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Sample records for aircraft control system

  1. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  2. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor); Morgan, Walter R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A span-loaded, highly flexible flying wing, having horizontal control surfaces mounted aft of the wing on extended beams to form local pitch-control devices. Each of five spanwise wing segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other wing segments, to minimize inter-segment loads. Wing dihedral is controlled by separately controlling the local pitch-control devices consisting of a control surface on a boom, such that inboard and outboard wing segment pitch changes relative to each other, and thus relative inboard and outboard lift is varied.

  3. Aircraft system modeling error and control error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Nilesh V. (Inventor); Kaneshige, John T. (Inventor); Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method for modeling error-driven adaptive control of an aircraft. Normal aircraft plant dynamics is modeled, using an original plant description in which a controller responds to a tracking error e(k) to drive the component to a normal reference value according to an asymptote curve. Where the system senses that (1) at least one aircraft plant component is experiencing an excursion and (2) the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft plant operation may be changed. However, if (1) is satisfied but the error component is returning toward its reference value according to expected controller characteristics, the NN will continue to model operation of the aircraft plant according to an original description.

  4. Multidisciplinary Techniques and Novel Aircraft Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Sharon L.; Rogers, James L.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aircraft Morphing Program at NASA Langley Research Center explores opportunities to improve airframe designs with smart technologies. Two elements of this basic research program are multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and advanced flow control. This paper describes examples where MDO techniques such as sensitivity analysis, automatic differentiation, and genetic algorithms contribute to the design of novel control systems. In the test case, the design and use of distributed shapechange devices to provide low-rate maneuvering capability for a tailless aircraft is considered. The ability of MDO to add value to control system development is illustrated using results from several years of research funded by the Aircraft Morphing Program.

  5. Reconfiguration control system for an aircraft wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakayama, Sean R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Independently deflectable control surfaces are located on the trailing edge of the wing of a blended wing-body aircraft. The reconfiguration control system of the present invention controls the deflection of each control surface to optimize the spanwise lift distribution across the wing for each of several flight conditions, e.g., cruise, pitch maneuver, and high lift at low speed. The control surfaces are deflected and reconfigured to their predetermined optimal positions when the aircraft is in each of the aforementioned flight conditions. With respect to cruise, the reconfiguration control system will maximize the lift to drag ratio and keep the aircraft trimmed at a stable angle of attack. In a pitch maneuver, the control surfaces are deflected to pitch the aircraft and increase lift. Moreover, this increased lift has its spanwise center of pressure shifted inboard relative to its location for cruise. This inboard shifting reduces the increased bending moment about the aircraft's x-axis occasioned by the increased pitch force acting normal to the wing. To optimize high lift at low speed, during take-off and landing for example, the control surfaces are reconfigured to increase the local maximum coefficient of lift at stall-critical spanwise locations while providing pitch trim with control surfaces that are not stall critical.

  6. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  7. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  8. An adaptive learning control system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekel, R.; Nachmias, S.

    1978-01-01

    A learning control system and its utilization as a flight control system for F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) research aircraft is studied. The system has the ability to adjust a gain schedule to account for changing plant characteristics and to improve its performance and the plant's performance in the course of its own operation. Three subsystems are detailed: (1) the information acquisition subsystem which identifies the plant's parameters at a given operating condition; (2) the learning algorithm subsystem which relates the identified parameters to predetermined analytical expressions describing the behavior of the parameters over a range of operating conditions; and (3) the memory and control process subsystem which consists of the collection of updated coefficients (memory) and the derived control laws. Simulation experiments indicate that the learning control system is effective in compensating for parameter variations caused by changes in flight conditions.

  9. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  10. Method and System for Active Noise Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betzina, Mark D. (Inventor); Nguyen, Khanh Q. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    Methods and systems for reducing noise generated by rotating blades of a tiltrotor aircraft. A rotor-blade pitch angle associated with the tiltrotor aircraft can be controlled utilizing a swashplate connected to rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. One or more Higher Harmonic Control (HHC) signals can be transmitted and input to a swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate. A particular blade pitch oscillation (e.g., four cycles per revolution) is there-after produced in a rotating frame of reference associated with the rotating blades in response to input of an HHC signal to the swashplate control actuator associated with the swashplate to thereby reduce noise associated with the rotating blades of the tiltrotor aircraft. The HHC signal can be transmitted and input to the swashplate control actuator to reduce noise of the tiltrotor aircraft in response to a user input utilizing an open-loop configuration.

  11. Flying qualities and control system characteristics for superaugmented aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, T. T.; Mcruer, D. T.; Johnston, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Aircraft-alone dynamics and superaugmented control system fundamental regulatory properties including stability and regulatory responses of the basic closed-loop systems; fundamental high and low frequency margins and governing factors; and sensitivity to aircraft and controller parameters are addressed. Alternative FCS mechanizations, and mechanizational side effects are also discussed. An overview of flying qualities considerations encompasses general pilot operations as a controller in unattended, intermittent and trim, and full-attention regulatory or command control; effective vehicle primary and secondary response properties to pilot inputs and disturbances; pilot control architectural possibilities; and comparison of superaugmented and conventional aircraft path responses for different forms of pilot control. Results of a simple experimental investigation into pilot dynamic behavior in attitude control of superaugmented aircraft configurations with high frequency time laps and time delays are presented.

  12. Systems and Methods for Collaboratively Controlling at Least One Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estkowski, Regina I. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An unmanned vehicle management system includes an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control station controlling one or more unmanned vehicles (UV), a collaborative routing system, and a communication network connecting the UAS and the collaborative routing system. The collaborative routing system being configured to receive flight parameters from an operator of the UAS control station and, based on the received flight parameters, automatically present the UAS control station with flight plan options to enable the operator to operate the UV in a defined airspace.

  13. Design and flight test of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system on the NASA F-15 test aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.

  14. Loss-of-Control-Inhibitor Systems for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    AHarrah, Ralph C.

    2007-01-01

    Systems to provide improved tactile feedback to aircraft pilots are being developed to help the pilots maintain harmony between their control actions and the positions of aircraft control surfaces, thereby helping to prevent loss of control. A system of this type, denoted a loss-of-control-inhibitor system (LOCIS) can be implemented as a relatively simple addition to almost any pre-existing flight-control system. The LOCIS concept offers at least a partial solution to the problem of (1) keeping a pilot aware of the state of the control system and the aircraft and (2) maintaining sufficient control under conditions that, as described below, have been known to lead to loss of control. Current commercial aircraft exhibit uneven responses of primary flight-control surfaces to aggressive pilot control commands, leading to deterioration of pilots ability to control their aircraft. In severe cases, this phenomenon can result in loss of control and consequent loss of aircraft. For an older aircraft equipped with a purely mechanical control system, the loss of harmony between a pilot s command action and the control- surface response can be attributed to compliance in the control system (caused, for example, by stretching of control cables, flexing of push rods, or servo-valve distortion). In a newer aircraft equipped with a fly-by-wire control system, the major contributions to loss of harmony between the pilot and the control surfaces are delays attributable to computer cycle time, control shaping, filtering, aliasing, servo-valve distortion, and actuator rate limiting. In addition, a fly-by-wire control system provides no tactile feedback that would enable the pilot to sense such features of the control state as surface flutter, surface jam, position limiting, actuator rate limiting, and control limiting imposed by the aircraft operational envelope. Hence, for example, when a pilot is involved in aggressive closed-loop maneuvering, as when encountering a wake

  15. Pseudo Aircraft Systems - A multi-aircraft simulation system for air traffic control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weske, Reid A.; Danek, George L.

    1993-01-01

    Pseudo Aircraft Systems (PAS) is a computerized flight dynamics and piloting system designed to provide a high fidelity multi-aircraft real-time simulation environment to support Air Traffic Control research. PAS is composed of three major software components that run on a network of computer workstations. Functionality is distributed among these components to allow the system to execute fast enough to support real-time operation. PAS workstations are linked by an Ethernet Local Area Network, and standard UNIX socket protocol is used for data transfer. Each component of PAS is controlled and operated using a custom designed Graphical User Interface. Each of these is composed of multiple windows, and many of the windows and sub-windows are used in several of the components. Aircraft models and piloting logic are sophisticated and realistic and provide complex maneuvering and navigational capabilities. PAS will continually be enhanced with new features and improved capabilities to support ongoing and future Air Traffic Control system development.

  16. Information fusion based optimal control for large civil aircraft system.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Ziyang; Jiang, Ju; Wang, Xinhua; Gao, Chen

    2015-03-01

    Wind disturbance has a great influence on landing security of Large Civil Aircraft. Through simulation research and engineering experience, it can be found that PID control is not good enough to solve the problem of restraining the wind disturbance. This paper focuses on anti-wind attitude control for Large Civil Aircraft in landing phase. In order to improve the riding comfort and the flight security, an information fusion based optimal control strategy is presented to restrain the wind in landing phase for maintaining attitudes and airspeed. Data of Boeing707 is used to establish a nonlinear mode with total variables of Large Civil Aircraft, and then two linear models are obtained which are divided into longitudinal and lateral equations. Based on engineering experience, the longitudinal channel adopts PID control and C inner control to keep longitudinal attitude constant, and applies autothrottle system for keeping airspeed constant, while an information fusion based optimal regulator in the lateral control channel is designed to achieve lateral attitude holding. According to information fusion estimation, by fusing hard constraint information of system dynamic equations and the soft constraint information of performance index function, optimal estimation of the control sequence is derived. Based on this, an information fusion state regulator is deduced for discrete time linear system with disturbance. The simulation results of nonlinear model of aircraft indicate that the information fusion optimal control is better than traditional PID control, LQR control and LQR control with integral action, in anti-wind disturbance performance in the landing phase.

  17. Semi-automatic aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, Richard D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flight control type system which provides a tactile readout to the hand of a pilot for directing elevator control during both approach to flare-out and departure maneuvers. For altitudes above flare-out, the system sums the instantaneous coefficient of lift signals of a lift transducer with a generated signal representing ideal coefficient of lift for approach to flare-out, i.e., a value of about 30% below stall. Error signals resulting from the summation are read out by the noted tactile device. Below flare altitude, an altitude responsive variation is summed with the signal representing ideal coefficient of lift to provide error signal readout.

  18. Hierarchical Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasar, Murat; Tolani, Devendra; Ray, Asok; Shah, Neerav; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a hierarchical application of Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control theory for intelligent decision and control of a twin-engine aircraft propulsion system. A dual layer hierarchical DES controller is designed to supervise and coordinate the operation of two engines of the propulsion system. The two engines are individually controlled to achieve enhanced performance and reliability, necessary for fulfilling the mission objectives. Each engine is operated under a continuously varying control system that maintains the specified performance and a local discrete-event supervisor for condition monitoring and life extending control. A global upper level DES controller is designed for load balancing and overall health management of the propulsion system.

  19. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  20. An efficient navigation-control system for small unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girwar-Nath, Jonathan Alejandro

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have been research in the past decade for a broad range of tasks and application domains such as search and rescue, reconnaissance, traffic control, pipe line inspections, surveillance, border patrol, and communication bridging. This work describes the design and implementation of a lightweight Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) semi-autonomous Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Presented here is a methodology for System Identification utilizing the Box-Jenkins model estimator on recorded flight data to characterize the system and develop a mathematical model of the aircraft. Additionally, a novel microprocessor, the XMOS, is utilized to navigate and maneuver the aircraft utilizing a PD control system. In this thesis is a description of the aircraft and the sensor suite utilized, as well as the flight data and supporting videos for the benefit of the UAV research community.

  1. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  2. A multiple objective optimization approach to aircraft control systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tabak, D.; Schy, A. A.; Johnson, K. G.; Giesy, D. P.

    1979-01-01

    The design of an aircraft lateral control system, subject to several performance criteria and constraints, is considered. While in the previous studies of the same model a single criterion optimization, with other performance requirements expressed as constraints, has been pursued, the current approach involves a multiple criteria optimization. In particular, a Pareto optimal solution is sought.

  3. Linear tracking systems with applications to aircraft control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, W. H.; Athans, M.; Castanon, D.; Bacchioloni, F.

    1977-01-01

    A class of optimal linear time invariant tracking systems, both in continuous time and discrete time, of which the number of inputs (which are restricted to be step functions) is equal to the number of system outputs, is studied. Along with derivation of equations and design procedures, two discretization schemes are presented, constraining either the control or its time derivative, to be a constant over each sampling period. Descriptions are given for the linearized model of the F-8C aircraft longitudinal dynamics, and the C* handling qualities criterion, which then serve as an illustration of the applications of these linear tracking designs. A suboptimal reduced state design is also presented. Numerical results are given for both the continuous time and discrete time designs.

  4. Flight Test of ASAC Aircraft Interior Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Cabell, Ran; Cline, John; Sullivan, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    A flight test is described in which an active structural/acoustic control system reduces turboprop induced interior noise on a Raytheon Aircraft Company 1900D airliner. Control inputs to 21 inertial force actuators were computed adaptively using a transform domain version of the multichannel filtered-X LMS algorithm to minimize the mean square response of 32 microphones. A combinatorial search algorithm was employed to optimize placement of the force actuators on the aircraft frame. Both single frequency and multi-frequency results are presented. Reductions of up to 15 dB were obtained at the blade passage frequency (BPF) during single frequency control tests. Simultaneous reductions of the BPF and next 2 harmonics of 10 dB, 2.5 dB and 3.0 dB, were obtained in a multi-frequency test.

  5. Control law system for X-Wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Thomas H. (Inventor); Gold, Phillip J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Control law system for the collective axis, as well as pitch and roll axes, of an X-Wing aircraft and for the pneumatic valving controlling circulation control blowing for the rotor. As to the collective axis, the system gives the pilot single-lever direct lift control and insures that maximum cyclic blowing control power is available in transition. Angle-of-attach de-coupling is provided in rotary wing flight, and mechanical collective is used to augment pneumatic roll control when appropriate. Automatic gain variations with airspeed and rotor speed are provided, so a unitary set of control laws works in all three X-Wing flight modes. As to pitch and roll axes, the system produces essentially the same aircraft response regardless of flight mode or condition. Undesirable cross-couplings are compensated for in a manner unnoticeable to the pilot without requiring pilot action, as flight mode or condition is changed. A hub moment feedback scheme is implemented, utilizing a P+I controller, significantly improving bandwidth. Limits protect aircraft structure from inadvertent damage. As to pneumatic valving, the system automatically provides the pressure required at each valve azimuth location, as dictated by collective, cyclic and higher harmonic blowing commands. Variations in the required control phase angle are automatically introduced, and variations in plenum pressure are compensated for. The required switching for leading, trailing and dual edge blowing is automated, using a simple table look-up procedure. Non-linearities due to valve characteristics of circulation control lift are linearized by map look-ups.

  6. Neural network application to aircraft control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troudet, Terry; Garg, Sanjay; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of using artificial neural networks as control systems for modern, complex aerospace vehicles is investigated via an example aircraft control design study. The problem considered is that of designing a controller for an integrated airframe/propulsion longitudinal dynamics model of a modern fighter aircraft to provide independent control of pitch rate and airspeed responses to pilot command inputs. An explicit model following controller using H infinity control design techniques is first designed to gain insight into the control problem as well as to provide a baseline for evaluation of the neurocontroller. Using the model of the desired dynamics as a command generator, a multilayer feedforward neural network is trained to control the vehicle model within the physical limitations of the actuator dynamics. This is achieved by minimizing an objective function which is a weighted sum of tracking errors and control input commands and rates. To gain insight in the neurocontrol, linearized representations of the nonlinear neurocontroller are analyzed along a commanded trajectory. Linear robustness analysis tools are then applied to the linearized neurocontroller models and to the baseline H infinity based controller. Future areas of research are identified to enhance the practical applicability of neural networks to flight control design.

  7. Analysis and testing of stability augmentation systems. [for supersonic transport aircraft wing and B-52 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sevart, F. D.; Patel, S. M.; Wattman, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Testing and evaluation of stability augmentation systems for aircraft flight control were conducted. The flutter suppression system analysis of a scale supersonic transport wing model is described. Mechanization of the flutter suppression system is reported. The ride control synthesis for the B-52 aeroelastic model is discussed. Model analyses were conducted using equations of motion generated from generalized mass and stiffness data.

  8. Control of propulsion systems for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiller, K. W.; Drain, D. I.

    1976-01-01

    The propulsion control requirements of supersonic aircraft are presented. Integration of inlet, engine, and airframe controls is discussed. The application of recent control theory developments to propulsion control design is described. Control component designs for achieving reliable, responsive propulsion control are also discussed.

  9. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  10. Application of active controls technology to aircraft bide smoothing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, M.; Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort, and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  11. Application of Active Controls Technology to Aircraft Ride Smoothing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapins, Maris; Jacobson, Ira D.

    1975-01-01

    A critical review of past efforts in the design and testing of ride smoothing and gust alleviation systems is presented. Design trade-offs involving sensor types, choice of feedback loops, human comfort and aircraft handling-qualities criteria are discussed. Synthesis of a system designed to employ direct-lift and side-force producing surfaces is reported. Two STOL-class aircraft and an executive transport are considered. Theoretically-predicted system performance is compared with hybrid simulation and flight test data. Pilot opinion rating, pilot workload, and passenger comfort rating data for the basic and augmented aircraft are included.

  12. A Sliding Mode Control with Optimized Sliding Surface for Aircraft Pitch Axis Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangchul; Kim, Kwangjin; Kim, Youdan

    A sliding mode controller with an optimized sliding surface is proposed for an aircraft control system. The quadratic type of performance index for minimizing the angle of attack and the angular rate of the aircraft in the longitudinal motion is used to design the sliding surface. For optimization of the sliding surface, a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated and it is solved through a numerical algorithm using a Generalized HJB (GHJB) equation and the Galerkin spectral method. The solution of this equation denotes a nonlinear sliding surface, on which the trajectory of the system approximately satisfies the optimality condition. Numerical simulation is performed for a nonlinear aircraft model with an optimized sliding surface and a simple linear sliding surface. The simulation result demonstrates that the proposed controller can be effectively applied to the longitudinal maneuver of an aircraft.

  13. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  14. Future Air Force aircraft propulsion control systems: The extended summary paper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skira, C. A.

    1980-01-01

    Hydromechanical control technology simply cannot compete against the performance benefits offered by electronics. Future military aircraft propulsion control systems will be full authority, digital electronic, microprocessor base systems. Anticipating the day when microprocessor technology will permit the integration and management of aircraft flight control, fire control and propulsion control systems, the Air Force Aero Propulsion Laboratory is developing control logic algorithms for a real time, adaptive control and diagnostic information system.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft System Control and ATC Communications Bandwidth Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    There are significant activities taking place to establish the procedures and requirements for safe and routine operation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS). Among the barriers to overcome in achieving this goal is the lack of sufficient frequency spectrum necessary for the UAS control and air traffic control (ATC) communications links. This shortcoming is compounded by the fact that the UAS control communications links will likely be required to operate in protected frequency spectrum, just as ATC communications links are, because they relate to "safety and regularity of flight." To support future International Telecommunications Union (ITU) World Radio Conference (WRC) agenda items concerning new frequency allocations for UAS communications links, and to augment the Future Communications Study (FCS) Technology Evaluation Group efforts, NASA Glenn Research Center has sponsored a task to estimate the UAS control and ATC communications bandwidth requirements for safe, reliable, and routine operation of UAS in the NAS. This report describes the process and results of that task. The study focused on long-term bandwidth requirements for UAS approximately through 2030.

  16. Application of precomputed control laws in a reconfigurable aircraft flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moerder, Daniel D.; Halyo, Nesim; Broussard, John R.; Caglayan, Alper K.

    1989-01-01

    A self-repairing flight control system concept in which the control law is reconfigured after actuator and/or control surface damage to preserve stability and pilot command tracking is described. A key feature of the controller is reconfigurable multivariable feedback. The feedback gains are designed off-line and scheduled as a function of the aircraft control impairment status so that reconfiguration is performed simply by updating the gain schedule after detection of an impairment. A novel aspect of the gain schedule design procedure is that the schedule is calculated using a linear quadratic optimization-based simultaneous stabilization algorithm in which the scheduled gain is constrained to stabilize a collection of plant models representing the aircraft in various control failure modes. A description and numerical evaluation of a controller design for a model of a statically unstable high-performance aircraft are given.

