASP campaign messaging) for a 14-month period. To identify changes in call volume associated with campaign implementation, VCL and NSPL daily call counts for three time periods of equal length (pre-campaign, during campaign, and post-campaign) were modeled using a Poisson log-linear regression with inference based on the generalized estimating equations. Results Statistically significant increases in calls to both the VCL and the NSPL were reported during the TASP campaign in implementation cities, but were not reported in control cities during or following the campaign. Secondary outcome measures were also reported for the VCL and included the percentage of callers who are veterans, and calls resulting in a rescue during the study period. Conclusions Results from this study reveal some promise for suicide prevention messaging to promote the use of telephone crisis services and contribute to an emerging area of research examining the effects of campaigns on help seeking. PMID:25364053

  1. A 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns: Have we made progress?

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M; Palmgreen, Philip; Chabot, Melissa; Dobransky, Nicole; Zimmerman, Rick S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to conduct a 10-year systematic review of HIV/AIDS mass communication campaigns focused on sexual behavior, HIV testing, or both (1998-2007) and to compare the results with the last comprehensive review of such campaigns, conducted by Myhre and Flora (2000). A comprehensive search strategy yielded 38 HIV/AIDS campaign evaluation articles published in peer-reviewed journals, representing 34 distinct campaign efforts conducted in 23 countries. The articles were coded on a variety of campaign design and evaluation dimensions by two independent coders. Results indicated that compared with the previous systematic review (1986-1998 period), campaigns increasingly have employed the following strategies: (1) targeted defined audiences developed through audience segmentation procedures; (2) designed campaign themes around behavior change (rather than knowledge change); (3) used behavioral theories; (4) achieved high message exposure; (5) used stronger research designs for outcome evaluation; and (6) included measures of behavior (or behavioral intentions) in outcome assessments. In addition, an examination of 10 campaign efforts that used more rigorous quasi-experimental designs revealed that the majority (8 of 10) demonstrated effects on behavior change or behavioral intentions. Despite these positive developments, most HIV/AIDS campaigns continue to use weak (i.e., preexperimental) outcome evaluation designs. Implications of these results for improved design, implementation, and evaluation of HIV/AIDS campaign efforts are discussed. PMID:19180369

  2. Haitian AIDS education campaign struggles on despite political turmoil.

    PubMed

    Aldebron, J

    1993-12-01

    Haiti's multimedia AIDS education campaign Alerte SIDA has continued despite the economic sanctions and political upheaval that thwarted its original plans. In 1992, the campaign included an aggressive volunteer effort in 140 schools in Port-au-Prince, including a conference, theatrical performances, video presentations, and group discussions. Expansion of the campaign led to creation of a telephone hot line for adolescents, radio spots, peer education sessions, and a multimedia campaign highlighted by six televised roundtable discussions in which young people discussed sex, AIDS, and the involvement of parents in sex education. The next stage of the campaign was to target parents as well as adolescents with educational and discussion sessions and information packets suggesting ways parents could broach the subjects of sex and sexually transmitted diseases with their children. This stage has been preempted by the economic embargo and political discord (which also increased the value of sexual intercourse as solace). Haitians, however, have a history of adapting to situations and making do with what they have. Thus, the work continues, even if it is reduced to impromptu educational sessions held in decrepit school yards. When the classrooms reopen, Alerte SIDA will be on hand to continue its efforts to protect the health of Haiti's children. PMID:12288830

  3. RSRA flight control and stabilization. [Rotor Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Handling qualities of the RSRA (rotor systems research aircraft), a special test vehicle with optional configurations (forewings, removable horizontal tailplanes, main rotor, tail rotor, and twin engines for forward flight all removable), are described. The aircraft can be fitted to fly as a conventional rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, or compound helicopter, and is designed for testing existing and future rotor systems in flight. Controls include full-authority fly-by-wire controls and mechanical controls for rotary wing and for fixed wing. Stability augmentation, rotor test measurement systems, variable center of gravity capability, and rotor loading potential of the RSRA are also described.

