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Sample records for aircraft campaigns including

  1. Technology Advancements Enhance Aircraft Support of Experiment Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vachon, Jacques J.

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, the NASA Airborne Science Program has provided airborne platforms for space bound instrument development, for calibrating new and existing satellite systems, and for making in situ and remote sensing measurements that can only be made from aircraft. New technologies have expanded the capabilities of aircraft that are operated for these missions. Over the last several years a new technology investment portfolio has yielded improvements that produce better measurements for the airborne science communities. These new technologies include unmanned vehicles, precision trajectory control and advanced telecommunications capabilities. We will discuss some of the benefits of these new technologies and systems which aim to provide users with more precision, lower operational costs, quicker access to data, and better management of multi aircraft and multi sensor campaigns.

  2. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  3. Ozonesonde and aircraft measurements in the tropical West Pacific from the CAST field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newton, Richard; Vaughan, Geraint; Ricketts, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    The Coordinated Airborne Studies in the Tropics (CAST) campaign comprised of ozonesonde launches and an aircraft campaign in the West Pacific in January-March 2014. Previous field campaigns in this region have highlighted an area to the east of Papua New Guinea and near the Solomon Islands as sources of deep convection and anomalously low ozone in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). The CAST campaign provides a unique dataset of ozonesonde launches from Manus Island, Papua New Guinea, close to the hypothesized source region. CAST was performed in coordination with two sister campaigns, CONTRAST and ATTREX, bringing the FAAM BAe 146, NCAR Gulfstream V and NASA Global Hawk aircraft respectively to Guam. The aircraft campaign allowed an unprecedented comparison between ozonesondes and aircraft, which was used to verify the ozonesonde measurements and support the choice of background correction; this correction is of paramount importance in the tropics as the background constitutes half of the measured signal. The data obtained from the CAST ozonesondes suggest that the lowest ozone concentrations, at ~15 ppb, found in the tropical tropopause layer were accompanied by easterly winds from an area of deep convection, suggesting the air was lifted quickly from the marine boundary layer. The evidence from the CAST campaign suggests that the anomalously low near-zero ozone measured during previous campaigns in the tropical West Pacific is an artefact of the ozonesonde behaviour at low pressures (high altitude) - the low-ozone measurements can be recreated with the CAST ozonesondes if the background is not properly treated.

  4. Insights into Submicron Aerosol Composition and Sources from the WINTER Aircraft Campaign Over the Eastern US.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Apel, E. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Campos, T. L.; Brown, S. S.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    The WINTER aircraft campaign was a recent field experiment to probe the sources and evolution of gas pollutants and aerosols in Northeast US urban and industrial plumes during the winter. A highly customized Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was flown on the NCAR C-130 to characterize submicron aerosol composition and evolution. Thirteen research flights were conducted covering a wide range of conditions, including rural, urban, and marine environments during day and night. Organic aerosol (OA) was a large component of the submicron aerosol in the boundary layer. The fraction of OA (fOA) was smaller (35-40%) than in recent US summer campaigns (~60-70%). Biomass burning was observed to be an important source of OA in the boundary layer, which is consistent with recent wintertime studies that show a substantial contribution of residential wood burning to the OA loadings. OA oxygenation (O/C ratio) shows a broad distribution with a substantial fraction of smaller O/C ratios when compared to previous summertime campaigns. Since measurements were rarely made very close to primary sources (i.e. directly above urban areas), this is consistent with oxidative chemistry being slower during winter. SOA formation and aging in the NYC plume was observed during several flights and compared with summertime results from LA (CalNex) and Mexico City (MILAGRO). Additionally, an oxidation flow reactor (OFR) capable of oxidizing ambient air up to several equivalent days of oxidation was deployed for the first time in an aircraft platform. The aerosol outflow of the OFR was sampled with the AMS to provide real-time snapshots of the potential for aerosol formation and aging. For example, a case study of a flight through the Ohio River valley showed evidence of oxidation of SO2 to sulfate. The measured sulfate enhancements were in good agreement with our OFR chemical model. OFR results for SOA will be discussed.

  5. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea-Ice Validation Program: Arctic2006 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus, T.

    2006-01-01

    In March 2006, a coordinated Arctic sea-ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was the second Alaskan Arctic field campaign for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea-ice products. The first campaign was completed in March 2003. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese Space Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea-ice products to be validated include sea-ice concentration, sea-ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The focus of this campaign was on the validation of snow depth on sea ice and sea-ice temperature. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the six flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements.

  6. Airborne measurements performed by a light aircraft during Pegasos spring 2013 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Väänänen, Riikka; Krejci, Radovan; Manninen, Hanna E.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Kangasluoma, Juha; Pohja, Toivo; Aalto, Pasi P.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    To fully understand the chemical and physical processes in atmosphere, measuring only on-ground is not sufficient. To extend the measurements into the lower troposphere, the University of Helsinki has performed airborne campaigns since 2009. During spring 2013, a light aircraft was used to measure the aerosol size distribution over boreal forests as a part of the Pegasos 'Norhern Mission'. The aims of the measurements were to quantify the vertical profiles of aerosols up to the altitude of 3.5 km, to study the new particle formation in the lower troposphere, to measure the planetary boundary layer evolution, and to support the measurements performed by Zeppelin NT. We used a Cessna 172 light aircraft as a platform. An aerosol and gas inlet was mounted under the right wing and the sample air was conducted inside the cabin where most of the instruments were placed. The aerosol measurement instruments included a TSI 3776 condensation particle counter (CPC) with a cut-off size of 3 nm, a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), with a size range of 10-350 nm, and a Particle Size Magnifier (PSM) connected with a TSI 3772 condensation particle counter. As the properties of the PSM measuring in airborne conditions were still under testing during the campaign, the setups of the PSM varied between the measurements. Other instruments on board included a Li-Cor Li-840 H2O/Co2-analyzer, a temperature sensor, a relative humidity sensor, and a GPS receiver. Total amount of 45 flights with 118 flight hours were performed between 24th April and 15th June 2013. The majority of the flights were flown around SMEAR II station located in Hyytiälä, and when possible, the flights were synchronized with the Zeppelin flights. Simultaneously, an extensive field campaign to measure aerosol and gas properties was performed on-ground at SMEAR II station. A time series of airborne aerosol data of around 1.5 months allows us to construct statistical vertical profiles of aerosol size

  7. Coordinating Aircraft During Field Campaigns: Real Time Mission Monitor Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    RTMM has evolved into a powerful and easy to use application in support of planning, situational awareness and strategic decision-making during airborne field campaigns. NASA is very open to sharing these capabilities with any interested group through interagency collaborations in future field activities.

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.90 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a Federal aircraft transferred from another executive... AIRCRAFT Acquiring Government Aircraft and Aircraft Parts The Process for Budgeting to Acquire Government Aircraft § 102-33.90 What is the process for budgeting to acquire a Federal aircraft (including a...

  9. Biogenic Contributions to Summertime Arctic Aerosol: Observations of Aerosol Composition from the Netcare 2014 Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, M. D.; Burkart, J.; Koellner, F.; Schneider, J.; Bozem, H.; Hoor, P. M.; Brauner, R.; Herber, A. B.; Leaitch, W. R.; Abbatt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Arctic is a complex and poorly studied aerosol environment, impacted by strong anthropogenic contributions during winter months and by regional sources in cleaner summer months. In order to gain a predictive understanding of the changing climate in this region, it is necessary to understand the balance between these two aerosol sources to clarify how aerosol might be altered by or contribute to climate change. We present results of vertically resolved, submicron aerosol composition from an Aerodyne high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) during the NETCARE 2014 Polar6 aircraft campaign. The campaign was based in the high Arctic, at Resolute, NU (74°N), allowing measurements from 60 to 2900 meters over ice, open water and near the ice-edge. Concurrent measurements aboard the Polar6 included ultrafine and accumulation mode particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, trace gas concentrations and single particle composition. Aerosol vertical profiles measured by the AMS can be broadly characterized into two regimes corresponding to different meteorological conditions: the first with very low aerosol loading (<0.1 μg/m3) at low altitudes compared to that aloft and high numbers of nucleation mode particles, and the second with higher concentrations at lower levels. This second regime was associated with low concentrations of nucleation mode particles, and higher observable levels of methane sulphonic acid (MSA) from AMS measurements at low altitudes. MSA, produced during the oxidation of dimethyl sulphide, is a marker for the contribution of ocean-derived biogenic sulphur to particulate sulphur and could be identified and quantified using the high-resolution AMS. MSA to sulphate ratios were observed to increase towards lower altitudes, suggesting a contribution to aerosol loading from the ocean. In addition, we present measurements of aerosol neutralization and the characteristics of organic aerosol that relate to the growth of

  10. First SNPP Cal/Val Campaign: Satellite and Aircraft Sounding Retrieval Intercomparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Larar, Allen M.; Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Wu, Wan; Kizer, Susan; Goldberg, Mitch; Liu, Q.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite ultraspectral infrared sensors provide key data records essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite Environmental Data Record (EDR) is retrieved from calibrated ultraspectral radiance so called Sensor Data Record (SDR). It is critical to understand the accuracy of retrieved EDRs, which mainly depends on SDR accuracy (e.g., instrument random noise and absolute accuracy), an ill-posed retrieval system, and radiative transfer model errors. There are few approaches to validate EDR products, e.g., some common methods are to rely on radiosonde measurements, ground-based measurements, and dedicated aircraft campaign providing in-situ measurements of atmosphere and/or employing similar ultraspectral interferometer sounders. Ultraspectral interferometer sounder aboard aircraft measures SDR to retrieve EDR, which is often used to validate satellite measurements of SDR and EDR. The SNPP Calibration/Validation Campaign was conducted during May 2013. The NASA high-altitude aircraft ER-2 that carried ultraspectral interferometer sounders such as the NASA Atmospheric Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) flew under the SNPP satellite that carries the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS). Here we inter-compare the EDRs produced with different retrieval algorithms from SDRs measured by the sensors from satellite and aircraft. The available dropsonde and radiosonde measurements together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis were also used to draw the conclusion from this experiment.

  11. Insights Into Precipitation Processes As Revealed By Profiling Radar, Disdrometer and Aircraft Observations During The MC3E Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giangrande, S. E.; Toto, T.; Mishra, S.; Ryzhkov, A.; Bansemer, A.; Kumjian, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) was a collaborative campaign led by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration's (NASA's) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. This campaign was held at the DOE ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (CF) in north-central Oklahoma, with the programs joining forces to deploy an extensive array of airborne, radiosonde and ground-based instrumentation towards an unprecedented set of deep convective environment and cloud property observations. An overarching motivation was to capitalize on the wealth of aircraft observations and new multi-frequency dual-polarization radars to provide insights for improving the treatments of cloud processes in convective models. This study considers a coupled aircraft, radar and surface disdrometer approach for identifying key cloud processes and linking those to possible radar-based microphysical fingerprints and/or cloud properties. Our emphasis is on the MC3E observations collected during aircraft spirals over the column of the ARM CF. We focus on those spirals associated with radar 'bright band' signatures and Doppler spectral anomalies observed within trailing stratifrom precipitation. Two cases are highlighted, one following a weaker convective event, and one following a stronger squall line. For each event, we investigate the usefulness of radar to inform on processes including aggregation and riming as viewed by the vertically-pointing ARM wind profiler (915 MHz) and cloud radar Doppler spectral observations (35 GHz). Matching dual-polarization radar signatures from nearby cm-wavelength radar are also consulted for complementary insights. For one event, the successive Citation II aircraft spirals through the melting layer and associated ground observations indicate a fortunate capture of the transition from a region of riming to one favoring aggregation

  12. Aerosol transport over Siberia: analysis of the summer 2013 YAK-AEROSIB aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ancellet, Gerard; Penner, Johannes; Kokhanenko, Grigorii; Arshinov, Mikhail; Chernov, Dimitry; Kozlov, Valery; Paris, Jean Daniel; Pruvost, Arnaud; Belan, Boris; Nedelec, Philippe; Pelon, Jacques; Law, Kathy

    2014-05-01

    Transport and transformation of aerosols related to forest fires and Eastern Asia anthropogenic emissions have been identified as very important questions to understand the Arctic climate. Two aircraft campaigns have been conducted over Siberia in summer 2012 and 2013 with in-situ measurements by aerosol spectrometers and also by a 532 nm backscatter lidar in 2013. The aerosol data can be also combined with CO measurements measured on-board the aircraft to identify the aerosol pollution sources. The analysis of the transport processes has been performed with the FLEXPART Lagrangian model run either in the forward or backward mode. While the 2012 campaign is characterized by anticyclonic conditions and strong forest fire emissions, the 2013 campaign corresponds to upward lifting of Northern China emissions. Comparisons with satellite data obtained with the CALIPSO mission for the two summer periods will be presented to identify the spatial extent and the temporal evolution of the pollution plumes and also to test the ability of the satellite data to derive the aerosol types. This work was funded by CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  13. Aircraft emissions, plume chemistry, and alternative fuels: results from the APEX, AAFEX, and MDW-2009 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S.; Anderson, B.; Knighton, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We describe observations of aircraft emissions from the APEX, JETS-APEX2, APEX3, MDW-2009 and AAFEX campaigns. Direct emissions of HOx precursors are important for understanding exhaust plume chemistry due to their role in determining HOx concentrations. Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde are crucial HOx precursors and thus drivers of plume chemistry. At idle power, aircraft engine exhaust is unique among fossil fuel combustion sources due to the speciation of both NOx and VOCs. The impacts of emissions of HOx precursors on plume chemistry at low power are demonstrated with empirical observations of rapid NO to NO2 conversion, indicative of rapid HOx chemistry. The impacts of alternative fuels (derived from biomass, coal, and natural gas) on emissions of NOx, CO, and speciated VOCs are discussed.

  14. The Role of the Flux Aircraft in Bottom-Up Scaling in the Bondville Intensive Campaign 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, D.; Dobosy, R.; Kirby, S.; Dumas, E.

    2005-12-01

    The Bondville, Illinois intensive campaign features an integrated, bottom-up approach to extrapolating tower-based CO2 fluxes up to regional estimates of flux. The overall approach is: (1) to measure flux at several towers covering approximately 200 km2 over corn and soybean fields, (2) to use a flux aircraft to measure flux (momentum, CO2, H20, sensible, and latent heat) and atmospheric structure, (3) to collect remotely sensed images in thermal IR (8-12)μm and three visual bands using Utah State's dedicated Piper Seneca, (4) to obtain satellite shots of the study region, (5) to perform landscape modeling of fluxes using data remotely sensed from satellite and aircraft along with in-situ soil characterization data in the University of Wisconsin's ALEXI model, and (6) to compare the different estimates of fluxes from each technique at various temporal and spatial scales. Ultimately, a model such as ALEXI further evolved through the measurements and relationships established during the intensive can be used to estimate regional fluxes. The campaign is scheduled to take place over three years, with the vast majority of the measurements being made from mid June until mid September. For the first year (2005), data necessary for the integrated methodology were collected during the first three weeks of June. From June 2005 until September, a total of seven flux towers was operated (two permanent AmeriFlux towers and five supplemental towers provided by cooperating researchers). Utah State's Remote Sensing aircraft obtained high resolution (1m-4m) thermal data over our 200 km2 study site in Champaign county (10km x 20km ). The combined efforts of many independently-funded researchers at the Champaign site has provided a fruitfully synergistic assemblage of data, including canopy-structure measurements by a German group led by Dr. Uwe Rascher. We will describe the Intensive and the role of various research teams, emphasizing the fluxes obtained using the Sky Arrow

  15. Instrumentation and measurement strategy for the NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, Carsten; Trainer, Michael; de Gouw, Joost A.; Parrish, David D.; Fahey, David W.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Brock, Charles A.; Roberts, James M.; Brown, Steven S.; Neuman, Jonathan A.; Lerner, Brian M.; Lack, Daniel; Law, Daniel; Hübler, Gerhard; Pollack, Iliana; Sjostedt, Steven; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Liao, Jin; Holloway, John; Peischl, Jeff; Nowak, John B.; Aikin, Kenneth C.; Min, Kyung-Eun; Washenfelder, Rebecca A.; Graus, Martin G.; Richardson, Mathew; Markovic, Milos Z.; Wagner, Nick L.; Welti, André; Veres, Patrick R.; Edwards, Peter; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Gordon, Timothy; Dube, William P.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Brioude, Jerome; Ahmadov, Ravan; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Lin, Jack J.; Nenes, Athanasios; Wolfe, Glenn M.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Lee, Ben H.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Thornton, Joel A.; Keutsch, Frank N.; Kaiser, Jennifer; Mao, Jingqiu; Hatch, Courtney D.

    2016-07-01

    Natural emissions of ozone-and-aerosol-precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are high in the southeastern US. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the southeastern US and summertime photochemistry is rapid. The NOAA-led SENEX (Southeast Nexus) aircraft campaign was one of the major components of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS) and was focused on studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions to form secondary pollutants. During SENEX, the NOAA WP-3D aircraft conducted 20 research flights between 27 May and 10 July 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. Here we describe the experimental approach, the science goals and early results of the NOAA SENEX campaign. The aircraft, its capabilities and standard measurements are described. The instrument payload is summarized including detection limits, accuracy, precision and time resolutions for all gas-and-aerosol phase instruments. The inter-comparisons of compounds measured with multiple instruments on the NOAA WP-3D are presented and were all within the stated uncertainties, except two of the three NO2 measurements. The SENEX flights included day- and nighttime flights in the southeastern US as well as flights over areas with intense shale gas extraction (Marcellus, Fayetteville and Haynesville shale). We present one example flight on 16 June 2013, which was a daytime flight over the Atlanta region, where several crosswind transects of plumes from the city and nearby point sources, such as power plants, paper mills and landfills, were flown. The area around Atlanta has large biogenic isoprene emissions, which provided an excellent case for studying the interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic emissions. In this example flight, chemistry in and outside the Atlanta plumes was observed for several hours after emission. The analysis of this flight showcases the strategies implemented to answer some of the main SENEX science questions.

  16. The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Butow, Steven J.; Fonda, Mark

    Two B707-type research aircraft of the 452^nd Flight Test Squadron at Edwards Air Force Base were deployed to study the Leonid meteor storm of 1999 over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered an international team of 35 researchers observing conditions free of clouds and low altitude extinction at a prime location for viewing the storm. This 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign followed a similar effort in 1998, improving upon mission strategy and scope. As before, spectroscopic and imaging experiments targeted meteors and persistent trains, but also airglow, aurora, elves and sprites. The research aimed to address outstanding questions in astrobiology, planetary science, astronomy, and upper atmospheric research. In addition, USAF co-sponsored the mission to provide near real-time flux measurements for space weather awareness. First results are presented in these issues of Earth, Moon, and Planets in preparation for future missions that will target the exceptional Leonid returns of 2001 and 2002. An early review of the scientific achievements in the context of campaign objectives is given.

  17. Comparison of Pandora spectrometer NO2 measurements to aircraft, satellite, and ground measurements during the DISCOVER-AQ Texas campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, L.; Lefer, B. L.; Herman, J. R.; Abuhassan, N.; Cede, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Janz, S. J.; Ren, X.; Luke, W. T.; Long, R.

    2014-12-01

    Pandora spectrometer measurements are compared to other remotely sensed and in-situ NO2 measurements in the Houston, TX region during the third deployment of the DISCOVER-AQ campaign in September 2013. The network of freeways, petrochemical facilities, and related industries contribute to an ongoing pollution problem in the Houston region with the direct emissions of NOx and VOCs producing secondary pollutants such as ozone and PM2.5. The goal of this work is to determine how the Pandora spectrometer column measurements of NO2 compare to in-situ derived and other remotely sensed columns, as well as with ground measurements during this deployment of DISCOVER-AQ. UC Berkeley's LIF measurements of NO2 aboard the NASA P-3B at each spiral site are used to create the aircraft derived profiles of NO2. The aircraft measured profiles include upwind, source, and receptor sites in the region, three times a day, at eight different locations. In addition, we investigate how the NO2 profile shape changes both spatially and temporally, with a focus on the difference between the boundary layer and free troposphere distributions. Pandora measurements are also compared to column measurements from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument and ACAM aboard the B200 aircraft. Where available, surface measurements are included to supplement aircraft profiles and are correlated to the Pandora column measurements to determine the relationship between the total NO2 column and ground concentrations. Understanding of how these measurements compare spatially and temporally will aid both future Pandora deployments and satellite retrievals.

  18. Preliminary results from the Sprites94 aircraft campaign: 1. Red sprites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sentman, D. D.; Wescott, E. M.; Osborne, D. L.; Hampton, D. L.; Heavner, M. J.

    1995-01-01

    The dual jet aircraft Sprites94 campaign yielded the first color imagery and unambiguously triangulated physical dimensions and heights of upper atmospheric optical emissions associated with thunderstorm systems. Low light level television images, in both color and in black and white (B/W), obtained during the campaign show that there are at least two distinctively different types of optical emissions spanning part or all of the distance between the anvil tops and the ionosphere. The first of these emissions, dubbed 'sprites' after their elusive nature, are luminous structures of brief (less than 16 ms) duration with a red main body that typically spans the latitude range 50-90 km, and possessing lateral dimensions of 5-30 km. Faint bluish tendrils often extend downward from the main body of sprites, occasionally appearing to reach cloud tops near 20 km. In this paper the principal characteristics of red sprites as observed during the Sprites94 campaign are described. The second distinctive type of emissions, 'blue jets,' are described in a companion paper (Wescott et al., this issue).

  19. OVOC Sources and Sinks over North America: New Constraints from Recent Aircraft Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Millet, D. B.; Singh, H. B.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Müller, M.

    2015-12-01

    Aircraft campaigns (e.g. DISCOVER-AQ, SENEX, SEAC4RS, DC3, CalNex) conducted over North America in the past 5 years provide new constraints on the sources and sinks of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOC). Over that same time period, analytical advances (e.g. PTR-TOF-MS and other CIMS techniques) have substantially widened the array of atmospheric OVOC that can be detected and quantified, and thus provide rich new information for testing present understanding. Here, we apply a nested version of the GEOS-Chem CTM run with a new and expanded chemical mechanism to interpret these data. We use model-measurement comparisons of mixing ratios and species-species correlations to test current budget estimates for key individual OVOCs, while also testing the model ability to capture the overall chemical tendencies across the ensemble of detected organic compounds.

  20. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  1. Comparison of TWP-ICE Satellite and Field Campaign Aircraft Derived Cloud Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, J. K.; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Nguyen, Louis; Phan, Dung N.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud and radiation products derived from the MTSAT-1R satellite have been developed for TWP-ICE. These include pixel-level, gridded, and ground site and aircraft matched. These products are available from the Langley website and the ARM data center. As shown in Figs 2, and 4-6, these products compare favorably with in-situ ground and aircraft based measurements. With additional quantitative validation these products can provide valuable information about tropical convection and its impact on the radiation budget and climate. As new algorithm improvements, such as multi-layer cloud detection, are implemented these products will be reprocessed and updated.

  2. Aircraft measurements within a warm conveyor belt during the T-NAWDEX-FALCON campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfler, Andreas; Boettcher, Maxi; Borrmann, Stephan; Busen, Reinhold; Dörnbrack, Andreas; Grams, Christian; Kaufmann, Stefan; Klingebiel, Marcus; Lammen, Yannick; Reutter, Philipp; Rautenhaus, Marc; Schlager, Hans; Sodemann, Harald; Voigt, Christiane; Wernli, Heini

    2013-04-01

    Warm Conveyor Belts (WCBs) are air streams that are highly relevant for the dynamics in the mid-latitudes as they strongly influence the evolution and intensity of northern hemispheric mid-latitude weather systems. For the predictability of cyclones the representation of diabatic processes associated with latent heat release due to phase transitions of water, surface fluxes, or radiative effects are believed to be a limiting factor. Diabatic processes in cyclones strongly depend on the transport of water vapor and are mainly organized and controlled by the coherently ascending WCB air masses. In October 2012 the T-NAWDEX-Falcon (THORPEX-North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign was organized by DLR Oberpfaffenhofen and ETH Zurich. During 9 research flights over Europe in-cloud measurements in WCBs were obtained with the DLR aircraft Falcon. Lagrangian flights were conducted with the aim to measure in the same air mass during different stages of the WCB to quantify the transport of moisture and the net latent heating along WCBs and their importance for forecast errors associated with mid-latitude weather systems. Besides in-situ observations of wind, temperature and humidity to characterize the thermodynamic structure of the WCBs, a set of dropsondes was deployed to gain a complete view on the complex structure of the cyclone. This presentation gives an overview of the three successful IOPs performed during the T-NAWDEX-Falcon campaign. To address forecast uncertainty and to enable flight planning up to four days in advance of the flights novel diagnostics based on deterministic and ensemble prediction NWP data were employed during the campaign. Furthermore a number of different trajectory models were applied for this field experiment. Based on selected flights from one intensive observation period the challenging planning process of Lagrangian matches of flight paths is described and first results are presented.

  3. Vertical transport and removal of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted at 0-9 km in altitude over East Asia in March-April 2009 to investigate transport and removal processes of aerosols, their physical and chemical properties, and cloud microphysical properties in Asian outflow. In this study, mechanisms of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the A-FORCE campaign using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere (FT) were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  4. Recent microwave sounder observations from aircraft during the HS3 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) is a microwave sounder similar to but more capable and accurate than current satellite microwave sounders. Since 2010 it has operated on NASA's Global Hawk UAVs and has been participating in the multiyear Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) hurricane campaign. We present recent results from HS3, including analysis of the thermodynamic and precipitation structure in and around tropical storm systems sampled during HS3. Copyright 2014 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  5. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Schlager, H.; Law, K.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Schaefler, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Raut, J.; Marelle, L.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades, which has opened the Arctic Ocean to transit shipping and hydrocarbon extraction. These anthropogenic activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g. aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. However, large knowledge gaps exist how these emissions influence regional air pollution and Arctic climate. Here we present an overview on the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign, which primarily focused on studying emissions from emerging Arctic pollution sources. During the ACCESS campaign in July 2012, the DLR Falcon was based in Andenes, Norway, and was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species). During nine scientific flights, emissions from different ship types (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) were probed off the Norwegian Coast. The emissions from these increasing pollution sources showed distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition. To put the emerging local pollution within a broader context, we also measured sulfur-rich emissions originating from industrial activities on the Kola Peninsula and black carbon containing biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires. We will present an overview on the trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources, and discuss the influence of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  6. Vertical transport mechanisms of black carbon over East Asia in spring during the A-FORCE aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Nakamura, H.; Moteki, N.; Matsui, H.; Takegawa, N.; Kita, K.

    2013-12-01

    of vertical transport of black carbon (BC) aerosols and their three-dimensional transport pathways over East Asia in spring were examined through numerical simulations for the Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign in March-April 2009 using a modified version of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. The simulations reproduced the spatial distributions of mass concentration of BC and its transport efficiency observed by the A-FORCE campaign reasonably well, including its vertical and latitudinal gradients and dependency on precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during the transport. During the A-FORCE period, two types of pronounced upward BC mass fluxes from the planetary boundary layer (PBL) to the free troposphere were found over northeastern and inland-southern China. Over northeastern China, cyclones with modest precipitation were the primary uplifting mechanism of BC. Over inland-southern China, both cumulus convection and orographic uplifting along the slopes of the Tibetan Plateau played important roles in the upward transport of BC, despite its efficient wet deposition due to a large amount of precipitation supported by an abundant moisture supply by the low-level southerlies. In addition to the midlatitude (35-45°N) eastward outflow within the PBL (21% BC removal by precipitation during transport), the uplifting of BC over northeastern and inland-southern China and the subsequent BC transport by the midlatitude lower tropospheric (50% BC removal) and subtropical (25-35°N) midtropospheric westerlies (67% BC removal), respectively, provided the major transport pathways for BC export from continental East Asia to the Pacific.

  7. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  9. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  10. Computational aeroelastic analysis of aircraft wings including geometry nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Binyu

    The objective of the present study is to show the ability of solving fluid structural interaction problems more realistically by including the geometric nonlinearity of the structure so that the aeroelastic analysis can be extended into the onset of flutter, or in the post flutter regime. A nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software is developed based on second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain. The second Piola-Kirchhoff stress and Green-Lagrange strain is a pair of energetically conjugated tensors that can accommodate arbitrary large structural deformations and deflection, to study the flutter phenomenon. Since both of these tensors are objective tensors, i.e., the rigid-body motion has no contribution to their components, the movement of the body, including maneuvers and deformation, can be included. The nonlinear Finite Element Analysis software developed in this study is verified with ANSYS, NASTRAN, ABAQUS, and IDEAS for the linear static, nonlinear static, linear dynamic and nonlinear dynamic structural solutions. To solve the flow problems by Euler/Navier equations, the current nonlinear structural software is then embedded into ENSAERO, which is an aeroelastic analysis software package developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The coupling of the two software, both nonlinear in their own field, is achieved by domain decomposition method first proposed by Guruswamy. A procedure has been set for the aeroelastic analysis process. The aeroelastic analysis results have been obtained for fight wing in the transonic regime for various cases. The influence dynamic pressure on flutter has been checked for a range of Mach number. Even though the current analysis matches the general aeroelastic characteristic, the numerical value not match very well with previous studies and needs farther investigations. The flutter aeroelastic analysis results have also been plotted at several time points. The influences of the deforming wing geometry can be well seen

  11. An overview of reactive chlorine measurements during the WINTER C-130 aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Jaegle, L.; Haskins, J.; Shah, V.; Brown, S. S.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Veres, P. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Sullivan, A.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campos, T. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    As part of the Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emissions, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign, the University of Washington Iodide-adduct high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HRToF-CIMS) was deployed aboard the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. Calibrated measurements of ClNO2, Cl2, HCl, N2O5, HNO3, HONO, among several other compounds, were made at 2Hz on all 13 research flights. ClNO2 and HCl were often the dominant forms of reactive gas-phase chlorine compounds, with ClNO2 routinely reaching >1.5 ppb in the polluted outflow of the eastern U.S. urban corridor. ClNO2 often becomes a substantial fraction (~30%) of NOz (NOz = NOy - NOx) in these plumes at night. Preliminary analyses suggests that ClNO2 production is most efficient in the polluted marine boundary layer, with yields approaching unity and the evolution of nighttime ClNO2 highly correlated with that of HNO3 and particulate nitrate. However, ClNO2 production was observed throughout the region and a significant source of reactive chlorine from coal-fired power plants was directly confirmed with measurements of HCl strongly correlated with SO2. In addition, there is some evidence that biomass or biofuel combustion is a source of reactive chlorine that can lead to ClNO2 production. Examples of the nocturnal and diel evolution of reactive chlorine species are given, and we show to our knowledge the first measurements of chlorine nitrate (ClONO2) in the polluted mid-latitude marine boundary layer.

  12. Evaluating and Constraining Ice Cloud Parameterizations in CAM5 using Aircraft Measurements from the SPARTICUS Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Kai; Liu, Xiaohong; Wang, Minghuai; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mitchell, David; Mishra, Subhashree; Mace, Gerald G.

    2013-05-14

    This study uses aircraft measurements of relative humidity and ice crystal size distribution collected in synoptic cirrus during the SPARTICUS (Small PARTicles In CirrUS) field campaign to evaluate and constrain ice cloud parameterizations in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. The probability density function (PDF) of ice crystal number concentration (Ni) derived from high frequency (1 Hz) measurements features a strong dependence on ambient temperature. As temperature decreases from -35°C to -62°C, the peak in the PDF shifts from 10-20 L-1 to 200-1000 L-1, while the ice crystal number concentration shows a factor of 6-7 increase. Model simulations are performed with two different insitu ice nucleation schemes. One of the schemes can reproduce a clear increase of Ni with decreasing temperature, by using either an observation based ice nuclei spectrum or a classical theory based spectrum with a relatively low (5%-10%) maximum freezing ratio for dust aerosols. The simulation with the other scheme, which assumes a high maximum freezing ratio (100%), shows much weaker temperature dependence of Ni. Simulations are also performed to test empirical parameters related to water vapor deposition and the auto-conversion of ice crystals to snow. Results show that a value between 0.05 and 0.1 for the water vapor deposition coefficient and 250 um for the critical ice crystal size can produce good agreements between model simulation and the SPARTICUS measurements in terms of ice crystal number concentration and effective radius. The climate impact of perturbing these parameters is also discussed.

  13. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    E. J. N. Darbyshire, J. D. Allan, M. Flynn, W. T. Morgan, A. Hodgson, B. T. Johnson, J. M. Haywood, K. Longo, P. Artaxo and H. Coe Aerosols associated with large scale Biomass Burning (BB) impact upon weather and climate at global and regional scales. However, quantitative evaluation of these effects is impeded by i) a limited understanding of BB processes and ii) a lack of quantitative knowledge of precise BB aerosol physiochemical characteristics, thus resulting in large model uncertainties. One region where these uncertainties are especially manifest is the Amazon Basin (AzB). Intense and widespread burning results in high atmospheric loadings of BB aerosol, which over the course of the dry season develops into a so-called 'regional haze'. This cloaks the AzB in a complex and inhomogeneous mix of BB emissions, characterized by large Aerosol Optical Depths (>1), low visibility and poor air quality. This haze has a substantial impact on the radiation budget over the AzB through direct scattering/absorption and indirect cloud microphysics effects. In order to best constrain the model uncertainties, and given the scale of the AzB earth-atmosphere system, an intensive observation campaign by multiple international institutions was instigated in the South American Biomass Burning Analyses (SAMBBA) project. The findings reported here are from the SAMBBA aircraft campaign, conducted during the 2012 dry season using the large UK research aircraft (FAAM BAe-146). The dense (high AOD), persistent haze expected throughout the campaign was only present for the first five or so days, due to removal via washout/transportation associated with large storms. For the remaining period, a haze was present but much reduced in area and intensity (mostly AOD's <0.6) and far more localized and spatially heterogeneous. Across the three weeks, multiple burns with differing characteristics, origins and processes were sampled, giving rise to haze from various sources, such as rainforest in

  14. The 1999 Leonid Multi-Instrument Aircraft Campaign - An Early Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Butow, Steven J.; Fonda, Mark; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Leonid meteor storm of 1999 was observed from two B707-type research aircraft by a team of 35 scientists of seven nationalities over the Mediterranean Sea on Nov. 18, 1999. The mission was sponsored by various science programs of NASA, and offered the best possible observing conditions, free of clouds and at a prime location for viewing the storm. The 1999 mission followed a similar effort in 1998, improving upon mission strategy and scope. As before, spectroscopic and imaging experiments targeted meteors and persistent trains, but also airglow, aurora, elves and sprites. The research aimed to address outstanding questions in Planetary Science, Astronomy, Astrobiology and upper atmospheric research, including Aeronornie. In addition, near real-time flux measurements contributed to a USAF sponsored program for space weather awareness. An overview of the first results is given, which are discussed in preparation for future missions.

  15. Advances in Small Remotely Piloted Aircraft Communications and Remote Sensing in Maritime Environments including the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Wackowski, S.; Walker, G.