  17. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objectives. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Because of the number of systems involved and the variety of engineering disciplines, systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control system is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary objective is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs are reviewed: the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating anomalies and the design errors which cause them, are examined to help identify what functions a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  18. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  19. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  20. Pivoting output unit control systems activated by jacks. [for controlling aircraft flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belliere, P.

    1978-01-01

    An invention to be used for controlling aircraft flaps is described. It is applicable to control systems with two coaxial output units which pivot simultaneously with respect to two fixed units and which are activated by two opposed, straight coaxial jacks.

  1. Integrated controls pay-off. [for flight/propulsion aircraft systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, Terrill W.; Christiansen, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the integration of the propulsion and flight control systems for high performance aircraft can help reduce pilot workload while simultaneously increasing overall aircraft performance. Results of the Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control (HiDEC) flight research program are presented to demonstrate the emerging payoffs of controls integration. Ways in which the performance of fighter aircraft can be improved through the use of propulsion for primary aircraft control are discussed. Research being conducted by NASA with the F-18 High Angle-of Attack Research Vehicle is described.

  2. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  3. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  4. The F-12 series aircraft approach to design for control system reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, F. L.; Mcmaster, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The F-12 series aircraft control system design philosophy is reviewed as it pertains to functional reliability. The basic control system, i.e., cables, mixer, feel system, trim devices, and hydraulic systems are described and discussed. In addition, the implementation of the redundant stability augmentation system in the F-12 aircraft is described. Finally, the functional reliability record that has been achieved is presented.

  5. Design criteria for integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the US/UK STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  6. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  7. Nonlinear control design for slightly nonminimum phase systems - Application to V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hauser, John; Sastry, Shankar; Meyer, George

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the application of techniques of exact I/O linearization of nonlinear control systems to the flight control of V/STOL aircraft. It is seen that the application of the theory to this example is not straightforward; in particular, the direct application of the theory yielded an undesirable controller. The situation was remedied by neglecting the coupling between the rolling moment input to the aircraft dynamics and the dynamics along the y-axis. An approximate I/O linearization procedure developed for slightly nonminimum phase nonlinear systems is shown to be effective for V/STOL aircraft.

  8. Evaluating the Handling Qualities of Flight Control Systems Including Nonlinear Aircraft and System Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Raymond Chao

    The handling qualities evaluation of nonlinear aircraft systems is an area of concern in loss-of-control (LOC) prevention. The Get Transfer Function (GetTF) method was demonstrated for evaluating the handling qualities of flight control systems and aircraft containing nonlinearities. NASA's Generic Transport Model (GTM), a nonlinear model of a civilian jet transport aircraft, was evaluated. Using classical techniques, the stability, control, and augmentation (SCAS) systems were designed to control pitch rate, roll rate, and airspeed. Hess's structural pilot model was used to model pilot dynamics in pitch and roll-attitude tracking. The simulated task was simultaneous tracking of, both, pitch and roll attitudes. Eight cases were evaluated: 1) gain increase of pitch-attitude command signal, 2) gain increase of roll-attitude command signal, 3) gain reduction of elevator command signal, 4) backlash in elevator actuator, 5) combination 3 and 4 in elevator actuator, 6) gain reduction of aileron command signal, 7) backlash in aileron actuator, and 8) combination of 6 and 7 in aileron actuator. The GetTF method was used to estimate the transfer function approximating a linear relationship between the proprioceptive signal of the pilot model and the command input. The transfer function was then used to predict the handling qualities ratings (HQR) and pilot-induced oscillation ratings (PIOR). The HQR is based on the Cooper-Harper rating scale. In pitch-attitude tracking, the nominal aircraft is predicted to have Level 2* HQRpitch and 2 < PIORpitch < 4. The GetTF method generally predicted degraded handling qualities for cases with impaired actuators. The results demonstrate GetTF's utility in evaluating the handling qualities during the design phase of flight control and aircraft systems. A limited human-in-the-loop pitch tracking exercise was also conducted to validate the structural pilot model.

  9. Flight demonstration of a self repairing flight control system in a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Stewart, James; Eslinger, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Battle damage causing loss of control capability can compromise mission objectives and even result in aircraft loss. The Self Repairing Flight Control System (SRFCS) flight development program directly addresses this issue with a flight control system design that measures the damage and immediately refines the control system commands to preserve mission potential. The system diagnostics process detects in flight the type of faults that are difficult to isolate post flight, and thus cause excessive ground maintenance time and cost. The control systems of fighter aircraft have the control power and surface displacement to maneuver the aircraft in a very large flight envelope with a wide variation in airspeed and g maneuvering conditions, with surplus force capacity available from each control surface. Digital flight control processors are designed to include built-in status of the control system components, as well as sensor information on aircraft control maneuver commands and response. In the event of failure or loss of a control surface, the SRFCS utilizes this capability to reconfigure control commands to the remaining control surfaces, thus preserving maneuvering response. Correct post-flight repair is the key to low maintainability support costs and high aircraft mission readiness. The SRFCS utilizes the large data base available with digital flight control systems to diagnose faults. Built-in-test data and sensor data are used as inputs to an Onboard Expert System process to accurately identify failed components for post-flight maintenance action. This diagnostic technique has the advantage of functioning during flight, and so is especially useful in identifying intermittent faults that are present only during maneuver g loads or high hydraulic flow requirements. A flight system was developed to test the reconfiguration and onboard maintenance diagnostics concepts on a NASA F-15 fighter aircraft.

  10. Control-system techniques for improved departure/spin resistance for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, L. T.; Gilbert, W. P.; Ogburn, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Some fundamental information on control system effects on controllability of highly maneuverable aircraft at high angles of attack are summarized as well as techniques for enhancing fighter aircraft departure/spin resistance using control system design. The discussion includes: (1) a brief review of pertinent high angle of attack phenomena including aerodynamics, inertia coupling, and kinematic coupling; (2) effects of conventional stability augmentation systems at high angles of attack; (3) high angle of attack control system concepts designed to enhance departure/spin resistance; and (4) the outlook for applications of these concepts to future fighters, particularly those designs which incorporate relaxed static stability.

  11. Survey of piloting factors in V/STOL aircraft with implications for flight control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Craig, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight control system design factors involved for pilot workload relief are identified. Major contributors to pilot workload include configuration management and control and aircraft stability and response qualities. A digital fly by wire stability augmentation, configuration management, and configuration control system is suggested for reduction of pilot workload during takeoff, hovering, and approach.

  12. Evaluation of laminar flow control systems concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings and reduced direct operating cost benefits would result from using LFC.

  13. Evaluation of laminar flow control systems for subsonic commercial transport aircraft: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An evaluation was made of laminar flow control (LFC) system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft. Configuration design studies, performance analyses, fabrication development, structural testing, wind tunnel testing, and contamination-avoidance techniques were included. As a result of trade studies, a configuration with LFC on the upper wing surface only, utilizing an electron beam-perforated suction surface, and employing a retractable high-lift shield for contamination avoidance, was selected as the most practical LFC system. The LFC aircraft was then compared with an advanced turbulent aircraft designed for the same mission. This comparison indicated significant fuel savings.

  14. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  15. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  16. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from desi gn requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, flight dynamics and control, and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system design integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2) significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  17. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  18. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  19. Flight evaluation of advanced flight control systems and cockpit displays for powered-lift STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Smith, D. W.; Watson, D. M.; Warner, D. N., Jr.; Innis, R. C.; Hardy, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A flight research program was conducted to assess the improvements, in longitudinal path control during a STOL approach and landing, that can be achieved with manual and automatic control system concepts and cockpit displays with various degrees of complexity. NASA-Ames powered-lift Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft was used in the research program. Satisfactory flying qualities were demonstrated for selected stabilization and command augmentation systems and flight director combinations. The ability of the pilot to perform precise landings at low touchdown sink rates with a gentle flare maneuver was also achieved. The path-control improvement is considered to be applicable to other powered-lift aircraft configurations.

  20. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  1. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  2. Integrated propulsion/energy transfer control systems for lift-fan V/STOL aircraft. [reduction of total propulsion system and control system installation requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Rolls, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    An integrated propulsion/control system for lift-fan transport aircraft is described. System behavior from full-scale experimental and piloted simulator investigations are reported. The lift-fan transport is a promising concept for short-to-medium haul civil transportation and for other missions. The lift-fan transport concept features high cruise airspeed, favorable ride qualities, small perceived noise footprints, high utilization, transportation system flexibility, and adaptability to VTOL, V/STOL, or STOL configurations. The lift-fan transport has high direct operating costs in comparison to conventional aircraft, primarily because of propulsion system and aircraft low-speed control system installation requirements. An integrated lift-fan propulsion system/aircraft low-speed control system that reduces total propulsion system and control system installation requirements is discussed.

  3. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  4. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  5. Criteria for design of integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the U.S./U.K. STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at Ames Research Center. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot-gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying-qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  6. Automatic carrier landing system for V/STOL aircraft using L1 adaptive and optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariharapura Ramesh, Shashank

    This thesis presents a framework for developing automatic carrier landing systems for aircraft with vertical or short take-off and landing capability using two different control strategies---gain-scheduled linear optimal control, and L1 adaptive control. The carrier landing sequence of V/STOL aircraft involves large variations in dynamic pressure and aerodynamic coefficients arising because of the transition from aerodynamic-supported to jet-borne flight, descent to the touchdown altitude, and turns performed to align with the runway. Consequently, the dynamics of the aircraft exhibit a highly non-linear dynamical behavior with variations in flight conditions prior to touchdown. Therefore, the implication is the need for non-linear control techniques to achieve automatic landing. Gain-scheduling has been one of the most widely employed techniques for control of aircraft, which involves designing linear controllers for numerous trimmed flight conditions, and interpolating them to achieve a global non-linear control. Adaptive control technique, on the other hand, eliminates the need to schedule the controller parameters as they adapt to changing flight conditions.

  7. Evaluation of Laminar Flow Control System Concepts for Subsonic Commercial Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Alternatives in the design of laminar flow control (LFC) subsonic commerical transport aircraft for opeation in the 1980's period were studied. Analyses were conducted to select mission parameters and define optimum aircraft configurational parameters for the selected mission, defined by a passenger payload of 400 and a design range of 12, 038 km (6500 n mi). The baseline aircraft developed for this mission was used as a vehicle for the evaluation and development of alternative LFC system concepts. Alternatices in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials, LFC systems, leading-edge region cleaning, and integration of auxiliary systems were studied. Relative to a similarly-optimized advanced technology turbulent transport, the final LFC configuration is approximately equal in DOC but provides descreases of 8.2% in gross weight and 21.7% in fuel consumption.

  8. Development of an adaptive failure detection and identification system for detecting aircraft control element failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundick, W. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for designing a failure detection and identification (FDI) system to detect and isolate control element failures in aircraft control systems is reviewed. An FDI system design for a modified B-737 aircraft resulting from this methodology is also reviewed, and the results of evaluating this system via simulation are presented. The FDI system performed well in a no-turbulence environment, but it experienced an unacceptable number of false alarms in atmospheric turbulence. An adaptive FDI system, which adjusts thresholds and other system parameters based on the estimated turbulence level, was developed and evaluated. The adaptive system performed well over all turbulence levels simulated, reliably detecting all but the smallest magnitude partially-missing-surface failures.

  9. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  10. Study of synthesis techniques for insensitive aircraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, C. A.; Pope, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Insensitive flight control system design criteria was defined in terms of maximizing performance (handling qualities, RMS gust response, transient response, stability margins) over a defined parameter range. Wing load alleviation for the C-5A was chosen as a design problem. The C-5A model was a 79-state, two-control structure with uncertainties assumed to exist in dynamic pressure, structural damping and frequency, and the stability derivative, M sub w. Five new techniques (mismatch estimation, uncertainty weighting, finite dimensional inverse, maximum difficulty, dual Lyapunov) were developed. Six existing techniques (additive noise, minimax, multiplant, sensitivity vector augmentation, state dependent noise, residualization) and the mismatch estimation and uncertainty weighting techniques were synthesized and evaluated on the design example. Evaluation and comparison of these six techniques indicated that the minimax and the uncertainty weighting techniques were superior to the other six, and of these two, uncertainty weighting has lower computational requirements. Techniques based on the three remaining new concepts appear promising and are recommended for further research.

  11. Robust control of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yong-hua; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Yu-zhuo

    2007-11-01

    Design of a robust controller for the longitudinal dynamics of a hypersonic aircraft by using parameter space method is present. The desirable poles are mapped to the parameter space of the controller using pole placement approach in this method. The intersection of the parameter space is the common controller for the multiple mode system. This controller can meet the need of the different phases of aircraft. It has been proved by simulation that the controller has highly performance of precision and robustness for the disturbance caused by separation, cowl open, fuel on and fuel off and perturbation caused by unknown dynamics.

  12. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  13. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  14. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  15. Robust Nonlinear Feedback Control of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.; Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on the research performed under NASA Glen grant NASA/NAG-3-1975 concerning feedback control of the Pratt & Whitney (PW) STF 952, a twin spool, mixed flow, after burning turbofan engine. The research focussed on the design of linear and gain-scheduled, multivariable inner-loop controllers for the PW turbofan engine using H-infinity and linear, parameter-varying (LPV) control techniques. The nonlinear turbofan engine simulation was provided by PW within the NASA Rocket Engine Transient Simulator (ROCETS) simulation software environment. ROCETS was used to generate linearized models of the turbofan engine for control design and analysis as well as the simulation environment to evaluate the performance and robustness of the controllers. Comparison between the H-infinity, and LPV controllers are made with the baseline multivariable controller and developed by Pratt & Whitney engineers included in the ROCETS simulation. Simulation results indicate that H-infinity and LPV techniques effectively achieve desired response characteristics with minimal cross coupling between commanded values and are very robust to unmodeled dynamics and sensor noise.

  16. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  17. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  18. How Past Loss of Control Accidents May Inform Safety Cases for Advanced Control Systems on Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, C. M.; Johnson, C. W.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes five loss of control accidents involving commercial aircraft, and derives from those accidents three principles to consider when developing a potential safety case for an advanced flight control system for commercial aircraft. One, among the foundational evidence needed to support a safety case is the availability to the control system of accurate and timely information about the status and health of relevant systems and components. Two, an essential argument to be sustained in the safety case is that pilots are provided with adequate information about the control system to enable them to understand the capabilities that it provides. Three, another essential argument is that the advanced control system will not perform less safely than a good pilot.

  19. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  20. Air cycle machine for an aircraft environmental control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decrisantis, Angelo A. (Inventor); O'Coin, James R. (Inventor); Taddey, Edmund P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An ECS system includes an ACM mounted adjacent an air-liquid heat exchanger through a diffuser that contains a diffuser plate. The diffuser plate receives airflow from the ACM which strikes the diffuser plate and flows radially outward and around the diffuser plate and into the air-liquid heat exchanger to provide minimal pressure loss and proper flow distribution into the air-liquid heat exchanger with significantly less packaging space.

  1. Synthesis from Design Requirements of a Hybrid System for Transport Aircraft Longitudinal Control. Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hynes, Charles S.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Sherry, Lance

    2007-01-01

    Volume I of this report presents a new method for synthesizing hybrid systems directly from design requirements, and applies the method to design of a hybrid system for longitudinal control of transport aircraft. The resulting system satisfies general requirement for safety and effectiveness specified a priori, enabling formal validation to be achieved. Volume II contains seven appendices intended to make the report accessible to readers with backgrounds in human factors, fli ght dynamics and control. and formal logic. Major design goals are (1) system desi g n integrity based on proof of correctness at the design level, (2), significant simplification and cost reduction in system development and certification, and (3) improved operational efficiency, with significant alleviation of human-factors problems encountered by pilots in current transport aircraft. This report provides for the first time a firm technical basis for criteria governing design and certification of avionic systems for transport aircraft. It should be of primary interest to designers of next-generation avionic systems.

  2. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate alternatives in the design of laminar flow control (LFC) subsonic commercial transport aircraft for operation in the 1980's period. Analyses were conducted to select mission parameters and define optimum aircraft configurational parameters for the selected mission, defined by a passenger payload of 400 and a design range of 12,038 km (6500 n mi). The baseline aircraft developed for this mission was used as a vehicle for the evaluation and development of alternative LFC system concepts. Alternatives were evaluated in the areas of aerodynamics structures, materials, LFC systems, leading-edge region cleaning and integration of auxiliary systems. Based on these evaluations, concept in each area were selected for further development and testing and ultimate incorporation in the final study aircraft. Relative to a similarly-optimized advanced technology turbulent transport, the final LFC configuration is approximately equal in direct operating cost but provides decreases of 8.2% in gross weight and 21.7% in fuel consumption.

  3. Design considerations for application of laminar flow control systems to transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braslow, A. L.; Fischer, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    The current status of the laminar-flow control LFC technology is summarized. Factors that have previously inhibited the application of LFC are first reviewed. Involved are the effects of atmospheric ice crystals, surface irregularities, acoustical environment, and off-design operating conditions. Aircraft design trends that are different from turbulent aircraft are discussed as are various design requirements unique to the LFC systems. Current design approaches for the principal LFC systems are reviewed. These include the system for protection of the leading-edge region from surface contamination and icing and the system for removal of a portion of the boundary-layer air. The latter includes consideration of both multiple spanwise suction slots and distributed perforations and required differences between the wing-box and leading-edge box regions.

  4. Spectrum-modulating fiber-optic sensors for aircraft control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, Glenn; Fritsch, Klaus

    1987-01-01

    A family of fiber-optic sensors for aircraft engine control systems is described. Each of these sensors uses a spectrum-modulation method to obtain an output which is largely independent of the fiber link transmissivity. A position encoder is described which uses a code plate to digitally modulate the sensor output spectrum. Also described are pressure and temperature sensors, each of which uses a Fabry-Perot cavity to modulate the sensor output spectrum as a continuous function of the measurand. A technique is described whereby a collection of these sensors may be effectively combined to perform a number of the measurements which are required by an aircraft-engine control system.

  5. Design, Specification, and Synthesis of Aircraft Electric Power Systems Control Logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huan

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, networking, and physical processes. Substantial research challenges exist in the design and verification of such large-scale, distributed sensing, actuation, and control systems. Rapidly improving technology and recent advances in control theory, networked systems, and computer science give us the opportunity to drastically improve our approach to integrated flow of information and cooperative behavior. Current systems rely on text-based specifications and manual design. Using new technology advances, we can create easier, more efficient, and cheaper ways of developing these control systems. This thesis will focus on design considerations for system topologies, ways to formally and automatically specify requirements, and methods to synthesize reactive control protocols, all within the context of an aircraft electric power system as a representative application area. This thesis consists of three complementary parts: synthesis, specification, and design. The first section focuses on the synthesis of central and distributed reactive controllers for an aircraft elec- tric power system. This approach incorporates methodologies from computer science and control. The resulting controllers are correct by construction with respect to system requirements, which are formulated using the specification language of linear temporal logic (LTL). The second section addresses how to formally specify requirements and introduces a domain-specific language for electric power systems. A software tool automatically converts high-level requirements into LTL and synthesizes a controller. The final sections focus on design space exploration. A design methodology is proposed that uses mixed-integer linear programming to obtain candidate topologies, which are then used to synthesize controllers. The discrete-time control logic is then verified in real-time by two methods: hardware and simulation. Finally, the problem of partial observability and

  6. Artificial feel system using magneto-rheological fluid on aircraft control stick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Vignesh; Kim, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    The conventional feel system in aircraft occupies large space in the cockpit and has complicated designs. The primary objective of this research is to develop an artificial feel force system that can overcome some drawbacks of the current system. A novel feel system using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is constructed to precisely control the shear stress under the magnetic field. To validate the functionality of the MR artificial feel system, the final system is fabricated and multiple tests are performed to acquire force-velocity characteristics that are compared to the mathematical model derived. In addition, the PID closed loop control algorithm is developed to simulate the dynamic system model. Both experimental and simulation results are compared to validate the derived system model. The system response time and sampling rates are evaluated and compared to the conventional system at the end. It is concluded that the developed artificial feel system can precisely control and acts as a fail proof system when incorporated with a modern fly-by-wire aircraft system.