  4. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework. PMID:21441207

  5. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  6. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  7. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  8. Application of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40 m and a total weight of 5-8 kg, depending on battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Since 2010 the system has been tested and improved intensively. In September 2012 first comparative tests could successfully be performed at the Lindenberg observatory of Germany's National Meteorological Service (DWD). In 2013, several campaigns were done with the system, including fundamental boundary layer research, wind energy meteorology and assistive measurements to aerosol investigations. The results of a series of morning transition experiments in summer 2013 will be presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system. On several convective days between May and September, vertical soundings were done to record the evolution of the ABL in the early morning, from about one hour after sunrise, until noon. In between the soundings, flight legs of up to 1 km length were performed to measure turbulent statistics and fluxes at a constant altitude. With the help of surface flux measurements of a sonic anemometer, methods of similarity theory could be applied to the RPA flux measurements to compare them to

  9. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  10. 242-A Campaign 94-1 post run document

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, M.D.

    1994-09-30

    The purpose of this post-run document is to summarize the results of 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-1 as required. Campaign 94-1 represents the first Evaporator operation since 1989, following completion of the B-534 upgrades and Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) construction. The purpose of Campaign 94-1 was to concentrate dilute waste from TK-102-AW, TK-106-AW, and TK-103-AP. From an available 2.87 million gallon feedstock of dilute waste contained in 102-AW, 106-AW and 103-AP, an overall Waste Volume Reduction (WVR) of 2.39 million gallons (83% WVRF) was achieved. At the completion of the campaign, approximately 477,000 gallons of dilute double-shell slurry feed (DDSSF) was produced with a SpG. of 1.25--1.30. Total process condensate discharged to LERF was 3.09 million gallons, achieving a condensate/WVR ratio of 1.29. Throughput for Campaign 94-1 was 5.27 million gallons. Total steam condensate and cooling water discharge to B-pond was 4.7 and 216 million gallons respectively. The evaporator operated approximately 43 days of the 60 day campaign for a total operating efficiency of 73%. Campaign 94-1 was completed without any discharge limit, Operating Specification Document, or Operational Safety Requirement violations. Major problems encountered during the run included the following: (1) high CA1 deentrainment pad dP`s caused by foaming, (2) condensate pump P-C100 failure, and (3) ion exchange column dP`s and efficiency.

  11. Computer simulation of aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics for the YF-12 aircraft at supersonic cruise conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    A computer simulation of the YF-12 aircraft motions and propulsion system dynamics is presented. The propulsion system was represented in sufficient detail so that interactions between aircraft motions and the propulsion system dynamics could be investigated. Six degree-of-freedom aircraft motions together with the three-axis stability augmentation system were represented. The mixed compression inlets and their controls were represented in the started mode for a range of flow conditions up to the inlet unstart boundary. Effects of inlet moving geometry on aircraft forces and movements as well as effects of aircraft motions on the inlet behavior were simulated. The engines, which are straight subjects, were represented in the afterburning mode, with effects of changes in aircraft flight conditions included. The simulation was capable of operating in real time.

  12. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  13. Measuring the Effectiveness of Mass-Mediated Health Campaigns Through Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anker, Ashley E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh; McCracken, Bonnie; Lagoe, Carolyn A

    2016-04-01

    A meta-analytic review was undertaken to examine the effects of mass communication campaigns on changes in behavior, knowledge, and self-efficacy in the general public. A review of the academic literature was undertaken and identified 1,638 articles from 1966 through 2012. Using strict inclusion criteria, we included 63 studies for coding and analyses. Results from these efforts indicated that campaigns produced positive effects in behavior change (r = .05, k = 61) and knowledge (r = .10, k = 26) but failed to produce significant increases in self-efficacy (r = .02, k = 14). Several moderators (e.g., health topic, the theory underlying the campaign) were examined in relation to campaign principles that are prescribed to increase campaign effects. The major findings are reviewed, and the implications for future campaign design are discussed. PMID:26953782

  14. Stop the sores: the making and evaluation of a successful social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; Kerndt, Peter R; Mall, Karen L; Pappas, Les G; Kent, Charlotte K; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Los Angeles County has experienced a rapid increase in early syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years, with the number of cases rising from 126 in 2000 to 809 in 2005. As part of the public health response to this outbreak, a sustained social marketing campaign was launched in 2002, with the objectives of increasing syphilis testing, knowledge, and awareness among MSM in Los Angeles. This campaign, as implemented, exemplified key principles of social marketing, including market research, audience segmentation, and branding. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2004 to evaluate the campaign found that those MSM who were aware of the campaign were nearly twice as likely to have tested for syphilis in the past 6 months as those MSM who were not aware of the campaign. Those MSM who were aware of the campaign also had more syphilis awareness and knowledge in key areas. PMID:18403747

  15. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations.