    2011-12-01

    Small remotely piloted aircraft have recently been used for maritime remote sensing, including launch and retrieval operations from land, ships and sea ice. Such aircraft can also function to collect and communicate data from other ocean observing system platforms including moorings, tagged animals, drifters, autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs). The use of small remotely piloted aircraft (or UASs, unmanned aerial systems) with a combination of these capabilities will be required to monitor the vast areas of the open ocean, as well as in harsh high-latitude ecosystems. Indeed, these aircraft are a key component of planned high latitude maritime domain awareness environmental data collection capabilities, including use of visible, IR and hyperspectral sensors, as well as lidar, meteorological sensors, and interferometric synthetic aperture radars (ISARs). We here first describe at-sea demonstrations of improved reliability and bandwidth of communications from ocean sensors on autonomous underwater vehicles to autonomous surface vessels, and then via remotely piloted aircraft to shore, ships and manned aircraft using Delay and Disruption Tolerant (DTN) communication protocols. DTN enables data exchange in communications-challenged environments, such as remote regions of the ocean including high latitudes where low satellite angles and auroral disturbances can be problematic. DTN provides a network architecture and application interface structured around optionally-reliable asynchronous message forwarding, with limited expectations of end-to-end connectivity and node resources. This communications method enables aircraft and surface vessels to function as data mules to move data between physically disparate nodes. We provide examples of the uses of this communication protocol for environmental data collection and data distribution with a variety of different remotely piloted aircraft in a coastal ocean environment. Next, we

  16. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  17. Impact of supersonic and subsonic aircraft on ozone: Including heterogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinnison, Douglas E.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary calculations suggest that heterogeneous reactions are important in calculating the impact on ozone from emissions of trace gases from aircraft fleets. In this study, three heterogeneous chemical processes that occur on background sulfuric acid aerosols are included and their effects on O3, NO(x), Cl(x), HCl, N2O5, ClONO2 are calculated.

  18. Aerosols upwind of Mexico City during the MILAGRO campaign: regional scale biomass burning, dust and volcanic ash from aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Steinbrecher, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the MILAGRO Campaign March/April 2006 a series of aircraft flights with the FZK microlight D-MIFU were performed in the area southeast of Mexico City starting from Puebla airport, circling the national park area of Ixtachiuatl and Popocatepetl and scanning the Chalco valley down to Cuautla in the Cuernavaca province. All flights were combined with vertical profiles up to 4500 m a.s.l. in several locations, typically north of volcano Ixtachiuatl on the Puebla side, above Chalco or Tenago del Aire and south of volcano Popocatepetl, either at Cuautla or Atlixco. In Tenango del Aire a ceilometer was additionally operated continuously for characterization of the planetary boundary layer. The aircraft carried a set of aerosol instrumentation, fine and coarse particles and size distributions as well as a 7 wavelength aethalometer. Additionally meteorological parameters, temperature and dewpoint, global radiation and actinic radiation balance, respectively photolysis rates, and ozone concentrations were measured. The instrumentation allowed to characterize the aerosol according to their sources and also their impact on radiation transfer. Biomass burning aerosol, windblown dust and volcanic ash were identified within the upwind area of Mexico City with large differences between the dry season in the first weeks of the campaign and the by far cleaner situation after beginning thunderstorm activity towards the end of the campaign. Also the aerosol characteristics inside and outside the Mexico City basin were often completely different. With wind speeds of ~ 5 m/sec from southerly directions in the Chalco valley the aerosol mixture can reach the City within ~ 2 h. Rural aerosol mixtures from the Cuernavaca plain were mixed during the transport with dust from the MC basin. Very high intensity biomass burning plumes normally reached higher altitudes and produced pyrocumulus clouds. These aerosols were injected mainly into the free troposphere. Within the MC basin a large

  19. A Variational Inverse Model Study of Amazonian Methane Emissions including Observations from the AMAZONICA campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. J.; Gloor, M.; Chipperfield, M.; Miller, J. B.; Gatti, L.

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a greenhouse gas which is emitted from a range of anthropogenic and natural sources, and since the industrial revolution its mean atmospheric concentration has climbed dramatically, reaching values unprecedented in at least the past 650,000 years. CH4 produces a relatively high radiative forcing effect upon the Earth's climate, and its atmospheric lifetime of approximately 10 years makes it a more appealing target for the mitigation of climate change over short timescales than long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. However, the spatial and temporal variation of CH4 emissions are still not well understood, though in recent years a number of top-down and bottom-up studies have attempted to construct improved emission budgets. Some top-down studies may suffer from poor observational coverage in tropical regions, however, especially in the planetary boundary layer, where the atmosphere is highly sensitive to emissions. For example, although satellite observations often take a large volume of measurements in tropical regions, these retrievals are not usually sensitive to concentrations at the planet's surface. Methane emissions from Amazon region, in particular, are often poorly constrained. Since emissions form this region, coming mainly from wetland and biomass burning sources, are thought to be relatively high, additional observations in this region would greatly help to constrain the geographical distribution of the global CH4 emission budget. In order to provide such measurements, the AMAZONICA project began to take regular flask measurements of CH4 and other trace gases from aircraft over four Amazonian sites from the year 2010 onwards. We first present a forward modelling study of these observations of Amazonian methane for the year 2010 using the TOMCAT Chemical Transport Model. The model is used to attribute variations at each site to a source type and region, and also to assess the ability of our current CH4 flux estimates to

  20. Development of a High-Resolution H3O+ Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer for Gas-phase Hydrocarbons and its Application During the 2015 SONGNEX Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; De Gouw, J. A.; Warneke, C.; Stark, H.

    2015-12-01

    In-situ time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometers (ToF-CIMS) using H3O+ reagent ion chemistry (PTR-MS) are a relatively new technique in detection of gas-phase hydrocarbons, and recent improvements in instrument sensitivity, mass resolution, and ease of field deployment have expanded their use in atmospheric chemistry. The comparatively low-energy H3O+ ionization technique is ideal for measuring complex mixtures of hydrocarbons, and, compared to conventional quadrupole PTRMS, the newest generation of ToF-CIMS measure many more species simultaneously and with a sensitivity that is as high as a quadrupole PTR-MS. We describe here the development of a commercially available ToF CIMS into an H3O+CIMS suitable for deployment on aircraft, and its application during an aircraft campaign studying emissions from oil and natural gas extraction industry. We provide an overview of instrument development and specifications, including design, characterization, and field operation. We then discuss data processing and interpretation. First, we investigate determination of intensities of poorly resolved peaks. The mass resolution of the present instrument (m/Δm ~4500) enables separate analysis of many isobaric peaks, but peaks are also frequently not fully resolved. Using results from laboratory tests, we quantify how the accuracy can be limited by the overlap in neighboring peaks, and compare to theoretical predictions from literature. We then briefly describe our method for quality assurance of reported compounds, and correction for background and humidity effects. Finally, we present preliminary results from the first field deployment of this instrument during the Spring 2015 SONGNEX aircraft campaign. This campaign sampled emissions from oil and natural gas extraction regions and associated infrastructure in the Western and Central United States. We will highlight results that illustrate (1) new scientific capability from improved mass resolution, which

  1. An Overview of the NASA Spring/Summer 2008 Arctic Campaign - ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.; Clarke, Antony; Crawford, James H.; Dibbs, Jack; Ferrare, Richard A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Maring, Hal; Russell, Philip B.; Singh, Hanwant B.

    2008-01-01

    ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) is a major NASA led airborne field campaign being performed in the spring and summer of 2008 at high latitudes (http://cloud1.arc.nasa.gov/arctas/). ARCTAS is a part of the International Polar Year program and its activities are closely coordinated with multiple U. S. (NOAA, DOE), Canadian, and European partners. Observational data from an ensemble of aircraft, surface, and satellite sensors are closely integrated with models of atmospheric chemistry and transport in this experiment. Principal NASA airborne platforms include a DC-8 for detailed atmospheric composition studies, a P-3 that focuses on aerosols and radiation, and a B-200 that is dedicated to remote sensing of aerosols. Satellite validation is a central activity in all these platforms and is mainly focused on CALIPSO, Aura, and Aqua satellites. Major ARCTAS themes are: (1) Long-range transport of pollution to the Arctic including arctic haze, tropospheric ozone, and persistent pollutants such as mercury; (2) Boreal forest fires and their implications for atmospheric composition and climate; (3) Aerosol radiative forcing from arctic haze, boreal fires, surface-deposited black carbon, and other perturbations; and (4) Chemical processes with focus on ozone, aerosols, mercury, and halogens. The spring deployment (April) is presently underway and is targeting plumes of anthropogenic and biomass burning pollution and dust from Asia and North America, arctic haze, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, and ozone photochemistry involving HOx and halogen radicals. The summer deployment (July) will target boreal forest fires and summertime photochemistry. The ARCTAS mission is providing a critical link to enhance the value of NASA satellite observations for Earth science. In this talk we will discuss the implementation of this campaign and some preliminary results.

  2. Siberian and North American Biomass Burning Contributions to the Processes that Influenced the 2008 Arctic Aircraft and Satellite Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soja, A. J.; Stocks, B. J.; Carr, R.; Pierce, R. B.; Natarajan, M.; Fromm, M.

    2009-05-01

    Current climate change scenarios predict increases in biomass burning in terms of increases in fire frequency, area burned, fire season length and fire season severity, particularly in boreal regions. Climate and weather control fire danger, which strongly influences the severity of fire events, and these in turn, feed back to the climate system through direct and indirect emissions, modifying cloud condensation nuclei and altering albedo (affecting the energy balance) through vegetative land cover change and deposition. Additionally, fire emissions adversely influence air quality and human health downwind of burning. The boreal zone is significant because this region stores the largest reservoir of terrestrial carbon, globally, and will experience climate change impacts earliest. Boreal biomass burning is an integral component to several of the primary goals of the ARCTAS (Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites) and ARCPAC (Aerosol, Radiation, and Cloud Processes affecting Arctic Climate) 2008 field campaigns, which include its implication for atmospheric composition and climate, aerosol radiative forcing, and chemical processes with a focus on ozone and aerosols. Both the spring and summer phases of ARCTAS and ARCPAC offered substantial opportunities for sampling fresh and aged biomass burning emissions. However, the extent to which spring biomass burning influenced arctic haze was unexpected, which could inform our knowledge of the formation of arctic haze and the early deposition of black carbon on the icy arctic surface. There is already evidence of increased extreme fire seasons that correlate with warming across the circumboreal zone. In this presentation, we discuss seasonal and annual fire activity and anomalies that relate to the ARCTAS and ARCPAC spring (April 1 - 20) and summer (June 18 - July 13) periods across Siberia and North America, with particular emphasis on fire danger and fire behavior as they relate

  3. VERTICAL MIXING AND CHEMISTRY OVER AN ARID URBAN SITE: FIRST RESULTS FROM AIRCRAFT OBSERVATIONS MADE DURING THE PHOENIX SUNRISE CAMPAIGN.

    SciTech Connect

    BERKOWITZ,C.M.; SPRINGSTON,S.R.; DORAN,J.C.; FAST,J.D.

    2002-01-13

    The role of boundary layer mixing is increasingly recognized as an important factor in determining the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases near the surface. While the concentrations at the surface can vary widely due to horizontal transport of chemical plumes, the boundary layer is also characterized by turbulence that follows a diurnal cycle in height and intensity. Surface oxidant concentrations can therefore undergo significant changes even in the absence of photochemistry. A central goal of the Phoenix 2001 Field Campaign was to study vertical mixing with the onset of convection and to quantify the effect of this mixing on chemistry within an urban boundary layer. As part of this study, a series of low altitude aircraft sampling flights were made over the Greater Phoenix area between June 16-30, 2001. The resulting observations, in conjunction with a series of surface measurements and meteorological observations, are being used to study the vertical transport and reactivity of ozone and ozone-precursors shortly after sunrise. Additional details of this campaign are given in Doran, et al. (2002). It was anticipated that turbulence over Phoenix at night would be suppressed as a result of cooling of the boundary layer over the city. By sampling shortly after sunrise, we hoped to collect measurements above the residual nocturnal stable layer and to continue sampling through the developmental period of a convectively active boundary layer. We report here on the first analysis of these observations, made from a Gulstream-1 (G-1) aircraft operated by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  4. Let's Get Together: More Institutions Are Including Alumni Engagement in Campaign Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scully, Maura King

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of U.S. institutions are recognizing the importance of reaching out to and involving alumni in meaningful ways--so much so that it's encoded as a specific campaign goal. But, like fundraising goals, alumni engagement goals are not realized easily, overnight, or just because they're committed to paper. Lasting engagement takes…

  5. Particle pH Inferred from Aircraft Data: Validation and Geographical, Vertical and Seasonal Characteristics with Case Studies from the WINTER Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Nenes, A.; Sullivan, A.; Thornton, J. A.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Schroder, J. C.; Dibb, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Particle pH is a critical but poorly understood factor that affects many aerosol processes and properties, including aerosol composition, concentrations, geochemical cycles, and aerosol toxicity. Here we assess the prediction of pH from aircraft data, report pH as a function of geographical location and altitude for different seasons, and investigate causes for variability in pH-dependent aerosol components, such as nitrate. pH is generally predicted with a thermodynamic model since it is difficult to measure directly. We used ISORROPIA-II with particle and selected gas inorganic species, along with RH and T as inputs to calculate aerosol pH. Data are from three aircraft studies: WINTER (2015 Feb-Mar) and NEAQS (2004 July-Aug), both over the northeastern US, and SENEX (2013 Jun-July) over the southeastern US. pH was validated by comparing measured and predicted partitioning of ammonia and nitric acid. The effect of inevitable sample heating associated with aircraft measurements was minimal since partitioning of measured semi-volatile components based on ambient T and RH were accurately predicted. Overall, pH determined from WINTER, NEAQS, and SENEX for altitudes up to 5000 m ranged between -0.4 and 1.9 (10-90% percentiles, mean±SD=0.9±1.0), similar to what we have observed at ground-based sites in the southeastern US. Coupling between water vapor concentrations, temperature, particle composition, liquid water content and particle pH on partitioning of nitric acid-nitrate observed during the WINTER campaign will be investigated.

  6. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations. Volume 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1973-01-01

    An economic assessment of short takeoff aircraft for short haul air transportation applications is presented. The economic viability and environmental compatibility of short takeoff aircraft service in high density areas were evaluated. The subjects discussed are: (1) aircraft configurations and performance, (2) airfield and terminal requirements, and (3) direct and indirect operating costs.

  7. Sources, Chemistry, and Transport of Pollutants over the Eastern United States During the WINTER 2015 Aircraft Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaegle, L.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Haskins, J.; Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Veres, P. R.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Dibb, J. E.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Sullivan, A.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Bililign, S.; Campos, T. L.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Wolfe, G. M.; DiGangi, J. P.; Hanisco, T. F.; Leen, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emission, and Reactivity (WINTER) campaign used the NCAR/NSF C-130 aircraft to sample the composition of the lower troposphere over the Eastern United States between February 2 and March 13, 2015. The main scientific objectives of WINTER were to: 1) Characterize the chemical transformations of wintertime emissions via multiphase, nocturnal, and photochemical processes, 2) Assess the dominant mechanisms of secondary aerosol formation and quantify the geographical distribution of inorganic and organic aerosol types during winter, 3) Constrain wintertime emission inventories of key pollutants and characterize their export over the North Atlantic. Here, we will present an overview of the WINTER observations obtained during 13 flights near major metropolitan areas (New York City, Washington D.C.-Baltimore, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Atlanta), along the Ohio River Valley, and in aged pollution plumes over the Atlantic Ocean. We will analyze the WINTER observations using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model in a nested-grid configuration with a 25 km horizontal resolution over N. America, focusing in particular on evaluating current anthropogenic emission inventories and the wintertime budget of reactive nitrogen species.

  8. Navier-Stokes computations about complex configurations including a complete F-16 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holst, Terry L.; Flores, Jolen; Chaderjian, Neal M.; Kaynak, Unver

    1990-01-01

    Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS) code solutions gathered from the literature for three-dimensional geometries, including two different wings and a complete F-16A aircraft, are presently discussed. The TNS codes use a zonal grid approach whose number of zones vary from four to 54. The Euler equations are solved in zones away from no-slip surfaces, and the thin-layer TNS equations are solved in all zones immediately adjacent to no-slip surfaces. In the case of 'corner' zones possessing no-slip boundary conditions on two different surfaces, a thin-layer formulation along both directions is employed. Employing these features, a zonal construction with the requisite set of boundary conditions can be devised for almost any application.

  9. Stratospheric Intrusions over the U.S.: Impacts on Tropospheric Composition from NASA Aircraft Campaigns, MERRA-2, and the GEOS-5 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B. N.; Ott, L.; Thompson, A. M.; Wargan, K.; Pusede, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Weinheimer, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Intrusions of ozone-rich stratospheric air periodically enhance surface ozone levels in western U.S. states and can cause exceedances of the current National Ambient Air Quality Standard. Aircraft observations and ozonesonde profiles collected during the Maryland DISCOVER-AQ field campaign indicate the presence of stratospheric air just above the boundary layer on several days raising the question of whether or not such stratospheric intrusions (SI)s have a similar influence in the eastern U.S. and to what degree they influence policy-relevant background ozone levels. Better understanding the processes controlling the variability of tropospheric ozone is critical for both air quality and climate applications. High-resolution (50 km or greater) global atmospheric models and reanalyses have been demonstrated in several studies to realistically reproduce the observed vertical structure and temporal evolution of a limited number of SI events, but more research is needed to evaluate their ability to simulate the seasonal, spatial, and interannual variability of SIs. In this study, we used simple, computationally-efficient stratospheric tracers implemented in the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) model, along with aircraft data and ozonesonde profiles to determine the frequency and extent of SIs over the United States during the observing period of NASA's Aura satellite (2004-2014). High-resolution simulations of stratospheric tracers are compared with ozone fields from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications Version-2 (MERRA-2), which includes assimilation of observed ozone from MLS and OMI to constrain upper troposphere/lower stratosphere mixing ratios, to assess the representation of SIs in the lower troposphere. We will discuss 1) the implications for using reanalyses to assess interannual variability of SIs and 2) the potential of operational forecasting of SIs using simple tracers in conjunction with ozone

  10. Attribution and evolution of ozone from Asian wild fires using satellite and aircraft measurements during the ARCTAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupont, R.; Pierce, B.; Worden, J.; Hair, J.; Fenn, M.; Hamer, P.; Natarajan, M.; Schaack, T.; Lenzen, A.; Apel, E.; Dibb, J.; Diskin, G.; Huey, G.; Weinheimer, A.; Kondo, Y.; Knapp, D.

    2012-01-01

    We use ozone and carbon monoxide measurements from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), model estimates of Ozone, CO, and ozone pre-cursors from the Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), and data from the NASA DC8 aircraft to characterize the source and dynamical evolution of ozone and CO in Asian wildfire plumes during the spring ARCTAS campaign 2008. On the 19 April, NASA DC8 O3 and aerosol Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) observed two biomass burning plumes originating from North-Western Asia (Kazakhstan) and South-Eastern Asia (Thailand) that advected eastward over the Pacific reaching North America in 10 to 12 days. Using both TES observations and RAQMS chemical analyses, we track the wildfire plumes from their source to the ARCTAS DC8 platform. In addition to photochemical production due to ozone pre-cursors, we find that exchange between the stratosphere and the troposphere is a major factor influencing O3 concentrations for both plumes. For example, the Kazakhstan and Siberian plumes at 55 degrees North is a region of significant springtime stratospheric/tropospheric exchange. Stratospheric air influences the Thailand plume after it is lofted to high altitudes via the Himalayas. Using comparisons of the model to the aircraft and satellite measurements, we estimate that the Kazakhstan plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios by approximately 6.4 ppbv and 38 ppbv in the lower troposphere (height of 2 to 6 km), and the Thailand plume is responsible for increases of O3 and CO mixing ratios of approximately 11 ppbv and 71 ppbv in the upper troposphere (height of 8 to 12 km) respectively. However, there are significant sources of uncertainty in these estimates that point to the need for future improvements in both model and satellite observations. For example, it is challenging to characterize the fraction of air parcels from the stratosphere versus those from the fire because of the low sensitivity of the TES CO

  11. Wet removal of black carbon in Asian outflow: Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Koike, M.; Kita, K.; Matsui, H.; Kajino, M.; Nakamura, H.; Jung, J. S.; Kim, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia (A-FORCE) aircraft campaign was conducted over East Asia in March-April 2009. During the A-FORCE campaign, 120 vertical profiles of black carbon (BC) and carbon monoxide (CO) were obtained in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and the free troposphere. This study examines the wet removal of BC in Asian outflow using the A-FORCE data. The concentrations of BC and CO were greatly enhanced in air parcels sampled at 3-6 km in altitude over the Yellow Sea on 30 March 2009, associated with upward transport due to a cyclone with modest amounts of precipitation over northern China. In contrast, high CO concentrations without substantial enhancements of BC concentrations were observed in air parcels sampled at 5-6 km over the East China Sea on 23 April 2009, caused by uplifting due to cumulus convection with large amounts of precipitation over central China. The transport efficiency of BC (TEBC, namely the fraction of BC particles not removed during transport) in air parcels sampled above 2 km during the entire A-FORCE period decreased primarily with the increase in the precipitation amount that air parcels experienced during vertical transport, although their correlation was modest (r2 = 0.43). TEBC also depended on the altitude to which air parcels were transported from the PBL and the latitude where they were uplifted locally over source regions. The median values of TEBC for air parcels originating from northern China (north of 33°N) and sampled at 2-4 km and 4-9 km levels were 86% and 49%, respectively, during the A-FORCE period. These median values were systematically greater than the corresponding median values (69% and 32%, respectively) for air parcels originating from southern China (south of 33°N). Use of the A-FORCE data set will contribute to the reduction of large uncertainties in wet removal process of BC in global- and regional-scale models.

  12. The ESA/NASA Multi-Aircraft ATV-1 Re-Entry Campaign: Analysis of Airborne Intensified Video Observations from the NASA/JSC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Ed; Maley, Paul; Mulrooney, Mark; Beaulieu, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    In September 2008, a joint ESA/NASA multi-instrument airborne observing campaign was conducted over the Southern Pacific ocean. The objective was the acquisition of data to support detailed atmospheric re-entry analysis for the first flight of the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV)-1. Skilled observers were deployed aboard two aircraft which were flown at 12.8 km altitude within visible range of the ATV-1 re-entry zone. The observers operated a suite of instruments with low-light-level detection sensitivity including still cameras, high speed and 30 fps video cameras, and spectrographs. The collected data has provided valuable information regarding the dynamic time evolution of the ATV-1 re-entry fragmentation. Specifically, the data has satisfied the primary mission objective of recording the explosion of ATV-1's primary fuel tank and thereby validating predictions regarding the tanks demise and the altitude of its occurrence. Furthermore, the data contains the brightness and trajectories of several hundred ATV-1 fragments. It is the analysis of these properties, as recorded by the particular instrument set sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center, which we present here.

  13. Noise reduction of a tilt-rotor aircraft including effects on weight and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibs, J.; Stepniewski, W. Z.; Spencer, R.; Kohler, G.

    1973-01-01

    Various methods for far-field noise reduction of a tilt-rotor acoustic signature and the performance and weight tradeoffs which result from modification of the noise sources are considered in this report. In order to provide a realistic approach for the investigation, the Boeing tilt-rotor flight research aircraft (Model 222), was selected as the baseline. This aircraft has undergone considerable engineering development. Its rotor has been manufactured and tested in the Ames full-scale wind tunnel. The study reflects the current state-of-the-art of aircraft design for far-field acoustic signature reduction and is not based solely on an engineering feasibility aircraft. This report supplements a previous study investigating reduction of noise signature through the management of the terminal flight trajectory.

  14. An economic assessment of STOL aircraft potential including terminal area environmental considerations, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Solomon, H. L.; Sokolsky, S.

    1974-01-01

    The results of an economic and environmental study of short haul airline systems using short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft are presented. The STOL system characteristics were optimized for maximum patronage at a specified return on investment, while maintaining noise impact compatibility with the terminal area. Supporting studies of aircraft air pollution and hub airport congestion relief were also performed. The STOL concept specified for this study was an Augmentor Wing turbofan aircraft having a field length capability of 2,000 ft. and an effective perceived noise level of 95 EPNdB at 500 ft. sideline distance. An economic and environmental assessment of the defined STOL system and a summary of the methodology, STOL system characteristics and arena characteristics are provided.

  15. 75 FR 16514 - Cessna Aircraft Company, a Division of Textron, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Cessna Aircraft Company, a Division of Textron, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Professional Staffing, Formerly Known as Express Employment Professionals, Bend, OR; Amended Certification...

  16. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  17. Analytical model for tilting proprotor aircraft dynamics, including blade torsion and coupled bending modes, and conversion mode operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for proprotor aircraft dynamics. The rotor model includes coupled flap-lag bending modes, and blade torsion degrees of freedom. The rotor aerodynamic model is generally valid for high and low inflow, and for axial and nonaxial flight. For the rotor support, a cantilever wing is considered; incorporation of a more general support with this rotor model will be a straight-forward matter.

  18. Aircraft aerodynamic prediction method for V/STOL transition including flow separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, B. R.; Miner, G. A.; Bristow, D. R.

    1983-01-01

    A numerical procedure was developed for the aerodynamic force and moment analysis of V/STOL aircraft operating in the transition regime between hover and conventional forward flight. The trajectories, cross sectional area variations, and mass entrainment rates of the jets are calculated by the Adler-Baron Jet-in-Crossflow Program. The inviscid effects of the interaction between the jets and airframe on the aerodynamic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic properties are determined by use of the MCAIR 3-D Subsonic Potential Flow Program, a surface panel method. In addition, the MCAIR 3-D Geometry influence Coefficient Program is used to calculate a matrix of partial derivatives that represent the rate of change of the inviscid aerodynamic properties with respect to arbitrary changes in the effective wing shape.

  19. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-02-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  20. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-08-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  1. Three-dimensional visualization of ensemble weather forecasts - Part 2: Forecasting warm conveyor belt situations for aircraft-based field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rautenhaus, M.; Grams, C. M.; Schäfler, A.; Westermann, R.

    2015-07-01

    We present the application of interactive three-dimensional (3-D) visualization of ensemble weather predictions to forecasting warm conveyor belt situations during aircraft-based atmospheric research campaigns. Motivated by forecast requirements of the T-NAWDEX-Falcon 2012 (THORPEX - North Atlantic Waveguide and Downstream Impact Experiment) campaign, a method to predict 3-D probabilities of the spatial occurrence of warm conveyor belts (WCBs) has been developed. Probabilities are derived from Lagrangian particle trajectories computed on the forecast wind fields of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble prediction system. Integration of the method into the 3-D ensemble visualization tool Met.3D, introduced in the first part of this study, facilitates interactive visualization of WCB features and derived probabilities in the context of the ECMWF ensemble forecast. We investigate the sensitivity of the method with respect to trajectory seeding and grid spacing of the forecast wind field. Furthermore, we propose a visual analysis method to quantitatively analyse the contribution of ensemble members to a probability region and, thus, to assist the forecaster in interpreting the obtained probabilities. A case study, revisiting a forecast case from T-NAWDEX-Falcon, illustrates the practical application of Met.3D and demonstrates the use of 3-D and uncertainty visualization for weather forecasting and for planning flight routes in the medium forecast range (3 to 7 days before take-off).

  2. Direct measurements of HONO and NO2 by tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy; Results from two field campaigns sampling aircraft exhaust and ambient urban air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Zahniser, M. S.; McManus, J. B.; Nelson, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrous acid (HONO) is an important source of hydroxyl radicals (OH), the main oxidizing agent in the atmosphere. However, gaseous HONO has historically proven difficult to measure accurately and to date there is no standard technique. We describe a new instrument capable of high-frequency measurements of HONO and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) mixing ratios by tunable infrared differential absorption spectrometry. Mid-infrared light from two continuous-wave mode quantum cascade lasers traverse a 210 m path through a multi-pass astigmatic cell at reduced pressures for the direct detection of HONO (1660 cm-1) and NO2 (1604 cm-1). We achieve an absorbance precision less than 3×10-6 Hz-1 in one second, which translates to detection limits (S/N=3) of 300 and 30 ppt for HONO and NO2, respectively, in one second. Both lasers and the detector are thermoelectrically cooled, facilitating long-term unattended measurements. We also report preliminary results from two field campaigns; the Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment (AAFEX) and the Study of Houston Air Radical Precursors (SHARP). At AAFEX, HONO emission ratios relative to CO2 and NOy observed in commercial aircraft exhaust are larger than in most other combustion sources and likely to play a significant role in regional HOx chemistry. Preliminary analysis from the SHARP campaign shows good agreement in HONO and NO2 levels between various measurement techniques.

  3. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  4. Capital Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalessandro, David; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Eight articles focus on capital campaigns including setting goals (D. Dalessandro), the lead gift (D. A. Campbell), motivating trustees (J. J. Ianolli, Jr.), alumni associations (W. B. Adams), role of public relations officers (R. L. Williams), special events( H.R. Gilbert), the campaign document (R. King), and case statements (D. R. Treadwell,…

  5. Relationship between structures of sprite streamers and inhomogeneity of preceding halos captured by high-speed camera during a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Sato, M.; Kudo, T.; Shima, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Inoue, T.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.; Haaland, R. K.; Kammae, T.; Yair, Y.; Lyons, W. A.; Cummer, S. A.; Ahrns, J.; Yukman, P.; Warner, T. A.; Sonnenfeld, R. G.; Li, J.; Lu, G.

    2011-12-01

    The relationship between diffuse glows such as elves and sprite halos and subsequent discrete structure of sprite streamers is considered to be one of the keys to solve the mechanism causing a large variation of sprite structures. However, it's not easy to image at high frame rate both the diffuse and discrete structures simultaneously, since it requires high sensitivity, high spatial resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. To capture the real spatial structure of TLEs without influence of atmospheric absorption, spacecraft would be the best solution. However, since the imaging observation from space is mostly made for TLEs appeared near the horizon, the range from spacecraft to TLEs becomes large, such as few thousand km, resulting in low spatial resolution. The aircraft can approach thunderstorm up to a few hundred km or less and can carry heavy high-speed cameras with huge size data memories. In the period of June 27 - July 10, 2011, a combined aircraft and ground-based campaign, in support of NHK Cosmic Shore project, was carried with two jet airplanes under collaboration between NHK (Japan Broadcasting Corporation) and universities. On 8 nights out of 16 standing-by, the jets took off from the airport near Denver, Colorado, and an airborne high speed camera captured over 40 TLE events at a frame rate of 8300 /sec. Here we introduce the time development of sprite streamers and the both large and fine structures of preceding halos showing inhomogeneity, suggesting a mechanism to cause the large variation of sprite types, such as crown like sprites.

  6. A simplified flight-test method for determining aircraft takeoff performance that includes effects of pilot technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method for evaluating aircraft takeoff performance from brake release to air-phase height that requires fewer tests than conventionally required is evaluated with data for the XB-70 airplane. The method defines the effects of pilot technique on takeoff performance quantitatively, including the decrease in acceleration from drag due to lift. For a given takeoff weight and throttle setting, a single takeoff provides enough data to establish a standardizing relationship for the distance from brake release to any point where velocity is appropriate to rotation. The lower rotation rates penalized takeoff performance in terms of ground roll distance; the lowest observed rotation rate required a ground roll distance that was 19 percent longer than the highest. Rotations at the minimum rate also resulted in lift-off velocities that were approximately 5 knots lower than the highest rotation rate at any given lift-off distance.

  7. Evaluating ammonia (NH3) predictions in the NOAA National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC) using in situ aircraft, ground-level, and satellite measurements from the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battye, William H.; Bray, Casey D.; Aneja, Viney P.; Tong, Daniel; Lee, Pius; Tang, Youhua

    2016-09-01

    The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is responsible for forecasting elevated levels of air pollution within the National Air Quality Forecast Capability (NAQFC). The current research uses measurements gathered in the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado field campaign and the concurrent Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) to test performance of the NAQFC CMAQ modeling framework for predicting NH3. The DISCOVER-AQ and FRAPPE field campaigns were carried out in July and August 2014 in Northeast Colorado. Model predictions are compared with measurements of NH3 gas concentrations and the NH4+ component of fine particulate matter concentrations measured directly by the aircraft in flight. We also compare CMAQ predictions with NH3 measurements from ground-based monitors within the DISCOVER-AQ Colorado geographic domain, and from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Aura satellite. In situ aircraft measurements carried out in July and August of 2014 suggest that the NAQFC CMAQ model underestimated the NH3 concentration in Northeastern Colorado by a factor of ∼2.7 (NMB = -63%). Ground-level monitors also produced a similar result. Average satellite-retrieved NH3 levels also exceeded model predictions by a factor of 1.5-4.2 (NMB = -33 to -76%). The underestimation of NH3 was not accompanied by an underestimation of particulate NH4+, which is further controlled by factors including acid availability, removal rate, and gas-particle partition. The average measured concentration of NH4+ was close to the average predication (NMB = +18%). Seasonal patterns measured at an AMoN site in the region suggest that the underestimation of NH3 is not due to the seasonal allocation of emissions, but to the overall annual emissions estimate. The underestimation of NH3 varied across the study domain, with the largest differences occurring in a region of intensive agriculture near Greeley, Colorado, and in the vicinity of Denver. The

  8. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.260 - When we report as excess, or replace, an aircraft (including a declassified aircraft), must we...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS)? 102-33.260 Section 102-33.260 Public... a declassified aircraft), must we report the change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive... change in inventory to the Federal Aviation Interactive Reporting System (FAIRS). For...

  13. Aircraft observations of aerosol composition and ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Yin-Nan; Senum, Gunnar I.; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl; Hubbe, John; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, John; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distribution, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study field campaign. An Aerodyne aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a Passive Cavity Aerosol Spectrometer (PCASP) optical particle detector and a Twin Scanning Electrical Mobility Spectrometer (TSEMS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/TSEMS volume was 1.25 (1.33 with an estimated refractory component); the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in two high sulfate plumes. For the entire field campaign, the average aerosol concentration was 11 μg m-3. Compared with monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, the organic component made up a large fraction of total mass, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. In combination with other optical and chemical measurements, the AMS gave information on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production and the time evolution of aerosol light absorption. CO is taken as a conservative tracer of urban emissions and the ratios of organic aerosol and aerosol light absorption to CO examined as a function of photochemical age. Comparisons were made to ratios determined from surface measurements under conditions of minimal atmospheric processing. In air masses in which the NOx to NOy ratio has decreased to 10%, the ratio of organic aerosol to CO has quadrupled indicating that 75% of the organic aerosol is secondary

  14. Aircraft Observations of Aerosol Composition and Ageing in New England and Mid-Atlantic States during the Summer 2002 New England Air Quality Study Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, Lawrence I.; Daum, Peter H.; Lee, Y.- N.; Senum, Gunar; Springston, Stephen R.; Wang, Jian; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Hubbe, John M.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Brechtel, Fred J.; Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, Timothy B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2007-05-11

    Aerosol chemical composition, size distributions, and optical properties were measured during 17 aircraft flights in New England and Middle Atlantic States as part of the summer 2002 NEAQS field campaign. An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was operated with a measurement cycle of 30 s, about an order of magnitude faster than used for ground-based measurements. Noise levels within a single measurement period were sub μg m-3. Volume data derived from the AMS were compared with volume measurements from a PCASP optical particle detector and an Scanning Mobility Particle Spectrometer (SMPS); calculated light scattering was compared with measured values from an integrating nephelometer. The median ratio for AMS/SMPS volume was 1.25; the median ratio for AMS/nephelometer scattering was 1.18. Size spectra were compared for subsets of samples with different effective diameters (Deff). There is good agreement between the AMS, PCASP, and SMPS spectra for larger values of Deff but an unexplained over-prediction in the AMS for small values. A dependence of the AMS collection efficiency on aerosol acidity was quantified by a comparison between AMS and PCASP volumes in 2 high sulfate plumes. Average aerosol concentrations were 11 μg m-3. The organic content was high in comparison to monitoring data from the IMPROVE network, varying from 70% in clean air to 40% in high concentration sulfate plumes. The ratio of organic aerosol to CO and light absorption acting were examined as a function of photochemical age. CO is a conservative tracer for urban emissions and light absorption is a surrogate for black carbon which is also conservative. Comparisons were made to surface ratios measured under conditions where there is little secondary organic aerosol (SOA). An increase in these ratios relative to surface values indicates that 70 - 80% of the organic aerosol in polluted air masses was secondary. Most of this SOA is rapidly formed within a few hours. At longer time scales

  15. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  16. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  17. 41 CFR 102-37.230 - What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus aircraft or vessels include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... enrolled in educational programs, etc.) supporting the donee's need for the aircraft or vessel. ...) Justifying Special Transfer Requests § 102-37.230 What must a letter of intent for obtaining surplus...