  7. Analysis and compensation of an aircraft simulator control loading system with compliant linkage. [using hydraulic equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. R.; Bardusch, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A hydraulic control loading system for aircraft simulation was analyzed to find the causes of undesirable low frequency oscillations and loading effects in the output. The hypothesis of mechanical compliance in the control linkage was substantiated by comparing the behavior of a mathematical model of the system with previously obtained experimental data. A compensation scheme based on the minimum integral of the squared difference between desired and actual output was shown to be effective in reducing the undesirable output effects. The structure of the proposed compensation was computed by use of a dynamic programing algorithm and a linear state space model of the fixed elements in the system.

  8. Analyses and tests of the B-1 aircraft structural mode control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wykes, J. H.; Byar, T. R.; Macmiller, C. J.; Greek, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    Analyses and flight tests of the B-1 structural mode control system (SMCS) are presented. Improvements in the total dynamic response of a flexible aircraft and the benefits to ride qualities, handling qualities, crew efficiency, and reduced dynamic loads on the primary structures, were investigated. The effectiveness and the performance of the SMCS, which uses small aerodynamic surfaces at the vehicle nose to provide damping to the structural modes, were evaluated.

  9. Effects of higher order control systems on aircraft approach and landing longitudinal handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasha, M. A.; Dazzo, J. J.; Silverthorn, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of approach and landing longitudinal flying qualities, based on data generated using a variable stability NT-33 aircraft combined with significant control system dynamics is described. An optimum pilot lead time for pitch tracking, flight path angle tracking, and combined pitch and flight path angle tracking tasks is determined from a closed loop simulation using integral squared error (ISE) as a performance measure. Pilot gain and lead time were varied in the closed loop simulation of the pilot and aircraft to obtain the best performance for different control system configurations. The results lead to the selection of an optimum lead time using ISE as a performance criterion. Using this value of optimum lead time, a correlation is then found between pilot rating and performance with changes in the control system and in the aircraft dynamics. It is also shown that pilot rating is closely related to pilot workload which, in turn, is related to the amount of lead which the pilot must generate to obtain satisfactory response. The results also indicate that the pilot may use pitch angle tracking for the approach task and then add flight path angle tracking for the flare and touchdown.

  10. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert

    1991-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight regime research is currently being conducted for modern fighter aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight regime provides enhanced maneuverability to fighter pilots in combat situations. Flight research data are being acquired to compare and validate advanced computational fluid dynamic solutions and wind-tunnel models. High angle-of-attack flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena including wing rock and buffet on the airframe. These phenomena increase the level of excitation of the structural modes, especially on the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. With high gain digital flight-control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. A structural interaction on the X-29A aircraft was observed during high angle-of-attack flight testing. The roll and yaw rate gyros sensed the aircraft's structural modes at 11, 13, and 16 Hz. The rate gyro output signals were then amplified through the flight-control laws and sent as commands to the flaperons and rudder. The flight data indicated that as the angle of attack increased, the amplitude of the buffet on the vertical stabilizer increased, which resulted in more excitation to the structural modes. The flight-control system sensors and command signals showed this increase in modal power at the structural frequencies up to a 30 degree angle-of-attack. Beyond a 30 degree angle-of-attack, the vertical stabilizer response, the feedback sensor amplitude, and control surface command signal amplitude remained relatively constant. Data are presented that show the increased modal power in the aircraft structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of angle of attack. This structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  11. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  12. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  13. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    PubMed

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands. PMID:25405953

  14. Flight control system development and flight test experience with the F-111 mission adaptive wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The wing on the NASA F-111 transonic aircraft technology airplane was modified to provide flexible leading and trailing edge flaps. This wing is known as the mission adaptive wing (MAW) because aerodynamic efficiency can be maintained at all speeds. Unlike a conventional wing, the MAW has no spoilers, external flap hinges, or fairings to break the smooth contour. The leading edge flaps and three-segment trailing edge flaps are controlled by a redundant fly-by-wire control system that features a dual digital primary system architecture providing roll and symmetric commands to the MAW control surfaces. A segregated analog backup system is provided in the event of a primary system failure. This paper discusses the design, development, testing, qualification, and flight test experience of the MAW primary and backup flight control systems.

  15. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  16. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert

    1991-01-01

    High-alpha flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena which increase the level of structural mode excitation; in conjunction with high-gain digital control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. One such interaction has been observed during high-alpha flight testing of the X-29A. Data are presented which demonstrate the enhanced modal power in this aircraft's structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of alpha value. The structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  17. Lyapunov-based control of limit cycle oscillations in uncertain aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialy, Brendan

    Store-induced limit cycle oscillations (LCO) affect several fighter aircraft and is expected to remain an issue for next generation fighters. LCO arises from the interaction of aerodynamic and structural forces, however the primary contributor to the phenomenon is still unclear. The practical concerns regarding this phenomenon include whether or not ordnance can be safely released and the ability of the aircrew to perform mission-related tasks while in an LCO condition. The focus of this dissertation is the development of control strategies to suppress LCO in aircraft systems. The first contribution of this work (Chapter 2) is the development of a controller consisting of a continuous Robust Integral of the Sign of the Error (RISE) feedback term with a neural network (NN) feedforward term to suppress LCO behavior in an uncertain airfoil system. The second contribution of this work (Chapter 3) is the extension of the development in Chapter 2 to include actuator saturation. Suppression of LCO behavior is achieved through the implementation of an auxiliary error system that features hyperbolic functions and a saturated RISE feedback control structure. Due to the lack of clarity regarding the driving mechanism behind LCO, common practice in literature and in Chapters 2 and 3 is to replicate the symptoms of LCO by including nonlinearities in the wing structure, typically a nonlinear torsional stiffness. To improve the accuracy of the system model a partial differential equation (PDE) model of a flexible wing is derived (see Appendix F) using Hamilton's principle. Chapters 4 and 5 are focused on developing boundary control strategies for regulating the bending and twisting deformations of the derived model. The contribution of Chapter 4 is the construction of a backstepping-based boundary control strategy for a linear PDE model of an aircraft wing. The backstepping-based strategy transforms the original system to a exponentially stable system. A Lyapunov-based stability

  18. A Survey of Intelligent Control and Health Management Technologies for Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Guo, Ten-Heui; Mercer, Carolyn; Behbahani, Alireza; Bajwa, Anupa; Jensen, Daniel T.

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Control and Health Management technology for aircraft propulsion systems is much more developed in the laboratory than in practice. With a renewed emphasis on reducing engine life cycle costs, improving fuel efficiency, increasing durability and life, etc., driven by various government programs, there is a strong push to move these technologies out of the laboratory and onto the engine. This paper describes the existing state of engine control and on-board health management, and surveys some specific technologies under development that will enable an aircraft propulsion system to operate in an intelligent way--defined as self-diagnostic, self-prognostic, self-optimizing, and mission adaptable. These technologies offer the potential for creating extremely safe, highly reliable systems. The technologies will help to enable a level of performance that far exceeds that of today s propulsion systems in terms of reduction of harmful emissions, maximization of fuel efficiency, and minimization of noise, while improving system affordability and safety. Technologies that are discussed include various aspects of propulsion control, diagnostics, prognostics, and their integration. The paper focuses on the improvements that can be achieved through innovative software and algorithms. It concentrates on those areas that do not require significant advances in sensors and actuators to make them achievable, while acknowledging the additional benefit that can be realized when those technologies become available. The paper also discusses issues associated with the introduction of some of the technologies.

  19. The Design and Implementation of Aircraft Maintenance On-site Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guilin; Zhang, Huawei

    Based on the desire of aircraft maintenance, combined with the situation in work, this paper present the design and implementation of aircraft maintenance system based dot Net. For a partial page refresh object, AJAX is used through the system. New technology is used in a creative way and will promote innovation and transformation of the business.

  20. Applications of gain-scheduled control in power systems and V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pang-Chia

    This thesis explores the versatility of new methods for gain-scheduled control design which address the parameter varying nature of system dynamics as well as hard constraints on state and control variables. The conducted designs are as follows. (1) Gain-scheduled power system stabilizer (PSS) design using linear matrix inequality (LMI) methods for {cal H}sp{infty}-optimization. The scheduling variables in this PSS design are the mechanical power input and power angle. Under the formulation of a single Lyapunov function for the overall vertex linear parameter varying (LPV) power system, the performance of this gain-scheduled design is established even in the presence of fast varying mechanical power input and power angle which may be caused by severe system failures. (2) Gain-scheduled boiler-turbine controller design using set-valued methods for ℓsp1-optimization. The nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics are brought into LPV form which is characterized by a nonlinear dependence on the scheduling variable, the drum pressure. In the local controller design, the parameter variation constraints are not explicitly addressed since the drum pressure is a slowly varying quantity. However, hard constraints on state and control variables are addressed using set-valued methods and heuristic governing strategies. (3) Gain-scheduled V/STOL aircraft controller design using set-valued methods for ℓsp1-optimization. The nonlinear non-minimum phase aircraft dynamics are formulated as an LPV system with the roll angle as the varying parameter, i.e., the scheduling variable. In the controller construction, the change rate of scheduling variable, i.e., derivative of the roll angle, is explicitly addressed as a system constraint so that the hazard of a fast varying scheduling variable is eliminated.

  1. Automation effects in a stereotypical multiloop manual control system. [for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Mcnally, B. D.

    1984-01-01

    The increasing reliance of state-of-the art, high performance aircraft on high authority stability and command augmentation systems, in order to obtain satisfactory performance and handling qualities, has made critical the achievement of a better understanding of human capabilities, limitations, and preferences during interactions with complex dynamic systems that involve task allocation between man and machine. An analytical and experimental study has been undertaken to investigate human interaction with a simple, multiloop dynamic system in which human activity was systematically varied by changing the levels of automation. Task definition has led to a control loop structure which parallels that for any multiloop manual control system, and may therefore be considered a stereotype.

  2. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Flight test experiences of the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) programs are reviewed. Significant operating anomalies in these programs and the design errors which caused them are examined. The functions which a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors are identified.

  3. Trends in aircraft noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hubbard, H. H.; Conrad, E. W.

    1975-01-01

    Flight vehicles are characterized according to their manner of operation and type of propulsion system; and their associated sources of noise are identified. Available noise reduction technology as it relates to engine cycle design and to powerplant component design is summarized. Such components as exhaust jets, fans, propellers, rotors, blown flaps, and reciprocating-engine exhausts are discussed, along with their noise reduction potentials. Significant aircraft noise reductions are noted to have been accomplished by the application of available technology in support of noise certification rules. Further noise reductions to meet more stringent future noise regulations will require substantial additional technology developments. Improved analytical prediction methods, and well-controlled validation experiments supported by advanced-design aeroacoustic facilities, are required as a basis for an effective integrated systems approach to aircraft noise control.

  4. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  5. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  6. A low cost maritime control aircraft-ship-weapons system. [antiship missile defense

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fluk, H.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that the long-range antiship standoff missile is emerging as the foremost threat on the seas. Delivered by high speed bombers, surface ships, and submarines, a missile attack can be mounted against selected targets from any point on the compass. An investigation is conducted regarding the configuration of a system which could most efficiently identify and destroy standoff threats before they launch their weapons. It is found that by using ships for carrying and launching missiles, and employing aircraft with a powerful radar only for search and missile directing operations, aircraft cost and weight can be greatly reduced. The employment of V/STOL aircraft in preference to other types of aircraft makes it possible to use ships of smaller size for carrying the aircraft. However, in order to obtain an all-weather operational capability for the system, ships are selected which are still big enough to display the required stability in heavy seas.

  7. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  8. Transmission loss characteristics of aircraft sidewall systems to control cabin interior noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesil, Oktay; Serati, Paul M.; Hofbeck, Eric V.; Glover, Billy M.

    We have explored the possibility of using new, light weight, and acoustically effective materials on aircraft interiors to control noise. The sidewall system elements were evaluated for increased TL in the laboratory. Measured TL for a given configuration, relative to a baseline, was used as an indication of the TL change to be expected for modifications. Test data were in good agreement with the predicted levels. The TL contributions due to all sidewall components were important for interior cabin noise control. Polyimide foam insulation was inferior to fiberglass in the mid-frequency range; however, foam was a better performer at high frequencies. Fiberglass/polyimide foam composite blankets, with less weight, provided noise reductions similar to fiberglass. 'Premium' fiberglass was slightly better performer than the standard fiberglass. Solid fiberglass interior trim panel provided adequate noise performance. Production-type trim attachment design could be improved to control flanking path for sound transmission.

  9. Advanced control technology and its potential for future transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The topics covered include fly by wire, digital control, control configured vehicles, applications to advanced flight vehicles, advanced propulsion control systems, and active control technology for transport aircraft.

  10. Electrical power generation systems - Combat aircraft perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller, R.

    The electrical power generation system requirements of combat aircraft are briefly examined. In particular, attention is given to customer requirements, development of the installed electrical power in aircraft, electrical load analysis for designing the power generation system, and definition of aircraft electrical power supply characteristics and consumer qualities. The discussion also covers reliability requirements for power generation systems, design of a power generation system, control and protection equipment in power generation systems, and helicopter electrical power systems.

  11. Design of a flight control system for a highly maneuverable aircraft using mu synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiner, Jacob; Balas, Gary J.; Garrard, William L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the design of longitudinal controllers for high performance aircraft operating over large ranges of angle of attack. The technique used for controller design is structured singular value or mu synthesis. The controller is designed to minimize the weighted H-infinity norm of the error between the aircraft response and the desired handling quality specifications without saturating the control actuators. The mu synthesis procedure ensures that the stability and performance of the aircraft is robust to parameter variations and modeling uncertainties included in the design model. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller satisfies handling quality requirements and provides excellent tracking of pilot inputs over a wide range of transient angles of attack and Mach number.

  12. Preliminary system design study for a digital fly-by-wire flight control system for an F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D. K.

    1976-01-01

    The design of a fly-by-wire control system having a mission failure probability of less than one millionth failures per flight hour is examined. Emphasis was placed on developing actuator configurations that would improve the system performance, and consideration of the practical aspects of sensor/computer and computer/actuator interface implementation. Five basic configurations were defined as appropriate candidates for the F-8C research aircraft. Options on the basic configurations were included to cover variations in flight sensors, redundancy levels, data transmission techniques, processor input/output methods, and servo actuator arrangements. The study results can be applied to fly by wire systems for transport aircraft in general and the space shuttle.

  13. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  14. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  15. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  16. Predicting the effects of unmodeled dynamics on an aircraft flight control system design using eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Eric N.; Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1994-01-01

    When using eigenspace assignment to design an aircraft flight control system, one must first develop a model of the plant. Certain questions arise when creating this model as to which dynamics of the plant need to be included in the model and which dynamics can be left out or approximated. The answers to these questions are important because a poor choice can lead to closed-loop dynamics that are unpredicted by the design model. To alleviate this problem, a method has been developed for predicting the effect of not including certain dynamics in the design model on the final closed-loop eigenspace. This development provides insight as to which characteristics of unmodeled dynamics will ultimately affect the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. What results from this insight is a guide for eigenstructure control law designers to aid them in determining which dynamics need or do not need to be included and a new way to include these dynamics in the flight control system design model to achieve a required accuracy in the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics. The method is illustrated for a lateral-directional flight control system design using eigenspace assignment for the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV).

  17. Numerical simulation of the actuation system for the ALDF's propulsion control valve. [Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, John J.

    1990-01-01

    A numerical simulation of the actuation system for the propulsion control valve (PCV) of the NASA Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility was developed during the preliminary design of the PCV and used throughout the entire project. The simulation is based on a predictive model of the PCV which is used to evaluate and design the actuation system. The PCV controls a 1.7 million-pound thrust water jet used in propelling a 108,000-pound test carriage. The PCV can open and close in 0.300 second and deliver over 9,000 gallons of water per sec at pressures up to 3150 psi. The numerical simulation results are used to predict transient performance and valve opening characteristics, specify the hydraulic control system, define transient loadings on components, and evaluate failure modes. The mathematical model used for numerically simulating the mechanical fluid power system is described, and numerical results are demonstrated for a typical opening and closing cycle of the PCV. A summary is then given on how the model is used in the design process.

  18. Linear matrix inequality-based nonlinear adaptive robust control with application to unmanned aircraft systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kun, David William

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) are gaining popularity in civil and commercial applications as their lightweight on-board computers become more powerful and affordable, their power storage devices improve, and the Federal Aviation Administration addresses the legal and safety concerns of integrating UASs in the national airspace. Consequently, many researchers are pursuing novel methods to control UASs in order to improve their capabilities, dependability, and safety assurance. The nonlinear control approach is a common choice as it offers several benefits for these highly nonlinear aerospace systems (e.g., the quadrotor). First, the controller design is physically intuitive and is derived from well known dynamic equations. Second, the final control law is valid in a larger region of operation, including far from the equilibrium states. And third, the procedure is largely methodical, requiring less expertise with gain tuning, which can be arduous for a novice engineer. Considering these facts, this thesis proposes a nonlinear controller design method that combines the advantages of adaptive robust control (ARC) with the powerful design tools of linear matrix inequalities (LMI). The ARC-LMI controller is designed with a discontinuous projection-based adaptation law, and guarantees a prescribed transient and steady state tracking performance for uncertain systems in the presence of matched disturbances. The norm of the tracking error is bounded by a known function that depends on the controller design parameters in a known form. Furthermore, the LMI-based part of the controller ensures the stability of the system while overcoming polytopic uncertainties, and minimizes the control effort. This can reduce the number of parameters that require adaptation, and helps to avoid control input saturation. These desirable characteristics make the ARC-LMI control algorithm well suited for the quadrotor UAS, which may have unknown parameters and may encounter external

  19. Crash response data system for the controlled impact demonstration (CID) of a full scale transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, Raymond S.; Knight, Vernie H., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    NASA Langley's Crash Response Data System (CRDS) which is designed to acquire aircraft structural and anthropomorphic dummy responses during the full-scale transport CID test is described. Included in the discussion are the system design approach, details on key instrumentation subsystems and operations, overall instrumentation crash performance, and data recovery results. Two autonomous high-environment digital flight instrumentation systems, DAS 1 and DAS 2, were employed to obtain research data from various strain gage, accelerometer, and tensiometric sensors installed in the B-720 test aircraft. The CRDS successfully acquired 343 out of 352 measurements of dynamic crash data.

  20. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  1. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  2. Fiber Optic Control System integration for advanced aircraft. Electro-optic and sensor fabrication, integration, and environmental testing for flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, Daniel W.; Weaver, Thomas L.; Kessler, Bradley L.; Bedoya, Carlos A.; Mattes, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development, and testing of passive fiber optic sensors and a multiplexing electro-optic architecture (EOA) for installation and flight test on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. This hardware was developed under the Fiber Optic Control Systems for Advanced Aircraft program, part of a multiyear NASA initiative to design, develop, and demonstrate through flight test 'fly-by-light' systems for application to advanced aircraft flight and propulsion control. This development included the design and production of 10 passive optical sensors and associated multiplexed EOA hardware based on wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) technology. A variety of sensor types (rotary position, linear position, temperature, and pressure) incorporating a broad range of sensor technologies (WDM analog, WDM digital, analog microbend, and fluorescent time rate of decay) were obtained from different manufacturers and functionally integrated with an independently designed EOA. The sensors were built for installation in a variety of aircraft locations, placing the sensors in a variety of harsh environments. The sensors and EOA were designed and built to have the resulting devices be as close as practical to a production system. The integrated system was delivered to NASA for flight testing on a NASA-owned F-18 aircraft. Development and integration testing of the system provided valuable information as to which sensor types were simplest to design and build for a military aircraft environment and which types were simplest to operate with a multiplexed EOA. Not all sensor types met the full range of performance and environmental requirements. EOA development problems provided information on directions to pursue in future fly-by-light flight control development programs. Lessons learned in the development of the EOA and sensor hardware are summarized.