    PubMed

    Toscano, P; Gioli, B; Dugheri, S; Salvini, A; Matese, A; Bonacchi, A; Zaldei, A; Cupelli, V; Miglietta, F

    2011-05-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground. PMID:21376441

  17. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  18. What Was Learned in Predicting Slender Airframe Aerodynamics with the F16-XL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Lucking, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The CAWAPI-2 coordinated project has been underway to improve CFD predictions of slender airframe aerodynamics. The work is focused on two flow conditions and leverages a unique flight data set obtained with the F-16XL aircraft for comparison and verification. These conditions, a low-speed high angle-of-attack case and a transonic low angle-of-attack case, were selected from a prior prediction campaign wherein the CFD failed to provide acceptable results. In re-visiting these two cases, approaches for improved results include better, denser grids using more grid adaptation to local flow features as well as unsteady higher-fidelity physical modeling like hybrid RANS/URANS-LES methods. The work embodies predictions from multiple numerical formulations that are contributed from multiple organizations where some authors investigate other possible factors that could explain the discrepancies in agreement, e.g. effects due to deflected control surfaces during the flight tests, as well as static aeroelastic deflection of the outer wing. This paper presents the synthesis of all the results and findings and draws some conclusions that lead to an improved understanding of the underlying flow physics, and finally making the connections between the physics and aircraft features.

  19. Propulsion concepts for high speed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stull, F. D.; Jones, R. A.; Zima, W. P.

    1975-01-01

    A wide variety of potentially useful and effective airbreathing aircraft have been postulated to operate at speeds in excess of Mach 3.0 by NASA and the USAF. These systems include hydrogen-fueled transports of interest for very long ranges and airbreathing launch vehicles which are aircraft-type first stage candidates for future space shuttle systems. Other high speed airbreathing systems for possible future military applications include advanced reconnaissance and fighter/interceptor type aircraft and strategic systems. This paper presents (1) a chronology of Air Force technical activity on future propulsion concepts, (2) a status report on NASA research on scramjet technology for future systems which may require speeds above Mach 5, and (3) a description of a research vehicle by which advanced propulsion technology and other technologies related to high speed can be demonstrated.

  20. Mass media-led antismoking campaign can remove the education gap in quitting behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Macaskill, P; Pierce, J P; Simpson, J M; Lyle, D M

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated whether the effective mass media-led antismoking campaigns in Australia had the traditional differential effect across educational levels. Our population surveys included random samples of 12,851 people before the campaign and 11,609 several years after the campaign had started. No statistically significant differences were found in quitting across education levels in three of the four subgroups. Mass media-led antismoking campaigns may play an important role in getting the antismoking message to the less educated. PMID:1536344

  1. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  2. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  3. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  4. GJ 436 Extrasolar Planet Transit Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Aaron; Henden, Arne

    2008-02-01

    A campaign, headed by Dr. Greg Laughlin (transitsearch.org and University of California, Santa Cruz) has been initiated to observe GJ 436 for transits of extrasolar planets. Precise multicolor photometry, carefully reduced but not transformed, is requested of AAVSO observers. The GJ 436 system is m(V)=~10.7; the expected transit length is ~1 hour; the transit depth is less than 0.1 magnitude (~0.006 mag). Dr. Laughlin provides the following transit period and ephemeris: P = 2.643901 days T_mid = 2454222.6157 HJD (02:46:36.48 UT May 2, 2007) The next transit is scheduled for February 14, 2008 from 06:49 to 07:47 UT. The parent system is very red (M3V); so including airmass values will be very important. Links to information on comparison stars, finder charts, airmass calculation, and other aspects of this campaign, as well as advice on making the photometric observations, is available in the Alert Notice. Observations submitted to the AAVSO International Database as GJ 436.

  5. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  6. Aircraft requirements for low/medium density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R.; Dodge, S.; Faulkner, H.; Glendinning, I.; Hays, A.; Simpson, R.; Swan, W.; Taneja, N.; Vittek, J.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the demand for and the economic factors involved in air transportation in a low and medium density market. The subjects investigated are as follows: (1) industry and market structure, (2) aircraft analysis, (3) economic analysis, (4) field surveys, and (5) computer network analysis. Graphs are included to show the economic requirements and the aircraft performance characteristics.

  7. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  8. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  9. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  11. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  12. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  13. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  14. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  15. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  16. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  17. GOCE Re-Entry Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastida, B.; Flohrer, T.; Lemmens, S.; Krag, H.