  18. Practical Ranges of Loudness Levels of Various Types of Environmental Noise, Including Traffic Noise, Aircraft Noise, and Industrial Noise

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Erik M.; Janssen, Sabine A.

    2011-01-01

    In environmental noise control one commonly employs the A-weighted sound level as an approximate measure of the effect of noise on people. A measure that is more closely related to direct human perception of noise is the loudness level. At constant A-weighted sound level, the loudness level of a noise signal varies considerably with the shape of the frequency spectrum of the noise signal. In particular the bandwidth of the spectrum has a large effect on the loudness level, due to the effect of critical bands in the human hearing system. The low-frequency content of the spectrum also has an effect on the loudness level. In this note the relation between loudness level and A-weighted sound level is analyzed for various environmental noise spectra, including spectra of traffic noise, aircraft noise, and industrial noise. From loudness levels calculated for these environmental noise spectra, diagrams are constructed that show the relation between loudness level, A-weighted sound level, and shape of the spectrum. The diagrams show that the upper limits of the loudness level for broadband environmental noise spectra are about 20 to 40 phon higher than the lower limits for narrowband spectra, which correspond to the loudness levels of pure tones. The diagrams are useful for assessing limitations and potential improvements of environmental noise control methods and policy based on A-weighted sound levels. PMID:21776205

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.290 - What other disclaimers must we include in our exchange/sale agreements for aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What other disclaimers... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION PERSONAL PROPERTY 33-MANAGEMENT OF GOVERNMENT AIRCRAFT Disposing of Government...

  20. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  1. The characteristics of PM1.0 for aircraft measurement case study using ToF-AMS for pre-campaign KORUS-AQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Jinsoo Choi, Jinsoo Park, Joonyoung Ahn, Sangdeok Lee, Hyunjae Kim, Jun Oh, Youdeog Hong, Jihyung Hong, TaeHyeng Lee1Air Quality Division, National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea1Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, KoreaFor the Pre-KORUS-AQ Campaign during the period from May 18 to June 13 2015, aircraft observations were conducted: four times over the Yellow Sea and three times above Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). Aerosol (PM1.0) chemical composition and particles size distribution from 50 to 1000 nm were measured and analyzed using ToF-AMS installed the airplane (Kingair-C90GT, USA) in semi-real time. Concentrations of CO and the number of particles were measured as well. To analyze the aerosol's spatial and vertical characteristics, 5 flight paths were designed and the main paths were a cross over above SMA and spatial and vertical profile paths over the Yellow Sea. The flight distance varied from 600 to 900km and the velocity was kept at around 200 to 250 km/hr. On June 13 2015, the sky in SMA was densely fogged and the PM concentrations were relatively higher than usual. As for concentrations of main fine particles, Sulfate was 6.1 mg/m3, Organic 20.7 mg/m3, Ammonium 2.9 mg/m3 and Nitrate 2.9 mg/m3. Group of organic components consisted of 38.3% CxHy, 30.4% CxHyO1, 27.4% CxHyO2, 2.9% CxHyNp and 1.0% CxHyOzNp, and the proportion of oxidation group was 57.9%. As for CxHyO1 and CxHyO2 groups that are generated from decomposition process of oxidized organic compounds and closely related to SOA, the concentrations were 1.5 times higher than CxHy group's that is related with POA; it is considered that the high concentration on the 13th was highly affected by SOA. In the morning of the same day, aircraft measurements were conducted at the altitude between 600 and 2,700m above the Yellow Sea level, which revealed measurements of Sulfate 4.8 mg/m3, Organic 35.8 mg/m3, Ammonium 3.0 mg/m3 and Nitrate 3.7 mg/m3; these are

  2. Status report on the land processes aircraft science management operations working group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, James G.; Mann, Lisa J.

    1991-01-01

    Since its inception three years ago, the Land Processes Aircraft Science Management Operations Working Group (MOWG) provided recommendations on the optimal use of the Agency's aircraft in support of the Land Processes Science Program. Recommendations covered topics such as aircraft and sensor usage, development of long-range plans, Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (MAC), program balance, aircraft sensor databases, new technology and sensor development, and increased University scientist participation in the program. Impacts of these recommendations improved the efficiency of various procedures including the flight request process, tracking of flight hours, and aircraft usage. The group also created a bibliography focused on publications produced by Land Processes scientists from the use of the aircraft program, surveyed NASA funded PI's on their participation in the aircraft program, and developed a planning template for multi-sensor airborne campaigns. Benefits from these activities are summarized.

  3. Political Campaign Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Techniques, materials, and coordinating efforts used in a political campaign are outlined for high school students. The objective is to familiarize students with these techniques so that they can become effective campaign volunteers. Topics include the candidate and the press, campaign publicity materials, organization of headquarters, receptions,…

  4. Aerosol particles collected on aircraft flights over the northwestern Pacific region during the ACE-Asia campaign: Composition and major sources of the organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoneit, Bernd R. T.; Kobayashi, Minoru; Mochida, Michihiro; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Huebert, Barry J.

    2004-10-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter, collected over the polluted east Asia/Pacific region in spring 2001 during research flights with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 aircraft, was analyzed for different types of organic compounds using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. More than 70 organic species were detected in the aerosols and grouped into different compound classes on the basis of functional groups, including n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fatty acids, dehydroabietic acid, alkanols, water-soluble sugars (including glucose, sucrose, mycose, and levoglucosan), monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic acids, urea, and phthalates. Interestingly, the water-soluble compounds (72-133 ng m-3) were found to account for 16-50% (average 34%) of the total identified compound mass (TCM). Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to suggest their sources. Fossil fuel combustion was recognized as the most significant source for the TCM (contributing 33-80% of TCM, average 50%), followed by soil resuspension (5-25%, average 19%) and secondary oxidation products (4-15%, average 9%). In contrast, the contribution of natural sources such as terrestrial plant wax and marine lipids (fatty acids and alkanols) was relatively small (3.4% and 9.4% on average, respectively). Biomass burning was suggested to contribute only a minor portion to the TCM of the Asian aerosols during the spring season (1.4% on average based on levoglucosan). However, levoglucosan may have been hydrolyzed and/or oxidized in part during long-range transport, and therefore this value represents a lower limit. The organic compound compositions of these samples are very different from those reported for aerosol particles of the Atlantic Ocean and from the earlier data for the mid-Pacific in terms of the abundant presence of water-soluble compounds consisting of saccharides, anhydrosaccharides, and the secondary dicarboxylic acids. This study

  5. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  6. Using FLEXPART-WRF to Identify Source Regions Influencing Arctic Trace Gases and Aerosols During the Summer 2014 NETCARE Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    In July and August 2014 the Canadian Network on Aerosols and Climate: Addressing Key Uncertainties in Remote Canadian Regions (NETCARE) project conducted aircraft and ship based campaigns with the goal of identifying both emissions and atmospheric processes influencing Arctic trace gas and aerosol concentrations. The aircraft campaign was conducted using the Alfred Wegener Institute's POLAR 6 aircraft (based in Resolute Bay, Canada) and the ship based campaign was conducted onboard the CCGS Amundsen (icebreaker and Arctic Ocean research vessel). Here, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) to study meteorology and transport patterns that influence airmasses sampled during the aircraft campaign (5-21 July 2012) and research Legs 1a and 1b for Amundsen (1a: 8 - 24 July Quebec City to Resolute and 24 July - 14 August Resolute to Kugluktuk). The FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model driven by WRF meteorology (FLEXPART-WRF) run in backwards mode is used to study source regions that influenced enhanced concentrations in trace gases including DMS and NH3 as well as aerosols. Links between biomass burning in Northern Canada and measurements during the campaign are discussed. Finally FLEXPART-WRF run in forward mode is used to study links between shipping emissions from the Amundsen and enhanced pollution sampled by the POLAR 6 aircraft when both were operating in the same region of Lancaster Sound during the campaigns.

  7. 11 CFR 113.5 - Restrictions on use of campaign funds for flights on noncommercial aircraft (2 U.S.C. 439a(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(iv); (2) Noncommercial travel as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), and the... on a comparable aircraft of comparable size, as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(c), is paid by the... date the flight began, except as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(b)(3); or (3) Provided by the...

  8. 11 CFR 113.5 - Restrictions on use of campaign funds for flights on noncommercial aircraft (2 U.S.C. 439a(c)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(iv); (2) Noncommercial travel as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(a)(3)(v), and the... on a comparable aircraft of comparable size, as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(c), is paid by the... date the flight began, except as provided in 11 CFR 100.93(b)(3); or (3) Provided by the...

  9. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    SciTech Connect

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  10. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of the acoustic transmission of aircraft's double-wall structures including sound package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhazi, Dilal

    In the field of aeronautics, reducing the harmful effects of acoustics constitutes a major concern at the international level and justifies the call for further research, particularly in Canada where aeronautics is a key economic sector, which operates in a context of global competition. Aircraft sidewall structure is usually of a double wall construction with a curved ribbed metallic skin and a lightweight composite or sandwich trim separated by a cavity filled with a noise control treatment. The latter is of a great importance in the transport industry, and continues to be of interest in many engineering applications. However, the insertion loss noise control treatment depends on the excitation of the supporting structure. In particular, Turbulent Boundary Layer is of interest to several industries. This excitation is difficult to simulate in laboratory conditions, given the prohibiting costs and difficulties associated with wind tunnel and in-flight tests. Numerical simulation is the only practical way to predict the response to such excitations and to analyze effects of design changes to the response to such excitation. Another kinds of excitations encountered in industrial are monopole, rain on the Roof and diffuse acoustic field. Deterministic methods can calculate in each point the spectral response of the system. Most known are numerical methods such as finite elements and boundary elements methods. These methods generally apply to the low frequency where modal behavior of the structure dominates. However, the high limit of calculation in frequency of these methods cannot be defined in a strict way because it is related to the capacity of data processing and to the nature of the studied mechanical system. With these challenges in mind, and with limitations of the main numerical codes on the market, the manufacturers have expressed the need for simple models immediately available as early as the stage of preliminary drafts. This thesis represents an attempt

  11. DIAL with heterodyne detection including speckle noise: Aircraft/shuttle measurements of O3, H2O, and NH3 with pulsed tunable CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Staton, L. D.; Bair, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    Atmospheric trace constituent measurements with higher vertical resolution than attainable with passive radiometers are discussed. Infrared differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which depends on Mie scattering from aerosols, has special advantages for tropospheric and lower stratospheric applications and has great potential importance for measurements from shuttle and aircraft. Differential absorption lidar data reduction involves comparing large amplitude signals which have small differences. The accuracy of the trace constituent concentration inferred from DIAL measurements depends strongly on the errors in determining the amplitude of the signals. Thus, the commonly used SNR expression (signal divided by noise in the absence of signal) is not adequate to describe DIAL measurement accuracy and must be replaced by an expression which includes the random coherent (speckle) noise within the signal. A comprehensive DIAL computer algorithm is modified to include heterodyne detection and speckle noise. Examples for monitoring vertical distributions of O3, H2O, and NH3 using a ground-, aircraft-, or shuttle-based pulsed tunable CO2 laser DIAL system are given.

  12. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  13. Comparison of the chemical evolution and characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-06-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Extensive investigations of boreal fire plume evolution were undertaken during ARCTAS-B, where four distinct fire plumes that were intercepted by the aircraft over a range of down-wind distances (0.1 to 16 hr transport times) were studied in detail. Based on these analyses, there was no evidence for ozone production and a box model simulation of the data confirmed that net ozone production was slow (on average 1 ppbv h-1 in the first 3 h and much lower afterwards) due to limited NOx. Peroxyacetyl nitrate concentrations (PAN) increased with plume age and the box model estimated an average production rate of ~80 pptv h-1 in the first 3 h. Like ozone, there was also no evidence for net secondary inorganic or organic aerosol formation. There was no apparent increase in aerosol mass concentrations in the boreal fire plumes due to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation; however, there were indications of chemical processing of the organic aerosols. In addition to the detailed studies of boreal fire plume evolution, about 500 smoke plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft were segregated by fire source region. The normalized excess mixing ratios (i.e. ΔX/ΔCO) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen (NOx), ozone, PAN) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared.

  14. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  15. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  16. Bayesian optimization of the Community Land Model simulated biosphere-atmosphere exchange using CO2 observations from a dense tower network and aircraft campaigns over Oregon

    DOE PAGES

    Schmidt, Andres; Law, Beverly E.; Göckede, Mathias; Hanson, Chad; Yang, Zhenlin; Conley, Stephen

    2016-09-15

    Here, the vast forests and natural areas of the Pacific Northwest comprise one of the most productive ecosystems in the northern hemisphere. The heterogeneous landscape of Oregon poses a particular challenge to ecosystem models. We present a framework using a scaling factor Bayesian inversion to improve the modeled atmosphere-biosphere exchange of carbon dioxide. Observations from 5 CO/CO2 towers, eddy covariance towers, and airborne campaigns were used to constrain the Community Land Model CLM4.5 simulated terrestrial CO2 exchange at a high spatial and temporal resolution (1/24°, 3-hourly). To balance aggregation errors and the degrees of freedom in the inverse modeling system,more » we applied an unsupervised clustering approach for the spatial structuring of our model domain. Data from flight campaigns were used to quantify the uncertainty introduced by the Lagrangian particle dispersion model that was applied for the inversions. The average annual statewide net ecosystem productivity (NEP) was increased by 32% to 29.7 TgC per year by assimilating the tropospheric mixing ratio data. The associated uncertainty was decreased by 28.4% to 29%, on average over the entire Oregon model domain with the lowest uncertainties of 11% in western Oregon. The largest differences between posterior and prior CO2 fluxes were found for the Coast Range ecoregion of Oregon that also exhibits the highest availability of atmospheric observations and associated footprints. In this area, covered by highly productive Douglas-fir forest, the differences between the prior and posterior estimate of NEP averaged 3.84 TgC per year during the study period from 2012 through 2014.« less

  17. Campaign graphs

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    We define a class of geometrical constructions in the plane in which each (unextended) line lies on (precisely) k points, and every point is an endpoint of (precisely) one line. We will refer to any construction satisfying these conditions as a campaign graph, or as a k-campaign graph if the value of k isn't clear from the context. A k-campaign graph, G, is said to be critical if no subgraph of G is also a k-campaign graph. 11 figs.

  18. Comparison of chemical characteristics of 495 biomass burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Liu, Z.; Hennigan, C. J.; Huey, L. G.; Jimenez, J. L.; Cubison, M. J.; Vay, S.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Liao, J.; Knapp, D. J.; Wennberg, P. O.; Kürten, A.; Crounse, J. D.; St. Clair, J.; Wang, Y.; Weber, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper compares measurements of gaseous and particulate emissions from a wide range of biomass-burning plumes intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the ARCTAS-2008 experiment: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (3 April to 19 April 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, USA (18 June to 24 June 2008). Approximately 500 smoke plumes from biomass burning emissions that varied in age from minutes to days were segregated by fire source region and urban emission influences. The normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMR) of gaseous (carbon dioxide, acetonitrile, hydrogen cyanide, toluene, benzene, methane, oxides of nitrogen and ozone) and fine aerosol particulate components (nitrate, sulfate, ammonium, chloride, organic aerosols and water soluble organic carbon) of these plumes were compared. A detailed statistical analysis of the different plume categories for different gaseous and aerosol species is presented in this paper. The comparison of NEMR values showed that CH4 concentrations were higher in air-masses that were influenced by urban emissions. Fresh biomass burning plumes mixed with urban emissions showed a higher degree of oxidative processing in comparison with fresh biomass burning only plumes. This was evident in higher concentrations of inorganic aerosol components such as sulfate, nitrate and ammonium, but not reflected in the organic components. Lower NOx NEMRs combined with high sulfate, nitrate and ammonium NEMRs in aerosols of plumes subject to long-range transport, when comparing all plume categories, provided evidence of advanced processing of these plumes.

  19. Pride Campaign Overcomes Vandalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Donald W.

    1984-01-01

    A San Jose high school's campaign to develop student pride in the school and its appearance includes publicity measures, painting garbage cans in school colors, and cafeteria supervision. Results in diminishing acts of vandalism have been encouraging. (MJL)

  20. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  1. The DIAMET campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, G.

    2012-04-01

    DIAMET (DIAbatic influences on Mesoscale structures in ExTratropical storms) is a joint project between the UK academic community and the Met Office. Its focus is on understanding and predicting mesoscale structures in synoptic-scale storms, and in particular on the role of diabatic processes in generating and maintaining them. Such structures include fronts, rain bands, secondary cyclones, sting jets etc, and are important because much of the extreme weather we experience (e.g. strong winds, heavy rain) comes from such regions. The project conducted two field campaigns in the autumn of 2011, from September 14 - 30 and November 24 - December 14, based around the FAAM BAe146 aircraft with support from ground-based radar and radiosonde measurements. Detailed modelling, mainly using the Met Office Unified model, supported the planning and interpretation of these campaigns. This presentation will give a brief overview of the campaigns. Both in September and November-December the weather regime was westerly, with a strong jet stream directed across the Atlantic. Three IOPs were conducted in September, to observe a convective band ahead of an upper-level trough, waves on a long trailing cold front, and a warm conveyor belt associated with a secondary cyclone. In November-December six IOPs were conducted, to observe frontal passages and high winds. This period was notable for a number of very strong windstorms passing across the north of the UK, and gave us an opportunity to examine bent-back warm fronts in the southern quadrant of these storms where the strongest winds are found. The case studies fell into two basic patterns. In the majority of cases, dropsonde legs at high level were used to obtain a cross-section of winds and thermodynamic structure (e.g. across a front), followed by in situ legs at lower levels (generally where the temperature was between 0 and -10°) to examine microphysical processes, especially ice multiplication and the extent of supercooled water

  2. Merger campaign.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    Through using the Web, TV, radio, and print advertisements, The Hospital of Central Connecticut announced in October 2006 its new name and the merger of two hospitals: New Britain General Hospital and Bradley Memorial Hospital. A campaign consisting of TV and radio ads was created to promote the merger. The ads are also featured on the hospital's Web site. PMID:17450950

  3. An Overview of the SOLVE-THESEO 2000 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Adriani, Alberto; Amanatidis, Georgios T.; Anderson, James G.; Braathen, Geir O.; Brune, William H.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Craig, Michael T.; DeCola, Philip E.

    2001-01-01

    Between November 1999 and April 2000, two major field experiments, the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) and the Third European Stratospheric Experiment on Ozone (THESEO 2000), collaborated to form the largest field campaign yet mounted to study Arctic ozone loss. This international campaign involved more than 500 scientists from over 20 countries spread across the high and mid-latitudes of the northern hemisphere. The main scientific aims of SOLVE-THESEO 2000 were to study (a) the processes leading to ozone loss in the Arctic vortex and (b) the effect on ozone amounts over northern mid-latitudes. The campaign included satellites, heavy lift balloon launches, 6 different aircraft, ground stations, and scores of ozone-sonde. Campaign activities were principally conducted in 3 intensive measurement phases centered on early December 1999, late January 2000, and early March 2000. Observations made during the campaign showed that temperatures were unusually cold in the polar lower stratosphere over the course of the 1999-2000 winter. These cold temperatures resulted in the formation of extensive polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) across the Arctic. Heterogeneous chemical reactions on the surfaces of the PSC particles produced high levels of reactive chlorine within the polar vortex by early January. This reactive chlorine catalytically destroyed about 60% of the ozone in a layer near 20 km between late January and mid-March 2000.

  4. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  5. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  6. DIAL with heterodyne detection including speckle noise: Aircraft/shuttle measurements of O3, H2O, and NH3 with pulsed tunable CO2lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brockman, P.; Hess, R. V.; Staton, L. D.; Bair, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    A parametric analysis of DIAL sensitivity with heterodyne detection is presented and comparisons with direct detection are discussed. Examples are given for monitoring vertical distributions of O3, H2O, and NH3 using a ground-, aircraft-, or shuttle-based pulsed tunable CO2 laser DIAL system. Results indicate that maximum sensitivity at minimum laser energy per measurement requires multiple pulse operation with the energy per pulse selected so that the measured photon rate is approximately equal to the detector IF bandwidth. Measurement sensitivities can be maximized and interference effects minimized by fine adjustment of measurement frequencies using the tunability of high pressure lasers. The use of rare isotope lasers minimizes loss due to CO2 atmospheric absorption.

  7. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  8. 5 CFR 950.701 - DoD overseas campaign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the National Capital Area campaign. (d) The overseas campaign Charity List shall not include the All...) The overseas campaign Charity List must explain the allocation policy utilized by each of the...

  9. Japanese respond to campaign.

    PubMed

    1994-08-01

    A unique campaign launched by JOICFP in August 1993 had by the end of June 1994 netted US $41,200 to support activities of the integrated Project (IP) in developing countries. Under the campaign, the public, institutions, organizations, and businesses have been sending in used prepaid cards for sale to collectors in Japan and abroad. Prepaid cards are widely used throughout Japan for phones, subways, railways and highways. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) alone issues 20 million cards annually. The campaign, which has been widely featured in the media, has proved effective for drawing attention to JOICFP and to population and family planning issues. Gaining the understanding of the Japanese public about population issues has grown in importance since the government's announcement of the new Global Issues Initiative (GII). Word about the campaign was carried by radio, television, newspapers, and magazines nationwide. The number of cards sent in escalated with the attention. By the end of June, JOICFP had received around 700,000 cards, of which 550,000 have been exchanged for cash. The funds generated by the card sales have been allocated to support grassroots IP activities and encourage the self-reliance of projects in China, Ghana, Guatemala, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia. Responses to the campaign have come from individuals as well as local governments, hospitals, enterprises, and educational institutions. Many of these have initiated their own card-collection system and information-dissemination activities to support JOICFP. Over 5000 different organizations are now collaborating with JOICFP for the campaign, including Tenmaya Department Store in Okayama City.

  10. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  11. Community Members’ Input into Cancer Prevention Campaign Development and Experience Being Featured in the Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Keller, Brittney; Tatum, Cathy M.; Fickle, Darla K.; Midkiff, Courtney; Carver, Sharon; Krieger, Janice L.; Slater, Michael D.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates are increased and CRC screening rates are lower among Appalachia Ohio residents. Objectives We sought to describe 1) a partnership of cancer researchers and community members that developed county-specific media campaigns to improve CRC screening rates (intervention) and fruit and vegetable consumption (control) and 2) the experience of community members featured in the campaigns. Methods Community members assisted with campaign-development, were featured in campaigns, identified locations for materials, and promoted the campaigns. Campaigns included billboards, posters, and information in local newspapers. A mailed survey assessed featured community members’ experiences in the campaigns. Lessons Learned Ongoing communication among members of the partnership was critical to successful community-level campaigns. Featured community members had mostly positive experiences about being included in the campaigns. Conclusions Having a shared vision, ongoing trust, and good communication are essential elements to maintaining a viable academic-community partnership. PMID:26412757

  12. MISR Browse Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-13

    ... MISR Browse Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)   These ... of the region observed during the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field campaign. CLAMS focused on ...

  13. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Science and Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; T Jackson; B.Kustas; PJ Lamb; GM McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Turner

    2007-06-30

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign is a field experiment designed to collect a comprehensive data set that can be used to quantify the interactions that occur between the atmosphere, biosphere, land surface, and subsurface. A particular focus will be on how these interactions modulate the abundance and characteristics of small and medium size cumuliform clouds that are generated by local convection. These interactions are not well understood and are responsible for large uncertainties in global climate models, which are used to forecast future climate states. The campaign will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations.

  14. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  15. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  16. Cryosphere campaigns in support of ESA's Earth Explorers Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Tânia; Davidson, Malcolm; Plank, Gernot; Floberghagen, Rune; Parrinello, Tommaso; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Drusch, Matthias; Fernandez, Diego

    2014-05-01

    demonstrated for the first time the potential to retrieve sea ice thickness from SMOS data. However, the product retrieval algorithm had never been validated using independent airborne measurements in the Arctic region. Therefore, the SMOSice airborne campaign will take place over sea-ice south east of Svalbard during the last week of March 2014. CryoVEx 2014 is a large collaborative effort to help ensure the accuracy of ESA's ice mission CryoSat-2. ESA has supported extensive CryoSat-2 pre-launch validation campaigns by providing simultaneous overflights of surface experiments performed by CryoSat Validation Retrieval Team (CVRT) members in Greenland, Canada, Svalbard and the Arctic Ocean in 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Since CryoSat-2's launch, the field campaigns have been significantly augmented including a close collaboration with NASA's Operation Icebridge since 2011 and continued in 2014. Collectively, these activities are known as CryoVEx (CryoSat-2 Validation Experiment). The aim of this large-scale CryoVEx2014 ground and airborne campaign is to record sea-ice thickness and conditions of the ice along the CryoSat-2 ground track. A range of sensors installed in different aircraft included simple cameras to get a visual record of the sea ice, laser scanners to clearly map the height of the ice, an ice-thickness sensor (EM-Bird), ESA's radar altimeter (ASIRAS) and NASA's snow and Ku-band radars, which mimic CryoSat's measurements but at a higher resolution. Results from previous campaigns have shown the ability to detect centimetre differences between sea-ice and thin ice/water which in turn allowed for an accurate estimation of actual sea ice thickness. For the different activities a rich variety of datasets has been recorded, are archived and users can access campaign data through the EOPI web portal [http://eopi.esa.int].

  17. Comparison of the Chemical and Physical Evolution and Characteristics of 495 Biomass Burning Plumes Intercepted by the NASA DC-8 Aircraft during the ARCTAS/CARB-2008 Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hecobian, A.; Weber, R.; Jimenez, J. L.; Vay, S. A.; Diskin, G. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Wisthaler, A.

    2009-12-01

    Biomass burning events include anthropogenic burning, such as bio-fuel or prescribed burning, and natural fires. Emissions from either type of burning are a significant source for a wide range of atmospheric trace gases and aerosol particles that can have important health and climate impacts.This study compares the different chemical and aerosol components of 495 biomass-burning plumes that were intercepted by the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the three phases of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) experiment. The ARCTAS experiment was conducted in three phases: ARCTAS-A, based out of Fairbanks, Alaska, U.S.A. (3 to 19 April, 2008); ARCTAS-B based out of Cold Lake, Alberta, Canada (29 June to 13 July, 2008); and ARCTAS-CARB, based out of Palmdale, California, U.S.A. (18 to 24 June, 2008). Many different fire emissions were intercepted during this study. The plumes were classified into different categories: Plumes that were present due to long range transport from their source of emission were categorized into Asian, Siberian, European and a mix of Asian and Siberian plumes. Boreal fires from ARCTAS-B were divided into two groups: Fresh and Aged. This was based on the transport age of the plumes from the location of the plume intercept to the source of emission. During ARCTAS-CARB, biomass-burning emissions were segregated into two main categories: those that were influence by urban emissions versus the plumes that had smaller urban emission influences. Each of the ARCTAS-CARB plume categories noted above were further subdivided into fresh or more aged plumes. A statistical summary of the emission or enhancement ratios based on changes relative to CO, for various trace gas species and aerosol chemical components was produced for each smoke plume category. A high degree of variability in emission ratios was observed for all types of plumes; however, the following conclusions were formulated after a

  18. A Survey of NASA’s Tropical Atmospheric Research Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yubin He, M.; Hardin, D. M.; Graves, S.; Conover, H.; Blakeslee, R.; Goodman, M.

    2009-12-01

    Field research campaigns are essential for observing and measuring actual Earth system phenomena and validation of computer models that simulate Earth systems. Ultimately, field data help improve the nation's ability to predict climate change and its impacts. Since 1998 NASA has conducted a number of field campaigns directed toward understanding the life cycle and processes of tropical storm systems. Sponsored through NASA’s Research and Analysis (R&A) programs the field campaigns employed an integrated mix of instrument scientists, aircraft crew and managers, atmospheric modelers, atmospheric and oceanographic scientists, and data & information technologists. Each field campaign employed multiple instruments situated on space borne platforms, aircraft and on the Earth’s surface. Typically these include the NASA ER2 research aircraft, a DC-8 airliner refitted with scientific instrumentation, NASA’s Earth observation satellites such as Aqua, Terra and TRMM, and Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles such as the ALTUS II and Global Hawk. This survey begins with a description of the third convection and moisture experiment (CAMEX-3). In 1998 CAMEX-3 successfully studied Hurricanes Bonnie, Danielle, Earl and Georges producing high spatial and temporal information of hurricane structure, dynamics, and motion. These data, when analyzed within the context of more traditional aircraft, satellite, and ground-based radar observations, provided additional insight to hurricane modelers and forecasters who continually strive to improve hurricane predictions. The next field campaign in 2001 was known as CAMEX-4. CAMEX-4 focused on the study of tropical cyclone development, tracking, intensification, and land falling impacts. NASA research aircraft flew over, through, and around hurricanes as they approached landfall in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and along the east coast of the United States. The Tropical Cloud Systems and Processes (TCSP) mission in 2005 focused on the study of

  19. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  20. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  1. High energy radiation from aircraft-triggered lightning and thunderstorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochkin, Pavlo; van Deursen, Alexander P. J.; de Boer, Alte I.; Bardet, Michiel; Boissin, Jean-François

    2016-04-01

    In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS http://ildas.nlr.nl/) was developed in an EU FP6 project to provide information on threat that lightning poses to aircraft. The system contains one E-field and eight H-field sensors distributed over the fuselage. It has recently been extended to include two LaBr3 scintillation detectors. The scintillation detectors are sensitive to x-ray photons above 30 keV. The entire system is installed on an A-350 aircraft. When triggered by lightning and digitizes data synchronously with 10 ns intervals. Twelve continuously monitoring photon energy channels were implemented for X-ray detectors operating at slower rate (15 ms, pulse counting). In spring of 2014 and 2015 the aircraft flew through thunderstorm cells recording the data from the sensors. Total of 93 lightning strikes to the aircraft are recorded. Eighteen of them are also detected by WWLLN network. One strike consists of six individual strokes within 200 ms that were all synchronously identified by WWLLN. The WWLLN inter-stroke distance is much larger than the aircraft movement. Three of these strokes generated X-ray bursts. One exceptionally bright X-ray pulse of more than 8 MeV has been detected in association with another strike; it probably saturated the detector's photomultiplier. Neither long gamma-ray glow, nor positron annihilation have been detected during the campaign. An explanation is sought in the typical altitude profile of these test flights.

  2. The 1996 Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    During April 1996 NASA, in conjunction with the DOE, will sponsor a multi-aircraft field campaign to better understand the microphysical and radiative properties of cirrus clouds, the origins of ice nuclei and cloud condensation nuclei in the upper troposphere, and the possible role that the commercial subsonic aircraft fleet might play in altering cloud or aerosol properties. The NASA ER-2 aircraft will be used as a remote sensing platform, while the NASA DC-8 aircraft will be used as an in situ measurement platform. In situ observations will include a full set of size distribution measurements from nano-meter to millimeter sizes, ice water content measurements, gas phase and condensed phase chemical measurements, ice crystal optical phase function measurements, lidar observations of cloud top and cloud base, and atmospheric state measurement. The ER-2 will have lidar, microwave ice water path measurements, as well as visible and infrared spectral measurement. In this presentation the highlights of the mission will be presented. The goal will be to address fundamental questions such as the mode of nucleation of cirrus clouds, the composition of the nuclei on which cirrus form, the degree to which aircraft impact cirrus cloud properties.

  3. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Internal engine—for cylinder compression and for metal particles or foreign matter on screens and sump...—for improper installation and poor condition. (4) Antenna including trailing antenna—for...

  4. A methodology for the probabilistic assessment of system effectiveness as applied to aircraft survivability and susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soban, Danielle Suzanne

    2001-07-01

    Significant advances have been made recently in applying probabilistic methods to aerospace vehicle concepts. Given the explosive changes in today's political, social, and technological climate, it makes practical sense to try and extrapolate these methods to the campaign analysis level. This would allow the assessment of rapidly changing threat environments as well as technological advancements, aiding today's decision makers. These decision makers use this information in three primary ways: resource allocation, requirements definition, and trade studies between system components. In effect, these decision makers are looking for a way to quantify system effectiveness. Using traditional definitions, one can categorize an aerospace concept, such as an aircraft, as the system. Design and analysis conducted on the aircraft will result in system level Measures of Effectiveness. System effectiveness, therefore, becomes a function of only that aircraft's design variables and parameters. While this method of analysis can result in the design of a vehicle that is optimized to its own mission and performance requirements, the vehicle remains independent of its role for which it was created: the warfighting environment. It is therefore proposed that the system be redefined as the warfighting environment (campaign analysis) and the problem be considered to have a system of systems formulation. A methodology for the assessment of military system effectiveness is proposed. Called POSSEM (PrObabilisitic System of System Effectiveness Methodology), the methodology describes the creation of an analysis pathway that links engineering level changes to campaign level measures of effectiveness. The methodology includes probabilistic analysis techniques in order to manage the inherent uncertainties in the problem, which are functions of human decision making, rapidly changing threats, and the incorporation of new technologies. An example problem is presented, in which aircraft

  5. VELETA 2002 Field Campaign.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alados-Arboledas, L.; Veleta2002 Team

    2003-04-01

    Depletion of the Earth's ozone layer is considered responsible of an increase in the solar ultraviolet irradiance incoming at surface level (WMO, 1998). For this reason, it is important to know the amount of ultraviolet radiation received by plants and animal organisms to evaluate the potential impact of increased UV radiation on biological systems. During recent years several studies has investigated the differences in UV radiation between places located at different altitude. Depending on the choice of the experimental area altitudinal gradients in erythemal UV have been reported ranging from 0.08 to 0.40 at different regions. Rather high altitudinal gradients were obtained when the studies have been undertaken at sites with important tropospheric pollution or when snow cover was present in the high-level sites. In this sense, it seems of interest to study these altitudinal gradients including comprehensive observations of the environmental conditions relevant to the incoming UV irradiance in order to separate the different contributions to this altitudinal effect. This paper presents the field campaign VELETA2002 (eValuation of the Effects of eLevation and aErosols on the ultravioleT rAdiation), developed during the month of July 2002 in the area of Sierra Nevada (Spain). This field campaign was designed to obtain experimental data on elevation and atmospheric aerosol effects on the solar ultraviolet irradiance. For this purpose a set of radiometers and spectroradiometers has been installed at both slopes of Sierra Nevada Massif, from coastal to inland locations. The field stations include Motril, a coastal location at sea level, Pitres (1200 m a.s.l.) located in the South slope of Sierra Nevada Massif, the Veleta Peak (3398 m a.s.l.), Las Sabinas (2200 m a.s.l.) located on the north slope of the mountain range and Armilla (680 m a.s.l.) located in the valley. The principal feature of the locations is that they provide a strong altitudinal gradient considering

  6. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  7. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  8. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  9. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  10. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  11. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  12. 78 FR 61388 - TA-W-82,705, the Boeing Company Boeing Commercial Aircraft, (BCA) Including On-Site Leased...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... Register on July 2, 2013 (78 FR 39775). At the request of a company official and union, the Department...) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Chipton Ross, Inc., CTS Technical Services, Inc., Moseley Technical... Workers From Adecco, USA, Inc., Cascade Engineering, CDI Corporation, Chipton Ross, Inc.,...