  3. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  4. Advanced nonlinear control: Robustness and stability with applications to aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frye, Michael Takaichi

    This dissertation examines the problem of global decentralized control by output feedback for large-scale uncertain nonlinear systems whose subsystems are interconnected not only by their outputs but also by their unmeasurable states. Several innovative techniques will be developed to create decentralized output feedback controllers rendering the closed-loop systems globally asymptotically stable. This is accomplished by extending an output feedback domination design that requires only limited information about the nonlinear system. We will apply our design to lower, upper, and non-triangular nonlinear systems. A time-varying output feedback controller is also constructed for use with large-scale systems that have unknown parameters. Furthermore, a mixed large-scale system consisting of both lower and upper triangular systems is shown to be stabilizable by employing a combined high and low gain domination technique. The significance of our results is that we do not need to have prior information about the nonlinearities of the system. In addition, a new design technique was developed using homogeneous system theory, which allows for the design of nonsmooth controllers and observers to stabilize a class of feedforward system with uncontrollable and unobservable linearization. An example of a large-scale system is a group of autonomous airships performing the function of a temporary mobile cell phone network. An airship mobile cell phone network is a novel solution to the problem of maintaining communication during the advent of extensive damage to the communication infrastructure; be it from a flood, earthquake, hurricane, or terrorist attack. A first principle force-based dynamic model for the Tri-Turbofan Airship was developed and will be discussed in detail. The mathematical model was based on actual flight test data that has been collected at the Gait Analysis and Innovative Technologies Laboratory. This model was developed to research autonomous airship

  5. Design of multivariable feedback control systems via spectral assignment. [as applied to aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberty, S. R.; Mielke, R. R.; Tung, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    Applied research in the area of spectral assignment in multivariable systems is reported. A frequency domain technique for determining the set of all stabilizing controllers for a single feedback loop multivariable system is described. It is shown that decoupling and tracking are achievable using this procedure. The technique is illustrated with a simple example.

  6. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  7. Aircraft Landing Gear, Ice and Rain Control Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame):9067.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with operation, inspection, troubleshooting, and repair of aircraft landing gear, ice and rain control systems. It is designed to help the trainee master the knowledge and skills necessary to become an aviation airframe mechanic. The aviation airframe…

  8. Application of a modified complementary filtering technique for increased aircraft control system frequency bandwidth in high vibration environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garren, J. F., Jr.; Niessen, F. R.; Abbott, T. S.; Yenni, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    A modified complementary filtering technique for estimating aircraft roll rate was developed and flown in a research helicopter to determine whether higher gains could be achieved. Use of this technique did, in fact, permit a substantial increase in system frequency bandwidth because, in comparison with first-order filtering, it reduced both noise amplification and control limit-cycle tendencies.

  9. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  10. Design of high performance multivariable control systems for supermaneuverable aircraft at high angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valavani, Lena

    1995-01-01

    The main motivation for the work under the present grant was to use nonlinear feedback linearization methods to further enhance performance capabilities of the aircraft, and robustify its response throughout its operating envelope. The idea was to use these methods in lieu of standard Taylor series linearization, in order to obtain a well behaved linearized plant, in its entire operational regime. Thus, feedback linearization was going to constitute an 'inner loop', which would then define a 'design plant model' to be compensated for robustness and guaranteed performance in an 'outer loop' application of modern linear control methods. The motivation for this was twofold; first, earlier work had shown that by appropriately conditioning the plant through conventional, simple feedback in an 'inner loop', the resulting overall compensated plant design enjoyed considerable enhancement of performance robustness in the presence of parametric uncertainty. Second, the nonlinear techniques did not have any proven robustness properties in the presence of unstructured uncertainty; a definition of robustness (and performance) is very difficult to achieve outside the frequency domain; to date, none is available for the purposes of control system design. Thus, by proper design of the outer loop, such properties could still be 'injected' in the overall system.

  11. Intelligent control for autonomous aircraft missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neidhoefer, James Christian

    The focus of this dissertation is the design and implementation of a full-envelope, nonlinear aircraft controller that includes stability augmentation, tracking control, and autonomous path generation. The control system was demonstrated by using a 6 degree of freedom high performance aircraft model with nonlinear kinematics, full-envelope nonlinear aerodynamics, and first-order thrust and actuator dynamics. Ideas from the emerging field of intelligent control were used in the definition of the controller architecture. More specifically, "Levels of Intelligent Control" were used to provide a systematic structure for the architecture. Several ideas from the field of Artificial Intelligence were also used, including Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms, and Adaptive Critics.

  12. Display/control requirements for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Curry, R. E.; Kleinman, D. L.; Hollister, W. M.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Quantative metrics were determined for system control performance, workload for control, monitoring performance, and workload for monitoring. Pilot tasks were allocated for navigation and guidance of automated commercial V/STOL aircraft in all weather conditions using an optimal control model of the human operator to determine display elements and design.

  13. Multi-input multi-output system control for experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, David K.

    1987-01-01

    Results from the synthesis of control laws for an advanced short takeoff aircraft in a low-speed approach flight condition are given. Two of four candidate synthesis techniques are reported: direct eigenspace assignment and explicit model following via a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) formulation. A fundamental objective of this work is to obtain low-order feedback compensators, synthesized via the above techniques, and the judicious use of state estimation, thus allowing the use of a reasonable number of sensors for feedback.

  14. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  15. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  16. Evaluation of optimal control type models for the human gunner in an Anti-Aircraft Artillery (AAA) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phatak, A. V.; Kessler, K. M.

    1975-01-01

    The selection of the structure of optimal control type models for the human gunner in an anti aircraft artillery system is considered. Several structures within the LQG framework may be formulated. Two basic types are considered: (1) kth derivative controllers; and (2) proportional integral derivative (P-I-D) controllers. It is shown that a suitable criterion for model structure determination can be based on the ensemble statistics of the tracking error. In the case when the ensemble tracking steady state error is zero, it is suggested that a P-I-D controller formulation be used in preference to the kth derivative controller.

  17. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high-order characteristics of the system. In this paper only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles of attack: 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of the identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the estimated closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  18. Closed-Loop System Identification Experience for Flight Control Law and Flying Qualities Evaluation of a High Performance Fighter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper highlights some of the results and issues associated with estimating models to evaluate control law design methods and design criteria for advanced high performance aircraft. Experimental fighter aircraft such as the NASA-High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) have the capability to maneuver at very high angles of attack where nonlinear aerodynamics often predominate. HARV is an experimental F/A-18, configured with thrust vectoring and conformal actuated nose strakes. Identifying closed-loop models for this type of aircraft can be made difficult by nonlinearities and high order characteristics of the system. In this paper, only lateral-directional axes are considered since the lateral-directional control law was specifically designed to produce classical airplane responses normally expected with low-order, rigid-body systems. Evaluation of the control design methodology was made using low-order equivalent systems determined from flight and simulation. This allowed comparison of the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics achieved in flight with that designed in simulation. In flight, the On Board Excitation System was used to apply optimal inputs to lateral stick and pedals at five angles at attack : 5, 20, 30, 45, and 60 degrees. Data analysis and closed-loop model identification were done using frequency domain maximum likelihood. The structure of identified models was a linear state-space model reflecting classical 4th-order airplane dynamics. Input time delays associated with the high-order controller and aircraft system were accounted for in data preprocessing. A comparison of flight estimated models with small perturbation linear design models highlighted nonlinearities in the system and indicated that the closed-loop rigid-body dynamics were sensitive to input amplitudes at 20 and 30 degrees angle of attack.

  19. Closed-Loop Evaluation of an Integrated Failure Identification and Fault Tolerant Control System for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine; Khong, thuan

    2006-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. Such systems developed for failure detection, identification, and reconfiguration, as well as upset recovery, need to be evaluated over broad regions of the flight envelope or under extreme flight conditions, and should include various sources of uncertainty. To apply formal robustness analysis, formulation of linear fractional transformation (LFT) models of complex parameter-dependent systems is required, which represent system uncertainty due to parameter uncertainty and actuator faults. This paper describes a detailed LFT model formulation procedure from the nonlinear model of a transport aircraft by using a preliminary LFT modeling software tool developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, which utilizes a matrix-based computational approach. The closed-loop system is evaluated over the entire flight envelope based on the generated LFT model which can cover nonlinear dynamics. The robustness analysis results of the closed-loop fault tolerant control system of a transport aircraft are presented. A reliable flight envelope (safe flight regime) is also calculated from the robust performance analysis results, over which the closed-loop system can achieve the desired performance of command tracking and failure detection.

  20. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    The application of communication structures to advanced transport aircraft are addressed. First, a set of avionic functional requirements is established, and a baseline set of avionics equipment is defined that will meet the requirements. Three alternative configurations for this equipment are then identified that represent the evolution toward more dispersed systems. Candidate communication structures are proposed for each system configuration, and these are compared using trade off analyses; these analyses emphasize reliability but also address complexity. Multiplex buses are recognized as the likely near term choice with mesh networks being desirable for advanced, highly dispersed systems.

  1. Modal control of an oblique wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, James D.

    1989-01-01

    A linear modal control algorithm is applied to the NASA Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA). The control law is evaluated using a detailed nonlinear flight simulation. It is shown that the modal control law attenuates the coupling and nonlinear aerodynamics of the oblique wing and remains stable during control saturation caused by large command inputs or large external disturbances. The technique controls each natural mode independently allowing single-input/single-output techniques to be applied to multiple-input/multiple-output systems.

  2. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  3. Controlling crippled aircraft-with throttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1991-01-01

    A multiengine crippled aircraft, with most or all of the flight control system inoperative, may use engine thrust for control. A study was conducted of the capability and techniques for emergency flight control. Included were light twin engine piston powered airplanes, an executive jet transport, commercial jet transports, and a high performance fighter. Piloted simulations of the B-720, B-747, B-727, MD-11, C-402, and F-15 airplanes were studied, and the Lear 24, PA-30, and F-15 airplanes were flight tested. All aircraft showed some control capability with throttles and could be kept under control in up-and-away flight for an extended period of time. Using piloted simulators, landings with manual throttles-only control were extremely difficult. However, there are techniques that improve the chances of making a survivable landing. In addition, augmented control systems provide major improvements in control capability and make repeatable landings possible. Control capabilities and techniques are discussed.

  4. Analysis and design of sidestick controller systems for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Daniel M.; Downing, David R.

    1990-01-01

    A method to design sidestick controllers for general aviation aircraft with reversible flight controls is proposed. The use of a sidestick in this type of flight vehicle generally increases the stick forces required for maneuvering; this is due to a reduction in the moment arm of application of the force. In the present study, the reduction of stick forces is achieved by incorporating geared tabs in the control-surface design. A complete analysis using the rigid-body aircraft longitudinal equations of motion and stick-force equation in coupled form is carried out. Lateral stick forces are predicted by solving the single-degree-of-freedom roll approximation and aileron stick-force equations. Data are presented for configurations with various tab areas and a wide range of gearing ratios. The results indicate that the method can be used successfully for geared-tab design and stick-force prediction. It is shown that gearing-ratio selection is critical but that tab area does not have a significant impact on the magnitude of stick forces and stick force to stick deflection gradients.

  5. Management of analytical redundancy in digital flight control systems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. C.; Price, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    This paper presents a design method for optimal redundancy management for nonlinear systems with application to highly maneuvering aircraft. The approach taken is based on selecting the failure states to be covered by the system design and constructing a cost function that represents the cost of making an incorrect decision. The decision logic which minimizes the cost requires a bank of extended Kalman filters running in parallel. This produces a severe computational requirement. To reduce this requirement, a suboptimal logic is developed based on using a nonlinear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters with filter gains and decision logic selected using steady-state results obtained from a linearization of the vehicle and sensor dynamics. The design process is then applied to designing a redundancy management system for the F8-C aircraft. Results indicate that the system is superior in failure detection to a system using the same structure but using a linear single-stage prediction algorithm in the filters.

  6. Robustness Analysis and Reliable Flight Regime Estimation of an Integrated Resilent Control System for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine

    2008-01-01

    Formal robustness analysis of aircraft control upset prevention and recovery systems could play an important role in their validation and ultimate certification. As a part of the validation process, this paper describes an analysis method for determining a reliable flight regime in the flight envelope within which an integrated resilent control system can achieve the desired performance of tracking command signals and detecting additive faults in the presence of parameter uncertainty and unmodeled dynamics. To calculate a reliable flight regime, a structured singular value analysis method is applied to analyze the closed-loop system over the entire flight envelope. To use the structured singular value analysis method, a linear fractional transform (LFT) model of a transport aircraft longitudinal dynamics is developed over the flight envelope by using a preliminary LFT modeling software tool developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, which utilizes a matrix-based computational approach. The developed LFT model can capture original nonlinear dynamics over the flight envelope with the ! block which contains key varying parameters: angle of attack and velocity, and real parameter uncertainty: aerodynamic coefficient uncertainty and moment of inertia uncertainty. Using the developed LFT model and a formal robustness analysis method, a reliable flight regime is calculated for a transport aircraft closed-loop system.

  7. Exploratory tests of a simple aero-mechanical ride comfort system for lightly loaded aircraft. [evaluation of gust alleviating aircraft control surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewes, D. E.; Stewart, E. C.

    1974-01-01

    Some exploratory wind tunnel and radio-controlled free-flight tests were made with a small high-wing airplane model (1.23m wing span) to study the concept of a simple aero mechanical system intended to alleviate gust loads and improve ride comfort of lightly loaded aircraft. The system consisted essentially of the outer portions of each wing being hinged in the chordwise direction and connected directly to the wing flaps using internal counter weights to provide neutral mass balance. When the wing experienced a change in velocity or angle of attack, the movable wing panels, acting as sensors and flap actuators, deflected in response to the changes in lift on the wing. The corresponding movements of the interconnected flaps tended to reduce the changes in the wing lift.

  8. Advanced secondary power system for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, A. C.; Hansen, I. G.; Beach, R. F.; Plencner, R. M.; Dengler, R. P.; Jefferies, K. S.; Frye, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    A concept for an advanced aircraft power system was identified that uses 20-kHz, 440-V, sin-wave power distribution. This system was integrated with an electrically powered flight control system and with other aircraft systems requiring secondary power. The resulting all-electric secondary power configuration reduced the empty weight of a modern 200-passenger, twin-engine transport by 10 percent and the mission fuel by 9 percent.

  9. Artificial Intelligence for Controlling Robotic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2005-01-01

    A document consisting mostly of lecture slides presents overviews of artificial-intelligence-based control methods now under development for application to robotic aircraft [called Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in the paper] and spacecraft and to the next generation of flight controllers for piloted aircraft. Following brief introductory remarks, the paper presents background information on intelligent control, including basic characteristics defining intelligent systems and intelligent control and the concept of levels of intelligent control. Next, the paper addresses several concepts in intelligent flight control. The document ends with some concluding remarks, including statements to the effect that (1) intelligent control architectures can guarantee stability of inner control loops and (2) for UAVs, intelligent control provides a robust way to accommodate an outer-loop control architecture for planning and/or related purposes.

  10. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  11. Geometry Control System for Exploratory Shape Optimization Applied to High-Fidelity Aerodynamic Design of Unconventional Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagnon, Hugo

    This thesis represents a step forward to bring geometry parameterization and control on par with the disciplinary analyses involved in shape optimization, particularly high-fidelity aerodynamic shape optimization. Central to the proposed methodology is the non-uniform rational B-spline, used here to develop a new geometry generator and geometry control system applicable to the aerodynamic design of both conventional and unconventional aircraft. The geometry generator adopts a component-based approach, where any number of predefined but modifiable (parametric) wing, fuselage, junction, etc., components can be arbitrarily assembled to generate the outer mold line of aircraft geometry. A unique Python-based user interface incorporating an interactive OpenGL windowing system is proposed. Together, these tools allow for the generation of high-quality, C2 continuous (or higher), and customized aircraft geometry with fast turnaround. The geometry control system tightly integrates shape parameterization with volume mesh movement using a two-level free-form deformation approach. The framework is augmented with axial curves, which are shown to be flexible and efficient at parameterizing wing systems of arbitrary topology. A key aspect of this methodology is that very large shape deformations can be achieved with only a few, intuitive control parameters. Shape deformation consumes a few tenths of a second on a single processor and surface sensitivities are machine accurate. The geometry control system is implemented within an existing aerodynamic optimizer comprising a flow solver for the Euler equations and a sequential quadratic programming optimizer. Gradients are evaluated exactly with discrete-adjoint variables. The algorithm is first validated by recovering an elliptical lift distribution on a rectangular wing, and then demonstrated through the exploratory shape optimization of a three-pronged feathered winglet leading to a span efficiency of 1.22 under a height

  12. Aircraft digital control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  13. Improved aircraft dynamic response and fatigue life during ground operations using an active control landing gear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.; Carden, H. D.; Edson, R.

    1978-01-01

    A three-degree-of-freedom aircraft landing analysis incorporating a series-hydraulic active control main landing gear has been developed and verified using preliminary experimental data from drop tests of a modified main landing gear from a 2722 kg (6000 lbm) class of airplane. The verified analysis was also employed to predict the landing dynamics of a supersonic research airplane with an active control main landing gear system. The results of this investigation have shown that this type of active gear is feasible and indicate a potential for improving airplane dynamic response and reducing structural fatigue damage during ground operations by approximately 90% relative to that incurred with the passive gear.

  14. Ground and flight test experience with a triple redundant digital fly by wire control system. [installed in F-8C aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarvis, C. R.; Szalai, K. J.

    1981-01-01

    A triplex digital fly by wire flight control system was developed and installed in an F-8C aircraft to provide fail operative, full authority control. Hardware and software redundancy management techniques were designed to detect and identify failures in the system. Control functions typical of those projected for future actively controlled vehicles were implemented.

  15. Hybrid Active-Passive Systems for Control of Aircraft Interior Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Chris R.; Palumbo, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    It was proposed to continue with development and application in the two active-passive areas of Active Tuned Vibration Absorbers (ATVA) and smart foam applied to the reduction of interior noise in aircraft. In general the work was focused on making both techniques more efficient, practical and robust thus increasing their application potential. The work was also concerned with demonstrating the potential of these two technologies under realistic implementations as well as understanding the fundamental physics of the systems. The proposed work consisted of a three-year program and was tightly coordinated with related work being carried out in the Structural Acoustics Branch at NASA LaRC. The work was supervised and coordinated through all phases by Prof Chris Fuller of Va Tech.

  16. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  17. Flightworthy active control landing gear for a supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.

    1980-01-01

    A flightworthy active control landing gear system for a supersonic aircraft was designed to minimize aircraft loads during takeoff, impact, rollout, and taxi. The design consists of hydromechanical modifications to the existing gear and the development of a fail-safe electronic controller. analytical RESULTS INDICATE that for an aircraft sink rate of 0.914 m/sec (3 ft/sec) the system achieves a peak load reduction of 36% during landing impact.

  18. Development of an advanced pitch active control system for a wide body jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Wiley A.; Rising, Jerry J.; Davis, Walt J.

    1984-01-01

    An advanced PACS control law was developed for a commercial wide-body transport (Lockheed L-1011) by using modern control theory. Validity of the control law was demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley visual motion simulator. The PACS design objective was to develop a PACS that would provide good flying qualities to negative 10 percent static stability margins that were equivalent to those of the baseline aircraft at a 15 percent static stability margin which is normal for the L-1011. Also, the PACS was to compensate for high-Mach/high-g instabilities that degrade flying qualities during upset recoveries and maneuvers. The piloted flight simulation tests showed that the PACS met the design objectives. The simulation demonstrated good flying qualities to negative 20 percent static stability margins for hold, cruise and high-speed flight conditions. Analysis and wind tunnel tests performed on other Lockheed programs indicate that the PACS could be used on an advanced transport configuration to provide a 4 percent fuel savings which results from reduced trim drag by flying at negative static stability margins.

  19. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 1: Engineering studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. R.; Smith, K. E.; Mcveigh, M. A.; Dixon, P. G.; Mcmanus, B. L.

    1979-01-01

    Composite structures technology is applied in a preliminary design study of advanced technology blades and hubs for the XV-15 tilt rotor research demonstrator aircraft. Significant improvements in XV-15 hover and cruise performance are available using blades designed for compatibility with the existing aircraft, i.e., blade installation would not require modification of the airframe, hub or upper controls. Provision of a low risk nonmechanical control system was also studied, and a development specification is given.

  20. 78 FR 37958 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Electronic Engine Control System...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 23 Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T... Cessna Aircraft Company (Cessna) Model J182T airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents...