    2015-03-01

    Every year ESA, through the Space Debris Office, participates to an Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) Re-entry Test Campaign.. For the campaign of 2013, ESA’s proposal to select GOCE's re-entry was accepted. The campaign opened on the 21st October 2013 after fuel depletion of the drag-compensating ion propulsion. GOCE was expected to enter into a phase of attitude-controlled fine-pointing mode (FPM) until the attitude controllers would be unable to cope with the atmospheric torques and then the satellite would enter in a phase of fully uncontrolled flight. In this paper, we present the evolution of ESA’s daily predictions on the re-entry epoch using different sources of orbital information. The uncertainties on the spacecraft operability (i.e. the physical limits of the attitude controller) led to a non-standard re-entry scenario were different attitudes had to be considered (instead of the commonly assumed random tumbling mode case that is used whenever no information on the physical properties of a re-entering object is available). A daily assessment of the status, in coordination with the flight control team, was required and implied a continuous update on the predicted failure point of the attitude controller. This in turn imposed the need for considering an asymmetric re-entry window. These operation-bound uncertainties were simulated to predict the attitude evolution after failure at different altitudes and their effects evaluated to be taken into account for the re-entry predictions. We present ESA’s re-entry prediction activities for GOCE, internally, and within the IADC, and address specific technical aspects and challenges for re-entry predictions, which are related to the expected and occurred attitude of GOCE during the final re-entry phase.

  18. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  19. Sludge Stabilization Campaign blend plan

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1994-10-04

    This sludge stabilization blend plan documents the material to be processed and the order of processing for the FY95 Sludge Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing sludge. The source of the sludge is residual and glovebox floor sweepings from the production of material at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The reactive sludge is currently being stored in various gloveboxes at PFP. There are two types of the plutonium bearing material that will be thermally stabilized in the muffle furnace: Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF) sludge and Remote Mechanical C (RMC) Line material.

  20. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  1. World commercial aircraft accidents: 1st edition, 1946--1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1992-02-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. This report is organized into six chapters. The first chapter is the introduction. The second chapter contains the compilation of accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft from 1952 to 1991. The third chapter presents a compilation of accidents involving world commercial turboprop aircraft from 1952 to 1991. The fourth chapter presents a compilation of accidents involving world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines from 1946 to 1991. Each accident compilation or database in chapters two, three and four is presented in chronological order. Each accident is presented with information the following categories: date of accident, airline or operator and its flight number (if known), type of flight, type of aircraft and model, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage resulting from accident, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, references used to compile the information, and finally cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident. The fifth chapter presents a list of all commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities. Chapter six presents the commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types by flight phase. Future editions of this report will have additional follow-on chapters which will present other studies still in preparation at the time this edition was being prepared.

  2. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  3. Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) observations during several 2013 NASA field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Xu, F.; Kalashnikova, O.; Rheingans, B.; Geier, S.; Val, S.; Bull, M.; Jovanovic, V.; Bruegge, C.; Seidel, F. C.; Daugherty, B.; Chipman, R.; Davis, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Airborne Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (AirMSPI) is an ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared pushbroom camera mounted on a single-axis gimbal to acquire multiangle imagery over a ×67° along-track range. The instrument flies aboard NASA's high-altitude ER-2 aircraft, and acquires Earth imagery with ~10 m spatial resolution across an 11-km wide swath. Intensity (I) images are obtained in eight spectral bands (355, 380, 445, 470, 555, 660, 865, and 935 nm). Dual photoelastic modulators (PEMs), achromatic quarter-wave plates, and wire-grid polarizers enable imagery of the linear polarization Stokes components Q and U at 470, 660, and 865 nm. The data are used to derive degree of linear polarization (DOLP) and angle of linear polarization (AOLP). Example flight data acquired during various NASA field campaigns in 2013, including the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) Polarimeter Definition Experiment (PODEX), Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI), and Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) are presented. Observations of aerosols, low- and mid-level cloud fields, cirrus, and different types of surfaces under clear skies were obtained for a variety of land and ocean targets. Radiance and polarization imagery for several scenes, along with modeling of aerosol, cloud, and surface scattering, are presented to illustrate quantitatively some of the instrument's capabilities. Laboratory and vicarious calibration results are also discussed.