  13. Lightning hazards to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corn, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    Lightning hazards and, more generally, aircraft static electricity are discussed by a representative for the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory. An overview of these atmospheric electricity hazards to aircraft and their systems is presented with emphasis on electrical and electronic subsystems. The discussion includes reviewing some of the characteristics of lightning and static electrification, trends in weather and lightning-related mishaps, some specific threat mechanisms and susceptible aircraft subsystems and some of the present technology gaps. A roadmap (flow chart) is presented to show the direction needed to address these problems.

  14. Awareness campaigns: experience in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández Tepichin, G

    2000-02-18

    The current total of AIDS cases in Mexico is 37,000 of which 86% have occurred in men. The major route of transmission is sexual. The campaign to prevent AIDS has fallen into four phases, and has now been extended to other sexually transmitted diseases, including hepatitis B. The first phase (1985-1989) was based around question and answer brochures, which increased awareness but did not remove misconceptions. A mass media campaign addressed these misconceptions and stressed preventive measures. The campaign was halted by opposition to the promotion of condom use on the grounds that it encouraged promiscuity. The second phase (1989-1992) used more conservative messages, but these were too obscure and failed to reach the target audience. A poster campaign using popular lottery characters was widely accepted. In the third phase (1992-1994), a combination of messages was targeted at different populations, including parents and women, and general public sympathy for social support for people with AIDS was encouraged. In the fourth phase (1996-2000), a mass media campaign was aimed at teenagers, with parents and teachers as support groups. The campaign was widened to include HBV infection, and posters and brochures for teenagers were produced. These are distributed as part of a collaboration with non-governmental organizations providing sex education. The private medical sector is being encouraged to provide facilities for hepatitis B vaccination. So far the campaign has only been established in Mexico City, but it is hoped that this will be extended nationwide. Hepatitis B vaccination has been recently included in the National Immunization Programme for infants in the first year of life and it is officially recommended for at-risk populations.

  15. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  17. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. The STAR Grants Contribution to the SOAS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) is a community-led field campaign that was part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). As one of the largest field studies in decades to characterize air quality in the Southeastern United States, SAS is a collaborative project involving the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and dozens of domestic and international research institutions. In 2013, the EPA's Science to Achieve Results (STAR) grants program funded fourteen projects, resulting in a research portfolio addressing a number of scientific needs outlined in the solicitation. These projects fall into two categories: field measurements of key chemical species and supporting laboratory experiments and model development. Awardees participating in the SOAS campaign are studying key chemical species (including volatile organic compounds, formaldehyde, reactive nitrogen species, reactive oxidant species, organonitrates and organosulfates) for understanding the interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic emissions. Measurements were made by instruments both on the ground and from aircrafts. Additionally, projects characterized and investigated the climatically-relevant properties of aerosol from the field site. Work also includes several chamber experiments that will result in a detailed analysis of secondary organic aerosol components and precursors. Certain species measured in the field campaign will be analyzed and characterized in a laboratory setting. Finally, three projects focus on improving air quality and climate models, particularly in areas dealing with cloud droplets, aqueous chemistry, and organic aerosol mixtures. This poster will provide an overview of the STAR grants program's contribution to the SAS and SOAS campaign and highlight some of the challenges and benefits of leveraging funds in this way.

  19. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  20. The "Know Stroke" Campaign

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Special Section The "Know Stroke" Campaign Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents ... campaign for the U.S. Hispanic community. 1 Know Stroke A stroke occurs when the blood supply to ...

  1. Diversity: A Corporate Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akiyama, Diana D.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author calls for a "campaign" because she believes there is a need to build upon the successes of diversity initiatives with renewed commitment, in much the same way as capital campaigns build upon past successes and refocus campuses on their work. Just as a capital campaign invests in financial stability by stimulating…

  2. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  3. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Morpheus Lander Testing Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Mitchell, Jennifer D.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Morpheus Project has developed and tested a prototype planetary lander capable of vertical takeoff and landing designed to serve as a testbed for advanced spacecraft technologies. The Morpheus vehicle has successfully performed a set of integrated vehicle test flights including hot-fire and tether tests, ultimately culminating in an un-tethered "free-flight" This development and testing campaign was conducted on-site at the Johnson Space Center (JSC), less than one year after project start. Designed, developed, manufactured and operated in-house by engineers at JSC, the Morpheus Project represents an unprecedented departure from recent NASA programs and projects that traditionally require longer development lifecycles and testing at remote, dedicated testing facilities. This paper documents the integrated testing campaign, including descriptions of test types (hot-fire, tether, and free-flight), test objectives, and the infrastructure of JSC testing facilities. A major focus of the paper will be the fast pace of the project, rapid prototyping, frequent testing, and lessons learned from this departure from the traditional engineering development process at NASA s Johnson Space Center.

  5. March 2003 EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, Donald J.; Markus, Thorsten; Maslanik, James A.; Sturm, Matthew; Lobl, Elena

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the March 2003 coordinated sea ice field campaign in the Alaskan Arctic is presented with reference to the papers in this special section. This campaign is part of the program to validate the Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) sea ice products. Standard AMSR-E sea ice products include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. The validation program consists of three elements, namely: 1) satellite data comparisons; 2) coordinated satellite/aircraft surface measurements; and 3) modeling and sensitivity analyses. Landsat-7 and RADARSAT observations were used in comparative studies with the retrieved AMSR-E sea ice concentrations. The aircraft sensors provided high-resolution microwave imagery of the surface, atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity, and digital records of sea ice conditions. When combined with in situ measurements, aircraft data were used to validate the AMSR-E sea ice temperature and snow-depth products. The modeling studies helped interpret the field-data comparisons, provided insight on the limitations of the AMSR-E sea ice algorithms, and suggested potential improvements to the AMSR-E retrieval algorithms.

  6. Preparing the DC-8 for Operation IceBridge Antarctic 2011 Campaign

    NASA Video Gallery

    In preparation for Operation IceBridge's Antarctica 2011 campaign, flight crews at NASA Dryden worked to outfit the DC-8 aircraft -- NASA's long-haul "workhorse" -- with an array of different instr...

  7. AH Her Observing Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-05-01

    Dr. Juan Echevarria (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México) and colleagues request AAVSO assistance in a campaign on the Z Cam-type cataclysmic variable AH Her being carried out 2013 May 29 - June 18. They will be making photometric and spectroscopic observations of AH Her using the 2.1m and 0.84m telescopes at San Pedro Martir Observatory (SPM). Their goal is to carry out a radial velocity study of the system components using modern detectors; no study of AH Her has been made since the one by Horne, Wade, and Szkody in 1980-1981 (1986MNRAS.219..791H). Photometry and spectroscopy are requested. AH Her, for decades a reasonably "regular" Z Cam system, began exhibiting significantly anomalous behavior in ~2007. Since then it has experienced brief periods of fairly typical behavior interspersed with more anomalous intervals, including some unprecedented behavior. Most recently, it has returned to a more normal pattern of outbursts shape-wise but it is not back to its normal amplitude or frequency. AAVSO data will be essential for correlation in order to determine the precise time(s) of minimum occurring during the campaign. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details.

  8. The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds (MC3E) Experiment Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Michael; Kollias, Pavlos; Giangrande, Scott

    2014-04-01

    The Mid-latitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E) took place from April 22 through June 6, 2011, centered at the ARM Southern Great Plains site (http://www.arm.gov/sites/sgp) in northcentral Oklahoma. MC3E was a collaborative effort between the ARM Climate Research Facility and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Ground Validation (GV) program. The campaign leveraged the largest ground-based observing infrastructure available in the central United States, including recent upgrades through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, combined with an extensive sounding array, remote sensing and in situ aircraft observations, and additional radar and in situ precipitation instrumentation. The overarching goal of the campaign was to provide a three-dimensional characterization of convective clouds and precipitation for the purpose of improving the representation of convective lifecycle in atmospheric models and the reliability of satellite-based retrievals of precipitation.

  9. Lessons from Past Literacy Campaigns: A Critical Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cairns, John C.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes literacy campaigns in developing countries since early postcolonial efforts. Sees the Experimental World Literacy Programme as a turning point, reflecting lessons learned from past failures. Identifies features of successful campaigns, including political will, resource mobilization, timing, decentralized implementation, realistic…

  10. An overview of the AROMAT campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, Alexis; Dekemper, Emmanuel; Van Roozendael, Michel; Constantin, Daniel; Georgescu, Lucian; Meier, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Den Hoed, Mirjam; Allaart, Marc; Boscornea, Andreea; Vajaiac, Sorin; Bellegante, Livio; Nemuc, Anca; Nicolae, Doina; Shaifangar, Reza; Dörner, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas; Stebel, Kerstin; Schuettemeyer, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    The Airborne ROmanian Measurements of Aerosols and Trace gases (AROMAT) campaign and its follow-up AROMAT-2 were held in September 2014 and August 2015, respectively. Both campaigns focused on two geophysical targets: the city of Bucharest and the large power plants of the Jiu Valley, which are located in a rural area 170 km West of Bucharest. These two areas are complementary in terms of emitted chemical species and their spatial distributions. The objectives of the AROMAT campaigns were (i) to test recently developed airborne observation systems dedicated to air quality satellite validation studies such as the AirMAP imaging DOAS system (University of Bremen), the NO2 sonde (KNMI), and the compact SWING whiskbroom imager (BIRA), and (ii) to prepare the validation programme of the future Atmospheric Sentinels, starting with Sentinel-5 Precursor (S5P) to be launched in early summer 2016. We present results from the different airborne instrumentations and from coincident ground-based measurements (lidar, in-situ, and mobile DOAS systems) performed during both campaigns. The AROMAT dataset addresses several of the mandatory products of TROPOMI/S5P, in particular NO2 and SO2 (horizontal distribution and profile from aircraft, plume image with ground-based SO2 and NO2 cameras, transects with mobile DOAS, in-situ), H2CO (mobile MAX-DOAS), and aerosols (lidar, airborne FUBISS-ASA2 sun-photometer, and aircraft in-situ). We investigate the information content of the AROMAT dataset for satellite validation studies based on co-located OMI and GOME-2 data, and simulations of TROPOMI measurements. The experience gained during AROMAT and AROMAT-2 will be used in support of a large-scale TROPOMI/S5P validation campaign in Romania scheduled for summer 2017.

  11. The SHARE 2012 data campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannandrea, AnneMarie; Raqueno, Nina; Messinger, David W.; Faulring, Jason; Kerekes, John P.; van Aardt, Jan; Canham, Kelly; Hagstrom, Shea; Ontiveros, Erin; Gerace, Aaron; Kaufman, Jason; Vongsy, Karmon M.; Griffith, Heather; Bartlett, Brent D.; Ientilucci, Emmett; Meola, Joseph; Scarff, Lauwrence; Daniel, Brian

    2013-05-01

    A multi-modal (hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR) imaging data collection campaign was conducted just south of Rochester New York in Avon, NY on September 20, 2012 by the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) in conjunction with SpecTIR, LLC, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL), the Naval Research Lab (NRL), United Technologies Aerospace Systems (UTAS) and MITRE. The campaign was a follow on from the SpecTIR Hyperspectral Airborne Rochester Experiment (SHARE) from 2010. Data was collected in support of the eleven simultaneous experiments described here. The airborne imagery was collected over four different sites with hyperspectral, multispectral, and LIDAR sensors. The sites for data collection included Avon, NY, Conesus Lake, Hemlock Lake and forest, and a nearby quarry. Experiments included topics such as target unmixing, subpixel detection, material identification, impacts of illumination on materials, forest health, and in-water target detection. An extensive ground truthing effort was conducted in addition to collection of the airborne imagery. The ultimate goal of the data collection campaign is to provide the remote sensing community with a shareable resource to support future research. This paper details the experiments conducted and the data that was collected during this campaign.

  12. Relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons, including the influence of the free vaccination campaign after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Naito, Toshio; Matsuda, Naoto; Tanei, Mika; Watanabe, Yukiko; Watanabe, Akira

    2014-07-01

    Low vaccination rates with pneumococcal vaccine in elderly persons in Japan are thought to be related to low levels of public subsidy. To identify strategies to increase future pneumococcal vaccination rates, we examined the relationship between public subsidies and vaccination rates. We also investigated the influence of free vaccinations after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures of Japan. We surveyed a total of 1742 municipalities in Japan about whether public subsidies were available and their monetary amount. Vaccination rates with the 23-valent pneumococcal vaccine were calculated as the "cumulative amount shipped to each municipality divided by the population aged ≥65 years." There were no subsidies in 773 municipalities (44.4%). In those municipalities with public subsidies, larger subsidies were significantly associated with elevated vaccination rates (p < 0.0001). Compared to a mean vaccination rate of 25.4% throughout Japan, the vaccination rate was 52.1% in municipalities where the full cost was subsidized. The three prefectures (Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima) most affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake ranked as the top three prefectures for vaccination rates in Japan, presumably as a result of the free vaccination campaign for disaster victims. Our findings show that public subsidies play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate. The free vaccinations given to disaster victims after the Great East Japan Earthquake helped to achieve extremely high vaccination rates in the three Tohoku prefectures. We suggest that such public subsidies should be promoted throughout Japan.

  13. Project Overview: Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study (CHAPS): Proposed Summer 2007 ASP Field Campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, Carl M.; Berg, Larry K.; Ogren, J. A.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Ferrare, Richard

    2006-05-18

    This white paper presents the scientific motivation and preliminary logistical plans for a proposed ASP field campaign to be carried out in the summer of 2007. The primary objective of this campaign is to use the DOE Gulfstream-1 aircraft to make measurements characterizing the chemical, physical and optical properties of aerosols below, within and above large fields of fair weather cumulus and to use the NASA Langley Research Center’s High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) to make independent measurements of aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles in the vicinity of these fields. Separate from the science questions to be addressed by these observations will be information to add in the development of a parameterized cumulus scheme capable of including multiple cloud fields within a regional or global scale model. We will also be able to compare and contrast the cloud and aerosol properties within and outside the Oklahoma City plume to study aerosol processes within individual clouds. Preliminary discussions with the Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) science team have identified overlap between the science questions posed for the CLASIC Intensive Operation Period (IOP) and the proposed ASP campaign, suggesting collaboration would benefit both teams.

  14. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  15. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  16. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  17. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  18. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  1. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  3. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  6. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  7. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  8. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  10. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  12. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  13. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  14. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  15. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  16. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  17. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  18. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  19. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  20. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  1. Planned Improvements for the WB-57F Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccus, S.; Roberts, A.; Ross, M.

    2003-12-01

    NASA WB-57F aircraft have supported the atmospheric science community for over 30 years. Recent attention has focused on the chemistry and dynamics of the UTLS region of the atmosphere and several NASA sponsored field campaigns (ACCENT, CRYSTAL-FACE) have made critical use of the WB-57F's unique ability to carry large (3 ton) payloads during extended cruise at all altitudes from the lower troposphere to the lower stratosphere (20 km ceiling). In addition, the WB-57F's robust structure permits a large number and variety of instruments to be carried at inlet-favorable locations on the aircraft. In order to further improve the WB-57F's performance and unique utility to the atmospheric research and spacecraft validation communities, NASA is planning several upgrades to the WB-57F including state-of-the-art avionics and autopilot, landing gear replacement, maximum gross weight increase, engine replacement, and ultrapod installation. We will review the present WB-57F performance, plans for upcoming science campaigns, and plans for increased WB-57F payload, range, endurance, and ceiling resulting from the upgrades.

  2. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  3. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  4. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  6. An Overview of the 2010 Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, R. A.; Shaw, W. J.; Cziczo, D. J.

    2010-12-01

    The primary objective of the DOE Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study (CARES) in June 2010 was to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their optical and hygroscopic properties in central California, with a focus on the Sacramento urban plume. Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. However, significant knowledge gaps and uncertainties still exist in the process-level understanding of: 1) SOA formation, 2) BC mixing state evolution, and 3) the optical and hygroscopic properties of fresh and aged carbonaceous aerosols. The CARES 2010 field study was designed to address several specific science questions under these three topics. During summer the Sacramento-Blodgett Forest corridor effectively serves as a mesoscale daytime flow reactor in which the urban aerosols undergo significant aging as they are transported to the northeast by upslope flow. The CARES campaign observation strategy consisted of the DOE G-1 aircraft sampling upwind, within, and outside of the evolving Sacramento urban plume in the morning and again in the afternoon. The G-1 payload consisted of a suite of instruments to measure trace gases, aerosol size distribution, composition, and optical properties. The NASA B-200 aircraft carrying a High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and a Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) was also deployed to characterize the vertical and horizontal distribution of aerosols and aerosol optical properties. The aircraft measurements were complemented by heavily-instrumented ground sites within the Sacramento urban area and at a downwind site in Cool, California, to characterize the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables, trace gases, aerosol precursors, aerosol

  7. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... includes aircraft owned by individuals but leased by Army or Navy aero clubs. (4) A US State, County... local Government has retained liability responsibilities. (7) Civil aircraft transporting critically...

  8. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  9. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  10. Calibration of the total carbon column observing network using aircraft profile data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunch, D.; Toon, G. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Wofsy, S. C.; Stephens, B. B.; Fischer, M. L.; Uchino, O.; Abshire, J. B.; Bernath, P.; Biraud, S. C.; Blavier, J.-F. L.; Boone, C.; Bowman, K. P.; Browell, E. V.; Campos, T.; Connor, B. J.; Daube, B. C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Diao, M.; Elkins, J. W.; Gerbig, C.; Gottlieb, E.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Hurst, D. F.; Jiménez, R.; Keppel-Aleks, G.; Kort, E.; Macatangay, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Moore, F.; Morino, I.; Park, S.; Robinson, J.; Roehl, C. M.; Sawa, Y.; Sherlock, V.; Sweeney, C.; Tanaka, T.; Zondlo, M. A.

    2010-06-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) produces precise measurements of the column average dry-air mole fractions of CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2O at a variety of sites worldwide. These observations rely on spectroscopic parameters that are not known with sufficient accuracy to compute total columns that can be used in combination with in situ measurements. The TCCON must therefore be calibrated to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in situ trace gas measurement scales. We present a calibration of TCCON data using WMO-scale instrumentation aboard aircraft that measured profiles over four TCCON stations during 2008 and 2009. The aircraft campaigns are the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START-08), which included a profile over the Park Falls site, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO-1) campaign, which included profiles over the Lamont and Lauder sites, a series of Learjet profiles over the Lamont site, and a Beechcraft King Air profile over the Tsukuba site. These calibrations are compared with similar observations made during the INTEX-NA (2004), COBRA-ME (2004) and TWP-ICE (2006) campaigns. A single, global calibration factor for each gas accurately captures the TCCON total column data within error.

  11. Calibration of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network using Aircraft Profile Data

    SciTech Connect

    Wunch, Debra; Toon, Geoffrey C.; Wennberg, Paul O.; Wofsy, Steven C.; Stephens, Britton B.; Fischer, Marc L.; Uchino, Osamu; Abshire, James B.; Bernath, Peter; Biraud, Sebastien C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois L.; Boone, Chris; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Browell, Edward V.; Campos, Teresa; Connor, Brian J.; Daube, Bruce C.; Deutscher, Nicholas M.; Diao, Minghui; Elkins, James W.; Gerbig, Christoph; Gottlieb, Elaine; Griffith, David W. T.; Hurst, Dale F.; Jimenez, Rodrigo; Keppel-Aleks, Gretchen; Kort, Eric; Macatangay, Ronald; Machida, Toshinobu; Matsueda, Hidekazu; Moore, Fred; Morino, Isamu; Park, Sunyoung; Robinson, John; Roehl, Coleen M.; Sawa, Yusuke; Sherlock, Vanessa; Sweeney, Colm; Tanaka, Tomoaki; Zondlo, Mark A.

    2010-03-26

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) produces precise measurements of the column average dry-air mole fractions of CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O at a variety of sites worldwide. These observations rely on spectroscopic parameters that are not known with sufficient accuracy to compute total columns that can be used in combination with in situ measure ments. The TCCON must therefore be calibrated to World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in situ trace gas measurement scales. We present a calibration of TCCON data using WMO-scale instrumentation aboard aircraft that measured profiles over four TCCON stations during 2008 and 2009. The aircraft campaigns are the Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport 2008 (START-08), which included a profile over the Park Falls site, the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO-1) campaign, which included profiles over the Lamont and Lauder sites, a series of Learjet profiles over the Lamont site, and a Beechcraft King Air profile over the Tsukuba site. These calibrations are compared with similar observations made during the INTEX-NA (2004), COBRA-ME (2004) and TWP-ICE (2006) campaigns. A single, global calibration factor for each gas accurately captures the TCCON total column data within error.

  12. Model Assessment of the Impact on Ozone of Subsonic and Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm; Weisenstein, Debra; Danilin, Michael; Scott, Courtney; Shia, Run-Lie

    2000-01-01

    This is the final report for work performed between June 1999 through May 2000. The work represents continuation of the previous contract which encompasses five areas: (1) continued refinements and applications of the 2-D chemistry-transport model (CTM) to assess the ozone effects from aircraft operation in the stratosphere; (2) studying the mechanisms that determine the evolution of the sulfur species in the aircraft plume and how such mechanisms affect the way aircraft sulfur emissions should be introduced into global models; (3) the development of diagnostics in the AER 3-wave interactive model to assess the importance of the dynamics feedback and zonal asymmetry in model prediction of ozone response to aircraft operation; (4) the development of a chemistry parameterization scheme in support of the global modeling initiative (GMI); and (5) providing assessment results for preparation of national and international reports which include the "Aviation and the Global Atmosphere" prepared by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, "Assessment of the effects of high-speed aircraft in the stratosphere: 1998" by NASA, and the "Model and Measurements Intercomparison II" by NASA. Part of the work was reported in the final report. We participated in the SAGE III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) campaign and we continue with our analyses of the data.

  13. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  14. Inhomogeneous cirrus clouds during the AIRTOSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Matthias; Spichtinger, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The aircraft campaign AIRTOSS-ICE in May and September 2013 provided measurement data of cirrus clouds over North Sea and Baltic Sea in various meteorological situations. The measurements were carried out with a Learjet and a towed sensor shuttle below the aircraft [2]. This configuration allows us to obtain almost horizontally collocated measurements at different vertical levels (inside and outside clouds). Microphysical properties of cirrus clouds, as ice water content, ice crystal number concentrations, diameter and shape of ice crystals were measured. In this study we concentrate on the comparison of in situ measurements with model simulations. For these case studies, the issue about the main formation mechanism (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous or both) will be addressed. In a first step the meteorological conditions leading to the cirrus formation are analyzed using meteorological analyses as obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Forecasts (ECMWF). The ECMWF wind fields are then used to calculate backward trajectories with the Lagrangian analysis tool LAGRANTO [4]. From these investigations the large-scale/mesoscale motions are derived and analyzed. Finally, the meteorological analyses and measurements (temperature, wind, humidity) are used as initial conditions for cirrus cloud simulations where the small scale motions are derived and analyzed. We used EULAG as LES model, including a state-of-the-art ice microphysics scheme [3] for 2D and 3D idealized and quasi-realistic simulations. In order to address the impact of dynamics vs. microphysics (i.e. heterogeneous nucleation [1]), we investigated different environmental conditions. The microphysical and macrophysical properties of the simulated cloud are finally compared to the measurements, in order to get some information about the most probable scenarios. References [1] D. J. Cziczo, K. D. Froyd, C. Hoose, E. J. Jensen, M. H. Diao, M. A. Zondlo, J. B. Smith, C. H. Twohy, and D. M. Murphy

  15. MISR Field Campaign Imagery

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

      MISR Support of Field Campaigns Aerosol Arctic Research of the Composition of the ... Daily ARCTAS Aerosol Polar Imagery ​Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study ( GoMACCS ) ​July - ...

  16. Automated campaign system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vondran, Gary; Chao, Hui; Lin, Xiaofan; Beyer, Dirk; Joshi, Parag; Atkins, Brian; Obrador, Pere

    2006-02-01

    To run a targeted campaign involves coordination and management across numerous organizations and complex process flows. Everything from market analytics on customer databases, acquiring content and images, composing the materials, meeting the sponsoring enterprise brand standards, driving through production and fulfillment, and evaluating results; all processes are currently performed by experienced highly trained staff. Presented is a developed solution that not only brings together technologies that automate each process, but also automates the entire flow so that a novice user could easily run a successful campaign from their desktop. This paper presents the technologies, structure, and process flows used to bring this system together. Highlighted will be how the complexity of running a targeted campaign is hidden from the user through technologies, all while providing the benefits of a professionally managed campaign.

  17. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  18. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft means aircraft designed, modified, or equipped for a military purpose, including...

  19. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft means aircraft designed, modified, or equipped for a military purpose, including...

  20. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft means aircraft designed, modified, or equipped for a military purpose, including...

  1. 22 CFR 121.3 - Aircraft and related articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and related articles. 121.3 Section... STATES MUNITIONS LIST Enumeration of Articles § 121.3 Aircraft and related articles. In Category VIII, aircraft means aircraft designed, modified, or equipped for a military purpose, including...

  2. The CHUVA Lightning Mapping Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Hoeller, Hartmut; Albrecht, Rachel I.; Morales, Carlos; Pinto, Osmar; Saba, Marcelo M.; Naccarato, Kleber; Hembury, Nikki; Nag, Amitabh; Heckman, Stan; Holzworth, Robert H.; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Betz, Hans-Dieter; Said, Ryan; Rauenzahn, Kim

    2011-01-01

    The primary science objective for the CHUVA lightning mapping campaign is to combine measurements of total lightning activity, lightning channel mapping, and detailed information on the locations of cloud charge regions of thunderstorms with the planned observations of the CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement) field campaign. The lightning campaign takes place during the CHUVA intensive observation period October-December 2011 in the vicinity of S o Luiz do Paraitinga with Brazilian, US, and European government, university and industry participants. Total lightning measurements that can be provided by ground-based regional 2-D and 3-D total lightning mapping networks coincident with overpasses of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) and the SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager) on the Meteosat Second Generation satellite in geostationary earth orbit will be used to generate proxy data sets for the next generation US and European geostationary satellites. Proxy data, which play an important role in the pre-launch mission development and in user readiness preparation, are used to develop and validate algorithms so that they will be ready for operational use quickly following the planned launch of the GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) in 2015 and the Meteosat Third Generation Lightning Imager (LI) in 2017. To date there is no well-characterized total lightning data set coincident with the imagers. Therefore, to take the greatest advantage of this opportunity to collect detailed and comprehensive total lightning data sets, test and validate multi-sensor nowcasting applications for the monitoring, tracking, warning, and prediction of severe and high impact weather, and to advance our knowledge of thunderstorm physics, extensive measurements from lightning mapping networks will be collected

  3. Effectiveness of a solar action campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the effectiveness of a Solar Action Campaign implemented to facilitate the commercialization of Solar Energy in a large metropolitan area. The campaign was developed by the staff of the Crosby Gardens Environmental Library. Crosby Gardens is an urban environmental and cultural park. The Solar Action Campaign in Toledo, Ohio, included the coordination of a variety of activities and events designed to stimulate consumer awareness of the Solar Energy applications in the area. Activities included coordinating two workshops, production of media tools, a sunshine awards banquet, and an intensive media campaign. The Solar Week in Toledo provided the stimulus for coalitions to be built, intensive information exchange, and most importantly - media coverage.

  4. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  5. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  6. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  7. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  8. World commercial aircraft accidents. Second edition, 1946--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  9. Campaigning for change.

    PubMed

    Hirschhorn, Larry

    2002-07-01

    Most organizations must change if they're to stay alive. Change is tough to accomplish, but it's not impossible and can be systematized. The author, who has been involved in change initiatives at scores of companies, believes that the success of such programs has more to do with execution than with conceptualization. The successful change programs he observed had one thing in common: They employed three distinct but linked campaigns--political, marketing, and military. The author cites examples from such companies as Hewlett-Packard, Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Saturn to illustrate how effective such campaigns can be. A political campaign creates a coalition strong enough to support and guide the initiative. Sometimes, coalitions arise from changes to a company's formal structure. But they may come out of the informal structure, or they could stem from a temporary counterstructure. A marketing campaign must go beyond simply publicizing the initiative's benefits. It focuses on listening to ideas that bubble up from the field as well as on working with lead customers to design the initiative. A clearly articulated theme for the transformation program must also be developed. A military campaign deploys executives' scarce resources of attention and time. Successful executives secure their supply lines by, for instance, piggybacking onto initiatives that have already captured people's interests or already exist as bootleg projects. These managers also set up pilot projects that turn into beachheads because the projects expose them to the difficult dynamics they will ultimately face. Successful executives launch all three campaigns simultaneously. The three always feed on one another, and if any one campaign is not properly implemented, the change initiative is bound to fail.

  10. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N 27811, certificated in any category: ] Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industria...

  11. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  12. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  13. Frequency of encounter of aircraft in a random horizontal field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bird, J. D.; Smith, K. A.

    1976-01-01

    Calculations were made of the frequency of encounter as a function of azimuth of encounter of a passing aircraft with the aircraft in a random planar horizontal field. All the field aircraft moved at a constant speed but in random directions. These calculations included the total frequency of encounter with the aircraft of the field and the frequency of encounter with those aircraft of the field which were encountered in the fore quadrant, in the lateral quadrants, and in the rear quadrant; the calculations were made for various speed ratios of the field aircraft and the passing aircraft.

  14. The Australian Measles Control Campaign, 1998.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, F. M.; Burgess, M. A.; McIntyre, P. B.; Lambert, S. B.; Gilbert, G. L.; Gidding, H. F.; Escott, R. G.; Achat, H. M.; Hull, B. P.; Wang, H.; Sam, G. A.; Mead, C. L.

    2001-01-01

    The 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign had as its aim improved immunization coverage among children aged 1-12 years and, in the longer term, prevention of measles epidemics. The campaign included mass school-based measles-mumps-rubella vaccination of children aged 5-12 years and a catch-up programme for preschool children. More than 1.33 million children aged 5-12 years were vaccinated at school: serological monitoring showed that 94% of such children were protected after the campaign, whereas only 84% had been protected previously. Among preschool children aged 1-3.5 years the corresponding levels of protection were 89% and 82%. During the six months following the campaign there was a marked reduction in the number of measles cases among children in targeted age groups. PMID:11584738

  15. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  16. Botswana water and surface energy balance research program. Part 1: Integrated approach and field campaign results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandegriend, A. A.; Owe, M.; Vugts, H. F.; Ramothwa, G. K.

    1992-01-01

    The Botswana water and surface energy balance research program was developed to study and evaluate the integrated use of multispectral satellite remote sensing for monitoring the hydrological status of the Earth's surface. Results of the first part of the program (Botswana 1) which ran from 1 Jan. 1988 - 31 Dec. 1990 are summarized. Botswana 1 consisted of two major, mutually related components: a surface energy balance modeling component, built around an extensive field campaign; and a passive microwave research component which consisted of a retrospective study of large scale moisture conditions and Nimbus scanning multichannel microwave radiometer microwave signatures. The integrated approach of both components in general are described and activities performed during the surface energy modeling component including the extensive field campaign are summarized. The results of the passive microwave component are summarized. The key of the field campaign was a multilevel approach, whereby measurements by various similar sensors were made at several altitudes and resolution. Data collection was performed at two adjacent sites of contrasting surface character. The following measurements were made: micrometeorological measurements, surface temperatures, soil temperatures, soil moisture, vegetation (leaf area index and biomass), satellite data, aircraft data, atmospheric soundings, stomatal resistance, and surface emissivity.

  17. Toward Improved CFD Predictions of Slender Airframe Aerodynamics Using the F-16XL Aircraft (CAWAPI-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckring, James M.; Rizzi, Arthur; Davis, M. Bruce

    2014-01-01

    A coordinated project has been underway to improve CFD predictions of slender airframe aerodynamics. The work is focused on two flow conditions and leverages a unique flight data set obtained with an F-16XL aircraft. These conditions, a low-speed high angleof- attack case and a transonic low angle-of-attack case, were selected from a prior prediction campaign wherein the CFD failed to provide acceptable results. In this paper the background, objectives and approach to the current project are presented. The work embodies predictions from multiple numerical formulations that are contributed from multiple organizations, and the context of this campaign to other multi-code, multiorganizational efforts is included. The relevance of this body of work toward future supersonic commercial transport concepts is also briefly addressed.

  18. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  19. Antipiracy Campaign Exasperates Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the withdrawal of some universities' support of a music industry's campaign against music piracy on their campuses. Talk to the chief information officer at just about any American university, and he will probably say that his institution has bent over backward to help the Recording Industry Association of America curb…

  20. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  1. Campaign Drama, Classroom Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    The hoopla surrounding the New Hampshire presidential primaries earlier this month stirred some students at Timberlane High School to watch the candidates' debates, read news coverage, attend rallies, and even volunteer in local campaign offices. That interest, in turn, stimulated discussions in Bob Dawson's government classes at the school,…

  2. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  3. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  4. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  5. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  6. Aerosol Optical Thickness comparisons between NASA LaRC Airborne HSRL and AERONET during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarino, A. J.; Ferrare, R. A.; Burton, S. P.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Rogers, R. R.; Berkoff, T.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Hoff, R. M.; Holben, B. N.; Schafer, J.; McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Lantz, K. O.; Michalsky, J. J.; Hodges, G.

    2013-12-01

    The first- and second-generation NASA airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidars (HSRL-1 and HSRL-2) have been deployed on board the NASA Langley Research Center King Air aircraft during the Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and VERtically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) field campaigns. These included deployments during July 2011 over Washington, D.C. and Baltimore, MD and during January and February 2013 over the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California and also a scheduled deployment during September 2013 over Houston, TX. Measurements of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization are available from both HSRL-1 and HSRL-2 in coordination with other participating research aircraft and ground sites. These measurements constitute a diverse data set for use in characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of aerosols, aerosol optical thickness (AOT), as well as the Mixing Layer Height (MLH). HSRL AOT is compared to AOT measured by the Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Networks (DRAGON) and long-term AERONET sites. For the 2011 campaign, comparisons of AOT at 532nm between HSRL-1 and AERONET showed excellent agreement (r = 0.98, slope = 1.01, intercept = 0.037) when the King Air flights were within 2.5 km of the ground site and 10 min from the retrieval time. The comparison results are similar for the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign in the SJV. Additional ground-based (MPL) and airborne (CPL) lidar data were used to help screen for clouds in the AERONET observations during the SJV portion. AOT values from a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) located at the Porterville, CA site during the SJV campaign are also compared to HSRL-2 AOT. Lastly, using the MLH retrieved from HSRL aerosol backscatter profiles, we describe the distribution of AOT relative to the MLH.