  1. Flight test of a full authority Digital Electronic Engine Control system in an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, W. J.; Rembold, J. P.; Burcham, F. W.; Myers, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Digital Electronic Engine Control (DEEC) system considered is a relatively low cost digital full authority control system containing selectively redundant components and fault detection logic with capability for accommodating faults to various levels of operational capability. The DEEC digital control system is built around a 16-bit, 1.2 microsecond cycle time, CMOS microprocessor, microcomputer system with approximately 14 K of available memory. Attention is given to the control mode, component bench testing, closed loop bench testing, a failure mode and effects analysis, sea-level engine testing, simulated altitude engine testing, flight testing, the data system, cockpit, and real time display.

  2. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  3. The implementation and operation of a variable-response electronic throttle control system for a TF-104G aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Bradford; Sengupta, Upal

    1989-01-01

    During some flight programs, researchers have encountered problems in the throttle response characteristics of high-performance aircraft. To study and to help solve these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility (Ames-Dryden) conducted a study using a TF-104G airplane modified with a variable-response electronic throttle control system. Ames-Dryden investigated the effects of different variables on engine response and handling qualities. The system provided transport delay, lead and lag filters, second-order lags, command rate and position limits, and variable gain between the pilot's throttle command and the engine fuel controller. These variables could be tested individually or in combination. Ten research flights were flown to gather data on engine response and to obtain pilot ratings of the various system configurations. The results should provide design criteria for engine-response characteristics. The variable-response throttle components and how they were installed in the TF-104G aircraft are described. How the variable-response throttle was used in flight and some of the results of using this system are discussed.

  4. A direct application of the non-linear inverse transformation flight control system design on a STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. W.; Mcneill, W. E.; Stortz, M. W.

    1993-01-01

    The nonlinear inverse transformation flight control system design method is applied to the Lockheed Ft. Worth Company's E-7D short takeoff and vertical land (STOVL) supersonic fighter/attack aircraft design with a modified General Electric F110 engine which has augmented propulsive lift capability. The system is fully augmented to provide flight path control and velocity control, and rate command attitude hold for angular axes during the transition and hover operations. In cruise mode, the flight control system is configured to provide direct thrust command, rate command attitude hold for pitch and roll axes, and sideslip command with turn coordination. A control selector based on the nonlinear inverse transformation method is designed specifically to be compatible with the propulsion system's physical configuration which has a two dimensional convergent-divergent aft nozzle, a vectorable ventral nozzle, and a thrust augmented ejector. The nonlinear inverse transformation is used to determine the propulsive forces and nozzle deflections, which in combination with the aerodynamic forces and moments (including propulsive induced contributions), and gravitational force, are required to achieve the longitudinal and vertical acceleration commands. The longitudinal control axes are fully decoupled within the propulsion system's performance envelope. A piloted motion-base flight simulation was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at NASA Ames Research Center to examine the handling qualities of this design. Based on results of the simulation, refinements to the control system have been made and will also be covered in the report.

  5. Towards an Improved Pilot-Vehicle Interface for Highly Automated Aircraft: Evaluation of the Haptic Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The control automation and interaction paradigm (e.g., manual, autopilot, flight management system) used on virtually all large highly automated aircraft has long been an exemplar of breakdowns in human factors and human-centered design. An alternative paradigm is the Haptic Flight Control System (HFCS) that is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Naturalistic Flight Deck Concept. The HFCS uses only stick and throttle for easily and intuitively controlling the actual flight of the aircraft without losing any of the efficiency and operational benefits of the current paradigm. Initial prototypes of the HFCS are being evaluated and this paper describes one such evaluation. In this evaluation we examined claims regarding improved situation awareness, appropriate workload, graceful degradation, and improved pilot acceptance. Twenty-four instrument-rated pilots were instructed to plan and fly four different flights in a fictitious airspace using a moderate fidelity desktop simulation. Three different flight control paradigms were tested: Manual control, Full Automation control, and a simplified version of the HFCS. Dependent variables included both subjective (questionnaire) and objective (SAGAT) measures of situation awareness, workload (NASA-TLX), secondary task performance, time to recognize automation failures, and pilot preference (questionnaire). The results showed a statistically significant advantage for the HFCS in a number of measures. Results that were not statistically significant still favored the HFCS. The results suggest that the HFCS does offer an attractive and viable alternative to the tactical components of today s FMS/autopilot control system. The paper describes further studies that are planned to continue to evaluate the HFCS.

  6. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: Hydromechanically controlled system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Smith, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The landing-gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. During maximum braking, average braking behavior indexes based upon brake pressure, brake torque, and drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system were generally higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The three braking behavior indexes gave similar results but should not be used interchangeably as a measure of the braking of this antiskid sytem. During the transition from a dry to a flooded surface under heavy braking, the wheel entered into a deep skid but the antiskid system reacted quickly by reducing brake pressure and performed normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface. The brake-pressure recovery following transition from a flooded to a dry surface was shown to be a function of the antiskid modulating orifice.

  7. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  8. Moving base simulation of an integrated flight and propulsion control system for an ejector-augmentor STOVL aircraft in hover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcneill, Walter, E.; Chung, William W.; Stortz, Michael W.

    1995-01-01

    A piloted motion simulator evaluation, using the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, was conducted in support of a NASA Lewis Contractual study of the integration of flight and propulsion systems of a STOVL aircraft. Objectives of the study were to validate the Design Methods for Integrated Control Systems (DMICS) concept, to evaluate the handling qualities, and to assess control power usage. The E-7D ejector-augmentor STOVL fighter design served as the basis for the simulation. Handling-qualities ratings were obtained during precision hover and shipboard landing tasks. Handling-qualities ratings for these tasks ranged from satisfactory to adequate. Further improvement of the design process to fully validate the DMICS concept appears to be warranted.

  9. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  10. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach.

  11. Nonlinear robust control of hypersonic aircrafts with interactions between flight dynamics and propulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoying; Zhou, Wenjie; Liu, Hao

    2016-09-01

    This paper addresses the nonlinear robust tracking controller design problem for hypersonic vehicles. This problem is challenging due to strong coupling between the aerodynamics and the propulsion system, and the uncertainties involved in the vehicle dynamics including parametric uncertainties, unmodeled model uncertainties, and external disturbances. By utilizing the feedback linearization technique, a linear tracking error system is established with prescribed references. For the linear model, a robust controller is proposed based on the signal compensation theory to guarantee that the tracking error dynamics is robustly stable. Numerical simulation results are given to show the advantages of the proposed nonlinear robust control method, compared to the robust loop-shaping control approach. PMID:27132149

  12. Preliminary design study of advanced composite blade and hub and nonmechanical control system for the tilt-rotor aircraft. Volume 2: Project planning data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Project planning data for a rotor and control system procurement and testing program for modifications to the XV-15 tilt-rotor research demonstrator aircraft is presented. The design, fabrication, and installation of advanced composite blades compatible with the existing hub, an advanced composite hub, and a nonmechanical control system are required.

  13. An Investigation of Nonlinear Controller for Propulsion Controlled Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft control systems are usually very reliable because of redundancy and multiple control surfaces. However, there are rare occasions when potentially disastrous flight control system failures do occur. At such times, the use of appropriate modulation of engine thrust to stabilize the aircraft may be the only chance of survival for the people aboard. In several cases where complete loss of control systems has occurred in multi-engine aircraft, pilots used the propulsion system to regain limited control of the aircraft with various degrees of success. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using only engine thrust modulation for emergency backup flight control, the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has been conducting a series of analytical studies and flight tests on several different types of aircraft in a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) program. Simulation studies have included B-720, B-727, MD-11, C-402, C-17, F-18, and F-15, and flight tests have included B-747, B-777, MD-11, T-39, Lear 24, F-18, F-15, T-38, and PA-30. One objective was to determine the degree of control available with manual manipulation (open-loop) of the engine throttles. Flight tests and simulations soon showed that a closed loop controller could improve the chances of making a safe runway landing. The major work to date has concentrated on three aircraft (F-15, F-18, and the MD-11). Successful landings using PCA controllers were performed on the F-15 and MD-11 without the use of control surfaces. During the course of the research, some unique challenges have been identified. Compared to the conventional flight control surfaces, the engines are slow and have limited control effectiveness. Hence the ability of the system to promptly respond to aerodynamic changes is limited. Consequently, many nonlinear effects, which are easily accommodated by a conventional flight control system, become significant issues in the design of an effective controller when the engines are used as the

  14. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger.

  15. Fault diagnosis for the heat exchanger of the aircraft environmental control system based on the strong tracking filter.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system's efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010

  16. SIFT - Design and analysis of a fault-tolerant computer for aircraft control. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wensley, J. H.; Lamport, L.; Goldberg, J.; Green, M. W.; Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Shostak, R. E.; Weinstock, C. B.

    1978-01-01

    SIFT (Software Implemented Fault Tolerance) is an ultrareliable computer for critical aircraft control applications that achieves fault tolerance by the replication of tasks among processing units. The main processing units are off-the-shelf minicomputers, with standard microcomputers serving as the interface to the I/O system. Fault isolation is achieved by using a specially designed redundant bus system to interconnect the processing units. Error detection and analysis and system reconfiguration are performed by software. Iterative tasks are redundantly executed, and the results of each iteration are voted upon before being used. Thus, any single failure in a processing unit or bus can be tolerated with triplication of tasks, and subsequent failures can be tolerated after reconfiguration. Independent execution by separate processors means that the processors need only be loosely synchronized, and a novel fault-tolerant synchronization method is described.

  17. Simulation and simulator development of a separate surface attitude command control system for light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the simulation philosophy and process used in the development of a Separate Surface Attitude Command control system (SSAC) for a Beech Model 99 Airliner. The intent of this system is to provide complete three axes stability augmentation at low cost and without the need for system redundancy. The system, although aimed at the general aviation market, also has applications to certain military airplanes as well as to miniature submarines.

  18. Smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system: a condition-based corrosion detection system for aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoess, Jeffrey N.; Seifert, Greg; Paul, Clare A.

    1996-05-01

    The smart aircraft fastener evaluation (SAFE) system is an advanced structural health monitoring effort to detect and characterize corrosion in hidden and inaccessible locations of aircraft structures. Hidden corrosion is the number one logistics problem for the U.S. Air Force, with an estimated maintenance cost of $700M per year in 1990 dollars. The SAFE system incorporates a solid-state electrochemical microsensor and smart sensor electronics in the body of a Hi-Lok aircraft fastener to process and autonomously report corrosion status to aircraft maintenance personnel. The long-term payoff for using SAFE technology will be in predictive maintenance for aging aircraft and rotorcraft systems, fugitive emissions applications such as control valves, chemical pipeline vessels, and industrial boilers. Predictive maintenance capability, service, and repair will replace the current practice of scheduled maintenance to substantially reduce operational costs. A summary of the SAFE concept, laboratory test results, and future field test plans is presented.

  19. Fault Diagnosis for the Heat Exchanger of the Aircraft Environmental Control System Based on the Strong Tracking Filter

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Lu, Chen; Liu, Hongmei

    2015-01-01

    The aircraft environmental control system (ECS) is a critical aircraft system, which provides the appropriate environmental conditions to ensure the safe transport of air passengers and equipment. The functionality and reliability of ECS have received increasing attention in recent years. The heat exchanger is a particularly significant component of the ECS, because its failure decreases the system’s efficiency, which can lead to catastrophic consequences. Fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger is necessary to prevent risks. However, two problems hinder the implementation of the heat exchanger fault diagnosis in practice. First, the actual measured parameter of the heat exchanger cannot effectively reflect the fault occurrence, whereas the heat exchanger faults are usually depicted by utilizing the corresponding fault-related state parameters that cannot be measured directly. Second, both the traditional Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) and the EKF-based Double Model Filter have certain disadvantages, such as sensitivity to modeling errors and difficulties in selection of initialization values. To solve the aforementioned problems, this paper presents a fault-related parameter adaptive estimation method based on strong tracking filter (STF) and Modified Bayes classification algorithm for fault detection and failure mode classification of the heat exchanger, respectively. Heat exchanger fault simulation is conducted to generate fault data, through which the proposed methods are validated. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are capable of providing accurate, stable, and rapid fault diagnosis of the heat exchanger. PMID:25823010

  20. Acoustic boundary control for quieter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Scott Michael

    1999-08-01

    There is a strong interest in reducing the volume of low- frequency noise in aircraft cabins. Active noise control (ANC), in which loudspeakers placed in the cabin are used to generate a sound field which will cancel these disturbances, is now a commercially available solution. A second control approach is active structural acoustic control (ASAC), which uses structural control forces to reduce sound transmitted into the cabin through the fuselage. Some of the goals of current research are to reduce the cost, weight, and bulk of these control systems, along with improving global control performance. This thesis introduces an acoustic boundary control (ABC) concept for active noise control in aircraft. This control strategy uses distributed actuator arrays along enclosure boundaries to reduce noise transmitted into the enclosure through the boundaries and to reduce global noise levels due to other disturbances. The motivation is to provide global pressure attenuation with small, lightweight control actuators. Analytical studies are conducted of acoustic boundary in two-dimensional and three-dimensional rectangular enclosures and in a finite cylindrical enclosure. The simulations provide insight into the control mechanisms of ABC and demonstrate potential advantages of ABC over traditional ANC and ASAC implementations. A key component of acoustic boundary control is the ``smart'' trim panel, a structurally modified aircraft trim panel for use as an acoustic control source. A prototype smart trim panel is built and tested. The smart trim panel is used as the control source in a real-time active noise control system in a laboratory- scale fuselage model. It is shown that the smart trim panel works as well as traditional loudspeakers for this application. A control signal scheduling approach is proposed which allows for a reduction in the computational burden of the real-time controller used in active noise control applications. This approach uses off-line system

  1. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The current Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program is reviewed and the potential role of IOCs in FOCSI applications is described. The program is intended for building, environmentally testing, and demonstrating operation in piggyback flight tests (no active control with optical sensors) of a representative sensor system for propulsion and flight control. The optical sensor systems are to be designed to fit alongside the bill-of-materials sensors for comparison. The sensors are to be connected to electrooptic architecture cards which will contain the optical sources and detectors to recover and process the modulated optical signals. The FOCSI program is to collect data on the behavior of passive optical sensor systems in a flight environment and provide valuable information on installation amd maintenance problems for this technology, as well as component survivability (light sources, connectors, optical fibers, etc.).

  2. Aircraft Loss-of-Control: Analysis and Requirements for Future Safety-Critical Systems and Their Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex, resulting from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper summarizes recent analysis results in identifying worst-case combinations of loss-of-control accident precursors and their time sequences, a holistic approach to preventing loss-of-control accidents in the future, and key requirements for validating the associated technologies.

  3. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 2: Software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, S. A.

    1979-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical control theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well. The first step is to establish the differences, distinguishing characteristics and connections between the modern and classical control theory approaches. Ultimately, this uncovers a relationship between bandwidth goals familiar in classical control and cost function weights in the equivalent optimal system. In order to obtain a practical optimal solution, it is also necessary to formulate the problem very carefully, and each choice of state, measurement and output variable must be judiciously considered. Once design goals are established and problem formulation completed, the control system is synthesized in a straightforward manner. Three steps are involved: filter-observer solution, regulator solution, and the combination of those two into the controller. Assessment of the controller permits and examination and expansion of the synthesis results.

  4. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground Based Computation and Control Systems and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as on human health and safety, as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in earth surface, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools (e.g. ground based test methods as well as high energy particle transport and reaction codes) needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex electronic systems as well as effects on human health and safety. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles, and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with spacecraft materials, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth's surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO).

  5. Attitude controls for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauli, F. A.

    1971-01-01

    Systems consist of single duct system with two sets of reaction control nozzles, one linked mechanically to pilot's controls, and other set driven by electric servomotors commanded by preselected combinations of electrical signals.

  6. Control optimization, stabilization and computer algorithms for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M. (Editor); Willsky, A. S. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The analysis and design of complex multivariable reliable control systems are considered. High performance and fault tolerant aircraft systems are the objectives. A preliminary feasibility study of the design of a lateral control system for a VTOL aircraft that is to land on a DD963 class destroyer under high sea state conditions is provided. Progress in the following areas is summarized: (1) VTOL control system design studies; (2) robust multivariable control system synthesis; (3) adaptive control systems; (4) failure detection algorithms; and (5) fault tolerant optimal control theory.

  7. Study of industry information requirements for flight control and navigation systems of STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorham, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Answers to specific study questions are used to ascertain the data requirements associated with a guidance, navigation and control system for a future civil STOL airplane. Results of the study were used to recommend changes for improving the outputs of the STOLAND flight experiments program.

  8. Practical optimal flight control system design for helicopter aircraft. Volume 1: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, L. G.; Riedel, S. A.; Mcruer, D.

    1980-01-01

    A method by which modern and classical theory techniques may be integrated in a synergistic fashion and used in the design of practical flight control systems is presented. A general procedure is developed, and several illustrative examples are included. Emphasis is placed not only on the synthesis of the design, but on the assessment of the results as well.

  9. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  10. Noise control mechanisms of inside aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zverev, A. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    World trends in the development of methods and approaches to noise reduction in aircraft cabins are reviewed. The paper discusses the mechanisms of passive and active noise and vibration control, application of "smart" and innovative materials, new approaches to creating all fuselage-design elements, and other promising directions of noise control inside aircraft.

  11. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a study of the application of H infinity and mu synthesis techniques to the design of feedback control laws for the longitudinal dynamics of the High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are presented. The objective of this study is to develop methods for the design of feedback control laws which cause the closed loop longitudinal dynamics of the HARV to meet handling quality specifications over the entire flight envelope. Control law designs are based on models of the HARV linearized at various flight conditions. The control laws are evaluated by both linear and nonlinear simulations of typical maneuvers. The fixed gain control laws resulting from both the H infinity and mu synthesis techniques result in excellent performance even when the aircraft performs maneuvers in which the system states vary significantly from their equilibrium design values. Both the H infinity and mu synthesis control laws result in performance which compares favorably with an existing baseline longitudinal control law.

  12. Operational requirements for flight control and navigation systems for short haul transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    To provide a background for evaluating advanced STOL systems concepts, a number of short haul and STOL airline operations in the United States and one operation in Canada were studied. A study of flight director operational procedures for an advanced STOL research airplane, the Augmented Wing Jet STOL Research Airplane, was conducted using the STOLAND simulation facility located at the Ames Changes to the advanced digital flight control system (STOLAND) installed in the Augmentor Wing Airplane are proposed to improve the mode sequencing to simplify pilot procedures and reduce pilot workload.

  13. Application of numerical optimization techniques to control system design for nonlinear dynamic models of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fuying

    1989-01-01

    Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. The general flight dynamic equations are numerically integrated and dynamic characteristics are then identified from the dynamic response. The design variables are determined iteratively by the optimizer to optimize a prescribed objective function which is related to desired dynamic characteristics. Generality of the method allows nonlinear effects to aerodynamics and dynamic coupling to be considered in the design process. To demonstrate the method, nonlinear simulation models for an F-5A and an F-16 configurations are used to design dampers to satisfy specifications on flying qualities and control systems to prevent departure. The results indicate that the present method is simple in formulation and effective in satisfying the design objectives.

  14. Flight evaluation of advanced controls and displays for transition and landing on the NASA V/STOL systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Borchers, Paul F.; Moralez, Ernesto, III

    1996-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted on Ames Research Center's V/STOL Systems Research Aircraft (VSRA) to assess the influence of advanced control modes and head-up displays (HUD's) on flying qualities for precision approach and landing operations. Evaluations were made for decelerating approaches to hover followed by a vertical landing and for slow landings for four control/display mode combinations: the basic YAV-8B stability augmentation system; attitude command for pitch, roll, and yaw; flightpath/acceleration command with translational rate command in the hover; and height-rate damping with translational-rate command. Head-up displays used in conjunction with these control modes provided flightpath tracking/pursuit guidance and deceleration commands for the decelerating approach and a mixed horizontal and vertical presentation for precision hover and landing. Flying qualities were established and control usage and bandwidth were documented for candidate control modes and displays for the approach and vertical landing. Minimally satisfactory bandwidths were determined for the translational-rate command system. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, the Boeing Military Airplane Group, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, Northrop Grumman, Rolls-Royce, and the British Defense Research Agency participated in the program along with NASA research pilots from the Ames and Lewis Research Centers. The results, in conjunction with related ground-based simulation data, indicate that the flightpath/longitudinal acceleration command response type in conjunction with pursuit tracking and deceleration guidance on the HUD would be essential for operation to instrument minimums significantly lower than the minimums for the AV-8B. It would also be a superior mode for performing slow landings where precise control to an austere landing area such as a narrow road is demanded. The translational-rate command system would reduce pilot workload for

  15. Application of cognitive controls for unmanned aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Gregory W.

    1996-05-01

    Cognitive computing refers to an emerging family of problem-solving methods that mimic the intelligence found in nature. The common goal of these methods is to crack tough problems that have resisted straightforward analytic solutions, such as intractable problems caused by combinatorial explosions. This paper describes the application of a combination of three of these methods, fuzzy logic, artificial neural networks, and genetic algorithms in a unique manner to provide a solution to rapidly develop flight control systems for unmanned aircraft. The environment resulting from the combination of these three methods has been successfully applied or is currently being applied to the flight control system development for four unmanned rotorcraft: a full scale Bell Helicopter UH-1H aerial target, an American Sportcopter Ultrasport 254 single sear ultralight helicopter, a custom developed 45 pound miniature helicopter operated by the Army at NASA Langley Research Center, and an electronic countermeasures decoy developed at the Naval Research Laboratory. Additional investigations have begun using this approach for the development of flight control system for fixed wing aircraft as either an autopilot for manned flight or as a controller for an unmanned vehicle. This paper gives a broad overview and technical description of these projects.