  4. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  5. NOAA Utilization of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft for Atmospheric Research and Forecast Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Black, M. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Hock, T. F.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    High altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft provide a tremendous new capability for monitoring the atmosphere in support of weather research and forecast improvement. The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program is collaborating with NASA on the use of their Global Hawk (GH) aircraft for research into better understanding and forecasting high-impact weather events. NOAA has participated in multiple field campaigns either in partnership with NASA including the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP, 2010) and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3, 2011-2014) experiments, or under NOAA leadership during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR, 2011) experiment. This past year, NOAA began a 3-year project, Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT), to quantify the influence of UAS data on high-impact weather prediction and assess the operational effectiveness of UAS to help mitigate the risk of potential satellite observing gaps. The NOAA UAS system partnered with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the development of a dropsonde system for the GH which has been flown along with other remote sensing instrumentation. This presentation summarizes our key results to date and describes our planned activities over the next two years. Flights during WISPAR provided measurements of water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers for evaluation of numerical weather prediction forecasts and analyses. A flight sampling the Arctic atmosphere north of Alaska included the first dropsondes released in the Arctic since the 1950's and extensive measurements of boundary-layer variability over an ocean-ice lead feature. Assimilation of GH dropsonde data collected in the environment around tropical storms during HS3 has demonstrated significant positive forecast improvements. Data are also being employed in the validation of multiple satellite-derived products. In SHOUT, campaigns are planned targeting Atlantic

  6. U.S. Campaign Advertises American Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2007-01-01

    A marketing campaign intended to persuade Chinese students to study in the United States will soon branch out to other parts of the globe. The U.S.-led program, which includes slick television commercials and a one-stop-shopping Web portal, was introduced in China last fall. The commercials, which run about 30 minutes and were filmed on American…

  7. Getting Gifts Together: Alumni Media Experts Boost Capital Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Alumni media experts were asked to donate their time and talents to the Wittenberg fund raising campaign. A Communications Advisory Committee was formed and a comprehensive public relations plan was proposed to penetrate media in selected areas. Some committee suggestions included faculty interviews, editorial support, public service time. (MLW)

  8. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  9. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  10. The variable density aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the variable density aircraft concept the aircraft's density is varied by varying its volume. This is accomplished by combining a variable volume hull, which is called the dynapod, with intrinsic means for the controlled variation of a mass of working fluid or substance within the aircraft. The dynapod is a hinged structure and follows the volumetric variations of the working fluid. The result is a variable density hull, which with the attachment of power plants, etc., becomes a variable density aircraft.

  11. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  12. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Pickering, K. E.; Zoogman, P.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases and aerosols from aircraft. The instrument measures backscattered UV and visible radiation, allowing the retrieval of trace gas amounts below the aircraft at horizontal resolutions on the order of 250 m x 250 m. GeoTASO was originally developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program as a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey mission, and is now also part of risk reduction for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions. We present spatially resolved observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide over urban areas and power plants from flights during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Texas and Colorado, as well as comparisons with observations made by ground-based Pandora spectrometers, in situ monitoring instruments and other aircraft instruments deployed during these campaigns. These measurements at various times of day are providing a very useful data set for testing and improving TEMPO and GEMS retrieval algorithms, as well as demonstrating prototype validation strategies.

  13. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  14. The Pew Home Visiting Campaign: Helping States Improve Quality, Evaluation, and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlitt, John

    2010-01-01

    The Pew Home Visiting Campaign was launched in 2009 by the Pew Center on the States to guide state policymakers toward smart investments in quality, voluntary home-based programs for new and expectant families. In light of the federal development and pressing needs of states, the campaign will assist states in several ways, including policy…

  15. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  16. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  17. Service-Learning with a Food Stamp Enrollment Campaign: Community and Student Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Judith R.; Summers, Mary; Toton, Suzanne; Aisenstein, Hillary

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a multi-campus collaboration in a Food Stamp Enrollment Campaign to demonstrate that a well-managed public benefits campaign, associated with broader advocacy-based community partnerships, can result in positive outcomes for the community that include measurable benefits for clients, data needed to make policy and administrative…

  18. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  19. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  20. Overview of STEREO/EUVI and SOHO/EIT Data during the WHI Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, Therese A.; Landi, E.

    2008-01-01

    The poster will present an overview of the data from the March-April,2008 Whole Heliospheric Interval Campaign. These instruments will show the targets during the campaign from three points of view at a range of temperatures. Targets are expected to include coronal cavities, coronal holes, active regions and prominences.