  7. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  8. The 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study. Volume 2: Data listings for NASA Cessna aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Lee, R. B., III; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The data reported are these measured onboard the NASA Langley chartered Cessna aircraft. Data include ozone, nitrogen oxides, light scattering coefficient, temperature, dewpoint, and aircraft altitude.

  9. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus. PMID:26268253

  10. [Research on China railway health campaign in 1930s].

    PubMed

    Huang, Huaping

    2015-01-01

    The motivation factors of China's railway health campaign in 1930s included avocation by the government, mass media mobilization, railway authorities' hygiene awareness and the systematization of the construction of organization. During the health campaign, the railway authorities adopted various approaches for its formation, including the rally speeches, distribution of materials, cleaning and vaccination etc. Unfortunately, the actual effect of railway health campaign was not satisfactory, yet, it enhanced theoretically railway employees' health knowledge and contributed to the promotion of modernization of hygienic knowledge. Meanwhile, there still existed many problems in the railway health campaign, for example, lack of funds, formalism and uneven development among the railway bureaus.

  11. BOREAS AFM-1 NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ Aircraft Flux data Over the SSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, Timothy L.; Baldocchi, Dennis; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Gunter, Laureen; Dumas, Ed; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This data set contains measurements from the Airborne Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-1 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration/Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (NOAA/ATDD) Long-EZ Aircraft collected during the 1994 Intensive Field Campaigns (IFCs) at the southern study area (SSA). These measurements were made from various instruments mounted on the aircraft. The data that were collected include aircraft altitude, wind direction, wind speed, air temperature, potential temperature, water mixing ratio, U and V components of wind velocity, static pressure, surface radiative temperature, downwelling and upwelling total radiation, downwelling and upwelling longwave radiation, net radiation, downwelling and upwelling photosynthectically active radiation (PAR), greenness index, CO2 concentration, O3 concentration, and CH4 concentration. There are also various columns that indicate the standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, and trend of some of these data. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The NOAA/ATDD Long-EZ aircraft flux data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  12. Emission analysis of large number of various passenger electronic devices in aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüür, Jens; Oppermann, Lukas; Enders, Achim; Nunes, Rafael R.; Oertel, Carl-Henrik

    2016-09-01

    The ever increasing use of PEDs (passenger or portable electronic devices) has put pressure on the aircraft industry as well as operators and administrations to reevaluate established restrictions in PED-use on airplanes in the last years. Any electronic device could cause electromagnetic interference to the electronics of the airplane, especially interference at receiving antennas of sensitive wireless navigation and communication (NAV/COM) systems. This paper presents a measurement campaign in an Airbus A320. 69 test passengers were asked to actively use a combination of about 150 electronic devices including many attached cables, preferentially with a high data load on their buses, to provoke maximal emissions. These emissions were analysed within the cabin as well as at the inputs of aircraft receiving antennas outside of the fuselage. The emissions of the electronic devices as well as the background noise are time-variant, so just comparing only one reference and one transmission measurement is not sufficient. Repeated measurements of both cases lead to a more reliable first analysis. Additional measurements of the absolute received power at the antennas of the airplane allow a good estimation of the real interference potential to aircraft NAV/COM systems. Although there were many measured emissions within the cabin, there were no disturbance signals detectable at the aircraft antennas.

  13. Supersonic cruise aircraft research: An annotated bibliography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuttle, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    This bibliography, with abstracts, consists of 69 publications arranged in chronological order. The material may be useful to those interested in supersonic cruise fighter/penetrator/interceptor airplanes. Two pertinent conferences on military supercruise aircraft are considered as single items; one contains 37 papers and the other 29 papers. In addition, several related bibliographies are included which cover supersonic civil aircraft and military aircraft studies at the Langley Research Center. There is also an author index.

  14. High-Resolution Entrainment in Stratocumulus During the POST Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, H. E.

    2012-12-01

    In July and August of 2008 an NSF-supported field campaign called POST (Physics of Stratocumulus Top) was conducted off the California coast using the fully-instrumented Twin Otter aircraft from the Naval Post Graduate School. POST provided the first opportunity to closely co-locate on an aircraft high-rate and time synchronized microphysics (PVM; LWC and effective radius) and thermodynamics (UFT; Ultra-Fast Temperature) probes and a gust probe to produce measurements of entrainment fluxes and features over entrainment scales thought to be important in warm stratocumulus (Sc). This combination of probes permitted investigating the properties of individual entrained parcels Seventeen flights were conducted during POST in a quasi-Lagrangian fashion in largely unbroken stratocumulus. The horizontal fight path was adjusted to follow the mean air velocity in the Sc. The vertical flight path concentrated on flying between 100-m above and below the cloud-top interface; and some additional profiles were flown to various higher and lower levels where flux runs were made. This presentation describes the analysis of this unique and excellent data set including the following: The data permitted testing Lilly's classical theory for the entrainment velocity where its application requires strong jumps of temperature and moisture across the inversion located above cloud top, a linear flux of the entrained scalar below cloud top, and entrained parcels that descend. All flights showed Sc with wind shear and mixing at cloud top with some strong enough to dissipate the Sc. The relationship between shear and entrainment velocity is described. The pdf of the horizontal size of entrainment parcels vs entrainment flux is established for all flights to help in choosing grid-sizes for modeling. High -resolution in-cloud temperature and LWC measurements in entrained parcels reveal the relative importance of radiative cooling vs cooling by liquid water evaporation in causing buoyancy reversal

  15. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  16. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  17. Campaigns in Agricultural Extension Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaven, John W.

    A booklet designed to aid those who use agricultural campaigns in their educational and advisory programs is presented. It is pointed out that a good campaign works as a chain reaction, inciting enthusiasm among workers and planners. The five steps in a well-organized campaign are: (1) planning, (2) preparing people for their jobs, (3) producing…

  18. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehls, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

  19. Observations during the first K West fuel shipping campaign

    SciTech Connect

    Makenas, B.J.

    1995-11-01

    Three fuel elements were shipped to the 300 Area hotcells during the first characterization shipping campaign from K West Basin. This document summarizes observations made during this campaign including the gas, liquid, and sludge content of the observed canisters. Included in an appendix is a detailed evaluation of fuel element condition for each canister opened

  20. Analysis of Snow BRF from Spring-2008 ARCTAS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Kahn, R. A.; Brandt, R. E.; Redemann, J.; Russell, P. B.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D. K.; Kokhanovsky, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on April 7 and 15 by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based AERONET sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1o angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was in a good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on April 15. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study accuracy of analytical Li Sparse-Ross Thick (LSRT), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Analytical Asymptotic Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles j < 40°), the best fit MRPV and LSRT models fit snow BRF to within ±0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering directions. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution over the slope distribution function and by adding a simple

  1. Analysis of Snow Bidirectional Reflectance from ARCTAS Spring-2008 Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyapustin, A.; Gatebe, C. K.; Redemann, J.; Kahn, R.; Brandt, R.; Russell, P.; King, M. D.; Pedersen, C. A.; Gerland, S.; Poudyal, R.; Marshak, A.; Wang, Y.; Schaaf, C.; Hall, D.; Kokhanovsky, A.

    2010-01-01

    The spring 2008 Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) experiment was one of major intensive field campaigns of the International Polar Year aimed at detailed characterization of atmospheric physical and chemical processes in the Arctic region. A part of this campaign was a unique snow bidirectional reflectance experiment on the NASA P-3B aircraft conducted on 7 and 15 April by the Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) jointly with airborne Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS) and ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometers. The CAR data were atmospherically corrected to derive snow bidirectional reflectance at high 1 degree angular resolution in view zenith and azimuthal angles along with surface albedo. The derived albedo was generally in good agreement with ground albedo measurements collected on 15 April. The CAR snow bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) was used to study the accuracy of analytical Ross-Thick Li-Sparse (RTLS), Modified Rahman-Pinty-Verstraete (MRPV) and Asymptotic Analytical Radiative Transfer (AART) BRF models. Except for the glint region (azimuthal angles phi less than 40 degrees), the best fit MRPV and RTLS models fit snow BRF to within 0.05. The plane-parallel radiative transfer (PPRT) solution was also analyzed with the models of spheres, spheroids, randomly oriented fractal crystals, and with a synthetic phase function. The latter merged the model of spheroids for the forward scattering angles with the fractal model in the backscattering direction. The PPRT solution with synthetic phase function provided the best fit to measured BRF in the full range of angles. Regardless of the snow grain shape, the PPRT model significantly over-/underestimated snow BRF in the glint/backscattering regions, respectively, which agrees with other studies. To improve agreement with experiment, we introduced a model of macroscopic snow surface roughness by averaging the PPRT solution

  2. JPL Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer Data Processing Results for the 2010 Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Joseph C.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzie, Robert T.; Christensen, Lance E.

    2011-01-01

    As a precursor to and validation of the core technology necessary for NASA's Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days,and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission, we flew JPL's Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) in a campaign of five flights onboard NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in July 2010. This is the latest in a series of annual flight campaigns that began in 2006, and our first on the DC-8 aircraft.

  3. European parabolic flight campaigns with Airbus ZERO-G: Looking back at the A300 and looking forward to the A310

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletser, Vladimir; Rouquette, Sebastien; Friedrich, Ulrike; Clervoy, Jean-Francois; Gharib, Thierry; Gai, Frederic; Mora, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Aircraft parabolic flights repetitively provide up to 23 s of reduced gravity during ballistic flight manoeuvres. Parabolic flights are used to conduct short microgravity investigations in Physical and Life Sciences and in Technology, to test instrumentation prior to space flights and to train astronauts before a space mission. The use of parabolic flights is complementary to other microgravity carriers (drop towers, sounding rockets), and preparatory to manned space missions on board the International Space Station and other manned spacecraft, such as Shenzhou and the Chinese Space Station CSS. The European Space Agency (ESA), the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency) and the 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, the German Aerospace Centre) have used the Airbus A300 ZERO-G for research experiments in microgravity, and at Moon and Mars gravity levels, from 1997 until October 2014. The French company Novespace, a subsidiary of CNES, based in Bordeaux, France, is in charge of the organisation of Airbus A300 ZERO-G flights. A total of 104 parabolic flight campaigns have been organised by ESA, CNES and DLR since 1997, including 38 ESA, 34 CNES and 23 DLR microgravity campaigns, two Joint European ESA-CNES-DLR Partial-g Parabolic Flight Campaigns, and seven ESA Student campaigns. After 17 years of good and loyal services, this European workhorse for microgravity research in parabolic flights has been retired. The successor aircraft, the Airbus A310 ZERO-G, is being prepared for a first ESA-CNES-DLR cooperative campaign in Spring 2015. This paper looks back over 17 years of microgravity research in parabolic flights with the A300 ZERO-G, and introduces the new A310 ZERO-G that will be used from 2015 onwards.

  4. Flight testing of unique aircraft configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.

    1983-01-01

    Some historical developments of flight testing of unique aircraft configurations by NASA and the military sector are documented. Several test aircraft are outlined including the M2-F1 (which was the first Space Shuttle concept ever demonstrated, and contributed to the present design), the X-15, the Flying Wing, the Lunar Landing Research Vehicle, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and the Space Shuttle Enterprise. Future test aircraft such as the forward swept wing X-29A Advanced Technology Demonstrator Aircraft, and the X-Wing vehicle are also mentioned. It is noted that the logical preliminary to flight testing is flight simulation, and that flight testing itself is the vital final component of the development, and seems to be the most direct approach to aircraft evaluations.

  5. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  6. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  7. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  8. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  9. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  10. The International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR) - First results from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendrok, Jana; Eriksson, Patrick; Fox, Stuart; Brath, Manfred; Buehler, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral millimeter- and submillimeter-wave observations bear the potential to measure properties of non-thin ice clouds like mass content and mean particle size. The next generation of European meteorological satellites, the MetOp-SG series, will carry the first satellite-borne submillimeter sounder, the Ice Cloud Imager (ICI). An airborne demonstrator, the International SubMillimetre Airborne Radiometer (ISMAR), is operated together with other remote sensing instruments and in-situ probes on the FAAM aircraft. Scientific measurements from two campaings in the North Atlantic region, STICCS and COSMIC, are available so far. Here we will introduce the ISMAR instrument, present the acquired measurements from the STICCS and COSMIC campaigns and show some first results. This will include estimation of instrument performance, first analysis of clear-sky and cloudy cases and discussion of selected features observed in the measurements (e.g. polarisation signatures).

  11. TYCHO Brahe's Copernican Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingerich, O.; Voelkel, J. R.

    1997-12-01

    Historians of astronomy have generally assumed that the Ptolemaic and Copernican systems give equivalent predictions of planetary positions, but Tycho Brahe knew that in the Ptolemaic arrangement Mars' distance was always greater than the sun's, whereas in the Copernican system Mars at opposition approached to half the sun's distance. Because Tycho accepted the traditional solar distance scale, 20 times too small, he expected to measure a Martian diurnal parallax of 4.5' at opposition if the Copernican system was true. (In reality the horizontal parallax was too small to measure by naked-eye observations.) Hence, during the golden decade of the 1580s at Hven, Tycho undertook a major campaign to find Mars' parallax. Observations at the opposition of 1582-83 failed, according to a letter he wrote in 1584. The campaign at the next opposition led to frustration, but after the 1587 opposition he claimed that in fact he had already found the parallax in 1582. Was Tycho merely prevaricating because he wanted to have an observational basis for his new Tychonic cosmology? During this decade Tycho gradually became aware of the role of refraction, and much of the new instrumentation built at Stjerneborg seems to have been motivated by this problem. Using an erroneously chosen refraction table Tycho apparently convinced himself of a large parallax for Mars. He may well have discovered his error by 1592, for he never again claimed to have found the large parallax. Because of the failure of this major goal, Tycho's reputation as a very smart and program-motivated observer has suffered, but because of this particular observational campaign, there were ultimately enough astonishingly accurate Mars observations for Kepler's later studies to succeed in finding the law of areas and the elliptical form of planetary orbits.

  12. Sporting hero launches Australian "Men Too" campaign.

    PubMed

    1986-02-14

    Top Australian rugby league captain Wally Lewis last month launched a "Men Too" campaign for the Family Planning Association (FPA) in Queensland, Australia. The campaign has been based very closely on Britain's, using a great deal of material from the United Kingdom FPA. Several radio spots have also been produced, and are currently being broadcast on all the commercial stations in community service spots. Future plans include a 30-second television commercial, and the use of the Brisbane Bullets, a popular basketball team, to promote the "male involvement" theme.

  13. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. The World Campaign for the Biosphere.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1984-01-01

    Lists and discusses goals of The World Campaign for the Biosphere and strategies designed to achieve these goals. Also lists eight suggestions for science teachers to help incorporate the goals into school curricula and programs. These include organizing assemblies which present information about environmental problems and presenting environmental…

  15. Transmutation Fuels Campaign FY-09 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lori Braase

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal year 2009 (FY-08) accomplishments for the Transmutation Fuels Campaign (TFC). The emphasis is on the accomplishments and relevance of the work. Detailed description of the methods used to achieve the highlighted results and the associated support tasks are not included in this report.

  16. Statewide Implementation of the 1% or Less Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddock, Jay; Maglione, Christine; Barnett, Jodi D.; Cabot, Cynthia; Jackson, Susan; Reger-Nash, Bill

    2007-01-01

    The 1% or Less Campaign is an effective research-tested program for reducing saturated fat intake by encouraging individuals to switch to low-fat milk. All published studies have been conducted in small communities with mostly White populations. The 6-week intervention included a media campaign, public relations, and taste tests. Campaign…

  17. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  18. Web-focused campaign. Revitalized Web site helps ease advertising costs.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    After a successful branding campaign, Saint Thomas Health Services in Nashville has launched a recruiting campaign that emphasizes a new careers Web site. Smaller newspaper ads now lead folks to the Web. Information there includes testimonials. PMID:17821933

  19. When Literacy Campaigns Gave Birth to a Women's Movement. "Jago Bahana" in Dumka, India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kothari, Brij; Chand, P. G. Vijaya Sherry; Sharma, Rajeev

    1999-01-01

    A literacy campaign in an Indian village led to training and education for women's empowerment. Activities included a savings/banking program, resource person training, health screenings, antiviolence and substance abuse campaigns, and gender sensitization. (SK)

  20. MTU-Kestrel airborne hyperspectral imaging campaigns of the Lake Superior ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafert, J. Bruce; Slough, William J.; Rohde, Charles A.; Pilant, Andrew; Otten, Leonard J.; Meigs, Andrew D.; Jones, Al; Butler, Eugene W.

    1999-10-01

    The clear waters of Lake Superior constitute the heart of one of the most significant fresh water ecosystems in the world. Lake Superior is the world's largest lake by surface area (82,100 km2) holding approximately 10% of the earth's freshwater (12,230 km3) that is not locked into glaciers or ice caps. Although Superior is arguably the most significant fresh water ecosystem on earth, questions relating to the lake and its watershed remain unanswered, including the effects of human habitation, exploitation, and economic potential of the region. There is a great diversity of scientific disciplines with a common interest in remote sensing of the Lake Superior ecosystem which have the need for data at all spatial, spectral, and temporal scales-from scales supplied by satellites, ships or aircraft at low spatial, spectral or temporal resolution, to a requirement for synoptic high resolution spatial (approximately 1 meter)/spectral (1 - 10 nm) data. During May and August of 1998, two week-long data collection campaigns were performed using the Kestrel airborne visible hyperspectral imager to acquire hyperspectral data of a broad taxonomy of ecologically significant targets, including forests, urban areas, lakeshore zones and rivers, mining industry tailing basins, and the Lake itself. We will describe the Kestrel airborne hyperspectral sensor, the collection and data reduction methodology, and flight imagery from both campaigns.

  1. Stealth Aircraft Technology. (Latest Citations from the Aerospace Database)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning design, manufacture, and history of aircraft incorporating stealth technology. Citations focus on construction materials, testing, aircraft performance, and technology assessment. Fighter aircraft, bombers, missiles, and helicopters represent coverage. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.

  3. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  4. 17 CFR 256.310 - Aircraft and airport equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft and airport equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.310 Aircraft and airport equipment. This account shall include the delivered cost of all service company owned aircraft...

  5. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  6. NASA's aircraft icing analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two- and three-dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  7. NASA's Aircraft Icing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  8. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the 'Grand Challenge' for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  9. Advanced Fuels Campaign Execution Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Kemal Pasamehmetoglu

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) Execution Plan is to communicate the structure and management of research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities within the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. Included in this document is an overview of the FCRD program, a description of the difference between revolutionary and evolutionary approaches to nuclear fuel development, the meaning of science-based development of nuclear fuels, and the “Grand Challenge” for the AFC that would, if achieved, provide a transformational technology to the nuclear industry in the form of a high performance, high reliability nuclear fuel system. The activities that will be conducted by the AFC to achieve success towards this grand challenge are described and the goals and milestones over the next 20 to 40 year period of research and development are established.

  10. ERA's Open Rotor Studies Including Shielding for Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale; Thomas, Russell

    2012-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9' x 15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8' x 6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  11. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  12. Applications of the Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) 'MASC' in Atmospheric Boundary Layer Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Platis, Andreas; Tupman, David-James; Bange, Jens

    2015-04-01

    The remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed at the University of Tübingen in cooperation with the University of Stuttgart, University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe and 'ROKE-Modelle'. Its purpose is the investigation of thermodynamic processes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), including observations of temperature, humidity and wind profiles, as well as the measurement of turbulent heat, moisture and momentum fluxes. The aircraft is electrically powered, has a maximum wingspan of 3.40~m and a total weight of 5-8~kg, depending on the battery- and payload. The standard meteorological payload consists of two temperature sensors, a humidity sensor, a flow probe, an inertial measurement unit and a GNSS. The sensors were optimized for the resolution of small-scale turbulence down to length scales in the sub-meter range. In normal operation, the aircraft is automatically controlled by the ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) autopilot to be able to fly predefined paths at constant altitude and airspeed. Only take-off and landing are carried out by a human RC pilot. Since 2012, the system is operational and has since then been deployed in more than ten measurement campaigns, with more than 100 measurement flights. The fields of research that were tackled in these campaigns include sensor validation, fundamental boundary-layer research and wind-energy research. In 2014, for the first time, two MASC have been operated at the same time within a distance of a few kilometres, in order to investigate the wind field over an escarpment in the Swabian Alb. Furthermore, MASC was first deployed off-shore in October 2014, starting from the German island Heligoland in the North Sea, for the purpose of characterization of the marine boundary layer for offshore wind parks. Detailed descriptions of the experimental setup and first preliminary results will be presented.

  13. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  14. The Ocean Literacy Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoedinger, S. E.; Strang, C.

    2008-12-01

    "Ocean Literacy is an understanding of the ocean's influence on you and your influence on the ocean." This simple statement captures the spirit of a conceptual framework supporting ocean literacy (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework comprises 7 essential principles and 44 fundamental concepts an ocean literate person would know (COSEE et al., 2005). The framework is the result of an extensive grassroots effort to reach consensus on (1) a definition for ocean literacy and (2) an articulation of the most important concepts to be understood by ocean-literate citizen (Cava et al., 2005). In the process of reaching consensus on these "big ideas" about the ocean, what began as a series of workshops has emerged as a campaign "owned" by an ever-expanding community of individuals, organizations and networks involved in developing and promoting the framework. The Ocean Literacy Framework has provided a common language for scientists and educators working together and serves as key guidance for the ocean science education efforts. This presentation will focus on the impact this Ocean Literacy Campaign has had to date as well as efforts underway to provide additional tools to enable educators and educational policy makers to further integrate teaching and learning about the ocean and our coasts into formal K-12 education and informal education. COSEE, National Geographic Society, NOAA, College of Exploration (2005). Ocean Literacy: The Essential Principles of Ocean Sciences Grades K-12, a jointly published brochure, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OceanLitChart.pdf Cava, F., S. Schoedinger , C. Strang, and P. Tuddenham (2005). Science Content and Standards for Ocean Literacy: A Report on Ocean Literacy, URL: http://www.coexploration.org/oceanliteracy/documents/OLit2004-05_Final_Report.pdf.

  15. Second SNPP Cal/Val Campaign: Environmental Data Retrieval Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Kizer, Susan H.; Goldberg, Mitch D.

    2016-01-01

    Satellite ultraspectral infrared sensors provide key data records essential for weather forecasting and climate change science. The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Soumi NPP) satellite Environmental Data Records (EDRs) are retrieved from calibrated ultraspectral radiance or Sensor Data Records (SDRs). Understanding the accuracy of retrieved EDRs is critical. The second Suomi NPP Calibration/Validation field campaign was conducted during March 2015 with flights over Greenland. The NASA high-altitude ER-2 aircraft carrying ultraspectral interferometer sounders such as the National Airborne Sounder Testbed-Interferometer (NAST-I) flew under the Suomi NPP satellite that carries the Crosstrack Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS). Herein we inter-compare the EDRs produced from different retrieval algorithms employed on these satellite and aircraft campaign data. The available radiosonde measurements together with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses are used to assess atmospheric temperature and moisture retrievals from the aircraft and satellite platforms. Preliminary results of this experiment under a winter, Arctic environment are presented.

  16. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conover, Helen; Kulkami, Ajinkya; Garrett, Michele; Goodman, Michael; Peterson, Walter Arthur; Drewry, Marilyn; Hardin, Danny M.; He, Matt

    2011-01-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  17. Collaboration Portals for NASA's Airborne Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, H.; Kulkarni, A.; Garrett, M.; Goodman, M.; Petersen, W. A.; Drewry, M.; Hardin, D. M.; He, M.

    2011-12-01

    The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH), in collaboration with the Global Hydrology Resource Center, a NASA Earth Science Data Center, has provided information management for a number of NASA Airborne Field campaigns, both hurricane science investigations and satellite instrument validation. Effective field campaign management requires communication and coordination tools, including utilities for personnel to upload and share flight plans, weather forecasts, a variety of mission reports, preliminary science data, and personal photos. Beginning with the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) hurricane field campaign in 2010, we have provided these capabilities via a Drupal-based collaboration portal. This portal was reused and modified for the Midlatitude Continental Convective Clouds Experiment (MC3E), part of the Global Precipitation Measurement mission ground validation program. An end goal of these development efforts is the creation of a Drupal profile for field campaign management. This presentation will discuss experiences with Drupal in developing and using these collaboration portals. Topics will include Drupal modules used, advantages and disadvantages of working with Drupal in this context, and how the science teams used the portals in comparison with other communication and collaboration tools.

  18. Proof of concept for turbulence measurements with the RPAS SUMO during the BLLAST campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Båserud, Line; Reuder, Joachim; Jonassen, Marius O.; Kral, Stephan T.; Paskyabi, Mostafa B.; Lothon, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The micro-RPAS (remotely piloted aircraft system) SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) equipped with a five-hole-probe (5HP) system for turbulent flow measurements was operated in 49 flight missions during the BLLAST (Boundary-Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) field campaign in 2011. Based on data sets from these flights, we investigate the potential and limitations of airborne velocity variance and TKE (turbulent kinetic energy) estimations by an RPAS with a take-off weight below 1 kg. The integration of the turbulence probe in the SUMO system was still in an early prototype stage during this campaign, and therefore extensive post-processing of the data was required. In order to be able to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector, flow probe measurements were first synchronized with the autopilot's attitude and velocity data. Clearly visible oscillations were detected in the resulting vertical velocity, w, even after correcting for the aircraft motion. The oscillations in w were identified as the result of an internal time shift between the inertial measurement unit (IMU) and the GPS sensors, leading to insufficient motion correction, especially for the vertical wind component, causing large values of σw. Shifting the IMU 1-1.5 s forward in time with respect to the GPS yields a minimum for σw and maximum covariance between the IMU pitch angle and the GPS climb angle. The SUMO data show a good agreement to sonic anemometer data from a 60 m tower for σu, but show slightly higher values for σv and σw. Vertical TKE profiles, obtained from consecutive flight legs at different altitudes, show reasonable results, both with respect to the overall TKE level and the temporal variation. A thorough discussion of the methods used and the identified uncertainties and limitations of the system for turbulence measurements is included and should help the developers and users of other systems with similar problems.

  19. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  20. Evaluation of the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar extinction measurements during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. R.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hostetler, C. A.; Hair, J. W.; Cook, A. L.; Harper, D. B.; Obland, M. D.; Burton, S. P.; Clarke, A. D.; Russell, P. B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) was deployed on the NASA LaRC B-200 King Air aircraft and measured profiles of aerosol extinction, backscatter, and depolarization during the Megacity Initiative: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) Campaign in March 2006. The HSRL collected approximately 55 hours of data over 15 science flights, which were coordinated with the Sky Research J-31 aircraft (5 flights), the DOE G-1 aircraft (6 flights), and the NCAR C-130 aircraft (4 flights). This coordinated effort in MILAGRO provides the first opportunity to evaluate the HSRL aerosol extinction and optical thickness profiles with corresponding profiles derived from the other airborne measurements: 1) the 14 channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) on the J-31 and the in situ nephelometer measurements of aerosol scattering and Particle Soot Absorption Photometer (PSAP) measurements of aerosol absorption from the Hawaii Group for Environment and Atmospheric Research (HiGEAR) on the C-130. This study will include comparisons of aerosol extinction from these three techniques in cases where the HSRL flew directly over the AATS-14 and HiGEAR instruments while they measured aerosol extinction profiles. The results are used in assessing the uncertainty of the HSRL extinction profiles. Column aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the HSRL measurements is also compared with AOD derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements acquired on the Terra and Aqua spacecraft and from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground-based Sun photometer measurements.

  1. Scorpion: Close Air Support (CAS) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Chris; Cheng, Rendy; Koehler, Grant; Lyon, Sean; Paguio, Cecilia

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to outline the results of the preliminary design of the Scorpion, a proposed close air support aircraft. The results obtained include complete preliminary analysis of the aircraft in the areas of aerodynamics, structures, avionics and electronics, stability and control, weight and balance, propulsion systems, and costs. A conventional wing, twin jet, twin-tail aircraft was chosen to maximize the desirable characteristics. The Scorpion will feature low speed maneuverability, high survivability, low cost, and low maintenance. The life cycle cost per aircraft will be 17.5 million dollars. The maximum takeoff weight will be 52,760 pounds. Wing loading will be 90 psf. The thrust to weight will be 0.6 lbs/lb. This aircraft meets the specified mission requirements. Some modifications have been suggested to further optimize the design.

  2. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  3. The design of sport and touring aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, R.; Guenther, W.

    1984-01-01

    General considerations concerning the design of a new aircraft are discussed, taking into account the objective to develop an aircraft can satisfy economically a certain spectrum of tasks. Requirements related to the design of sport and touring aircraft included in the past mainly a high cruising speed and short take-off and landing runs. Additional requirements for new aircraft are now low fuel consumption and optimal efficiency. A computer program for the computation of flight performance makes it possible to vary automatically a number of parameters, such as flight altitude, wing area, and wing span. The appropriate design characteristics are to a large extent determined by the selection of the flight altitude. Three different wing profiles are compared. Potential improvements with respect to the performance of the aircraft and its efficiency are related to the use of fiber composites, the employment of better propeller profiles, more efficient engines, and the utilization of suitable instrumentation for optimal flight conduction.

  4. 75 FR 43395 - Campaign Travel

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... of 2007. See Final Rules on Campaign Travel, 74 FR 63951 (Dec. 7, 2009) (the ``Travel Rules... 11 CFR 9004.7 at a later date. Travel Rules, 74 FR at 63951. Through this Notice, the Commission... of the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act governing campaign travel on noncommercial...

  5. Foreign Policy: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Presidential campaigns are usually eager to provide mind-numbingly detailed domestic-policy proposals. When it comes to foreign policy, however, campaigns often prefer to operate on the plane of generality and gesture. In the absence of blueprints, journalists and tea-leaf readers scrutinize the foreign-policy advisers attached to each candidate:…

  6. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  7. Ground testing and campaign intercomparisons with the NAST-I airborne FTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Rochette, Luc; Noe, Anna; Oliver, Don; Tian, Jialin

    2014-10-01

    The NASA / JPSS Airborne Sounder Testbed - Interferometer (NAST-I) is a well-proven airborne remote sensing system, which has flown in 19 previous field campaigns aboard the high altitude NASA ER-2, Northrop Grumman / Scaled Composites Proteus, and NASA WB-57 aircraft since initially being flight qualified in 1998. While originally developed to provide experimental observations needed to finalize specifications and test proposed designs and data processing algorithms for the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) flying aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) Preparatory Project (SNPP) and the Joint Polar Satellite System, JPSS (formerly NPOESS, prior to program restructuring), its unprecedented data quality and system characteristics have contributed to a variety of atmospheric research and measurement validation objectives. This paper will provide a program overview and update, including a summary of measurement system capabilities, with a primary focus on postmission ground testing and characterization performed subsequent to the recently conducted Suomi NPP (SNPP) airborne field campaign.

  8. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project/General Electric Open Rotor Test Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zante, Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Open Rotor is a modern version of the UnDucted Fan (UDF) that was flight tested in the late 1980's through a partnership between NASA and General Electric (GE). Tests were conducted in the 9'x15' Low Speed Wind Tunnel and the 8'x6' Supersonic Wind Tunnel starting in late 2009 and completed in early 2012. Aerodynamic and acoustic data were obtained for takeoff, approach and cruise simulations. GE was the primary partner, but other organizations were involved such as Boeing and Airbus who provided additional hardware for fuselage simulations. This test campaign provided the acoustic and performance characteristics for modern open rotor blades designs." NASA and GE conducted joint systems analysis to evaluate how well new blade designs would perform on a B737 class aircraft, and compared the results to an advanced higher bypass ratio turbofan." Acoustic shielding experiments were performed at NASA GRC and Boeing LSAF facilities to provide data for noise estimates of unconventional aircraft configurations with Open Rotor propulsion systems." The work was sponsored by NASA's aeronautics programs, including the Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) and the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) projects."

  9. Overview of the Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne summer campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricaud, Philippe; Zbinden, Regina; Catoire, Valery; Brocchi, Vanessa; Dulac, Francois; Hamonou, Eric; Canonici, Jean-Christophe; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Massart, Sebastien; Piguet, Bruno; Dayan, Uri; Nabat, Pierre; Sciare, Jean; Ramonet, Michel; di Sarra, Alcide; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kleanthous, Savvas; Pikridas, Michael; Attié, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    The Gradient in Longitude of Atmospheric constituents above the Mediterranean basin (GLAM) airborne campaign has been set up to investigate the variability of constituents (pollutants and greenhouse gases) and aerosols between the West and the East of the Mediterranean Basin in summer 2014. This campaign occurred in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (CHARMEX) as part of the Mediterranean Integrated STudies at Regional And Local Scales (MISTRALS) programme. During the campaign, several instruments including the Spectromètre InfraRouge In situ Toute altitude (SPIRIT) instrument onboard the SAFIRE Falcon-20 aircraft measured aerosols, winds, radiation, humidity and chemical compounds such as O3, CO, CH4, N2O, and CO2. The campaign took place from 6 to 10 August 2014 from Toulouse (France) to Larnaca (Cyprus) and back, via Menorca (Spain), Lampedusa (Italy) and Heraklion (Crete). The aircraft flew at about 5000 m altitude above sea level to go and at about 9000 m altitude to return. The campaign also provided some vertical profilings from the surface to about 12 km in the vicinity of the landing sites listed above. The present paper shows an overview of the measurements and of the scientific results obtained during GLAM combining space-borne and surface station measurements, modelling (MOCAGE and ALADIN-CLIMAT) and chemical forecasts and analyses from Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service (CAMS) run by the European Centre for Medium range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Along an East-West axis or along the vertical, we analyze different processes. Among the different processes that have been studied in detail, we will particularly focus on aerosol results concentrating on the intercontinental transport and comparisons with surface stations. Combining GLAM, back-trajectories, satellite and model data, we demonstrate that the biomass burning from northern America, desert dust from Sahara and O3-depleted maritime boundary layer air masses

  10. Exploring the potential of the RPA system SUMO for multipurpose boundary-layer missions during the BLLAST campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuder, Joachim; Båserud, Line; Jonassen, Marius O.; Kral, Stephan T.; Müller, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In June and July 2011 the RPAS (Remotely Piloted Aircraft System) SUMO (Small Unmanned Meteorological Observer) performed a total number of 299 scientific flights during the BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) campaign in southern France. Three different types of missions were performed: vertical profiling of the mean meteorological parameters (temperature, humidity and wind), horizontal surveys of the surface temperature and horizontal transects for the estimation of turbulence. The manuscript provides an introduction to the corresponding SUMO operations, including regulatory issues and the coordination of manned and unmanned airborne operations for boundary-layer research that have been pioneered during the BLLAST campaign. The main purpose of the SUMO flight strategy was atmospheric profiling at high temporal resolution. A total of 168 profile flights were performed during the campaign with typically more than 10 flights per Intensive Observational Period (IOP) day. The collected data allow for a detailed study of boundary-layer structure and dynamics and will be used for further analysis, e.g. the determination of profiles of sensible and latent heat fluxes. First, tests of a corresponding method have shown very promising results and have provided surface-flux values in close agreement with those from ground-based eddy-covariance measurements. In addition, 74 horizontal surveys of the IR emission of the surface were performed at altitudes of around 65 m. Each of those surveys covers a typical area of around 1 km2 and allows for an estimation of the surface-temperature variability, important information for the assessment of the heterogeneity of the surface forcing as a function of soil and vegetation properties. The comparison with other surface-temperature measurements shows that the raw data of the airborne and ground observations can differ considerably, but that even a very simple multiple regression method can reduce those

  11. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  12. ADVANCED FUELS CAMPAIGN 2013 ACCOMPLISHMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2013-10-01

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform Research, Development, and Demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This includes development of a state-of-the art Research and Development (R&D) infrastructure to support the use of “goal-oriented science-based approach.” In support of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, AFC is responsible for developing advanced fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. Accomplishments made during fiscal year (FY) 2013 are highlighted in this report, which focuses on completed work and results. The process details leading up to the results are not included; however, the technical contact is provided for each section.