  16. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  17. Bioelectric Control of a 757 Class High Fidelity Aircraft Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles; Wheeler, Kevin; Stepniewski, Slawomir; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results of a recent experiment in fine grain Electromyographic (EMG) signal recognition, We demonstrate bioelectric flight control of 757 class simulation aircraft landing at San Francisco International Airport. The physical instrumentality of a pilot control stick is not used. A pilot closes a fist in empty air and performs control movements which are captured by a dry electrode array on the arm, analyzed and routed through a flight director permitting full pilot outer loop control of the simulation. A Vision Dome immersive display is used to create a VR world for the aircraft body mechanics and flight changes to pilot movements. Inner loop surfaces and differential aircraft thrust is controlled using a hybrid neural network architecture that combines a damage adaptive controller (Jorgensen 1998, Totah 1998) with a propulsion only based control system (Bull & Kaneshige 1997). Thus the 757 aircraft is not only being flown bioelectrically at the pilot level but also demonstrates damage adaptive neural network control permitting adaptation to severe changes in the physical flight characteristics of the aircraft at the inner loop level. To compensate for accident scenarios, the aircraft uses remaining control surface authority and differential thrust from the engines. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time real time bioelectric fine-grained control, differential thrust based control, and neural network damage adaptive control have been integrated into a single flight demonstration. The paper describes the EMG pattern recognition system and the bioelectric pattern recognition methodology.

  18. Optimal design of control systems for prevention of aircraft flight departure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward; Ge, Fu-Ying

    1990-01-01

    Control system design for general nonlinear flight dynamic models is considered through numerical simulation. The design is accomplished through a numerical optimizer coupled with analysis of flight dynamic equations. In the analysis, the general nonlinear flight dynamic equations with nonlinear aerodynamics are numerically integrated; and the dynamic characteristics needed in the optimization process are then identified from the dynamic response. To assure a reasonable solution, the initial input values of the design variables are estimated through a sensitivity analysis. To demonstrate the method, the pitch departure prevention for an F-16 configuration is demonstrated.

  19. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Results of a 2-year study are reported which were carried out to extend the development of laminar flow control (LFC) technology and evaluate LFC systems concepts. The overall objective of the LFC program is to provide a sound basis for industry decisions on the application of LFC to future commercial transports. The study was organized into major tasks to support the stated objectives through application of LFC systems concepts to a baseline LFC transport initially generated for the study. Based on competitive evaluation of these concepts, a final selection was made for incorporation into the final design of an LFC transport which also included other advanced technology elements appropriate to the 1990 time period.

  20. Fuzzy optimal swarm of autonomous aircrafts for target determination and convergence control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Zach D.

    The thesis project proposes analytical and theoretical algorithms for a networked swarm of autonomous vehicles, such as those used in planet exploration, and to be used in target location determination and convergence, an algorithm of this type could be used in an Autonomous Stratospheric Aircraft (ASA), thus having the possibility of being used for the exploration of a planet as well as many other applications. Upon locating an unknown location of a specified target, the algorithm would then swarm and eventually converge upon the location. There are two similar, but fundamentally different algorithms proposed in this project. These algorithms are capable of locating and converging upon multiple targeted locations simultaneously. This project is inspired by the current thought of NASA in the search of life on Mars, which is "Follow the Water" [18], where the targeted location would be the targeted source of water. These algorithms make use of combining a modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm with fuzzy variables for increased intelligence.

  1. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Three twentieth century technological developments, 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems, have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems. The effects of primary cosmic ray particles and secondary particle showers produced by nuclear reactions with the atmosphere, can determine the design and verification processes (as well as the total dollar cost) for manned and unmanned spacecraft avionics systems. Similar considerations apply to commercial and military aircraft operating at high latitudes and altitudes near the atmospheric Pfotzer maximum. Even ground based computational and controls systems can be negatively affected by secondary particle showers at the Earth s surface, especially if the net target area of the sensitive electronic system components is large. Finally, accumulation of both primary cosmic ray and secondary cosmic ray induced particle shower radiation dose is an important health and safety consideration for commercial or military air crews operating at high altitude/latitude and is also one of the most important factors presently limiting manned space flight operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). In this paper we review the discovery of cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems as well as human health and the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combinations with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport

  2. Development of an advanced pitch active control system and a reduced area horizontal tail for a wide-body jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Wiley A.

    1984-01-01

    The development of an advanced pitch active control system (PACS) and a reduced area horizontal tail for a wide-body jet transport (L-1011) with a flying horizontal stabilizer is discussed. The advanced PACS control law design objectives were to provide satisfactory handling qualities for aft c.g. flight conditions to negative static stability margins of 10 percent and to provide good maneuver control column force gradients for nonlinear stability flight conditions. Validity of the control laws were demonstrated by piloted flight simulation tests on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator. Satisfactory handling qualities were actually demonstrated to a negative 20 percent static stability margin. The PACS control laws were mechanized to provide the system architecture that would be suitable for an L-1011 flight test program to a negative stability margin of 3 percent which represents the aft c.g. limits of the aircraft. Reduced area horizontal tail designs of 30 and 38 percent with respect to the L-1011 standard tail were designed, fabricated and wind tunnel tested. Drag reductions and weight savings of the 30 percent smaller tail would provide an L/D benefit of about 2% and the 38% small tail L/D benefit would be about 3 percent. However, forward c.g. limitations would have to be imposed on the aircraft because the maximum horizontal tail lift goal was not achieved and sufficient aircraft nose-up control authority was not available. This limitation would not be required for a properly designed new aircraft.

  3. Evaluation of laminar flow control system concepts for subsonic commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A two-year study conducted to establish a basis for industry decisions on the application of laminar flow control (LFC) to future commercial transports was presented. Areas of investigation included: (1) mission definition and baseline selection; (2) concepts evaluations; and (3) LFC transport configuration selection and component design. The development and evaluation of competing design concepts was conducted in the areas of aerodynamics, structures and materials, and systems. The results of supporting wind tunnel and laboratory testing on a full-scale LFC wing panel, suction surface opening concepts and structural samples were included. A final LFC transport was configured in incorporating the results of concept evaluation studies and potential performance improvements were assessed. Remaining problems together with recommendations for future research are discussed.

  4. Communications Technology Assessment for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) Link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Bishop, William D.; Dailey, Justin E.; Chevalier, Christine T.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center (GRC) is performing communications systems research for the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project. One of the goals of the communications element is to select and test a communications technology for the UAS Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. The GRC UAS Modeling and Simulation (M/S) Sub Team will evaluate the performance of several potential technologies for the CNPC link through detailed software simulations. In parallel, an industry partner will implement a technology in hardware to be used for flight testing. The task necessitated a technical assessment of existing Radio Frequency (RF) communications technologies to identify the best candidate systems for use as the UAS CNPC link. The assessment provides a basis for selecting the technologies for the M/S effort and the hardware radio design. The process developed for the technical assessments for the Future Communications Study1 (FCS) was used as an initial starting point for this assessment. The FCS is a joint Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and Eurocontrol study on technologies for use as a future aeronautical communications link. The FCS technology assessment process methodology can be applied to the UAS CNPC link; however the findings of the FCS are not directly applicable because of different requirements between a CNPC link and a general aeronautical data link. Additional technologies were added to the potential technologies list from the State of the Art Unmanned Aircraft System Communication Assessment developed by NASA GRC2. This document investigates the state of the art of communications as related to UAS. A portion of the document examines potential communications systems for a UAS communication architecture. Like the FCS, the state of the art assessment surveyed existing communications technologies. It did not, however, perform a detailed assessment of the

  5. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces. A slip-velocity-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.; Smith, E. G.

    1979-01-01

    The braking and cornering response of a slip velocity controlled, pressure bias modulated aircraft antiskid braking system is investigated. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC 9 series 10 airplane. The landing gear strut was replaced by a dynamometer. The parameters, which were varied, included the carriage speed, tire loading, yaw angle, tire tread condition, brake system operating pressure, and runway wetness conditions. The effects of each of these parameters on the behavior of the skid control system is presented. Comparisons between data obtained with the skid control system and data obtained from single cycle braking tests without antiskid protection are examined.

  6. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  7. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  8. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  9. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  10. Stability and control of maneuvering high-performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Berry, P. W.

    1977-01-01

    The stability and control of a high-performance aircraft was analyzed, and a design methodology for a departure prevention stability augmentation system (DPSAS) was developed. A general linear aircraft model was derived which includes maneuvering flight effects and trim calculation procedures for investigating highly dynamic trajectories. The stability and control analysis systematically explored the effects of flight condition and angular motion, as well as the stability of typical air combat trajectories. The effects of configuration variation also were examined.

  11. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  12. Nonlinear longitudinal control of a supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Snell, Anthony; Enns, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is described which can be used for design of feedback controllers for high-performance aircraft operating in flight conditions in which nonlinearities significantly affect performance. Designs are performed on a mathematical model of the longitudinal dynamics of a hypothetical aircraft similar to proposed supermaneuverable flight test vehicles. Nonlinear controller designs are performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Preliminary results show that the method yields promising results.

  13. A Risk Management Architecture for Emergency Integrated Aircraft Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGlynn, Gregory E.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced engine operation--operation that is beyond normal limits--has the potential to improve the adaptability and safety of aircraft in emergency situations. Intelligent use of enhanced engine operation to improve the handling qualities of the aircraft requires sophisticated risk estimation techniques and a risk management system that spans the flight and propulsion controllers. In this paper, an architecture that weighs the risks of the emergency and of possible engine performance enhancements to reduce overall risk to the aircraft is described. Two examples of emergency situations are presented to demonstrate the interaction between the flight and propulsion controllers to facilitate the enhanced operation.

  14. Structureborne noise control in advanced turboprop aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Irvin J.

    1987-01-01

    Structureborne noise is discussed as a contributor to propeller aircraft interior noise levels that are nonresponsive to the application of a generous amount of cabin sidewall acoustic treatment. High structureborne noise levels may jeopardize passenger acceptance of the fuel-efficient high-speed propeller transport aircraft designed for cruise at Mach 0.65 to 0.85. These single-rotation tractor and counter-rotation tractor and pusher propulsion systems will consume 15 to 30 percent less fuel than advanced turbofan systems. Structureborne noise detection methodologies and the importance of development of a structureborne noise sensor are discussed. A structureborne noise generation mechanism is described in which the periodic components or propeller swirl produce periodic torques and forces on downstream wings and airfoils that are propagated to the cabin interior as noise. Three concepts for controlling structureborne noise are presented: (1) a stator row swirl remover, (2) selection of a proper combination of blade numbers in the rotor/stator system of a single-rotation propeller, and the rotor/rotor system of a counter-rotation propeller, and (3) a tuned mechanical absorber.

  15. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control wing design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.; Fernald, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    An engineering design study was performed in which laminar flow control (LFC) was integrated into the wing of a commercial passenger transport aircraft. A baseline aircraft configuration was selected and the wing geometry was defined. The LFC system, with suction slots, ducting, and suction pumps was integrated with the wing structure. The use of standard aluminum technology and advanced superplastic formed diffusion bonded titanium technology was evaluated. The results of the design study show that the LFC system can be integrated with the wing structure to provide a structurally and aerodynamically efficient wing for a commercial transport aircraft.

  16. Multi-input, multi-output system control for experimental aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    Two techniques, direct eigenspace assignment (DEA) and explicit model following (EMF), are used initially to synthesize control laws for the longitudinal dynamics model of a Short Takeoff and Landing (STOL) vehicle in the landing configuration. The vehicle model and the flight control design are presented. The two synthesis techniques are briefly discussed and the handling qualities specifications mapped into the algorithm formulations. The control laws resulting from exercising the algorithms are evaluated in terms of achieved performance and robustness. Since the synthesized control laws involve full state feedback, methodologies were implemented for the control laws using output feedback without adversely affecting performance and robustness. Finally, the salient features of the two design techniques are summarized and the areas that require further investigation are suggested.

  17. The aircraft energy efficiency active controls technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Broad outlines of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program for expediting the application of active controls technology to civil transport aircraft are presented. Advances in propulsion and airframe technology to cut down on fuel consumption and fuel costs, a program for an energy-efficient transport, and integrated analysis and design technology in aerodynamics, structures, and active controls are envisaged. Fault-tolerant computer systems and fault-tolerant flight control system architectures are under study. Contracts with leading manufacturers for research and development work on wing-tip extensions and winglets for the B-747, a wing load alleviation system, elastic mode suppression, maneuver-load control, and gust alleviation are mentioned.

  18. Design Considerations for Laminar Flow Control Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.; Bennett, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate major design considerations involved in the application of laminar flow control to the wings and empennage of long range subsonic transport aircraft compatible with initial operation in 1985. For commercial transports with a design mission range of 10,186 km (5500 n mil) and a payload of 200 passengers, parametric configuration analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of aircraft performance, operational, and geometric parameters on fuel efficiency. Study results indicate that major design goals for aircraft optimization include maximization of aspect ratio and wing loading and minimization of wing sweep consistent with wing volume and airport performance requirements.

  19. Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations concept. The general philosophy underlying this concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. This document also provides details for a number of off-nominal and emergency procedures which address situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA. The details for this operational concept along with a description of candidate aircraft systems to support this concept are provided.

  20. Aircraft and airport noise control prospective outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, N.

    1982-01-01

    In a perspective look at aircraft and airport noise control over the past ten years or more - or more is added here because the Federal Aviation Regulation Part 36 of 1969 is a more significant milestone for the air transportation system than is the Noise Control Act of 1972 - we see an appreciable reduction in the noise emitted by newly designed and newly produced airplanes, particularly those powered by the new high bypass engines, but only, at best, a moderate alleviation of airport noise. The change in airport noise exposure was the consequence of the introduction of some new, quieter airplanes into the airlines fleets and some operational modifications or restrictions at the airports.

  1. Decoupling control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Kempel, R. W.; Pahle, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    Interest in oblique-wing aircraft has surfaced periodically since the 1940's. This concept offers some substantial aerodynamic performance advantages but also has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. This paper presents a technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The proposed synthesis procedure uses the concept of a real model-following control system. Feedforward gains are selected on the assumption that perfect model-following conditions are satisfied. The feedback gains are obtained by using eigensystem assignment, and the aircraft is stabilized by using partial state feedback. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated by application to linearized equations of motion of an oblique-wing aircraft for a given flight condition.

  2. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  3. Behavior of aircraft antiskid breaking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces: A slip-ratio-controlled system with ground speed reference from unbraked nose wheel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.

    1977-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility to study the braking and cornering response of a slip ratio controlled aircraft antiskid braking system with ground speed reference derived from an unbraked nose wheel. The investigation, conducted on dry and wet runway surfaces, utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a DC-9 series 10 airplane. During maximum braking, the average ratio of the drag force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to the maximum drag force friction coefficient available was higher on the dry surface than on damp and flooded surfaces, and was reduced with lighter vertical loads, higher yaw angles, and when new tire treads were replaced by worn treads. Similarly, the average ratio of side force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to the maximum side force friction coefficient available to a freely rolling yawed tire decreased with increasing yaw angle, generally increased with ground speed, and decreased when tires with new treads were replaced by those with worn treads.

  4. System data communication structures for active-control transport aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, A. L.; Martin, J. H.; Brock, L. D.; Jansson, D. G.; Serben, S.; Smith, T. B.; Hanley, L. D.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate data communication techniques are identified, including dedicated links, local buses, broadcast buses, multiplex buses, and mesh networks. The design methodology for mesh networks is then discussed, including network topology and node architecture. Several concepts of power distribution are reviewed, including current limiting and mesh networks for power. The technology issues of packaging, transmission media, and lightning are addressed, and, finally, the analysis tools developed to aid in the communication design process are described. There are special tools to analyze the reliability and connectivity of networks and more general reliability analysis tools for all types of systems.

  5. Systems development of a stall/spin research facility using remotely controlled/augmented aircraft models. Volume 1: Systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, R. J.; Jai, A. R.; Parker, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    A ground based, general purpose, real time, digital control system simulator (CSS) is specified, developed, and integrated with the existing instrumentation van of the testing facility. This CSS is built around a PDP-11/55, and its operational software was developed to meet the dual goal of providing the immediate capability to represent the F-18 drop model control laws and the flexibility for expansion to represent more complex control laws typical of control configured vehicles. Overviews of the two CSS's developed are reviewed as well as the overall system after their integration with the existing facility. Also the latest version of the F-18 drop model control laws (REV D) is described and the changes needed for its incorporation in the digital and analog CSS's are discussed.

  6. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle; KrishnaKumar, Kalmanje Srinvas; Frost, Susan Alane

    2008-01-01

    NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is focused on mitigating the environmental and operation impacts expected as aviation operations triple by 2025. The approach is to extend technological capabilities and explore novel civil transport configurations that reduce noise, emissions, fuel consumption and field length. Two Next Generation (NextGen) aircraft have been identified to meet the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals - these are the Hybrid Wing-Body (HWB) and Cruise Efficient Short Take-Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. The technologies and concepts developed for these aircraft complicate the vehicle s design and operation. In this paper, flight control challenges for NextGen aircraft are described. The objective of this paper is to examine the potential of state-of-the-art control architectures and algorithms to meet the challenges and needed performance metrics for NextGen flight control. A broad range of conventional and intelligent control approaches are considered, including dynamic inversion control, integrated flight-propulsion control, control allocation, adaptive dynamic inversion control, data-based predictive control and reinforcement learning control.

  7. Aircraft automatic-flight-control system with inversion of the model in the feed-forward path using a Newton-Raphson technique for the inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.; Nordstrom, M.

    1986-01-01

    A new automatic flight control system concept suitable for aircraft with highly nonlinear aerodynamic and propulsion characteristics and which must operate over a wide flight envelope was investigated. This exact model follower inverts a complete nonlinear model of the aircraft as part of the feed-forward path. The inversion is accomplished by a Newton-Raphson trim of the model at each digital computer cycle time of 0.05 seconds. The combination of the inverse model and the actual aircraft in the feed-forward path alloys the translational and rotational regulators in the feedback path to be easily designed by linear methods. An explanation of the model inversion procedure is presented. An extensive set of simulation data for essentially the full flight envelope for a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft (VATOL) is presented. These data demonstrate the successful, smooth, and precise control that can be achieved with this concept. The trajectory includes conventional flight from 200 to 900 ft/sec with path accelerations and decelerations, altitude changes of over 6000 ft and 2g and 3g turns. Vertical attitude maneuvering as a tail sitter along all axes is demonstrated. A transition trajectory from 200 ft/sec in conventional flight to stationary hover in the vertical attitude includes satisfactory operation through lift-cure slope reversal as attitude goes from horizontal to vertical at constant altitude. A vertical attitude takeoff from stationary hover to conventional flight is also demonstrated.

  8. Preliminary performance of a vertical-attitude takeoff and landing, supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robins, A. W.; Beissner, F. L., Jr.; Domack, C. S.; Swanson, E. E.

    1985-01-01

    A performance study was made of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL), supersonic cruise aircraft concept having thrust vectoring integrated into the flight control system. Those characteristics considered were aerodynamics, weight, balance, and performance. Preliminary results indicate that high levels of supersonic aerodynamic performance can be achieved. Further, with the assumption of an advanced (1985 technology readiness) low bypass ratio turbofan engine and advanced structures, excellent mission performance capability is indicated.

  9. How to fly an aircraft with control theory and splines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karlsson, Anders

    1994-01-01

    When trying to fly an aircraft as smoothly as possible it is a good idea to use the derivatives of the pilot command instead of using the actual control. This idea was implemented with splines and control theory, in a system that tries to model an aircraft. Computer calculations in Matlab show that it is impossible to receive enough smooth control signals by this way. This is due to the fact that the splines not only try to approximate the test function, but also its derivatives. A perfect traction is received but we have to pay in very peaky control signals and accelerations.

  10. The F-18 systems research aircraft facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sitz, Joel R.

    1992-01-01

    To help ensure that new aerospace initiatives rapidly transition to competitive U.S. technologies, NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility has dedicated a systems research aircraft facility. The primary goal is to accelerate the transition of new aerospace technologies to commercial, military, and space vehicles. Key technologies include more-electric aircraft concepts, fly-by-light systems, flush airdata systems, and advanced computer architectures. Future aircraft that will benefit are the high-speed civil transport and the National AeroSpace Plane. This paper describes the systems research aircraft flight research vehicle and outlines near-term programs.

  11. The rotor systems research aircraft - A flying wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.; Hellyar, M. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Aircraft Corporation is constructing two uniquely designed Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA). These aircraft will be used through the 1980's to comparatively test many different types of rotors - articulated, hingeless, teetering, and gimballed, as well as advanced rotor concepts, such as reverse velocity and variable diameter rotors. The RSRA combines a new airframe with existing Sikorsky H-3 (S-61) dynamic components. A force measurement system is incorporated to permit accurate evaluation of significant rotor characteristics. Both rotor and fixed-wing control systems are provided, appropriately integrated for operation in the pure helicopter mode, compound helicopter mode, and fixed-wing mode. The RSRA is the first rotary wing aircraft designed with a crew escape system, including a pyrotechnic system to sever the main rotor blades.

  12. SILHIL Replication of Electric Aircraft Powertrain Dynamics and Inner-Loop Control for V&V of System Health Management Routines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bole, Brian; Teubert, Christopher Allen; Cuong Chi, Quach; Hogge, Edward; Vazquez, Sixto; Goebel, Kai; George, Vachtsevanos

    2013-01-01

    Software-in-the-loop and Hardware-in-the-loop testing of failure prognostics and decision making tools for aircraft systems will facilitate more comprehensive and cost-effective testing than what is practical to conduct with flight tests. A framework is described for the offline recreation of dynamic loads on simulated or physical aircraft powertrain components based on a real-time simulation of airframe dynamics running on a flight simulator, an inner-loop flight control policy executed by either an autopilot routine or a human pilot, and a supervisory fault management control policy. The creation of an offline framework for verifying and validating supervisory failure prognostics and decision making routines is described for the example of battery charge depletion failure scenarios onboard a prototype electric unmanned aerial vehicle.

  13. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  14. Application of new GPS aircraft control/display system to topographic mapping of the Greenland ice cap

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, C.W.; Swift, R.N.

    1996-10-01

    NASA has completed an accurate baseline map of the elevation of the Greenland ice sheet using a scanning airborne lidar in combination with differential kinematic Global Positioning System (GPS) techniques. The present plan is to reoccupy these survey lines which are spread over the major regions of the ice sheet beginning in 1997. The results are expected to provide a quantitative answer on how the ice sheet is responding to regional climatic changes. Navigation to within +-100 m of the desired track over lengths of up to 1,000 km are a requirement for the success of the program. To meet this navigational requirement, NASA developed the GPS Flight Management System (GFMS). GFMS is a PC based system that uses the real-time position update from a single GPS receiver located on the aircraft to calculate a cross-track error and generates aircraft steering commands which are converted into analog Instrument Landing System (OM) signals using an RF generator. TU GFMS also updates a cockpit display. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  16. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  17. Nonlinear feedback control of highly manoeuvrable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.; Snell, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the application of nonlinear quadratic regulator (NLQR) theory to the design of control laws for a typical high-performance aircraft. The NLQR controller design is performed using truncated solutions of the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation of optimal control theory. The performance of the NLQR controller is compared with the performance of a conventional P + I gain scheduled controller designed by applying standard frequency response techniques to the equations of motion of the aircraft linearized at various angles of attack. Both techniques result in control laws which are very similar in structure to one another and which yield similar performance. The results of applying both control laws to a high-g vertical turn are illustrated by nonlinear simulation.

  18. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  19. A Mission-Adaptive Variable Camber Flap Control System to Optimize High Lift and Cruise Lift-to-Drag Ratios of Future N+3 Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James, Sr.; Nguyen, Nhan; Ippolito, Corey; Totah, Joseph; Trinh, Khanh; Ting, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Boeing and NASA are conducting a joint study program to design a wing flap system that will provide mission-adaptive lift and drag performance for future transport aircraft having light-weight, flexible wings. This Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF) system offers a lighter-weight lift control system having two performance objectives: (1) an efficient high lift capability for take-off and landing, and (2) reduction in cruise drag through control of the twist shape of the flexible wing. This control system during cruise will command varying flap settings along the span of the wing in order to establish an optimum wing twist for the current gross weight and cruise flight condition, and continue to change the wing twist as the aircraft changes gross weight and cruise conditions for each mission segment. Design weight of the flap control system is being minimized through use of light-weight shape memory alloy (SMA) actuation augmented with electric actuators. The VCCTEF program is developing better lift and drag performance of flexible wing transports with the further benefits of lighter-weight actuation and less drag using the variable camber shape of the flap.

  20. Bayesian Software Health Management for Aircraft Guidance, Navigation, and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Mbaya, Timmy; Menghoel, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Modern aircraft, both piloted fly-by-wire commercial aircraft as well as UAVs, more and more depend on highly complex safety critical software systems with many sensors and computer-controlled actuators. Despite careful design and V&V of the software, severe incidents have happened due to malfunctioning software. In this paper, we discuss the use of Bayesian networks (BNs) to monitor the health of the on-board software and sensor system, and to perform advanced on-board diagnostic reasoning. We will focus on the approach to develop reliable and robust health models for the combined software and sensor systems.

  1. Terminal area automatic navigation, guidance, and control research using the Microwave Landing System (MLS). Part 2: RNAV/MLS transition problems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pines, S.

    1982-01-01

    The problems in navigation and guidance encountered by aircraft in the initial transition period in changing from distance measuring equipment, VORTAC, and barometric instruments to the more precise microwave landing system data type navaids in the terminal area are investigated. The effects of the resulting discontinuities on the estimates of position and velocity for both optimal (Kalman type navigation schemes) and fixed gain (complementary type) navigation filters, and the effects of the errors in cross track, track angle, and altitude on the guidance equation and control commands during the critical landing phase are discussed. A method is presented to remove the discontinuities from the navigation loop and to reconstruct an RNAV path designed to land the aircraft with minimal turns and altitude changes.

  2. Aircraft Electric Propulsion Systems Applied Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Researchers at NASA are investigating the potential for electric propulsion systems to revolutionize the design of aircraft from the small-scale general aviation sector to commuter and transport-class vehicles. Electric propulsion provides new degrees of design freedom that may enable opportunities for tightly coupled design and optimization of the propulsion system with the aircraft structure and control systems. This could lead to extraordinary reductions in ownership and operating costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and noise annoyance levels. We are building testbeds, high-fidelity aircraft simulations, and the first highly distributed electric inhabited flight test vehicle to begin to explore these opportunities.

  3. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  4. Immunity-Based Aircraft Fault Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dasgupta, D.; KrishnaKumar, K.; Wong, D.; Berry, M.

    2004-01-01

    In the study reported in this paper, we have developed and applied an Artificial Immune System (AIS) algorithm for aircraft fault detection, as an extension to a previous work on intelligent flight control (IFC). Though the prior studies had established the benefits of IFC, one area of weakness that needed to be strengthened was the control dead band induced by commanding a failed surface. Since the IFC approach uses fault accommodation with no detection, the dead band, although it reduces over time due to learning, is present and causes degradation in handling qualities. If the failure can be identified, this dead band can be further A ed to ensure rapid fault accommodation and better handling qualities. The paper describes the application of an immunity-based approach that can detect a broad spectrum of known and unforeseen failures. The approach incorporates the knowledge of the normal operational behavior of the aircraft from sensory data, and probabilistically generates a set of pattern detectors that can detect any abnormalities (including faults) in the behavior pattern indicating unsafe in-flight operation. We developed a tool called MILD (Multi-level Immune Learning Detection) based on a real-valued negative selection algorithm that can generate a small number of specialized detectors (as signatures of known failure conditions) and a larger set of generalized detectors for unknown (or possible) fault conditions. Once the fault is detected and identified, an adaptive control system would use this detection information to stabilize the aircraft by utilizing available resources (control surfaces). We experimented with data sets collected under normal and various simulated failure conditions using a piloted motion-base simulation facility. The reported results are from a collection of test cases that reflect the performance of the proposed immunity-based fault detection algorithm.

  5. Fuzzy-neural control of an aircraft tracking camera platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgrath, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    A fuzzy-neural control system simulation was developed for the control of a camera platform used to observe aircraft on final approach to an aircraft carrier. The fuzzy-neural approach to control combines the structure of a fuzzy knowledge base with a supervised neural network's ability to adapt and improve. The performance characteristics of this hybrid system were compared to those of a fuzzy system and a neural network system developed independently to determine if the fusion of these two technologies offers any advantage over the use of one or the other. The results of this study indicate that the fuzzy-neural approach to control offers some advantages over either fuzzy or neural control alone.

  6. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  7. Methodology for design of active controls for V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L.

    1976-01-01

    An effort to develop techniques for the design of integrated, fully automatic flight control systems for powered lift STOL and VTOL aircraft is described. The structure is discussed of the control system which has been developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with the advanced ATC requiring accurate execution of complex trajectories, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The specific case considered is the Augmentor Wing Research Aircraft.

  8. Analysis of Aircraft Control Performance using a Fuzzy Rule Base Representation of the Cooper-Harper Aircraft Handling Quality Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Chris; Gupta, Pramod; Schumann, Johann

    2006-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper rating of Aircraft Handling Qualities has been adopted as a standard for measuring the performance of aircraft since it was introduced in 1966. Aircraft performance, ability to control the aircraft, and the degree of pilot compensation needed are three major key factors used in deciding the aircraft handling qualities in the Cooper- Harper rating. We formulate the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as a fuzzy rule-based system and use it to analyze the effectiveness of the aircraft controller. The automatic estimate of the system-level handling quality provides valuable up-to-date information for diagnostics and vehicle health management. Analyzing the performance of a controller requires a set of concise design requirements and performance criteria. Ir, the case of control systems fm a piloted aircraft, generally applicable quantitative design criteria are difficult to obtain. The reason for this is that the ultimate evaluation of a human-operated control system is necessarily subjective and, with aircraft, the pilot evaluates the aircraft in different ways depending on the type of the aircraft and the phase of flight. In most aerospace applications (e.g., for flight control systems), performance assessment is carried out in terms of handling qualities. Handling qualities may be defined as those dynamic and static properties of a vehicle that permit the pilot to fully exploit its performance in a variety of missions and roles. Traditionally, handling quality is measured using the Cooper-Harper rating and done subjectively by the human pilot. In this work, we have formulated the rules of the Cooper-Harper rating scheme as fuzzy rules with performance, control, and compensation as the antecedents, and pilot rating as the consequent. Appropriate direct measurements on the controller are related to the fuzzy Cooper-Harper rating system: a stability measurement like the rate of change of the cost function can be used as an indicator if the aircraft is under

  9. Case Study: Test Results of a Tool and Method for In-Flight, Adaptive Control System Verification on a NASA F-15 Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacklin, Stephen A.; Schumann, Johann; Guenther, Kurt; Bosworth, John

    2006-01-01

    Adaptive control technologies that incorporate learning algorithms have been proposed to enable autonomous flight control and to maintain vehicle performance in the face of unknown, changing, or poorly defined operating environments [1-2]. At the present time, however, it is unknown how adaptive algorithms can be routinely verified, validated, and certified for use in safety-critical applications. Rigorous methods for adaptive software verification end validation must be developed to ensure that. the control software functions as required and is highly safe and reliable. A large gap appears to exist between the point at which control system designers feel the verification process is complete, and when FAA certification officials agree it is complete. Certification of adaptive flight control software verification is complicated by the use of learning algorithms (e.g., neural networks) and degrees of system non-determinism. Of course, analytical efforts must be made in the verification process to place guarantees on learning algorithm stability, rate of convergence, and convergence accuracy. However, to satisfy FAA certification requirements, it must be demonstrated that the adaptive flight control system is also able to fail and still allow the aircraft to be flown safely or to land, while at the same time providing a means of crew notification of the (impending) failure. It was for this purpose that the NASA Ames Confidence Tool was developed [3]. This paper presents the Confidence Tool as a means of providing in-flight software assurance monitoring of an adaptive flight control system. The paper will present the data obtained from flight testing the tool on a specially modified F-15 aircraft designed to simulate loss of flight control faces.

  10. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  11. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  12. Intelligent Control Approaches for Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; KrishnaKumar, K.; Soloway, Don; Kaneshige, John; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of various intelligent control technologies currently being developed and studied under the Intelligent Flight Control (IFC) program at the NASA Ames Research Center. The main objective of the intelligent flight control program is to develop the next generation of flight controllers for the purpose of automatically compensating for a broad spectrum of damaged or malfunctioning aircraft components and to reduce control law development cost and time. The approaches being examined include: (a) direct adaptive dynamic inverse controller and (b) an adaptive critic-based dynamic inverse controller. These approaches can utilize, but do not require, fault detection and isolation information. Piloted simulation studies are performed to examine if the intelligent flight control techniques adequately: 1) Match flying qualities of modern fly-by-wire flight controllers under nominal conditions; 2) Improve performance under failure conditions when sufficient control authority is available; and 3) Achieve consistent handling qualities across the flight envelope and for different aircraft configurations. Results obtained so far demonstrate the potential for improving handling qualities and significantly increasing survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  13. Rotor blade construction for circulation control aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Sr., Donald R. (Inventor); Krauss, Timothy A. (Inventor); Sedlak, Matthew (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A circulation control aircraft rotor blade having a spanwise Coanda surface 16 and a plurality of spanwise extending flexible composite material panels 18 cooperating with the surface to define slots for the discharge of compressed air from within the blade with each panel having first flexure means 60 associated with screw adjustments 36 for establishing a slot opening preload and second flexure means 62 associated with screw adjustments 38 for establishing a slot maximum opening.

  14. Effects of mass on aircraft sidearm controller characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A.

    1994-01-01

    When designing a flight simulator, providing a set of low mass variable-characteristic pilot controls can be very difficult. Thus, a strong incentive exists to identify the highest possible mass that will not degrade the validity of a simulation. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has conducted a brief flight program to determine the maximum acceptable mass (system inertia) of an aircraft sidearm controller as a function of force gradient. This information is useful for control system design in aircraft as well as development of suitable flight simulator controls. A modified Learjet with a variable-characteristic sidearm controller was used to obtain data. A boundary was defined between mass considered acceptable and mass considered unacceptable to the pilot. This boundary is defined as a function of force gradient over a range of natural frequencies. This investigation is limited to a study of mass-frequency characteristics only. Results of this investigation are presented in this paper.

  15. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  16. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  17. Mapping automotive like controls to a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Christopher G.

    The purpose of this thesis was to develop fly-by-wire control laws enabling a general aviation aircraft to be flown with automotive controls, i.e. a steering wheel and gas/brake pedals. There was a six speed shifter used to change the flight mode of the aircraft. This essentially allows the pilot to have control over different aspects of the flight profile such as climb/descend or cruise. A highway in the sky was used to aid in the navigation since it is not intuitive to people without flight experience how to navigate from the sky or when to climb and descend. Many believe that general aviation could become as widespread as the automobile. Every person could have a personal aircraft at their disposal and it would be as easy to operate as driving an automobile. The goal of this thesis is to fuse the ease of drivability of a car with flight of a small general aviation aircraft. A standard automotive control hardware setup coupled with variably autonomous control laws will allow new pilots to fly a plane as easily as driving a car. The idea is that new pilots will require very little training to become proficient with these controls. Pilots with little time to stay current can maintain their skills simply by driving a car which is typically a daily activity. A human factors study was conducted to determine the feasibility of the applied control techniques. Pilot performance metrics were developed to compare candidates with no aviation background and experienced pilots. After analyzing the relative performance between pilots and non-pilots, it has been determined that the control system is robust and easy to learn. Candidates with no aviation experience whatsoever can learn to fly an aircraft as safely and efficiently as someone with hundreds of hours of flight experience using these controls.

  18. Resilient Propulsion Control Research for the NASA Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    Gas turbine engines are designed to provide sufficient safety margins to guarantee robust operation with an exceptionally long life. However, engine performance requirements may be drastically altered during abnormal flight conditions or emergency maneuvers. In some situations, the conservative design of the engine control system may not be in the best interest of overall aircraft safety; it may be advantageous to "sacrifice" the engine to "save" the aircraft. Motivated by this opportunity, the NASA Aviation Safety Program is conducting resilient propulsion research aimed at developing adaptive engine control methodologies to operate the engine beyond the normal domain for emergency operations to maximize the possibility of safely landing the damaged aircraft. Previous research studies and field incident reports show that the propulsion system can be an effective tool to help control and eventually land a damaged aircraft. Building upon the flight-proven Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) experience, this area of research will focus on how engine control systems can improve aircraft safe-landing probabilities under adverse conditions. This paper describes the proposed research topics in Engine System Requirements, Engine Modeling and Simulation, Engine Enhancement Research, Operational Risk Analysis and Modeling, and Integrated Flight and Propulsion Controller Designs that support the overall goal.

  19. The design of digital-adaptive controllers for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, R. F.; Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Design procedures for VTOL automatic control systems have been developed and are presented. Using linear-optimal estimation and control techniques as a starting point, digital-adaptive control laws have been designed for the VALT Research Aircraft, a tandem-rotor helicopter which is equipped for fully automatic flight in terminal area operations. These control laws are designed to interface with velocity-command and attitude-command guidance logic, which could be used in short-haul VTOL operations. Developments reported here include new algorithms for designing non-zero-set-point digital regulators, design procedures for rate-limited systems, and algorithms for dynamic control trim setting.

  20. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to develop algorithms and architectures for embedding artificial intelligence in aircraft guidance and control systems. With the approach adopted, AI-computing is used to create an outer guidance loop for driving the usual aircraft autopilot. That is, a symbolic processor monitors the operation and performance of the aircraft. Then, based on rules and other stored knowledge, commands are automatically formulated for driving the autopilot so as to accomplish desired flight operations. The focus is on developing a software system which can respond to linguistic instructions, input in a standard format, so as to formulate a sequence of simple commands to the autopilot. The instructions might be a fairly complex flight clearance, input either manually or by data-link. Emphasis is on a software system which responds much like a pilot would, employing not only precise computations, but, also, knowledge which is less precise, but more like common-sense. The approach is based on prior work to develop a generic 'shell' architecture for an AI-processor, which may be tailored to many applications by describing the application in appropriate processor data bases (libraries). Such descriptions include numerical models of the aircraft and flight control system, as well as symbolic (linguistic) descriptions of flight operations, rules, and tactics.

  1. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  2. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  3. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of certain aspects of the evaluation of the fireworthiness of transport aircraft interiors. First, it addresses the key materials question concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled fire. Second, it examines some technical opportunities that are available today through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably by expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Cost and risk benefits still remain to be determined.