  13. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except— (1) Civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except (1) civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the United...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except— (1) Civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the...

  16. 26 CFR 48.4041-10 - Exemption for use as supplies for vessels or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sold tax free for use as supplies for civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or in trade between the... employed in the fisheries or whaling business. (5) Vessels (including aircraft) of war of the United States... type of aircraft except— (1) Civil aircraft employed in foreign trade or trade between the...

  17. Nitrogen oxides at the UTLS: Combining observations from research aircraft and in-service aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziereis, Helmut; Stratmann, Greta; Schlager, Hans; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Rauthe-Schöch, Armin; Zahn, Andreas; Hoor, Peter; van, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen oxides have a decisive influence on the chemistry of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. They are key constituents of several reaction chains influencing the production of ozone. They also play an essential role in the cycling of hydroxyl radicals and therefore influence the lifetime of methane. Due to their short lifetime and their variety of sources there is still a high uncertainty about the abundance of nitrogen oxides in the UTLS. Dedicated aircraft campaigns aim to study specific atmospheric questions like lightning, long range transport or aircraft emissions. Usually, within a short time period comprehensive measurements are performed within a more or less restricted region. Therefore, especially trace constituents like nitrogen oxides with short lifetime and a variety of different sources are not represented adequately. On the other hand, routine measurements from in-service aircraft allow observations over longer time periods and larger regions. However, it is nearly impossible to influence the scheduling of in-service aircraft and thereby time and space of the observations. Therefore, the combination of dedicated aircraft campaigns and routine observations might supplement each other. For this study we combine nitrogen oxides data sets obtained with the IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) flying laboratory and with the German research aircraft HALO (High altitude and long range research aircraft). Data have been acquired within the IAGOS-CARIBIC project on a monthly base using a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 since December 2004. About four flights are performed each month covering predominantly northern mid-latitudes. Additional flights have been conducted to destinations in South America and South Africa. Since 2012 HALO has been operational. Nitrogen oxides measurements have been performed during six missions covering mid latitudes, tropical as well as Polar

  18. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  19. Review of factors affecting aircraft wet runway performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from investigations conducted at the Langley Aircraft Landing Loads and Traction Facility and from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  20. Flight test techniques for the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Cooper, James M., Jr.; Sefic, Walter J.

    1987-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator is a single-seat, single-engine aircraft with a forward-swept wing. The aircraft incorporates many advanced technologies being considered for this country's next generation of aircraft. This unusual aircraft configuration, which had never been flown before, required a precise approach to flight envelope expansion. This paper describes the real-time analysis methods and flight test techniques used during the envelope expansion of the x-29A aircraft, including new and innovative approaches.

  1. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  2. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  3. Performance Evaluation Method for Dissimilar Aircraft Designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. J.

    1979-01-01

    A rationale is presented for using the square of the wingspan rather than the wing reference area as a basis for nondimensional comparisons of the aerodynamic and performance characteristics of aircraft that differ substantially in planform and loading. Working relationships are developed and illustrated through application to several categories of aircraft covering a range of Mach numbers from 0.60 to 2.00. For each application, direct comparisons of drag polars, lift-to-drag ratios, and maneuverability are shown for both nondimensional systems. The inaccuracies that may arise in the determination of aerodynamic efficiency based on reference area are noted. Span loading is introduced independently in comparing the combined effects of loading and aerodynamic efficiency on overall performance. Performance comparisons are made for the NACA research aircraft, lifting bodies, century-series fighter aircraft, F-111A aircraft with conventional and supercritical wings, and a group of supersonic aircraft including the B-58 and XB-70 bomber aircraft. An idealized configuration is included in each category to serve as a standard for comparing overall efficiency.

  4. Pre-Mission, Mission and Post Mission Data Management for NASA Field Campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, M.; Goodman, M.; Drewry, M.; Graves, S. J.; Hardin, D. M.

    2011-12-01

    Field research campaigns are essential for observing and measuring actual Earth system phenomena and validating computer models that simulate Earth systems. Ultimately, field data have a wide variety of application in basic and applied research. Due to the nature of data collection during a field campaign the resulting data sets are discontinuous over the designated geographic region as well as in time. The management of aircraft based data must take these factors into consideration. The Global Hydrology and Resource Center (GHRC) and IT researchers at the University of Alabama in Huntsville have participated in a number of NASA field campaigns since 1998. For example The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment was a recent NASA Earth science field experiment conducted in summer 2010 to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. NASA used the DC-8 aircraft, the WB-57 aircraft, and the Global Hawk Unmanned Airborne System (UAS) configured with a suite of remote sensing instruments used to observe and characterize the lifecycle of hurricanes. This campaign capitalized on a number of ground networks, airborne science platforms (both manned and unmanned), and space-based assets. Due to this history and expected participation in future campaigns; the GHRC is recognized as one of the main NASA data centers for this category of data. At the GHRC data from successive field campaigns are tied together through common procedures, consistent metadata, and archival systems making it easy to access data from instruments that have been employed across several missions. These data are also valuable when preparing for new field campaigns. This paper will focus on data management strategies employed prior to the mission, during the mission and after mission timeframes.

  5. MACHYDRO-90 - The microwave aircraft experiment for hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1991-01-01

    MACHYDRO-90 is a multisensor aircraft campaign (MAC) that was held in central Pennsylvania over an eleven day period in July 1990. The emphasis of the campaign was on the microwave measurements of soil moisture, although other aspects of hydrology and microwave-target interactions were also studied. A description is given of the experiment, its organization, and the meteorological conditions during the eleven days. Preliminary results are also presented from PBMR (Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer) and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) measurements of soil moisture. These results are portrayed in the context of the hydrology, which, during this experiment, exhibited dry and wet extremes.

  6. Testing the Validity of Campaign Ad Exposure Measures: A Family Planning Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures. PMID:27337154

  7. OLYMPEX: A Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) Ground Validation Campaign on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.; Lundquist, J. D.; Mass, C.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission was successfully launched at 1837 UTC 27 February 2014 with the first space-borne Ku/Ka band Dual Frequency Precipitation Radar and a passive microwave radiometer (channels ranging from 10-183 GHz). The primary objective of the Core satellite is to measure rain and snow globally, determine its 3D structure, and act as the calibration satellite for a constellation of GPM passive microwave satellites. In order to assess how remotely sensed precipitation can be applied to a range of data applications, ground validation (GV) field campaigns are crucial. As such, the Olympic Mountains Experiment (OLYMPEX) is planned for November 2015 - February 2016. The Olympic Peninsula in Washington State is an ideal location to conduct a GV campaign. It is situated within an active mid-latitude winter storm track and receives among the highest annual precipitation amounts in North America. In one compact area, the Olympic peninsula ranges from ocean to coast to land to mountains. It contains a permanent snowfield and numerous associated river basins. This unique venue will enable the field campaign to monitor both upstream precipitation characteristics and processes over the ocean and their modification over complex terrain. The scientific goals of the OLYMPEX field campaign include physical validation of satellite algorithms, precipitation mechanisms in complex terrain, hydrological applications, and modeling studies. In order to address these goals, a wide variety of existing and new observations are planned. These include surface observing networks of meteorological stations, rain and snow gauges, surface microphysical measurements, and snowpack surveys. Several radars will be deployed including the NASA S-Band dual-polarimetric and NASA Dual-Frequency Dual-Polarimetric Doppler radars, the Canadian x-band radar, and other mobile radars. Several instrumented aircraft are likely to participate such as the NASA DC-8 and the

  8. Weather information network including graphical display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Daniel R. (Inventor); Burdon, David (Inventor); Son, Robert S. (Inventor); Martin, Kevin D. (Inventor); Harrison, John (Inventor); Hughes, Keith R. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An apparatus for providing weather information onboard an aircraft includes a processor unit and a graphical user interface. The processor unit processes weather information after it is received onboard the aircraft from a ground-based source, and the graphical user interface provides a graphical presentation of the weather information to a user onboard the aircraft. Preferably, the graphical user interface includes one or more user-selectable options for graphically displaying at least one of convection information, turbulence information, icing information, weather satellite information, SIGMET information, significant weather prognosis information, and winds aloft information.

  9. Native Generations: A campaign addressing infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Rutman, Shira; Loughran, Julie; Tanner, Leah; Randall, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality (IM) among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in urban areas. Campaign development included reviews of literature and previous campaigns, an advisory council, and focus groups. Campaign messages are strength-based, encouraging AI/AN caregivers to utilize available Native-specific resources, including health care, support services, and programming as IM protective factors. The primary campaign material is an 11-minute video. Pilot survey data indicate the video may help increase awareness of IM and Native-specific resources, and increase connection to Native identity, culture, and community.

  10. Native Generations: A campaign addressing infant mortality among American Indians and Alaska Natives in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Rutman, Shira; Loughran, Julie; Tanner, Leah; Randall, Leslie L

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and evaluation of Native Generations, a campaign addressing high rates of infant mortality (IM) among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in urban areas. Campaign development included reviews of literature and previous campaigns, an advisory council, and focus groups. Campaign messages are strength-based, encouraging AI/AN caregivers to utilize available Native-specific resources, including health care, support services, and programming as IM protective factors. The primary campaign material is an 11-minute video. Pilot survey data indicate the video may help increase awareness of IM and Native-specific resources, and increase connection to Native identity, culture, and community. PMID:27668594

  11. Computing Linear Mathematical Models Of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1991-01-01

    Derivation and Definition of Linear Aircraft Model (LINEAR) computer program provides user with powerful, and flexible, standard, documented, and verified software tool for linearization of mathematical models of aerodynamics of aircraft. Intended for use in software tool to drive linear analysis of stability and design of control laws for aircraft. Capable of both extracting such linearized engine effects as net thrust, torque, and gyroscopic effects, and including these effects in linear model of system. Designed to provide easy selection of state, control, and observation variables used in particular model. Also provides flexibility of allowing alternate formulations of both state and observation equations. Written in FORTRAN.

  12. Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.; Dugan, J. F., Jr.; Saunders, N. T.; Ziemianski, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    Fuel efficiency in aeronautics, for fuel conservation in general as well as for its effect on commercial aircraft operating economics is considered. Projects of the Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program related to propulsion are emphasized. These include: (1) engine component improvement, directed at performance improvement and engine diagnostics for prolonged service life; (2) energy efficient engine, directed at proving the technology base for the next generation of turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprop, directed at advancing the technology of turboprop powered aircraft to a point suitable for commercial airline service. Progress in these technology areas is reported.

  13. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  14. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  15. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  16. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  17. Method and device for landing aircraft dependent on runway occupancy time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghalebsaz Jeddi, Babak (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A technique for landing aircraft using an aircraft landing accident avoidance device is disclosed. The technique includes determining at least two probability distribution functions; determining a safe lower limit on a separation between a lead aircraft and a trail aircraft on a glide slope to the runway; determining a maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate on the runway based on the safe lower limit and the probability distribution functions; directing the trail aircraft to enter the glide slope with a target separation from the lead aircraft corresponding to the maximum sustainable safe attempt-to-land rate; while the trail aircraft is in the glide slope, determining an actual separation between the lead aircraft and the trail aircraft; and directing the trail aircraft to execute a go-around maneuver if the actual separation approaches the safe lower limit. Probability distribution functions include runway occupancy time, and landing time interval and/or inter-arrival distance.

  18. A national campaign to finance supported employment.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael F; Drake, Robert E; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-06-01

    Medicaid is now the main payment source and financing mechanism for services for adults with serious mental illness. Services formerly paid with state mental health funds have been converted to Medicaid, lightening the burden on state budgets affected by recession and other factors. The change has allowed states to maintain community care and inpatient services (in general hospitals). Medicaid service benefits include clinic and inpatient care, case management, and some rehabilitation services. But using Medicaid to finance some high-priority services such as supported employment has proven difficult. Now critical changes in Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act allow states to amend their Medicaid State Plans to provide more flexible services to people with serious mental illness. Advocacy and support may be needed to encourage this step. A national campaign to finance supported employment would join various stakeholders in the field, including professional organizations, family and service user groups, and organizations representing service providers. The authors of this editorial pledge their energies to support this campaign. They present suggestions for a campaign, including building a coalition, goals and targets, and online resources.

  19. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Concentration in the ASCENDS 2014 Airborne Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A. K.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Chen, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We report progress in demonstrating a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line by using 30 wavelength samples distributed across the lube. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength 10 times per second. The retrievals solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape and the column average CO2 concentrations using radiative transfer calculations based on HITRAN, the aircraft altitude, range to the scattering surface, and the atmospheric conditions. We compare these to CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. The number of wavelength samples can be reduced in the retrievals. During the ASCENDS airborne campaign in 2013 two flights were made in February over snow in the Rocky Mountains and the Central Plains allowing measurement of snow-covered surface reflectivity. Several improvements were made to the lidar for the 2014 campaign. These included using a new step-locked laser diode source, and incorporating a new HgCdTe APD detector and analog digitizer into the lidar receiver. Testing showed this detector had higher sensitivity, analog response, and a more linear dynamic range than the PMT detector used previously. In 2014 flights were made in late August and early September over the California Central Valley, the redwood forests along the California coast, two desert areas in Nevada and California, and two flights above growing agriculture in Iowa. Two flights were also made under OCO-2 satellite ground tracks. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, and mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, and through thin clouds and aerosol scattering. The lidar measurements clearly

  20. Measurements of Biogenic and Anthropogenic Ozone and Aerosol Precursors during the SENEX (Southeast Nexus) Campaign 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Natural emissions of ozone and aerosol precursor gases such as isoprene and monoterpenes are the highest in the southeast of the U.S. and rival those found in tropical forests. In addition, anthropogenic emissions are significant in the Southeast and photochemistry is rapid. The southeast U.S. has not warmed like other parts of the U.S. in response to global climate change, and the temperature anomaly has been suggested to be related to aerosols derived from a combination of anthropogenic and biogenic precursors. The NOAA SENEX aircraft campaign took place in June-July 2013 in the southeast U.S. as part of the Southeast Atmosphere Study (SAS). The NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between May 27 and July 10, 2013 based out of Smyrna, TN. To investigate the combination of anthropogenic and biogenic emissions several flights were designed to follow the emissions of cities and power plants as they are transported over forested regions in the Southeast. For example, over-flights of Atlanta, Birmingham and Nashville were performed and the plumes were followed to the forested areas with high isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The same was done for several power plants such as EC Gaston, Scherer and Johnsonville. In the anthropogenic plumes, effects such as the modulation of the isoprene chemistry by high NOx and particle formation and growth were investigated. The same strategy was used for three nighttime flights over Atlanta, Birmingham and the New Madrid and White Bluff power plants. Flights over and downwind of St Lois and Indianapolis were used as a contrast in areas with smaller biogenic emissions. Other anthropogenic emissions sources that were investigated during SENEX included bio refineries, paper mills, coalmines, poultry and pork farming. Also biomass burning emissions were observed during one daytime and one nighttime flight. Another focus of the SENEX campaign was to determine the emissions of natural gas and oil production from the

  1. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  2. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  3. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  4. Complex Contagion of Campaign Donations.

    PubMed

    Traag, Vincent A

    2016-01-01

    Money is central in US politics, and most campaign contributions stem from a tiny, wealthy elite. Like other political acts, campaign donations are known to be socially contagious. We study how campaign donations diffuse through a network of more than 50,000 elites and examine how connectivity among previous donors reinforces contagion. We find that the diffusion of donations is driven by independent reinforcement contagion: people are more likely to donate when exposed to donors from different social groups than when they are exposed to equally many donors from the same group. Counter-intuitively, being exposed to one side may increase donations to the other side. Although the effect is weak, simultaneous cross-cutting exposure makes donation somewhat less likely. Finally, the independence of donors in the beginning of a campaign predicts the amount of money that is raised throughout a campaign. We theorize that people infer population-wide estimates from their local observations, with elites assessing the viability of candidates, possibly opposing candidates in response to local support. Our findings suggest that theories of complex contagions need refinement and that political campaigns should target multiple communities. PMID:27077742

  5. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  6. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  7. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  8. Intercomparison results for FIFE flux aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macpherson, J. I.; Grossman, R. L.; Kelly, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Three atmospheric research aircraft were used to explore the atmospheric boundary layer during FIFE: the National Research Council of Canada Twin Otter, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) King Air, and the University of Wyoming King Air. The aircraft were used to measure the mean and turbulent structure of the boundary layer and its variation with height, time, and space. These measurements are important to FIFE because they are being used to scale up point surface observations to landscape scales and because they can be used to relate satellite radiance measurements to boundary layer processes. Because the aircraft were used in coordinated flight patterns to investigate changes within and between intensive field campaigns, wing-to-wing intercomparisons were made so that measurements from one aircraft could be related to another. Intercomparisons were flown on 4 days in 1987 and 3 days in 1989. The eddy correlation measurements of the mixed layer fluxes of moisture and sensible heat were of particular interest to FIFE. Sensible heat fluxes agreed within 15 W/sq m and moisture fluxes agreed within 21 W/sq m. Mean wind component differences were within 1.0 m/s, air temperature within 0.3 C, and mixing ratio within 2 g/kg. Standard deviations showed similar good agreement, with mean differences generally less than 0.1 m/s for the wind components and 0.03 C for potential temperature. Intercomparisons between the NCAR King Air and the Twin Otter showed better agreement in 1989 than in 1987. Overall, the results suggest that data from the FIFE boundary layer aircraft will need little correction to account for instrument biases and spurious fluctuations.

  9. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  10. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  11. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  12. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  13. Overview of Innovative Aircraft Power and Propulsion Systems and Their Applications for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony; Landis, Geoffrey; Lyons, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    Planetary exploration may be enhanced by the use of aircraft for mobility. This paper reviews the development of aircraft for planetary exploration missions at NASA and reviews the power and propulsion options for planetary aircraft. Several advanced concepts for aircraft exploration, including the use of in situ resources, the possibility of a flexible all-solid-state aircraft, the use of entomopters on Mars, and the possibility of aerostat exploration of Titan, are presented.

  14. Unsuccessful Concepts for Aircraft Wake Vortex Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, R. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Exploratory concepts are described which were investigated to achieve a reduction in the vortex induced rolling upsets produced by heavy aircraft trailing vortexes. The initial tests included the use of mass injection, oscillating devices, wingtip shape design, interacting multiple vortexes, and end plates. Although later refinements of some of these concepts were successful, initial test results did not indicate a capability of these concepts to significantly alter the vortex induced rolling upset on a following aircraft.

  15. Carbon-monoxide Indicators for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Womack, S H J; Peterson, J B

    1936-01-01

    Several improvements that have been made on commercially available carbon-monoxide indicators to make them more suitable for aircraft use are described. These improvements include an automatic flow regulator, which permits the use of a simplified instrument on aircraft where a source of suction is available, and a more reliable alarm attachment. A field method for testing instruments on standard samples of carbon monoxide is described. Performance data and instructions in operation and maintenance are given.

  16. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, Nathan

    2009-11-01

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), as part of the National Ignition Campaign, will determine the hohlraum path forward for indirect drive ignition. These first experiments will test ignition hohlraum ``energetics,'' a term described by four broad goals: *Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum *Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (TRAD^4) on the surrogate ignition capsule *Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux *Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with point design requirements for ignition using either a beryllium or plastic capsule ablator. In this talk, we summarize the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. We describe the hohlraum target and experimental design, including an overview of the theoretical and computational tools that have been used to design the hohlraums. We explain the validation of these tools on predecessor facilities and describe their performance on the first NIF experiments. We then discuss our current understanding of NIF hohlraum performance and the resulting near-term and long-term plans for NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  17. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  18. Field Campaign Guidelines (ARM Climate Research Facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, JW

    2011-01-17

    The purpose of this document is to establish a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking database tool and are tailored to meet the scope of each specific field campaign.

  19. The Theory of the Mass Literacy Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhola, H. S.

    After an analysis of eight mass literacy campaigns (USSR 1919-39; Vietnam, 1945-77; China, 1950-58; Cuba, 1961; Burma, 1960-1981; Brazil, 1967-80; Tanzania, 1971-81; and Somalia, 1973-75), a campaign strategy for a mass literacy campaign is proposed. A potentially successful mass literacy campaign has to be both an educational and a political…

  20. Ice Nuclei in Mid-Latitude Cirrus: Preliminary Results from a New Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) Aircraft Inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froyd, K. D.; Cziczo, D. J.; Murphy, D. M.; Kulkarni, G.; Lawson, P.

    2011-12-01

    Cirrus cloud properties are strongly governed by the mechanism of ice particle formation and by the number and effectiveness of ambient ice nuclei. Airborne measurements of ice nuclei reveal new nucleation mechanisms, provide constraints on microphysical models, and guide laboratory investigations. For over two decades the Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI) inlet has remained the prevailing approach for sampling cloud particles to measure ice nuclei from an aircraft platform. However, traditional CVI inlets have fundamental limitations when operating on high speed aircraft, where only a small fraction of ambient cloud particles are typically sampled. A novel 'folded' CVI was constructed and deployed during the NASA MACPEX 2011 campaign. The flow design of this inlet effectively doubles the CVI length and thereby increases the size range of captured cirrus particles. Additional design elements such as an internal vortex flow, a neon carrier gas, and an infrared laser further improve the capture and evaporation of ice crystals. Preliminary results of ice nuclei composition measured by the PALMS single-particle mass spectrometer are presented from the MACPEX campaign. Examples of ice nuclei from mid-latitude cirrus are shown, including mineral dust, organic-rich aerosol with amine and diacid components, and lead-containing aerosol.

  1. Hurricane Imaging Radiometer (HIRAD) Observations of Brightness Temperatures and Ocean Surface Wind Speed and Rain Rate During NASA's GRIP and HS3 Campaigns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy L.; James, M. W.; Roberts, J. B.; Jones, W. L.; Biswas, S.; Ruf, C. S.; Uhlhorn, E. W.; Atlas, R.; Black, P.; Albers, C.

    2012-01-01

    HIRAD flew on high-altitude aircraft over Earl and Karl during NASA s GRIP (Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes) campaign in August - September of 2010, and plans to fly over Atlantic tropical cyclones in September of 2012 as part of the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission. HIRAD is a new C-band radiometer using a synthetic thinned array radiometer (STAR) technology to obtain spatial resolution of approximately 2 km, out to roughly 30 km each side of nadir. By obtaining measurements of emissions at 4, 5, 6, and 6.6 GHz, observations of ocean surface wind speed and rain rate can be retrieved. The physical retrieval technique has been used for many years by precursor instruments, including the Stepped Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR), which has been flying on the NOAA and USAF hurricane reconnaissance aircraft for several years to obtain observations within a single footprint at nadir angle. Results from the flights during the GRIP and HS3 campaigns will be shown, including images of brightness temperatures, wind speed, and rain rate. Comparisons will be made with observations from other instruments on the campaigns, for which HIRAD observations are either directly comparable or are complementary. Features such as storm eye and eye-wall, location of storm wind and rain maxima, and indications of dynamical features such as the merging of a weaker outer wind/rain maximum with the main vortex may be seen in the data. Potential impacts on operational ocean surface wind analyses and on numerical weather forecasts will also be discussed.

  2. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  3. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  4. Steering Aircraft Clear of Choppy Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    AeroTech Research (U.S.A.), Inc., a leader in turbulence-detection and warning systems, has been involved with NASA Aviation Safety research since 1998. AeroTech served as a contractor for the TPAWS government/industry development project, and was funded by NASA to develop the E-Turb Mode Radar algorithms and the TAPS software. (Other contributors to this project include the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the FAA, North Carolina State University, and the Research Triangle Institute.) The radar algorithms combine an aircraft's turbulenceresponse characteristics with radar measurements to determine the predicted turbulence loads the aircraft will experience, and present this information to the pilot. The TAPS software monitors and processes onboard aircraft sensor data; generates automatic reports when an aircraft encounters turbulence and a set turbulence threshold is exceeded; and then displays the reports and underlying information to ground personnel to improve situational awareness of the location and the severity of the turbulence encounter.

  5. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  6. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  7. Low Reynolds number, long endurance aircraft design

    SciTech Connect

    Foch, R.J.; Ailinger, K.G. )

    1992-02-01

    Airplanes are typically designed to maximize range at the highest practical cruising speed. However, several missions require extended duration rather than range, and favor the slowest possible cruise speed. Such missions include surveillance, radio relay, and ship's electronic decoy. These missions are ideally suited for advanced technology unmanned aircraft, either remotely piloted or autonomous. Feasibility studies have been conducted and flight demonstrator prototypes of such unique aircraft have been under steady research and development at the Naval Research Laboratory since 1978. This paper discusses the design aspects and tradeoffs unique to small, slow speed long endurance unmanned aircraft operating at wing chord Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 500,000. Additionally, many of these low Reynolds number-driven design features have applicability to high altitude, long endurance aircraft. 6 refs.

  8. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  9. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  10. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  11. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  12. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  13. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  14. Atmospheric River Observations with the HAMSR Aircraft Microwave Sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Brown, S. T.; Schreier, M. M.; Dang, H. V. T.; Behrangi, A.

    2015-12-01

    The High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in 2001 to serve as an aircraft based hurricane observatory. It initially flew on the high altitude ER-2 and later on the DC-8. More recently it was modified to fly on the Global Hawk UAV. It uses the most advanced technology and is among the most sensitive instruments of its kind. In addition to a number of NASA hurricane field campaigns - mostly in the North Atlantic, HAMSR has participated in two atmospheric river campaigns off the California coast, one in 2011 (WISPAR) and one in 2015 (CalWater2). We will discuss observations from the 2015 campaign, with particular focus on a flight over an atmsospheric river making landfall in central California in early February, as well as compare with highlights from the 2011 flights. Copyright 2015 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  15. Antecedents and analogues - Experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews the development of experimental aircraft from 1953 to the present. Consideration is given to the X-series experimental aircraft, to X-15 (the first aerospace plane), to the transition of experimental aircraft to high-speed flight, to XB-70 research, to lifting body research aircraft, and to current high-speed flight research.

  16. The profile of a campaign: "Men Too".

    PubMed

    Goodchild, R

    1986-07-01

    Men comprise only 1.2% of the 1.5 million family planning clinic users in England and Wales. There are 3.5 million oral contraceptive acceptors compared to 2.8 million condom users. The focus on women as users of contraception reflects contemporary sex roles that view women as primarily responsible for family planning and childbearing. Greater involvement of men in making decisions about contraception is likely to have a favorable impact on rigid sex roles and improve the quality of relationships. A "Men Too" campaign was launched in 1984 by the Family Planning Association of the United Kingdom. Components of this program included use of well-known sports personalities and performers to launch the campaign, television programming aimed at teenage boys, and public service announcements. Courses were held for receptionists at family planning clinics to help them make men feel more welcome and a special poster was provided for waiting rooms. Finally, a 25-minute video called "Danny's Big Night" was produced for teenage boys. The video is intended for use in small groups with a discussion leader. The climax of the campaign was a national conference on Men, Sex, and Relationships attended by 400 lay and professional people. The 1984 statistics that reflect the onset of the campaign indicate a 13% overall increase of men using family plannig clinics compared to 1983 and a 40% increase in the attendance of 18 and 19-year old men. Special 1-night/week men only sessions have been introduced in 5 National Health Service family planning clinics. PMID:12222202

  17. Upper tropospheric water vapor: A field campaign of two Raman lidars, Airborne hygrometers, and Radiosondes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melfi, S. Harvey; Turner, Dave; Evans, Keith; Whiteman, Dave; Schwemmer, Geary; Ferrare, Richard

    1998-01-01

    Water vapor in the atmosphere plays an important role in radiative transfer and the process of radiative balance so critical for understanding global change. It is the principal ingredient in cloud formation, one of the most difficult atmospheric processes to model, and the most variable component of the Earth-atmosphere albedo. And as a free molecule, it is the most active infrared absorber and emitter, thus, the most important greenhouse gas. The radiative impact of water vapor is important at all levels of the atmosphere. Even though moisture decreases by several orders-of-magnitude from the Earth's surface to the tropopause, recent research has shown that, from a radiative standpoint, a small percentage change in water vapor at any level is nearly equivalent. Therefore accurate and precise measurements of this important atmospheric constituent are needed at all levels to evaluate the full radiative impact. The need for improved measurements in the upper troposphere is particularly important because of the generally hostile (very dry and cold) conditions encountered. Because of the importance of water vapor to the understanding of radiative transfer, the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) program initiated a series of measurement campaigns at the Cloud And Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, especially focused on atmospheric water vapor. Three water vapor intensive observation period (water vapor IOP) campaigns were planned. Two of the water vapor IOP campaigns have been completed: the first IOP was held during the fall of 1996 with a focus on boundary layer water vapor measurements, and the second was conducted during the fall of 1997 with a focus on both boundary layer moisture e and moisture in the upper troposphere. This paper presents a review of the intercomparisons of water vapor measurements in the upper troposphere aquired during the second water vapor IOP. Data to be presented include water vapor measurements ements

  18. Production of peroxy nitrates in boreal biomass burning plumes over Canada during the BORTAS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busilacchio, M.; Di Carlo, P.; Aruffo, E.; Biancofiore, F.; Salisburgo, C. D.; Giammaria, F.; Bauguitte, S.; Lee, J.; Moller, S.; Hopkins, J.; Punjabi, S.; Andrews, S.; Lewis, A. C.; Parrington, M.; Palmer, P. I.; Hyer, E.

    2015-03-01

    The observations collected during the BORTAS campaign in summer 2011 over Canada are analysed to study the impact of forest fire emissions on the formation of ozone (O3) and total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, ΣROONO2). The suite of measurements on board the BAe-146 aircraft, deployed in this campaign, allows us to calculate the production of O3 and of ΣPNs, a long lived O3 reservoir whose concentration is supposed to be impacted by biomass burning emissions. In fire plumes, profiles of carbon monoxide (CO), which is a well-established tracer of pyrogenic emission, show concentration enhancements that are in strong correspondence with a significant increase of ΣPNs concentrations, whereas minimal increase of the concentrations of O3 and NO2 are observed. In those fire plumes the average ΣPNs production is 12 times greater than in the background plumes, by contrast the average O3 production is only 5 times greater. These results suggest that, at least for boreal forest fires and for the measurements recorded during the BORTAS campaign, fire emissions impact both the oxidized NOy and O3, but: (1) ΣPNs production is affected significantly respect to the O3 production and (2) in the forest fire plumes the ratio between the ΣPNs production and the O3 production is lower than the ratio evaluated in the background air masses, thus confirming that the role played by the ΣPNs produced during biomass burning is significant in the O3 budget. These observations are consistent with elevated production of PAN and concurrent low production (or sometimes loss) of O3 observed in some another campaigns (i.e. ARCTAS-B) focused on forest fire emissions. Moreover our observations extend ARCTAS-B results since PAN is one of the compounds included in the ΣPNs family detected during BORTAS. The implication of these observations is that fire emissions in some cases, for example Boreal forest fires and in the conditions reported here, may influence more long lived precursors of O3 than

  19. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  20. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Michelob Light Eagle is seen here in flight over Rogers Dry Lake at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Light Eagle and Daedalus human powered aircraft were testbeds for flight research conducted at Dryden between January 1987 and March 1988. These unique aircraft were designed and constructed by a group of students, professors, and alumni of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology within the context of the Daedalus project. The construction of the Light Eagle and Daedalus aircraft was funded primarily by the Anheuser Busch and United Technologies Corporations, respectively, with additional support from the Smithsonian Air and Space Museum, MIT, and a number of other sponsors. To celebrate the Greek myth of Daedalus, the man who constructed wings of wax and feathers to escape King Minos, the Daedalus project began with the goal of designing, building and testing a human-powered aircraft that could fly the mythical distance, 115 km. To achieve this goal, three aircraft were constructed. The Light Eagle was the prototype aircraft, weighing 92 pounds. On January 22, 1987, it set a closed course distance record of 59 km, which still stands. Also in January of 1987, the Light Eagle was powered by Lois McCallin to set the straight distance, the distance around a closed circuit, and the duration world records for the female division in human powered vehicles. Following this success, two more aircraft were built, the Daedalus 87 and Daedalus 88. Each aircraft weighed approximately 69 pounds. The Daedalus 88 aircraft was the ship that flew the 199 km from the Iraklion Air Force Base on Crete in the Mediterranean Sea, to the island of Santorini in 3 hours, 54 minutes. In the process, the aircraft set new records in distance and endurance for a human powered aircraft. The specific areas of flight research conducted at Dryden included characterizing the rigid body and flexible dynamics of the Light Eagle, investigating sensors for an

  1. Aircraft Anomaly Detection Using Performance Models Trained on Fleet Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Matthews, Bryan L.; Martin, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an application of data mining technology called Distributed Fleet Monitoring (DFM) to Flight Operational Quality Assurance (FOQA) data collected from a fleet of commercial aircraft. DFM transforms the data into aircraft performance models, flight-to-flight trends, and individual flight anomalies by fitting a multi-level regression model to the data. The model represents aircraft flight performance and takes into account fixed effects: flight-to-flight and vehicle-to-vehicle variability. The regression parameters include aerodynamic coefficients and other aircraft performance parameters that are usually identified by aircraft manufacturers in flight tests. Using DFM, the multi-terabyte FOQA data set with half-million flights was processed in a few hours. The anomalies found include wrong values of competed variables, (e.g., aircraft weight), sensor failures and baises, failures, biases, and trends in flight actuators. These anomalies were missed by the existing airline monitoring of FOQA data exceedances.

  2. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  3. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  4. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  5. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  6. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  7. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  8. Evaluating the effectiveness of an Australian obesity mass-media campaign: how did the 'Measure-Up' campaign measure up in New South Wales?

    PubMed

    King, E L; Grunseit, A C; O'Hara, B J; Bauman, A E

    2013-12-01

    In 2008, the Australian Government launched a mass-media campaign 'Measure-Up' to reduce lifestyle-related chronic disease risk. Innovative campaign messages linked waist circumference and chronic disease risk. Communication channels for the campaign included television, press, radio and outdoor advertising and local community activities. This analysis examines the impact of the campaign in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional telephone surveys (n = 1006 adults pre- and post-campaign) covered self-reported diet and physical activity, campaign awareness, knowledge about waist circumference, personal relevance of the message, perceived confidence to make lifestyle changes and waist-measuring behaviours. The campaign achieved high unprompted (38%) and prompted (89%) awareness. From pre- to post-campaign, knowledge and personal relevance of the link between waist circumference and chronic disease and waist measuring behaviour increased, although there were no significant changes in reported fruit and vegetable intake nor in physical activity. Knowledge of the correct waist measurement threshold for chronic disease risk increased over 5-fold, adjusted for demographic characteristics. 'Measure-Up' was successful at communicating the new campaign messages. Continued long-term investment in campaigns such as 'Measure-Up', supplemented with community-based health promotion, may contribute to population risk factor understanding and behaviour change to reduce chronic disease. PMID:23962490

  9. The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    's Wind Profilers and the Oklahoma Mesonet. The macroscale cloud and land surface structure was measured by a variety of aircraft including the NASA ER-2, which carried a multiple channel imager and nadir viewing active remote sensors, and a P-3, which carried a passive soil moisture imaging radiometer. Cloud scale dynamics and microphysics were sampled at the SGP using ARM instruments, specialized aircraft, and two prototype radar systems. Three land surface super-sites served as the focal points for detailed surveys of the land surface characteristics and the corresponding surface fluxes, and detailed vertical flux profiles were measured in the subcloud layer above these sites using the Duke University Helicopter Observation Platform. The month of June 2007 was exceptionally wet in the Southern Great Plains. Particularly rainy periods were observed early and late in the month, with a period of modest drying between. To capture the dry-down period, the Intensive Observation period for CLASIC occurred from June 12 to June 20. During this period enhanced radiosonde observations helped quantify large scale forcing and aircraft sampling in the region was maximized. Several examples of shallow convection were encountered during this period, as well as cases with stratus and deep convection.

  10. The psycho-social consequences of aircraft noise.

    PubMed

    Stockbridge, H C; Lee, M

    1973-03-01

    The paper describes and compares various methods of investigating the social disamentity caused by aircraft noise. These methods include social surveys,the analysis of complaints, and direct observation. Each has practical, political and statistical advantages and disadvantages. The effects of aircraft noise are also discussed and the conclusion is drawn that if social pressure continues to be applied, the technologists can and will quieten aircraft engines.

  11. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 3: Predesign report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The features of two aircraft designs were selected to be included in the single RSRA configuration. A study was conducted for further preliminary design and a more detailed analysis of development plans and costs. An analysis was also made of foreseeable technical problems and risks, identification of parallel research which would reduce risks and/or add to the basic capability of the aircraft, and a draft aircraft specification.

  12. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  13. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  14. Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven R H; Britter, Rex E; Waitz, Ian A

    2010-10-01

    Aircraft emissions impact human health though degradation of air quality. The majority of previous analyses of air quality impacts from aviation have considered only landing and takeoff emissions. We show that aircraft cruise emissions impact human health over a hemispheric scale and provide the first estimate of premature mortalities attributable to aircraft emissions globally. We estimate ∼8000 premature mortalities per year are attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. This represents ∼80% of the total impact of aviation (where the total includes the effects of landing and takeoff emissions), and ∼1% of air quality-related premature mortalities from all sources. However, we note that the impact of landing and takeoff emissions is likely to be under-resolved. Secondary H(2)SO(4)-HNO(3)-NH(3) aerosols are found to dominate mortality impacts. Due to the altitude and region of the atmosphere at which aircraft emissions are deposited, the extent of transboundary air pollution is particularly strong. For example, we describe how strong zonal westerly winds aloft, the mean meridional circulation around 30-60°N, interaction of aircraft-attributable aerosol precursors with background ammonia, and high population densities in combination give rise to an estimated ∼3500 premature mortalities per year in China and India combined, despite their relatively small current share of aircraft emissions. Subsidence of aviation-attributable aerosol and aerosol precursors occurs predominantly around the dry subtropical ridge, which results in reduced wet removal of aviation-attributable aerosol. It is also found that aircraft NO(x) emissions serve to increase oxidation of nonaviation SO(2), thereby further increasing the air quality impacts of aviation. We recommend that cruise emissions be explicitly considered in the development of policies, technologies and operational procedures designed to mitigate the air quality impacts of air transportation.

  15. Price Determination of General Aviation, Helicopter, and Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1978-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for general aviation, helicopter, and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly as to how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  16. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  17. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  18. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  19. The GLORIE Campaign: Assessment of the Capabilities of Airborne GNSS-R for Land Remote Sensing.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangiarotti, S.; Motte, E.; Zribi, M., Sr.; Fanise, P., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    In June and July 2015 an intensive flight campaign was conducted over the south west of France to test the sensitivity of Global Navigation Satellite System Reflectometry (GNSS-R) to the geophysical parameters of continental surfaces. Namely, the parameters of interest were soil moisture, soil roughness, plant water content, forest biomass and level of inland water bodies and rivers. We used the GLORI polarimetric GNSS-R instrument, collecting raw 10MSPS 2-bit IQ direct (RHCP, zenith) and reflected (RHCP and LHCP, nadir) signals at GPS L1 frequency aboard the ATR-42 aircraft of the SAFIRE fleet. Simultaneous measurement of aircraft attitude and position were recorded. The flight plan included flyovers of several areas of interests, with collocated ground truth measurements of soil moisture, soil roughness, cultivated biomass, and forest biomass. Also flyovers of ponds, lakes and river were included for power calibration and altimetry retrievals. In total, 6 flights were performed between June 19th and July 6th, representing more than 15 hours of raw data. A conventional GNSS-R processing of the data was performed in order to compute the direct and reflected complex waveforms. A preliminary data analysis based on the variations of the ratio of reflected maximum correlation amplitude in the LHCP antenna to direct maximum correlated amplitude shows measurements sensitivity to soil type, land use and incidence angle. Also, first altimetric retrievals using phase-delay techniques shows very promising results over calm waters. Current work is ongoing in order to fit the observed polarimetric measurements with innovative bistatic scattering models capable of taking into account complex geometries and land use configurations.

  20. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  1. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  2. OLYMPEX: A Ground Validation Campaign on the Olympic Peninsula in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMurdie, L. A.; Houze, R.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Lundquist, J. D.; Petersen, W. A.; Schwaller, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission is scheduled for launch in early 2014. It's primary objective is to measure rain and snow globally especially in areas lacking surface observations or ground-based radar coverage. The GPM satellites will need to be able to detect solid and liquid precipitation over a wide range of intensities, locations and regimes. The core satellite of GPM will carry a passive microwave radiometer, the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and the first space-borne Ku/Ka band Dual Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR). To satisfy the GPM measurement requirements and to assess how remotely sensed precipitation can be applied to a range of data applications (e.g. determining storm structures and monitoring flooding events and droughts) ground validation (GV) field campaigns are vital. As such, the Olympic Mountains GV Experiment (OLYMPEX) is planned for November 2015 - February 2016. The Olympic Peninsula is an ideal location to conduct a GV campaign. It is situated in the northwest corner of Washington State within an active mid-latitude winter storm track. It receives among the highest annual precipitation amounts in North America ranging from over 2500 mm on the coast to 4000 mm in the mountainous interior. In one compact area, the Olympic peninsula ranges from ocean to coast to land to mountains. This unique venue will enable the field campaign to monitor both upstream precipitation characteristics and processes over the ocean and their modification over complex terrain. Measuring precipitation from space in coastal and mountainous regions is challenging; however, the unique characteristics of the Olympic Peninsula make OLYMPEX a unique and viable opportunity to address these challenges and quantify the sources of variability and uncertainty in coastal and complex terrain. The scientific goals of the OLYMPEX field campaign include physical validation of satellite algorithms, precipitation processes in complex terrain, hydrological

  3. e-Campaigning: The Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Sonali

    The practices of E-Campaigning are gradually gaining momentum in the world. This paper discusses the Democratic campaign of the 2008 American Presidential Election. It contends that the effective use of E-Campaigning techniques was the key to their success. It also deliberates upon the tremendous increase in public involvement over the Internet during the campaigning period. Also, it predicts the future of E-Campaigning and gives an in depth analysis of what the world can expect to see in future elections. Lastly, it examines the relation between E-Campaigning and E-Democracy in the context of the aftermath of the election.

  4. Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology: NOAA's Application of the Global Hawk Aircraft for High Impact Weather Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, J. J.; Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Dunion, J. P.; Black, M. L.; Kenul, P.

    2015-12-01

    The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program has begun the project Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) to evaluate the potential of high altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft like the Global Hawk to improve forecasts of high-impact weather events and mitigate any degradations in the forecasts that might occur if there were a gap in satellite coverage. The first phase of the project is occurring this August and September using the NASA Global Hawk to study the impact of targeted observations of hurricanes and tropical cyclones. This follows several successful research missions conducted by both NASA and NOAA. Instruments on the aircraft for SHOUT include the Airborne Vertical Atmospheric Profiling System (AVAPS or dropsondes), the High Altitude MMIC Sounding Radiometer (HAMSR, a microwave sounder), the High-Altitude Imaging Wind and Rain Airborne Profiler (HIWRAP, a scanning Doppler precipitation radar), and the Lightning Instrument Package (LIP). The observations are being utilized for real-time forecasting, ingestion into operational weather models, and in post mission impact studies. Data impact is being evaluated through a combination of Observing System Experiments (OSEs) and Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs). This presentation describes observations collected during this year's campaign, utilization of the data at the National Hurricane Center, and the results of preliminary data impact assessments of the data from SHOUT and previous experiments.

  5. Small Scale Motions Observed by Aircraft in the Tropical Tropopause Layer - Convective and Non-Convective Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Bui, T. P.; Dean-Day, J.

    2016-01-01

    Indirect evidence indicates a role for vertical mixing in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL). In particular, detailed model studies suggest that such vertical mixing may be required to explain the value of the water vapor minimum in the TTL. There have been previous observations during the STEP Tropical aircraft campaign (1987) of bursts of high frequency activity associated with convectively generated gravity waves in the tropical western Pacific. Higher frequency, higher quality measurements from NASA high altitude aircraft (ER-2, WB-57, and Global Hawk) have been made available in the last 20 years. These include measurements of vertical velocity and other meteorological parameters. Most recently, during the ATTREX Global Hawk aircraft mission (Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment), there have been extensive measurements at all altitudes of the TTL in both convective (winter western Pacific) and less convective (winter eastern Pacific) regions. This presentation represents an initial analysis of high frequency small scale (a few km max) meteorological measurements from the ATTREX dataset. We obtain some basic information about the distribution and character of high frequency activity in vertical velocity in the TTL. In particular, we focus on relating the high frequency activity to nearby tropical convection and to vertical shears associated with gravity and inertia-gravity waves.

  6. Up, Up & Away. Strategic Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Catherine L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses a ballooning analogy to offer nine suggestions for universities conducting major fund-raising campaigns: study the map and choose a direction; test the prevailing winds; choose and train your crew; gear up for the journey; stay on course; make every bit count; change course as needed; and capitalize on your successful landing. (DB)

  7. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  8. A UT/LS ozone climatology of the nineteen seventies deduced from the GASP aircraft measurement program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnadt Poberaj, C.; Staehelin, J.; Brunner, D.; Thouret, V.; Mohnen, V.

    2007-11-01

    We present ozone measurements of the Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) performed from four commercial and one research aircraft in the late 1970s. The GASP quality assurance and control program was reviewed, and an ozone climatology of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) of the years 1975-1979 was built. The data set was estimated to have an overall uncertainty of 9% or 3 ppb whichever is greater for the first two years and 4% or 3 ppb for the remaining years, i.e. after implementation of silicone rubber membranes in the pumps. Two cases of nearly coincident flights of two GASP airliners along the same flight route, and the comparison with independent observations from the literature, including ozonesondes and aircraft campaigns, indicate that the ozone measurements are of high quality. The UT/LS climatology of the GASP data set is in general agreement with that derived from MOZAIC in the 1990s in regions covered by both programmes. GASP provides unique large-scale climatological information on UT/LS ozone above the northern hemisphere Pacific region, which is not covered by MOZAIC. There, the GASP climatology confirms several characteristic features derived from individual research aircraft campaigns and from ozone soundings. In particular, summertime ozone in the UT over the midlatitude eastern Pacific Ocean was significantly lower in the 1970s than over the American continent. The generally lower ozone concentrations in the tropics near the dateline as compared to farther east are indicative of convective uplifting of ozone poor air from the marine boundary layer.

  9. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  10. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  11. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital.

  12. Reprieve for Thailand's AIDS campaign.

    PubMed

    Clements, A

    1992-07-25

    A promilitary coalition began to govern Thailand in March 1992. It reduced the budget for the original proposed national AIDS awareness campaign from 30 million British pounds to almost 15 million British pounds. The Ministry of Health professed that the campaign had exaggerated the problem of AIDS in Thailand and had damaged tourism. Yet prodemocracy demonstrations in Bangkok in which troops killed many protesters restored the politicians who started the AIDS campaign to power in May 1992. There were to remain in power until new elections in September 1992. In July, the Minister of Health, Mechai Viravaidya, said he would step down if the government did not completely restore the 30 million British pounds for the AIDS campaign. It then increased the budget to almost that amount. Mr. Viravaidya initiated Thailand's open policy on the AIDS crisis and was known as Mr. Condom. He claimed that at the present HIV prevalence rate, Thailand may have between 2-4 million HIV infected people by 2000. If the country would take on anti-AIDS efforts now, however, they could cut the spread of HIV by 75%. As of mid-1992, about 400,000 people living in Thailand were HIV positive. The AIDS campaign planned to sue the mass media to inform people about AIDS especially those in universities and schools and high risk occupational groups. The increasing number of construction workers in Bangkok and existing sex workers were a high risk occupational group. At the 2nd national seminar of AIDS, the Minister of Health reproached tourists who come to Thailand for its sex industry. He said that Thailand does not need the 1 billion British pounds they bring to Thailand annually, and Thais do not want their homeland to be referred to as the sex capital. PMID:1392821

  13. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  14. Development of Waypoint Planning Tool in Response to NASA Field Campaign Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Matt; Hardin, Danny; Mayer, Paul; Blakeslee, Richard; Goodman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Airborne real time observations are a major component of NASA 's Earth Science research and satellite ground validation studies. Multiple aircraft are involved in most NASA field campaigns. The coordination of the aircraft with satellite overpasses, other airplanes and the constantly evolving, dynamic weather conditions often determines the success of the campaign. Planning a research aircraft mission within the context of meeting the science objectives is a complex task because it requires real time situational awareness of the weather conditions that affect the aircraft track. A flight planning tools is needed to provide situational awareness information to the mission scientists, and help them plan and modify the flight tracks. Scientists at the University of Alabama ]Huntsville and the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed the Waypoint Planning Tool, an interactive software tool that enables scientists to develop their own flight plans (also known as waypoints) with point -and-click mouse capabilities on a digital map filled with real time raster and vector data. The development of this Waypoint Planning Tool demonstrates the significance of mission support in responding to the challenges presented during NASA field campaigns. Analysis during and after each campaign helped identify both issues and new requirements, and initiated the next wave of development. Currently the Waypoint Planning Tool has gone through three rounds of development and analysis processes. The development of this waypoint tool is directly affected by the technology advances on GIS/Mapping technologies. From the standalone Google Earth application and simple KML functionalities, to Google Earth Plugin on web platform, and to the rising open source GIS tools with New Java Script frameworks, the Waypoint Planning Tool has entered its third phase of technology advancement. Adapting new technologies for the Waypoint Planning Tool ensures its success in helping scientist reach their

  15. Advanced Fuels Campaign FY 2015 Accomplishments Report

    SciTech Connect

    Braase, Lori Ann; Carmack, William Jonathan

    2015-10-29

    The mission of the Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is to perform research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) activities for advanced fuel forms (including cladding) to enhance the performance and safety of the nation’s current and future reactors; enhance proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel; effectively utilize nuclear energy resources; and address the longer-term waste management challenges. This report is a compilation of technical accomplishment summaries for FY-15. Emphasis is on advanced accident-tolerant LWR fuel systems, advanced transmutation fuels technologies, and capability development.

  16. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  17. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  18. Intelligent control for autonomous aircraft missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhoefer, James Christian

    The focus of this dissertation is the design and implementation of a full-envelope, nonlinear aircraft controller that includes stability augmentation, tracking control, and autonomous path generation. The control system was demonstrated by using a 6 degree of freedom high performance aircraft model with nonlinear kinematics, full-envelope nonlinear aerodynamics, and first-order thrust and actuator dynamics. Ideas from the emerging field of intelligent control were used in the definition of the controller architecture. More specifically, "Levels of Intelligent Control" were used to provide a systematic structure for the architecture. Several ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence were also used, including Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Adaptive Critics.

  19. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  20. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Manacapuru, Brazil for the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAMAZON) Field Campaign

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Amazon rain forest in Brazil is the largest broadleaf forest in the world, covering 7 million square kilometers of the Amazon Basin in South America. It represents over half of the planet’s remaining rain forests, and comprises the most biodiverse tract of tropical rain forest on the planet. Due to the sheer size of the Amazon rain forest, the area has a strong impact on the climate in the Southern Hemisphere. To understand the intricacies of the natural state of the Amazon rain forest, the Green Ocean Amazon, or GOAMAZON, field campaign is a two-year scientific collaboration among U.S. and Brazilian research organizations. They are conducting a variety of different experiments with dozens of measurement tools, using both ground and aerial instrumentation, including the ARM Aerial Facility's G-1 aircraft. For more information on the holistic view of the campaign, see the Department of Energy’s GOAMAZON website. As a critical component of GOAMAZON, the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) will obtain measurements near Manacapuru, south of Manaus, Brazil, from January to December 2014. The city of Manaus, with a population of 3 million, uses high-sulfur oil as their primary source of electricity. The AMF site is situated to measure the atmospheric extremes of a pristine atmosphere and the nearby cities’ pollution plume, as it regularly intersects with the site. Along with other instrument systems located at the Manacapuru site, this deployment will enable scientists to study how aerosol and cloud life cycles are influenced by pollutant outflow from a tropical megacity.

  2. Evaluation of GEOS-5 Sulfur Dioxide Simulations During the Frostburg, MD 2010 Field Campaign.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchard, V.; Da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spenei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  3. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study, the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  4. Evaluation of GEOS-5 sulfur dioxide simulations during the Frostburg, MD 2010 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchard, V.; da Silva, A. M.; Colarco, P.; Krotkov, N.; Dickerson, R. R.; Stehr, J. W.; Mount, G.; Spinei, E.; Arkinson, H. L.; He, H.

    2013-08-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major atmospheric pollutant with a strong anthropogenic component mostly produced by the combustion of fossil fuel and other industrial activities. As a precursor of sulfate aerosols that affect climate, air quality, and human health, this gas needs to be monitored on a global scale. Global climate and chemistry models including aerosol processes along with their radiative effects are important tools for climate and air quality research. Validation of these models against in-situ and satellite measurements is essential to ascertain the credibility of these models and to guide model improvements. In this study the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation, and Transport (GOCART) module running on-line inside the Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) model is used to simulate aerosol and SO2 concentrations. Data taken in November 2010 over Frostburg, Maryland during an SO2 field campaign involving ground instrumentation and aircraft are used to evaluate GEOS-5 simulated SO2 concentrations. Preliminary data analysis indicated the model overestimated surface SO2 concentration, which motivated the examination of mixing processes in the model and the specification of SO2 anthropogenic emission rates. As a result of this analysis, a revision of anthropogenic emission inventories in GEOS-5 was implemented, and the vertical placement of SO2 sources was updated. Results show that these revisions improve the model agreement with observations locally and in regions outside the area of this field campaign. In particular, we use the ground-based measurements collected by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) for the year 2010 to evaluate the revised model simulations over North America.

  5. Inter-comparison of glyoxal retrievals from MAX-DOAS during the MAD-CAT campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Wagner, Thomas; Lampel, Johannes; van Roozendael, Michel; Richter, Andreas; Sinha, Vinayak; Xie, Pinhua; Volkamer, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Over the past few years the smallest α-dicarbonyl compound glyoxal (CHOCHO) has received attention in order to inform relevant atmospheric chemistry processes such as oxidative capacity and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. A method to detect glyoxal in the atmosphere is through the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) applied to solar scattered light passive remote sensing measurements on different platforms, including ground based, aircrafts, and satellites. Although these measurements are often described still many questions about DOAS fitting parameters need to be investigated. We present results from a comprehensive Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) comparison effort during the Multi Axis DOAS-Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) held at the Max Planck institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany with an intensive operation period from June to August 2013. We evaluate the comparison for glyoxal differential Slant Column Densities (dSCD) from 6 different research groups during the MAD-CAT campaign. The data analysis is performed following three retrieval common settings. In general, good agreement between different groups is found, especially for days with low cloud coverage. Based on the diurnal variability of the glyoxal-to-formaldehyde ratio we identified that Mainz is influenced mostly by anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC) emission type. Also, for most of the days glyoxal was often clearly above the respective detection limits. We will present results of sensitivity studies in order to know influence of the wavelength window, dependence of the NO2 air mass factor, cross correlation with H2O, among others. Finally, synthetic spectra created with the SCIATRAN radiative transfer model using measurement related inputs are analysed and first results are presented.

  6. Sea-based Infrared Radiance Measurements of Ocean and Atmosphere from the ACAPEX/CalWater2 Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gero, P. J.; Knuteson, R.; Hackel, D.; Phillips, C.; Westphall, M.

    2015-12-01

    The ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment (ACAPEX) / CalWater2 was a joint DOE/NOAA field campaign in early 2015 to study atmospheric rivers in the Pacific Ocean and their impacts on the western United States. The campaign goals were to improve understanding and modeling of large-scale dynamics and cloud and precipitation processes associated with atmospheric rivers and aerosol-cloud interactions that influence precipitation variability and extremes in the western United States. Coordinated measurements were made from ground-, aircraft- and sea-based platforms. The second ARM mobile facility (AMF-2) was deployed on board the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown for this campaign, which included a new Marine Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (M-AERI) to measure the atmospheric downwelling and reflected infrared radiance spectrum at the Earth's surface with high absolute accuracy. The M-AERI measures spectral infrared radiance between 520-3020 cm-1 (3.3-19 μm) at a resolution of 0.5 cm-1. The M-AERI can selectively view the atmospheric scene at zenith, and ocean/atmospheric scenes over a range of ±45° from the horizon. The AERI uses two high-emissivity blackbodies for radiometric calibration, which in conjunction with the instrument design and a suite of rigorous laboratory diagnostics, ensures the radiometric accuracy to be better than 1% (3σ) of the ambient radiance. The M-AERI radiance spectra can be used to retrieve profiles of temperature and water vapor in the troposphere, as well as measurements of trace gases, cloud properties, surface emissivity and ocean skin temperature. We present preliminary results on measurements of ocean skin temperature, ocean emissivity properties as a function of view angle and wind speed, as well as comparisons with radiosondes and satellite observations.

  7. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  8. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  9. Another look at aircraft-triggered lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, D. W.

    1980-01-01

    There is positive evidence that a rapidly moving aircraft charged to high potentials by triboelectric processes can trigger lightning discharges by passage through freezing precipitation. The freezing zone in a nonstormy rain cloud is shown to be an electrically volatile region because of the potent charge exchange mechanisms which are active in agitated mixtures of supercooled water droplet and ice. Several intensifying effects are suggested which can be produced by the passage of an aircraft through this precipitation, resulting in a highly-ionized wake which acts like a trailing conductor. If weak charge centers are present in the cloud, the ionized wake acts to short out the gradient field resulting in very high potentials at the aircraft. The high potentials explain the electrical activity at the aircraft described by pilots, including intense corona, sparks and radio interference terminating in a loud discharge. Lightning strikes to naval aircraft towing gunnery targets at the end of long steel cables are described, showing that the same triggering mechanism may be involved in those cases. Recommendations are made to include triggering experiments in government flight programs now in progress.

  10. Abortion Rights: Anatomy of a Negative Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olasky, Marvin N.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes a highly successful negative public relations campaign carried on by major pro-choice organizations from October 1985 through March 1987. Explores the effectiveness of this campaign (much of it carried on in the media), and questions the ethics of such a campaign. (NKA)

  11. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  12. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  13. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  14. Design and Development of the Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Norman C.

    The Aircraft Instrument Comprehension (AIC) Program is a self-instructional program designed to teach undergraduate student pilots to read instruments that indicate the position of the aircraft in flight, based on sequential instructional stages of information, prompted practice, and unprompted practice. The program includes a 36-item multiple…

  15. Aircraft requirements for low/medium density markets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ausrotas, R.; Dodge, S.; Faulkner, H.; Glendinning, I.; Hays, A.; Simpson, R.; Swan, W.; Taneja, N.; Vittek, J.

    1973-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the demand for and the economic factors involved in air transportation in a low and medium density market. The subjects investigated are as follows: (1) industry and market structure, (2) aircraft analysis, (3) economic analysis, (4) field surveys, and (5) computer network analysis. Graphs are included to show the economic requirements and the aircraft performance characteristics.

  16. Locating industrial VOC sources with aircraft observations.

    PubMed

    Toscano, P; Gioli, B; Dugheri, S; Salvini, A; Matese, A; Bonacchi, A; Zaldei, A; Cupelli, V; Miglietta, F

    2011-05-01

    Observation and characterization of environmental pollution, focussing on Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), in a high-risk industrial area, are particularly important in order to provide indications on a safe level of exposure, indicate eventual priorities and advise on policy interventions. The aim of this study is to use the Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) method to measure VOCs, directly coupled with atmospheric measurements taken on a small aircraft environmental platform, to evaluate and locate the presence of VOC emission sources in the Marghera industrial area. Lab analysis of collected SPME fibres and subsequent analysis of mass spectrum and chromatograms in Scan Mode allowed the detection of a wide range of VOCs. The combination of this information during the monitoring campaign allowed a model (Gaussian Plume) to be implemented that estimates the localization of emission sources on the ground.

  17. The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000). Dry-Season Campaign: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swap, R. J.; Annegarn, H. J.; Suttles, J. T.; Haywood, J.; Hely, C.; Hobbs, P. V.; Holben, B. N.; Ji, J.; King, M. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) is an international science project investigating the southern African earth-atmosphere-human system. The experiment was conducted over a two-year period March 1999 - March 2001. The dry season field campaign (August-Steptember 2000) was the most intensive activity and involving over 200 scientists from 18 different nations. The main objectives of this campaign were to characterize and quantify the biogenic, pyrogenic and anthropogenic aerosol and trace gas emissions and their transport and transformations in the atmosphere and to validate the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) satellite Terra within a scientific context. Five aircraft, namely two South African Weather Service aircraft, University of Washington CV-580, the UK Meteorological Office C-130 and the NASA ER-2, with different altitude capabilities, participated in the campaign. Additional airborne sampling of southern African air masses that had moved downwind of the subcontinent was conducted by the CSIRO over Australia. Multiple observations were taken in various sectors for a variety of synoptic conditions. Flight missions were designed to maximize synchronous over-flights of the NASA TERRA satellite platform, above regional ground validation and science targets. Numerous smaller-scale ground validation activities took place throughout the region during the campaign period.

  18. MASC - a small Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) for wind energy research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, N.; Hofsäß, M.; Weimer, F.; Joos, A.; Bange, J.

    2014-05-01

    Originally designed for atmospheric boundary layer research, the MASC (Multipurpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) RPA (Remotely Piloted Aircraft, also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, UAV) is capable of making in-situ measurements of temperature, humidity and wind in high resolution and precision. The autopilot system ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System) enables the aircraft to fly pre-defined routes between waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. The system manages to operate in wind speeds up to 15 m s-1 safely. It is shown that a MASC can fly as close as one rotor diameter upstream and downstream of running wind turbines at these wind speeds and take valuable data of incoming flow and wake. The flexible operation of an RPA at the size of a MASC can be a major advantage of the system compared to tower measurements and remote sensing in wind energy research. In the project "Lidar Complex" comparisons of RPA measurements with lidar systems and tower measurements are carried out at two different test sites. First results, including turbulence and wake measurements, from a campaign in autumn 2013 are presented.

  19. What Was Learned in Predicting Slender Airframe Aerodynamics with the F16-XL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Arthur; Lucking, James M.

    2014-01-01

    The CAWAPI-2 coordinated project has been underway to improve CFD predictions of slender airframe aerodynamics. The work is focused on two flow conditions and leverages a unique flight data set obtained with the F-16XL aircraft for comparison and verification. These conditions, a low-speed high angle-of-attack case and a transonic low angle-of-attack case, were selected from a prior prediction campaign wherein the CFD failed to provide acceptable results. In re-visiting these two cases, approaches for improved results include better, denser grids using more grid adaptation to local flow features as well as unsteady higher-fidelity physical modeling like hybrid RANS/URANS-LES methods. The work embodies predictions from multiple numerical formulations that are contributed from multiple organizations where some authors investigate other possible factors that could explain the discrepancies in agreement, e.g. effects due to deflected control surfaces during the flight tests, as well as static aeroelastic deflection of the outer wing. This paper presents the synthesis of all the results and findings and draws some conclusions that lead to an improved understanding of the underlying flow physics, and finally making the connections between the physics and aircraft features.

  20. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's solar cell arrays are prominently displayed as it touches down on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, following a test flight. The solar arrays covered more than 75 percent of Pathfinder's upper wing surface, and provided electricity to power its six electric motors, flight controls, communications links and a host of scientific sensors. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  1. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  2. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft heads for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  3. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft is silhouetted against a clear blue sky as it soars aloft during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, November, 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  4. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  5. Ash Stabilization Campaign Blend Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Winstead, M.L.

    1995-06-21

    This Stabilization Blend Plan documents the material to be processed and the processing order for the FY95 Ash Stabilization Campaign. The primary mission of this process is to reduce the inventory of unstable plutonium bearing ash. The source of the ash is from Rocky Flats and the 232-Z incinerator at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The ash is currently being stored in Room 235B and Vault 174 in building 234-5Z. The sludge is to be thermally stabilized in a glovebox in room 230A of the 234-5Z building and material handling for the process will be done in room 230B of the same building. The campaign is scheduled for approximately 12--16 weeks. A total of roughly 4 kg of Pu will be processed.

  6. Influence of a Counteradvertising Media Campaign on Initiation of Smoking: The Florida "Truth" Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sly, David F.; Hopkins, Richard S.; Trapido, Edward; Ray, Sarah

    2001-01-01

    Assessed the short-term effects of a television counteradvertising media campaign, the Florida "truth" campaign, on rates of adolescents' smoking initiation. Followup surveys of adolescents interviewed during the first 6 months of the advertising campaign indicated that exposure to the "truth" campaign lowered the risk of youth smoking initiation.…

  7. CASE Campaign Standards: Management and Reporting Standards for Educational Fund-Raising Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    This document establishes guidance for managing educational fund-raising campaigns and standards for reporting campaign gifts in the United States and Canada. The guidelines offer an objective means to compare one campaign to another and a rational way to discern how well a campaign has met its goals. The standards depend upon three fundamental…

  8. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  9. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  11. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  12. Solar powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the Sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  13. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  14. An AIDS campaign in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Janoff, D

    1987-01-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) distribution program in Brazil, spearheaded by the National Division of Sanitary Surveillance in Ports, Airports, and Borders, was part of the government's massive education campaign to prevent the transmission of HIV-AIDS in Brazil. Beginning in February 1987, the climate was sufficiently favorable to operate a coordinated information campaign during the Carnival celebration, and tourists arriving in the cities of Brazil for the annual Carnival celebration were handed an educational brochure in Portugese, Spanish, English, and French. Yet, beyond reaching the tourist populations, it is particularly important to reach large portions of the Brazilian population. Planners of the national AIDS campaign intend to use television, radio, and all major newspapers in their effort to cover the country. Initial television coverage is comprised of short informational messages directed at high-risk groups. There also are plans to use radio and the print media in order to reach a wider audience. It is estimated that US $6 million will be needed to adequately meet the costs of AIDS prevention and medical care, but due to extreme budget constraints, only $45,000 has been earmarked for ongoing AIDS activities at this time. PMID:12281284

  15. T Tauri stars observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2013-12-01

    Darryl Sergison (University of Exeter) has requested AAVSO assistance with a campaign he is carrying out on five T Tauri stars. This study is the one for which AAVSO observers carried out a preliminary campaign last year (see Alert Notice 473 and Special Notice #306). The star list is revised and expanded from last year's list of targets. This campaign will run from now at least through the end of the 2013-2014 observing season. This is part of an on-going study into the nature of pre-main-sequence low mass stars, using time series optical spectroscopy and UV-Visual-IR photometry and offers a great opportunity for professional-amateur collaboration as the objects (with V magnitudes of 10-13) are well within the reach of photometry by small telescopes. Amateur observations are uniquely useful in the study of chaotically variable young stars as they offer crucial datapoints in the light curve between observations made by professional telescopes. Targets are BP Tau, DN Tau, V827 Tau, V1068 Tau, and V1264 Tau. Finder charts with sequences may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See full Alert Notice for more details and instructions.

  16. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  17. An Overview of NASA's Subsonic Research Aircraft Testbed (SCRAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumann, Ethan; Hernandez, Joe; Ruhf, John C.

    2013-01-01

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center acquired a Gulfstream III (GIII) aircraft to serve as a testbed for aeronautics flight research experiments. The aircraft is referred to as SCRAT, which stands for SubsoniC Research Aircraft Testbed. The aircraft's mission is to perform aeronautics research; more specifically raising the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of advanced technologies through flight demonstrations and gathering high-quality research data suitable for verifying the technologies, and validating design and analysis tools. The SCRAT has the ability to conduct a range of flight research experiments throughout a transport class aircraft's flight envelope. Experiments ranging from flight-testing of a new aircraft system or sensor to those requiring structural and aerodynamic modifications to the aircraft can be accomplished. The aircraft has been modified to include an instrumentation system and sensors necessary to conduct flight research experiments along with a telemetry capability. An instrumentation power distribution system was installed to accommodate the instrumentation system and future experiments. An engineering simulation of the SCRAT has been developed to aid in integrating research experiments. A series of baseline aircraft characterization flights has been flown that gathered flight data to aid in developing and integrating future research experiments. This paper describes the SCRAT's research systems and capabilities.

  18. Associations Between the Department of Veterans Affairs' Suicide Prevention Campaign and Calls to Related Crisis Lines

    PubMed Central

    Bossarte, Robert M.; Lu, Naiji; Tu, Xin; Stephens, Brady; Draper, John; Kemp, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Transit Authority Suicide Prevention (TASP) campaign was launched by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) in a limited number of U.S. cities to promote the use of crisis lines among veterans of military service. Methods We obtained the daily number of calls to the VCL and National Suicide Prevention Lifeline (NSPL) for six implementation cities (where the campaign was active) and four control cities (where there was no TASP campaign messaging) for a 14-month period. To identify changes in call volume associated with campaign implementation, VCL and NSPL daily call counts for three time periods of equal length (pre-campaign, during campaign, and post-campaign) were modeled using a Poisson log-linear regression with inference based on the generalized estimating equations. Results Statistically significant increases in calls to both the VCL and the NSPL were reported during the TASP campaign in implementation cities, but were not reported in control cities during or following the campaign. Secondary outcome measures were also reported for the VCL and included the percentage of callers who are veterans, and calls resulting in a rescue during the study period. Conclusions Results from this study reveal some promise for suicide prevention messaging to promote the use of telephone crisis services and contribute to an emerging area of research examining the effects of campaigns on help seeking. PMID:25364053

  19. Social marketing campaigns and children's media use.

    PubMed

    Evans, W Douglas

    2008-01-01

    Media-related commercial marketing aimed at promoting the purchase of products and services by children, and by adults for children, is ubiquitous and has been associated with negative health consequences such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity. But, as Douglas Evans points out, not all marketing in the electronic media is confined to the sale of products. Increasingly savvy social marketers have begun to make extensive use of the same techniques and strategies used by commercial marketers to promote healthful behaviors and to counter some of the negative effects of conventional media marketing to children and adolescents. Evans points out that social marketing campaigns have been effective in helping to prevent and control tobacco use, increase physical activity, improve nutrition, and promote condom use, as well as other positive health behaviors. He reviews the evidence from a number of major recent campaigns and programming in the United States and overseas and describes the evaluation and research methods used to determine their effectiveness. He begins his review of the field of social marketing by describing how it uses many of the strategies practiced so successfully in commercial marketing. He notes the recent development of public health brands and the use of branding as a health promotion strategy. He then goes on to show how social marketing can promote healthful behavior, how it can counter media messages about unhealthful behavior, and how it can encourage discussions between parents and children. Evans concludes by noting some potential future applications to promote healthful media use by children and adolescents and to mitigate the effects of exposure to commercial marketing. These include adapting lessons learned from previous successful campaigns, such as delivering branded messages that promote healthful alternative behaviors. Evans also outlines a message strategy to promote "smart media use" to parents, children, and adolescents and

  20. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  1. Haitian AIDS education campaign struggles on despite political turmoil.

    PubMed

    Aldebron, J

    1993-12-01

    Haiti's multimedia AIDS education campaign Alerte SIDA has continued despite the economic sanctions and political upheaval that thwarted its original plans. In 1992, the campaign included an aggressive volunteer effort in 140 schools in Port-au-Prince, including a conference, theatrical performances, video presentations, and group discussions. Expansion of the campaign led to creation of a telephone hot line for adolescents, radio spots, peer education sessions, and a multimedia campaign highlighted by six televised roundtable discussions in which young people discussed sex, AIDS, and the involvement of parents in sex education. The next stage of the campaign was to target parents as well as adolescents with educational and discussion sessions and information packets suggesting ways parents could broach the subjects of sex and sexually transmitted diseases with their children. This stage has been preempted by the economic embargo and political discord (which also increased the value of sexual intercourse as solace). Haitians, however, have a history of adapting to situations and making do with what they have. Thus, the work continues, even if it is reduced to impromptu educational sessions held in decrepit school yards. When the classrooms reopen, Alerte SIDA will be on hand to continue its efforts to protect the health of Haiti's children. PMID:12288830

  2. Aircraft noise reduction technology. [to show impact on individuals and communities, component noise sources, and operational procedures to reduce impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Aircraft and airport noise reduction technology programs conducted by NASA are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) effects of aircraft noise on individuals and communities, (2) status of aircraft source noise technology, (3) operational procedures to reduce the impact of aircraft noise, and (4) NASA relations with military services in aircraft noise problems. References to more detailed technical literature on the subjects discussed are included.

  3. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  4. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  5. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework.

  6. An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns.

    PubMed

    Noar, Seth M

    2012-07-01

    Recent reviews of the literature have indicated that a number of health communication campaigns continue to fail to adhere to principles of effective campaign design. The lack of an integrated, organizing framework for the design, implementation, and evaluation of health communication campaigns may contribute to this state of affairs. The current article introduces an audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework that organizes the major principles of health campaign design, implementation, and evaluation. ACME also explicates the relationships and linkages between the varying principles. Insights from ACME include the following: The choice of audience segment(s) to focus on in a campaign affects all other campaign design choices, including message strategy and channel/component options. Although channel selection influences options for message design, choice of message design also influences channel options. Evaluation should not be thought of as a separate activity, but rather should be infused and integrated throughout the campaign design and implementation process, including formative, process, and outcome evaluation activities. Overall, health communication campaigns that adhere to this integrated set of principles of effective campaign design will have a greater chance of success than those using principles idiosyncratically. These design, implementation, and evaluation principles are embodied in the ACME framework. PMID:21441207

  7. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Robert

    related to decision-making. Recommendations included an in-depth systematic review of the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, development of a Federal Aviation Administration approved standardized Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making flow diagram, and implementation of risk based decision-making training. The benefit of this study is to save the airline industry revenue by preventing poor decision-making practices that result in inefficient maintenance actions and aircraft incidents and accidents.

  8. NOAA Utilization of the Global Hawk Unmanned Aircraft for Atmospheric Research and Forecast Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wick, G. A.; Hood, R. E.; Black, M. L.; Spackman, J. R.; Ralph, F. M.; Intrieri, J. M.; Hock, T. F.; Neiman, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    High altitude, long endurance unmanned aircraft provide a tremendous new capability for monitoring the atmosphere in support of weather research and forecast improvement. The NOAA Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) program is collaborating with NASA on the use of their Global Hawk (GH) aircraft for research into better understanding and forecasting high-impact weather events. NOAA has participated in multiple field campaigns either in partnership with NASA including the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP, 2010) and the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3, 2011-2014) experiments, or under NOAA leadership during the Winter Storms and Pacific Atmospheric Rivers (WISPAR, 2011) experiment. This past year, NOAA began a 3-year project, Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT), to quantify the influence of UAS data on high-impact weather prediction and assess the operational effectiveness of UAS to help mitigate the risk of potential satellite observing gaps. The NOAA UAS system partnered with the National Center for Atmospheric Research in the development of a dropsonde system for the GH which has been flown along with other remote sensing instrumentation. This presentation summarizes our key results to date and describes our planned activities over the next two years. Flights during WISPAR provided measurements of water vapor transport within atmospheric rivers for evaluation of numerical weather prediction forecasts and analyses. A flight sampling the Arctic atmosphere north of Alaska included the first dropsondes released in the Arctic since the 1950's and extensive measurements of boundary-layer variability over an ocean-ice lead feature. Assimilation of GH dropsonde data collected in the environment around tropical storms during HS3 has demonstrated significant positive forecast improvements. Data are also being employed in the validation of multiple satellite-derived products. In SHOUT, campaigns are planned targeting Atlantic

  9. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  10. Trace Gas Retrievals from the GeoTASO Aircraft Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; Liu, X.; Leitch, J. W.; Liu, C.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Cole, J.; Delker, T.; Good, W. S.; Murcray, F.; Ruppert, L.; Soo, D.; Loughner, C.; Follette-Cook, M. B.; Janz, S. J.; Kowalewski, M. G.; Pickering, K. E.; Zoogman, P.; Al-Saadi, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Geostationary Trace gas and Aerosol Sensor Optimization (GeoTASO) instrument is a passive remote sensing instrument capable of making 2-D measurements of trace gases and aerosols from aircraft. The instrument measures backscattered UV and visible radiation, allowing the retrieval of trace gas amounts below the aircraft at horizontal resolutions on the order of 250 m x 250 m. GeoTASO was originally developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program as a test-bed instrument for the Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) decadal survey mission, and is now also part of risk reduction for the upcoming Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO) and Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) geostationary satellite missions. We present spatially resolved observations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and sulfur dioxide over urban areas and power plants from flights during the DISCOVER-AQ field campaigns in Texas and Colorado, as well as comparisons with observations made by ground-based Pandora spectrometers, in situ monitoring instruments and other aircraft instruments deployed during these campaigns. These measurements at various times of day are providing a very useful data set for testing and improving TEMPO and GEMS retrieval algorithms, as well as demonstrating prototype validation strategies.

  11. 242-A Campaign 94-1 post run document

    SciTech Connect

    Guthrie, M.D.

    1994-09-30

    The purpose of this post-run document is to summarize the results of 242-A Evaporator Campaign 94-1 as required. Campaign 94-1 represents the first Evaporator operation since 1989, following completion of the B-534 upgrades and Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) construction. The purpose of Campaign 94-1 was to concentrate dilute waste from TK-102-AW, TK-106-AW, and TK-103-AP. From an available 2.87 million gallon feedstock of dilute waste contained in 102-AW, 106-AW and 103-AP, an overall Waste Volume Reduction (WVR) of 2.39 million gallons (83% WVRF) was achieved. At the completion of the campaign, approximately 477,000 gallons of dilute double-shell slurry feed (DDSSF) was produced with a SpG. of 1.25--1.30. Total process condensate discharged to LERF was 3.09 million gallons, achieving a condensate/WVR ratio of 1.29. Throughput for Campaign 94-1 was 5.27 million gallons. Total steam condensate and cooling water discharge to B-pond was 4.7 and 216 million gallons respectively. The evaporator operated approximately 43 days of the 60 day campaign for a total operating efficiency of 73%. Campaign 94-1 was completed without any discharge limit, Operating Specification Document, or Operational Safety Requirement violations. Major problems encountered during the run included the following: (1) high CA1 deentrainment pad dP`s caused by foaming, (2) condensate pump P-C100 failure, and (3) ion exchange column dP`s and efficiency.

  12. Small Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quintero, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Small air vehicles offer challenging power, weight, and volume constraints when considering implementation of system health monitoring technologies. In order to develop a testbed for monitoring the health and integrity of control surface servos and linkages, the Autonomous Aircraft Servo Health Monitoring system has been designed for small Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms to detect problematic behavior from servos and the air craft structures they control, This system will serve to verify the structural integrity of an aircraft's servos and linkages and thereby, through early detection of a problematic situation, minimize the chances of an aircraft accident. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University's rotary-winged UAV has an Airborne Power management unit that is responsible for regulating, distributing, and monitoring the power supplied to the UAV's avionics. The current sensing technology utilized by the Airborne Power Management system is also the basis for the Servo Health system. The Servo Health system measures the current draw of the servos while the servos are in Motion in order to quantify the servo health. During a preflight check, deviations from a known baseline behavior can be logged and their causes found upon closer inspection of the aircraft. The erratic behavior nay include binding as a result of dirt buildup or backlash caused by looseness in the mechanical linkages. Moreover, the Servo Health system will allow elusive problems to be identified and preventative measures taken to avoid unnecessary hazardous conditions in small autonomous aircraft.

  13. Commercial aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Thomas; Holzäpfel, Frank; Darracq, Denis

    2002-04-01

    This paper discusses the problem of wake vortices shed by commercial aircraft. It presents a consolidated European view on the current status of knowledge of the nature and characteristics of aircraft wakes and of technical and operational procedures of minimizing and predicting the vortex strength and avoiding wake encounters. Methodological aspects of data evaluation and interpretation, like the description of wake ages, the characterization of wake vortices, and the proper evaluation of wake data from measurement and simulation, are addressed in the first part. In the second part an inventory of our knowledge is given on vortex characterization and control, prediction and monitoring of vortex decay, vortex detection and warning, vortex encounter models, and wake-vortex safety assessment. Each section is concluded by a list of questions and required actions which may help to guide further research activities. The primary objective of the joint international efforts in wake-vortex research is to avoid potentially hazardous wake encounters for aircraft. Shortened aircraft separations under appropriate meteorological conditions, whilst keeping or even increasing the safety level, is the ultimate goal. Reduced time delays on the tactical side and increased airport capacities on the strategic side will be the benefits of these ambitious ventures for the air transportation industry and services.

  14. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  15. Aircraft mission analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauge, D. S.; Rosendaal, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Aircraft missions, from low to hypersonic speeds, are analyzed rapidly using the FORTRAN IV program NSEG. Program employs approximate equations of motion that vary in form with type of flight segment. Takeoffs, accelerations, climbs, cruises, descents, decelerations, and landings are considered.

  16. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  17. Characterization of the Aerosol Instrument Package for the In-service Aircraft Global Observing System IAGOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundke, Ulrich; Berg, Marcel; Tettig, Frank; Franke, Harald; Petzold, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The atmospheric aerosol influences the climate twofold via the direct interaction with solar radiation and indirectly effecting microphysical properties of clouds. The latter has the largest uncertainty according to the last IPPC Report. A measured in situ climatology of the aerosol microphysical properties is needed to reduce the reported uncertainty of the aerosol climate impact. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System; www.iagos.org) responds to the increasing requests for long-term, routine in situ observational data by using commercial passenger aircraft as measurement platform. However, scientific instrumentation for the measurement of atmospheric constituents requires major modifications before being deployable aboard in-service passenger aircraft. The IAGOS Aerosol Package (IAGOS-P2C) consists of two modified Butanol based CPCs (Model Grimm 5.410) and one optical particle counter (Model Grimm Sky OPC 1.129). A thermodenuder at 250°C is placed upstream the second CPC, thus the number concentrations of the total aerosol and the non-volatile aerosol fraction is measured. The Sky OPC measures the size distribution in the rage theoretically up to 32 μ m. Because of the inlet cut off diameter of D50=3 μ m we are using the 16 channel mode in the range of 250 nm - 2.5 μ m at 1 Hz resolution. In this presentation the IAGOS Aerosol package is characterized for pressure levels relevant for the planned application, down to cruising level of 150 hPa including the inlet system. In our aerosol lab we have tested the system against standard instrumentation with different aerosol test substances in a long duration test. Particle losses are characterized for the inlet system. In addition first results for airborne measurements are shown from a first field campaign.

  18. Observations of the atmosphere and surface state over Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica using unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassano, J. J.; Seefeldt, M. W.; Palo, S.; Knuth, S. L.; Bradley, A. C.; Herrman, P. D.; Kernebone, P. A.; Logan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2012 five Aerosonde unmanned aircraft were used to make measurements of the atmospheric state over the Terra Nova Bay polynya, Antarctica, to explore the details of air - sea ice - ocean coupling. A total of 14 flights were completed in September 2012. Ten of the flight missions consisted of two unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) sampling the atmosphere over Terra Nova Bay on five different days, with one UAS focusing on the downwind evolution of the air mass and a second UAS flying transects roughly perpendicular to the low level winds. The data from these coordinated UAS flights provide a comprehensive three-dimensional data set of the atmospheric state (air temperature, humidity, pressure, and wind) and surface skin temperature over Terra Nova Bay. The remaining UAS flights during the September 2012 field campaign included two local flights near McMurdo Station for flight testing, a single UAS flight to Terra Nova Bay, and a single UAS flight over the Ross Ice Shelf and Ross Sea polynya. A dataset containing the atmospheric and surface data as well as operational aircraft data has been submitted to the United States Antarctic Program Data Coordination Center (USAP-DCC, http://www.usap-data.org/) for free access (http://gcmd.nasa.gov/getdif.htm?NSF-ANT10-43657, doi:10.15784/600125).

  19. Stop the sores: the making and evaluation of a successful social marketing campaign.

    PubMed

    Plant, Aaron; Montoya, Jorge A; Rotblatt, Harlan; Kerndt, Peter R; Mall, Karen L; Pappas, Les G; Kent, Charlotte K; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Los Angeles County has experienced a rapid increase in early syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in recent years, with the number of cases rising from 126 in 2000 to 809 in 2005. As part of the public health response to this outbreak, a sustained social marketing campaign was launched in 2002, with the objectives of increasing syphilis testing, knowledge, and awareness among MSM in Los Angeles. This campaign, as implemented, exemplified key principles of social marketing, including market research, audience segmentation, and branding. A cross-sectional study conducted in 2004 to evaluate the campaign found that those MSM who were aware of the campaign were nearly twice as likely to have tested for syphilis in the past 6 months as those MSM who were not aware of the campaign. Those MSM who were aware of the campaign also had more syphilis awareness and knowledge in key areas.

  20. Measuring Wildfires From Aircraft And Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Meyers, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite systems yield wide-area views, providing total coverage of affected areas. System developed for use aboard aircraft includes digital scanner that records data in 12 channels. Transmits data to ground station for immediate use in fighting fires. Enables researchers to estimate gaseous and particulate emissions from fires. Provides information on temperatures of flame fronts and soils, intensities and rate of spread of fires, characteristics of fuels and smoke plumes, energy-release rates, and concentrations and movements of trace gases. Data relates to heating and cooling of soils, loss of nutrients, and effects on atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic systems.

  1. Aerodynamic design trends for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilbig, R.; Koerner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent research on advanced-configuration commercial aircraft at DFVLR is surveyed, with a focus on aerodynamic approaches to improved performance. Topics examined include transonic wings with variable camber or shock/boundary-layer control, wings with reduced friction drag or laminarized flow, prop-fan propulsion, and unusual configurations or wing profiles. Drawings, diagrams, and graphs of predicted performance are provided, and the need for extensive development efforts using powerful computer facilities, high-speed and low-speed wind tunnels, and flight tests of models (mounted on specially designed carrier aircraft) is indicated.

  2. NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop Proceedings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, N. (Editor); Evans, D. L. (Editor); Held, D. N. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Speaker-supplied summaries of the talks given at the NASA/JPL Aircraft SAR Workshop on February 4 and 5, 1985, are provided. These talks dealt mostly with composite quadpolarization imagery from a geologic or ecologic prespective. An overview and summary of the system characteristics of the L-band synthetic aperture radar (SAR) flown on the NASA CV-990 aircraft are included as supplementary information. Other topics ranging from phase imagery and interferometric techniques classifications of specific areas, and the potentials and limitations of SAR imagery in various applications are discussed.

  3. Aircraft cabin noise prediction and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies were conducted to determine the noise transmission into acoustic enclosures ranging from simple rectangular box models to full scale light aircraft in flight. The structural models include simple, stiffened, curved stiffened, and orthotropic panels and double wall windows. The theoretical solutions were obtained by model analysis. Transfer matrix and finite element procedures were utilized. Good agreement between theory and experiment has been achieved. An efficient acoustic add-on treatment was developed for interior noise control in a twin engine light aircraft.

  4. Aircraft noise prediction program user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Prediction Program (ANOPP) predicts aircraft noise with the best methods available. This manual is designed to give the user an understanding of the capabilities of ANOPP and to show how to formulate problems and obtain solutions by using these capabilities. Sections within the manual document basic ANOPP concepts, ANOPP usage, ANOPP functional modules, ANOPP control statement procedure library, and ANOPP permanent data base. appendixes to the manual include information on preparing job decks for the operating systems in use, error diagnostics and recovery techniques, and a glossary of ANOPP terms.

  5. Automated Methods to Maintain Aircraft Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauderdale, Todd

    2011-01-01

    The air traffic control system in the United States has a great track-record for safety. As more aircraft enter the system at a given time, the situation becomes more complex though. Researchers at NASA are attempting to leverage advances in many fields including optimization, data mining, and numerical modeling of systems to improve the air-transportation system maintaining safety while increasing throughput and reducing delays. This talk will give a brief overview of the research at NASA towards modernizing the air-transportation system. It will then focus on the specific area of automation tools for maintaining physical separation between aircraft known as Separation Assurance.

  6. Negative Selection Algorithm for Aircraft Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a real-valued Negative Selection Algorithm (NSA) for fault detection in man-in-the-loop aircraft operation. The detection algorithm uses body-axes angular rate sensory data exhibiting the normal flight behavior patterns, to generate probabilistically a set of fault detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults and damages) in the behavior pattern of the aircraft flight. We performed experiments with datasets (collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions) using the NASA Ames man-in-the-loop high-fidelity C-17 flight simulator. The paper provides results of experiments with different datasets representing various failure conditions.

  7. Recommendations for field measurements of aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Specific recommendations for environmental test criteria, data acquisition procedures, and instrument performance requirements for measurement of noise levels produced by aircraft in flight are provided. Recommendations are also given for measurement of associated airplane and engine parameters and atmospheric conditions. Recommendations are based on capabilities which were available commercially in 1981; they are applicable to field tests of aircraft flying subsonically past microphones located near the surface of the ground either directly under or to the side of a flight path. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations include fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines or by propellers. The recommended field-measurement procedures are consistent with assumed requirements for data processing and analysis.

  8. Identification of flexible aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eulrich, B. J.; Rynaski, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a frequency-domain method for the estimation of the aeroelastic equations of motion of an aircraft using discrete sinusoidal inputs to the control surface actuators. The theory of estimation of the signal inputs and outputs is described as well as the method of obtaining accurate transfer functions from the resulting Bode plots. Methods of quantifying the accuracy of the results from more than one control input are discussed along with ways to obtain state-space and reduced-order models from the transfer function estimates. Presented is a summary of the results obtained in using the technique to develop a model of the USAF Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) aircraft which includes five symmetrical elastic modes of motion of the aircraft.

  9. Recommendations for field measurements of aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, A. H.

    1982-04-01

    Specific recommendations for environmental test criteria, data acquisition procedures, and instrument performance requirements for measurement of noise levels produced by aircraft in flight are provided. Recommendations are also given for measurement of associated airplane and engine parameters and atmospheric conditions. Recommendations are based on capabilities which were available commercially in 1981; they are applicable to field tests of aircraft flying subsonically past microphones located near the surface of the ground either directly under or to the side of a flight path. Aircraft types covered by the recommendations include fixed-wing airplanes powered by turbojet or turbofan engines or by propellers. The recommended field-measurement procedures are consistent with assumed requirements for data processing and analysis.

  10. Integrated digital/electric aircraft concepts study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, M. J.; Hays, A. P.; Green, F. B.; Radovcich, N. A.; Helsley, C. W.; Rutchik, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    The integrated digital/electrical aircraft (IDEA) is an aircraft concept which employs all electric secondary power systems and advanced digital flight control systems. After trade analysis, preferred systems were applied to the baseline configuration. An additional configuration, the alternate IDEA, was also considered. For this concept the design ground rules were relaxed in order to quantify additional synergistic benefits. It was proposed that an IDEA configuration and technical risks associated with the IDEA systems concepts be defined and the research and development required activities to reduce these risks be identified. The selected subsystems include: power generation, power distribution, actuators, environmental control system and flight controls systems. When the aircraft was resized, block fuel was predicted to decrease by 11.3 percent, with 7.9 percent decrease in direct operating cost. The alternate IDEA shows a further 3.4 percent reduction in block fuel and 3.1 percent reduction in direct operating cost.

  11. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  12. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  13. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  14. Aircraft Power-Plant Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sontag, Harcourt; Brombacher, W G

    1934-01-01

    This report supersedes NACA-TR-129 which is now obsolete. Aircraft power-plant instruments include tachometers, engine thermometers, pressure gages, fuel-quantity gages, fuel flow meters and indicators, and manifold pressure gages. The report includes a description of the commonly used types and some others, the underlying principle utilized in the design, and some design data. The inherent errors of the instrument, the methods of making laboratory tests, descriptions of the test apparatus, and data in considerable detail in the performance of commonly used instruments are presented. Standard instruments and, in cases where it appears to be of interest, those used as secondary standards are described. A bibliography of important articles is included.

  15. Using unmanned aircraft to measure the impact of pollution plumes on atmospheric heating rates and cloud properties during the Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment (CAPMEX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkata Ramana, M.; Ramanathan, V.; Nguyen, H.; Xu, Y.; Pistone, K.; Corrigan, C.; Feng, Y.; Zhu, A.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Carmichael, G. R.; Schauer, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The CAPMEX (Cheju ABC Plume-Asian Monsoon Experiment) campaign took place off the Coast of Cheju Island in South Korea to take advantage of the unique event associated with the shutdown of anthropogenic emissions surrounding Beijing during the Olympics in summer 2008. CAPMEX studied pollution plumes before, during, and after the Beijing reductions using ground-level and high-elevation measurements, i.e., from unmanned aircrafts. Additionally, the campaign documented the effect on solar heating and clouds due to aerosols carried by the long range transport of pollution plumes. The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) measurement component of this campaign took place during Aug 9 to Sept 30, 2008. The AUAV payload was mission-specific and was outfitted to perform a particular set of measurements. These measurements include aerosol concentration, aerosol size distribution, aerosol absorption, cloud drop size distribution, solar radiation fluxes (visible and broadband), and spectral radiative fluxes. Throughout the CAPMEX experiment, long-range transport of aerosols from Beijing, Shanghai and Marine plumes were sampled in aerosol layers up to 3-4 km above sea level. During this period, we captured both heavy and light pollution events and witnessed air masses from both pristine oceanic sources and from major cities including Beijing and Shanghai. Analysis of specific plumes allowed us to quantify the impact of anthropogenic pollution on heating rates and cloud properties.

  16. Aircraft Safety and Operating Problems. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Results of NASA research in the field of aircraft safety and operating problems are discussed. Topics include: (1) terminal area operations, (2) flight dynamics and control; (3) ground operations; (4) atmospheric environment; (5) structures and materials; (6) powerplants; (7) noise; and (8) human factors engineering.

  17. Aircraft structures research at elevated temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duberg, John E

    1955-01-01

    A review is made of the test techniques that have been developed and used by the NACA for experimental research in aircraft structures at elevated temperatures. Some experimental results are presented. Remarks are included on the problem of model scaling for testing of structures at high temperatures. (author)

  18. Propulsion opportunities for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strack, W. C.

    1982-01-01

    Circa 1990 propulsion improvement concepts are discussed for 1000 to 5000 SHP conventional turboprop powerplants including engines, gearboxes, and propellers. Cycle selection, power plant configurations and advanced technology elements are defined and evaluated using average stage length DOC for commuter aircraft as the primary merit criterion.

  19. Internal-flow systems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, F M

    1941-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.

  20. Transmutation Fuel Campaign Description and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Jon Carmack; Kemal O. Pasamehmetoglu

    2008-01-01

    This report contains a technical summary package in response to a Level 2 milestone in the transmutation fuel campaign (TFC) management work-package calling for input to the Secretarial decision. At present, the form of the Secretarial decision package is not fully defined, and it is not clear exactly what will be required from the TFC as a final input. However, it is anticipated that a series oftechnical and programmatic documents will need to be provided in support of a wider encompassing document on GNEP technology development activities. The TFC technical leadership team provides this report as initial input to the secretarial decision package which is being developed by the Technical Integration Office (TIO) in support of Secretarial decision. This report contains a summary of the TFC execution plan with a work breakdown structure, highlevel schedule, major milestones, and summary description of critical activities in support of campaign objectives. Supporting documents referenced in this report but provided under separate cover include: • An updated review of the state-of-the art for transmutation fuel development activities considering national as well as international fuel research and development testing activities. • A definition of the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) used to systematically define and execute the transmutation fuel development activities.

  1. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  2. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign. Funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modeling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, reports on joint studies, and some core research results obtained to date.

  3. Findings of the SHIVA field campaign in the South China Sea in Nov.-Dec. 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    Marine emissions of so-called halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) are known to considerably contribute to the ozone destroying halogen loading of the stratosphere. In this context, most crucial are VSLS emissions in regions of large vertical transport, i.e. the tropics and in particular in the warm pool of the Western Pacific during the rainy seasons (November to March). In order to study the biogenic emissions of halogenated VSLS, their atmospheric transport and transformation, the internationally coordinated field expedition SHIVA (Stratospheric ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was performed within the margins of the South China Sea in November and December 2011. Partners from 19 institutions from 9 countries participated in the campaign and funding came from the EU's 7th framework programme and additionally from a larger number of national funding agencies. The activities included investigations in the laboratory and on the ground, during local ship cruises, the research vessel SONNE, deployments of the DLR (Germany's national research center for aeronautics and space) Falcon aircraft around Borneo, simultaneous satellite observations, the meteorological forecasting and analysis, and numerical modelling of atmospheric transport and photochemistry. The present talk provides an overview on the performed research activities, and reports on joint studies and the research results obtained to date.

  4. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  5. Braking performance of aircraft tires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Satish K.

    This paper brings under one cover the subject of aircraft braking performance and a variety of related phenomena that lead to aircraft hydroplaning, overruns, and loss of directional control. Complex processes involving tire deformation, tire slipping, and fluid pressures in the tire-runway contact area develop the friction forces for retarding the aircraft; this paper describes the physics of these processes. The paper reviews the past and present research efforts and concludes that the most effective way to combat the hazards associated with aircraft landings and takeoffs on contaminated runways is by measuring and displaying in realtime the braking performance parameters in the aircraft cockpit.

  6. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    PubMed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar

    2009-05-01

    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  7. The Surviving Sepsis Campaign: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Schorr, Christa A; Dellinger, R Phillip

    2014-04-01

    The Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) was created in 2002 and consists of severe sepsis management guidelines and a sepsis performance improvement program. The second revision of the guidelines, published in 2013, are sponsored by 30 international scientific organizations and contain changes in recommendations for fluids and vasopressor administration. The new 3- and 6-hour sepsis 'bundles' (sets of care elements) include a software program that can be downloaded free from the Surviving Sepsis Campaign website (www.survivingsepsis.org). The traditional intensive care unit and emergency department champion-driven sepsis performance improvement program continues internationally with the kick off of a new grant-funded hospital floor sepsis performance improvement initiative.

  8. Minimizing Intra-Campaign Biases in Airborne Laser Altimetry By Thorough Calibration of Lidar System Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonntag, J. G.; Chibisov, A.; Krabill, K. A.; Linkswiler, M. A.; Swenson, C.; Yungel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Present-day airborne lidar surveys of polar ice, NASA's Operation IceBridge foremost among them, cover large geographical areas. They are often compared with previous surveys over the same flight lines to yield mass balance estimates. Systematic biases in the lidar system, especially those which vary from campaign to campaign, can introduce significant error into these mass balance estimates and must be minimized before the data is released by the instrument team to the larger scientific community. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) team designed a thorough and novel approach in order to minimize these biases, and here we describe two major aspects of this approach. First, we conduct regular ground vehicle-based surveys of lidar calibration targets, and overfly these targets on a near-daily basis during field campaigns. We discuss our technique for conducting these surveys, in particular the measures we take specifically to minimize systematic height biases in the surveys, since these can in turn bias entire campaigns of lidar data and the mass balance estimates based on them. Second, we calibrate our GPS antennas specifically for each instrument installation in a remote-sensing aircraft. We do this because we recognize that the metallic fuselage of the aircraft can alter the electromagnetic properties of the GPS antenna mounted to it, potentially displacing its phase center by several centimeters and biasing lidar results accordingly. We describe our technique for measuring the phase centers of a GPS antenna installed atop an aircraft, and show results which demonstrate that different installations can indeed alter the phase centers significantly.

  9. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft is equipped with an operating automatic altitude reporting transponder; (4) Before operating an aircraft in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ, the pilot obtains and transmits a discrete transponder code from Air Traffic Control, and the aircraft's transponder continues to transmit the assigned code...

  10. U.S. Campaign Advertises American Higher Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2007-01-01

    A marketing campaign intended to persuade Chinese students to study in the United States will soon branch out to other parts of the globe. The U.S.-led program, which includes slick television commercials and a one-stop-shopping Web portal, was introduced in China last fall. The commercials, which run about 30 minutes and were filmed on American…

  11. No Middle Ground: A Personal View of the Tenure Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osumi, M. Dick

    1990-01-01

    Describes the campaign for tenure for an Asian Pacific American university professor, D. Nakanishi, within a historical context. Includes discussions of Asian Americans' and Pacific Americans' experience of discrimination since the 1900s, civil rights struggles in the 1970s and 1980s, and the history and development of the "Amerasia Journal." (JB)

  12. A backward modeling study of intercontinental pollution transport using aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stohl, A.; Forster, C.; Eckhardt, S.; Spichtinger, N.; Huntrieser, H.; Heland, J.; Schlager, H.; Wilhelm, S.; Arnold, F.; Cooper, O.

    2003-06-01

    In this paper we present simulations with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model to study the intercontinental transport of pollution from North America during an aircraft measurement campaign over Europe. The model was used for both the flight planning and a detailed source analysis after the campaign, which is described here with examples from two episodes. Forward calculations of emission tracers from North America, Europe, and Asia were made in order to understand the transport processes. Both episodes were preceded by stagnant conditions over North America, leading to the accumulation of pollutants in the North American boundary layer. Both anthropogenic sources and, to a lesser extent, forest fire emissions contributed to this pollution, which was then exported by warm conveyor belts to the middle and upper troposphere, where it was transported rapidly to Europe. Concentrations of many trace gases (CO, NOy, CO2, acetone, and several volatile organic compounds; O3 in one case) and of ambient atmospheric ions measured aboard the research aircraft were clearly enhanced in the pollution plumes compared to the conditions outside the plumes. Backward simulations with the particle model were introduced as an indispensable tool for a more detailed analysis of the plume's source region. They make trajectory analyses (which, to date, were mainly used to interpret aircraft measurement data) obsolete. Using an emission inventory, we could decompose the tracer mixing ratios at the receptors (i.e., along the flight tracks) into contributions from every grid cell of the inventory. For both plumes we found that emission sources contributing to the tracer concentrations over Europe were distributed over large areas in North America. In one case, sources in California, Texas, and Florida contributed almost equally, and smaller contributions were also made by other sources located between the Yucatan Peninsula and Canada. In the other case, sources in eastern North America

  13. Consequences of a Recent Campaign of Criticism against School Sex Education in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirose, Hiroko

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insights into recent events concerning school sex education in Japan. A campaign of criticism against school sex education emerged in 2002 at both national and regional levels, and included a court case in Tokyo. Despite leaving a depressing atmosphere regarding sex education teaching practices, this campaign also…

  14. A Systematic Review of Universal Campaigns Targeting Child Physical Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Mary Kathryn; Seal, David W.; Taylor, Catherine A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to better understand the impact of universal campaign interventions with a media component aimed at preventing child physical abuse (CPA). The review included 17 studies featuring 15 campaigns conducted from 1989 to 2011 in five countries. Seven studies used experimental designs, but most were quasi-experimental. CPA…

  15. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  16. Healthy Child Care America Campaign: You Can Make a Difference in Your Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Moniquin

    1995-01-01

    Child-care and health-care professionals joined efforts in the "Healthy Child Care America" campaign to ensure that children are cared for in environments that are safe and healthy. Goals of the campaign include raising awareness of the importance of quality child care, and involving more people in the nationwide effort to improve quality and…

  17. Service-Learning with a Food Stamp Enrollment Campaign: Community and Student Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Judith R.; Summers, Mary; Toton, Suzanne; Aisenstein, Hillary

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a multi-campus collaboration in a Food Stamp Enrollment Campaign to demonstrate that a well-managed public benefits campaign, associated with broader advocacy-based community partnerships, can result in positive outcomes for the community that include measurable benefits for clients, data needed to make policy and administrative…

  18. The Pew Home Visiting Campaign: Helping States Improve Quality, Evaluation, and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlitt, John

    2010-01-01

    The Pew Home Visiting Campaign was launched in 2009 by the Pew Center on the States to guide state policymakers toward smart investments in quality, voluntary home-based programs for new and expectant families. In light of the federal development and pressing needs of states, the campaign will assist states in several ways, including policy…

  19. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  20. 77 FR 50174 - Revision of Information Collection: Combined Federal Campaign; Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... MANAGEMENT Revision of Information Collection: Combined Federal Campaign; Applications AGENCY: U.S. Office of... to revise an information collection. Combined Federal Campaign Applications, OMB Control No. 3206-0131, which include OPM Forms 1647 A-E, are used to review the eligibility of national,...