  4. Aircraft Loss of Control Causal Factors and Mitigation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control is the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding a large number of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified the causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. This report describes the study approach, the key causal factors for aircraft loss of control, and recommended mitigation strategies to make near-term impacts, mid-term impacts, and Next Generation Air Transportation System impacts on the loss of control accident statistics

  5. Flight Results of the NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Aircraft with Adaptation to a Longitudinally Destabilized Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    Adaptive flight control systems have the potential to be resilient to extreme changes in airplane behavior. Extreme changes could be a result of a system failure or of damage to the airplane. The goal for the adaptive system is to provide an increase in survivability in the event that these extreme changes occur. A direct adaptive neural-network-based flight control system was developed for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NF-15B Intelligent Flight Control System airplane. The adaptive element was incorporated into a dynamic inversion controller with explicit reference model-following. As a test the system was subjected to an abrupt change in plant stability simulating a destabilizing failure. Flight evaluations were performed with and without neural network adaptation. The results of these flight tests are presented. Comparison with simulation predictions and analysis of the performance of the adaptation system are discussed. The performance of the adaptation system is assessed in terms of its ability to stabilize the vehicle and reestablish good onboard reference model-following. Flight evaluation with the simulated destabilizing failure and adaptation engaged showed improvement in the vehicle stability margins. The convergent properties of this initial system warrant additional improvement since continued maneuvering caused continued adaptation change. Compared to the non-adaptive system the adaptive system provided better closed-loop behavior with improved matching of the onboard reference model. A detailed discussion of the flight results is presented.

  6. Coordination control of quadrotor VTOL aircraft in three-dimensional space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, K. D.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a constructive design of distributed coordination controllers for a group of N quadrotor vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) aircraft in three-dimensional space. A combination of Euler angles and unit-quaternion for the attitude representation of the aircraft is used to result in an effective control design, and to reduce singularities in the aircraft's dynamics. The coordination control design is based on a new bounded control design technique for second-order systems and new pairwise collision avoidance functions. The pairwise collision functions are functions of both relative positions and relative velocities between the aircraft instead of only their relative positions as in the literature. To overcome the inherent underactuation of the aircraft, the roll and pitch angles of the aircraft are considered as immediate controls. Simulations illustrate the results.

  7. Reconfigurable control of aircraft undergoing sensor and actuator failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajpai, Gaurav

    2001-07-01

    Significant number of fatal aircraft accidents in recent years have been linked to component failures. With the predicted increase in air traffic these numbers are likely to increase. With reduction of fatal accidents as motivation, this dissertation investigates design of fault tolerant control systems for aircrafts undergoing sensor and/or actuator failures. Given that the nominal controller may perform inadequately in the event of sensors and/or actuator failure, the feasible approach for such a control scheme is to predesign various controllers anticipating these failures and then switching to an appropriate controller when the failure occurs. This is enabled by the available redundancy in sensing and actuation and allows the system to perform adequately even when these failures occur. The predesign of controllers for sensor and actuator failures is considered. Sensor failures are easily accommodated if certain detectability conditions are met. However, the predesign for actuator failures is not trivial as the position at which the actuators fail is not known a priori. It is shown that this problem can be tackled by reducing it to the classical control problem of disturbance decoupling, in which, the functional control enables the steady state output of dynamical system to reject any disturbance due to the failed actuators. For linear systems, conditions for existence of a controller capable of accommodating these failures can be understood in geometric terms and calculations are linked to solvability of coupled matrix equations. Although control design for aircrafts is done using linear techniques, failures can cause excursions into nonlinear regimes due to ensuing changes in the flight conditions. This dissertation also uses the recent results in the nonlinear regulator theory to address actuator failures in nonlinear systems. The utility of design techniques is illustrated using flight control examples with failures. The symbolic computational tools are

  8. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  9. Evaluation of active control technology for short haul aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renshaw, J. H.; Bennett, J. A.; Harris, O. C.; Honrath, J. F.; Patterson, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    An evaluation of the economics of short-haul aircraft designed with active controls technology and low wing-loading to achieve short field performance with good ride quality is presented. Results indicate that for such a system incorporating gust load alleviation and augmented stability the direct operating cost is better than for aircraft without active controls.

  10. Circulation control STOL aircraft design aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loth, John L.

    1987-01-01

    Since Davidson patented Circulation Control Airfoils in 1960, there have been only 2 aircraft designed and flown with circulation control (CC). Designing with CC is complex for the following reasons: the relation between lift increase and blowing momentum is nonlinear; for good cruise performance one must change the wing geometry in flight from a round to a sharp trailing edge. The bleed air from the propulsion engines or an auxiliary compressor, must be used efficiently. In designing with CC, the propulsion and control aspects are just as important as aerodynamics. These design aspects were examined and linearized equations are presented in order to facilitate a preliminary analysis of the performance potential of CC. The thrust and lift requirements for takeoff make the calculated runway length very sensitive to the bleed air ratio. Thrust vectoring improves performance and can offset nose down pitching moments. The choice of blowing jet to free stream velocity ratio determines the efficiency of applying bleed air power.

  11. Adaptive Control of a Transport Aircraft Using Differential Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive control technique for a damaged large transport aircraft subject to unknown atmospheric disturbances such as wind gust or turbulence. It is assumed that the damage results in vertical tail loss with no rudder authority, which is replaced with a differential thrust input. The proposed technique uses the adaptive prediction based control design in conjunction with the time scale separation principle, based on the singular perturbation theory. The application of later is necessitated by the fact that the engine response to a throttle command is substantially slow that the angular rate dynamics of the aircraft. It is shown that this control technique guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system and the tracking of a given reference model. The simulation example shows the benefits of the approach.

  12. Internal-flow systems for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, F M

    1941-01-01

    An investigation has been made to determine efficient arrangements for an internal-flow system of an aircraft when such a system operates by itself or in combination with other flow systems. The investigation included a theoretical treatment of the problem and tests in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel of inlet and outlet openings in a flat plate and in a wing.

  13. Trust Control of VTOL Aircraft Part Deux

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    Thrust control of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) aircraft has always been a debatable issue. In most cases, it comes down to the fundamental question of throttle versus collective. Some aircraft used throttle(s), with a fore and aft longitudinal motion, some had collectives, some have used Thrust Levers where the protocol is still "Up is Up and Down is Down," and some have incorporated both throttles and collectives when designers did not want to deal with the Human Factors issues. There have even been combinations of throttles that incorporated an arc that have been met with varying degrees of success. A previous review was made of nineteen designs without attempting to judge the merits of the controller. Included in this paper are twelve designs entered in competition for the 1961 Tri-Service VTOL transport. Entries were from a Bell/Lockheed tiltduct, a North American tiltwing, a Vanguard liftfan, and even a Sikorsky tiltwing. Additional designs were submitted from Boeing Wichita (direct lift), Ling-Temco-Vought with its XC-142 tiltwing, Boeing Vertol's tiltwing, Mcdonnell's compound and tiltwing, and the Douglas turboduct and turboprop designs. A private party submitted a re-design of the Breguet 941 as a VTOL transport. It is important to document these 53 year-old designs to preserve a part of this country's aviation heritage.

  14. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  15. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-03-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft's control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland's continuing study of active wing load control.

  16. Aircraft control by propeller cyclic blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, J.

    1979-01-01

    A theory is developed for aircraft control obtained from the propeller forces and moments generated by blade angle variation during a blade revolution. The propeller blade is pitched harmonically one cycle per propeller revolution which results in vehicle control forces and moments, termed cyclic-control. Using a power series respresentation of an arbitrary function of cyclic-blade angle, cyclic-control theory is developed which leads to exact solutions in terms of derivatives of steady-state thrust and power with respect to blade angle. An alternative solution, when the cyclic-blade angle function is limited to a sinusoidal cycle, is in terms of Bessel functions. An estimate of non-steady azimuth angle change or lag is presented. Cyclic-control analysis applied to the counter-rotating propeller shows that control forces or moments can be uniquely isolated from each other. Thus the dual rotor, in hovering mode, has propulsion without rotor tilt or moments, or, when in propeller mode at the tail of an air ship or submarine, vehicle control with no vehicle movement. Control isolation is also attainable from three or more propellers in-line.

  17. Smart Camera System for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Frank; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SC3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time operations personnel an appropriate level of situation 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SC3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SC3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year.

  18. Smart camera system for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Francisco J.; White, Janis; Abernathy, Michael F.

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes a new approach to situation awareness that combines video sensor technology and synthetic vision technology in a unique fashion to create a hybrid vision system. Our implementation of the technology, called "SmartCam3D" (SCS3D) has been flight tested by both NASA and the Department of Defense with excellent results. This paper details its development and flight test results. Windshields and windows add considerable weight and risk to vehicle design, and because of this, many future vehicles will employ a windowless cockpit design. This windowless cockpit design philosophy prompted us to look at what would be required to develop a system that provides crewmembers and operations personnel an appropriate level of situation awareness. The system created to date provides a real-time 3D perspective display that can be used during all-weather and visibility conditions. While the advantages of a synthetic vision only system are considerable, the major disadvantage of such a system is that it displays the synthetic scene created using "static" data acquired by an aircraft or satellite at some point in the past. The SCS3D system we are presenting in this paper is a hybrid synthetic vision system that fuses live video stream information with a computer generated synthetic scene. This hybrid system can display a dynamic, real-time scene of a region of interest, enriched by information from a synthetic environment system, see figure 1. The SCS3D system has been flight tested on several X-38 flight tests performed over the last several years and on an ARMY Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) ground control station earlier this year. Additional testing using an assortment of UAV ground control stations and UAV simulators from the Army and Air Force will be conducted later this year. We are also identifying other NASA programs that would benefit from the use of this technology.

  19. Touchdown: The Development of Propulsion Controlled Aircraft at NASA Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Tom

    1999-01-01

    This monograph relates the important history of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft project at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center. Spurred by a number of airplane crashes caused by the loss of hydraulic flight controls, a NASA-industry team lead by Frank W. Burcham and C. Gordon Fullerton developed a way to land an aircraft safely using only engine thrust to control the airplane. In spite of initial skepticism, the team discovered that, by manually manipulating an airplane's thrust, there was adequate control for extended up-and-away flight. However, there was not adequate control precision for safe runway landings because of the small control forces, slow response, and difficulty in damping the airplane phugoid and Dutch roll oscillations. The team therefore conceived, developed, and tested the first computerized Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system. The PCA system takes pilot commands, uses feedback from airplane measurements, and computes commands for the thrust of each engine, yielding much more precise control. Pitch rate and velocity feedback damp the phugoid oscillation, while yaw rate feedback damps the Dutch roll motion. The team tested the PCA system in simulators and conducted flight research in F-15 and MD-11 airplanes. Later, they developed less sophisticated variants of PCA called PCA Lite and PCA Ultralite to make the system cheaper and therefore more attractive to industry. This monograph tells the PCA story in a non- technical way with emphasis on the human aspects of the engineering and flic,ht-research effort. It thereby supplements the extensive technical literature on PCA and makes the development of this technology accessible to a wide audience.

  20. Aircraft Pneudraulic Systems Mechanic (AFSC 42354).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for aircraft pneudraulic systems mechanics. Covered in the individual volumes are shop administration; fundamentals, materials, and equipment of pneudraulics; pneudraulic components; and pneudraulic systems. Each volume in the set…

  1. Impact of flight systems integration on future aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, R. V.; Dollyhigh, S. M.; Newsom, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Integrations trends in aircraft are discussed with an eye to manifestations in future aircraft designs through interdisciplinary technology integration. Current practices use software changes or small hardware fixes to solve problems late in the design process, e.g., low static stability to upgrade fuel efficiency. A total energy control system has been devised to integrate autopilot and autothrottle functions, thereby eliminating hardware, reducing the software, pilot workload, and cost, and improving flight efficiency and performance. Integrated active controls offer reduced weight and larger payloads for transport aircraft. The introduction of vectored thrust may eliminate horizontal and vertical stabilizers, and location of the thrust at the vehicle center of gravity can provide vertical takeoff and landing capabilities. It is suggested that further efforts will open a new discipline, aeroservoelasticity, and tests will become multidisciplinary, involving controls, aerodynamics, propulsion and structures.

  2. Model-following control for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Kempel, R. W.; Pahle, J. W.; Bresina, J. J.; Bartoli, F.

    1986-01-01

    A variable-skew oblique wing offers a substantial aerodynamic performance advantage for aircraft missions that require both high efficiency in subsonic flight and supersonic dash or cruise. The most obvious characteristic of the oblique-wing concept is the asymmetry associated with wing-skew angle which results in significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. This paper presents a technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The proposed synthesis procedure uses the concept of explicit model following. Linear quadratic optimization techniques are used to design the linear feedback system. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated for a given flight condition by application to linearized equations of motion, and also to the nonlinear equations of six degrees of freedom of motion with nonlinear aerodynamic data.

  3. Model-following control for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Kempel, R. W.; Pahle, J. W.; Bresina, J. J.; Bartoli, F.

    1986-01-01

    A variable-skew oblique wing offers a substantial aerodynamic performance advantage for aircraft missions that require both high efficiency in subsonic flight and supersonic dash or cruise. The most obvious characteristic of the oblique-wing concept is the asymmetry associated with wing-skew angle which results in significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. A technique for synthesizing a decoupling controller while providing the desired stability augmentation. The proposed synthesis procedure uses the cncept of explicit model following. Linear quadratic optimization techniques are used to design the linear feedback system. The effectiveness of the control laws developed in achieving the desired decoupling is illustrated for a given flight condition by application to linearized equations of motion, and also to the nonlinear equations of six degrees of freedom of motion with nonlinear aerodynamic data.

  4. Aircraft body-axis rotation measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowdin, K. T. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A two gyro four gimbal attitude sensing system having gimbal lock avoidance is provided with continuous azimuth information, rather than roll information, relative to the magnetic cardinal headings while in near vertical attitudes to allow recovery from vertical on a desired heading. The system is comprised of a means for stabilizing an outer roll gimbal that is common to a vertical gyro and a directional gyro with respect to the aircraft platform which is being angularly displaced about an axis substantially parallel to the outer roll gyro axis. A means is also provided for producing a signal indicative of the magnitude of such displacement as an indication of aircraft heading. Additional means are provided to cause stabilization of the outer roll gimbal whenever the pitch angle of the aircraft passes through a threshold prior to entering vertical flight and destabilization of the outer roll gimbal upon passing through the threshold when departing vertical flight.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Human-in-the-Loop Controller and Pilot Acceptability Study: Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Vincent, Michael J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Munoz, Cesar; Chamberlain, James P.; Volk, Paul; Arthur, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been mandated by the Congressional funding bill of 2012 to open the National Airspace System (NAS) to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). With the growing use of unmanned systems, NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" Project, in collaboration with the FAA and industry, and is guiding its research efforts to look at and examine crucial safety concerns regarding the integration of UAS into the NAS. Key research efforts are addressing requirements for detect-and-avoid (DAA), self-separation (SS), and collision avoidance (CA) technologies. In one of a series of human-in-the-loop experiments, NASA Langley Research Center set up a study known as Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT). The first phase assessed active air traffic controller interactions with DAA systems and the second phase examined reactions to the DAA system and displays by UAS Pilots at a simulated ground control station (GCS). Analyses of the test results from Phase I and Phase II are presented in this paper. Results from the CASSAT study and previous human-in-the-loop experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely, efficiently, and effectively integrate UAS into the NAS.

  6. Display/control requirements for automated VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, W. C.; Kleinman, D. L.; Young, L. R.

    1976-01-01

    A systematic design methodology for pilot displays in advanced commercial VTOL aircraft was developed and refined. The analyst is provided with a step-by-step procedure for conducting conceptual display/control configurations evaluations for simultaneous monitoring and control pilot tasks. The approach consists of three phases: formulation of information requirements, configuration evaluation, and system selection. Both the monitoring and control performance models are based upon the optimal control model of the human operator. Extensions to the conventional optimal control model required in the display design methodology include explicit optimization of control/monitoring attention; simultaneous monitoring and control performance predictions; and indifference threshold effects. The methodology was applied to NASA's experimental CH-47 helicopter in support of the VALT program. The CH-47 application examined the system performance of six flight conditions. Four candidate configurations are suggested for evaluation in pilot-in-the-loop simulations and eventual flight tests.

  7. Advanced Study for Active Noise Control in Aircraft (ASANCA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borchers, Ingo U.; Emborg, Urban; Sollo, Antonio; Waterman, Elly H.; Paillard, Jacques; Larsen, Peter N.; Venet, Gerard; Goeransson, Peter; Martin, Vincent

    1992-01-01

    Aircraft interior noise and vibration measurements are included in this paper from ground and flight tests. In addition, related initial noise calculations with and without active noise control are conducted. The results obtained to date indicate that active noise control may be an effective means for reducing the critical low frequency aircraft noise.

  8. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules designed for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Learning modules consist of some or all of the following materials: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, workbooks, self-tests with answers, review…

  9. Aircraft Environmental Systems Mechanic. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chanute AFB Technical Training Center, IL.

    This packet contains learning modules for a self-paced course in aircraft environmental systems mechanics that was developed for the Air Force. Each learning module consists of some or all of the following: objectives, instructions, equipment, procedures, information sheets, handouts, self-tests with answers, review section, tests, and response…

  10. Real-Time Minimization of Tracking Error for Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garud, Sumedha; Kaneshige, John T.; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje S.; Kulkarni, Nilesh V.; Burken, John

    2013-01-01

    This technology presents a novel, stable, discrete-time adaptive law for flight control in a Direct adaptive control (DAC) framework. Where errors are not present, the original control design has been tuned for optimal performance. Adaptive control works towards achieving nominal performance whenever the design has modeling uncertainties/errors or when the vehicle suffers substantial flight configuration change. The baseline controller uses dynamic inversion with proportional-integral augmentation. On-line adaptation of this control law is achieved by providing a parameterized augmentation signal to a dynamic inversion block. The parameters of this augmentation signal are updated to achieve the nominal desired error dynamics. If the system senses that at least one aircraft component is experiencing an excursion and the return of this component value toward its reference value is not proceeding according to the expected controller characteristics, then the neural network (NN) modeling of aircraft operation may be changed.

  11. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  12. Transport aircraft loading and balancing system: Using a CLIPS expert system for military aircraft load planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.; Labbe, M.; Belala, Y.; Leduc, Vincent

    1994-01-01

    The requirement for improving aircraft utilization and responsiveness in airlift operations has been recognized for quite some time by the Canadian Forces. To date, the utilization of scarce airlift resources has been planned mainly through the employment of manpower-intensive manual methods in combination with the expertise of highly qualified personnel. In this paper, we address the problem of facilitating the load planning process for military aircraft cargo planes through the development of a computer-based system. We introduce TALBAS (Transport Aircraft Loading and BAlancing System), a knowledge-based system designed to assist personnel involved in preparing valid load plans for the C130 Hercules aircraft. The main features of this system which are accessible through a convivial graphical user interface, consists of the automatic generation of valid cargo arrangements given a list of items to be transported, the user-definition of load plans and the automatic validation of such load plans.

  13. Reconfigurable flight control for high angle of attack fighter aircraft, with wind tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Bilal Ahmed

    In this work we studied Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems to achieve acceptable performance of a fighter aircraft, even in the event of wing damage to the aircraft at low speeds and high angle of attack, which is typical of many combat maneuvers. Equations of motion for the damaged aircraft were derived, which helped in building simulators. A new methodology combining experimental and numerical aerodynamic prediction was proposed and implemented. For this a wind-tunnel study of a similar configuration was carried out to study the aerodynamics at low speeds and high angle of attack. A baseline control system for undamaged aircraft was developed, and finally a reconfigurable flight control scheme was implemented to keep the aircraft flyable even after the damage.

  14. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, UAS Control and Non-Payload Communication System Phase-1 Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James H.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's UAS Integration in the NAS project, has partnered with Rockwell Collins to develop a concept Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) system prototype radio, operating on recently allocated UAS frequency spectrum bands. This prototype radio is being used to validate initial proposed performance requirements for UAS control communications. This presentation will give an overview of the current status of the prototype radio development, and results from phase 1 flight tests conducted during 2013.

  16. Study of advanced fuel system concepts for commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    An analytical study was performed in order to assess relative performance and economic factors involved with alternative advanced fuel systems for future commercial aircraft operating with broadened property fuels. The DC-10-30 wide-body tri-jet aircraft and the CF6-8OX engine were used as a baseline design for the study. Three advanced systems were considered and were specifically aimed at addressing freezing point, thermal stability and lubricity fuel properties. Actual DC-10-30 routes and flight profiles were simulated by computer modeling and resulted in prediction of aircraft and engine fuel system temperatures during a nominal flight and during statistical one-day-per-year cold and hot flights. Emergency conditions were also evaluated. Fuel consumption and weight and power extraction results were obtained. An economic analysis was performed for new aircraft and systems. Advanced system means for fuel tank heating included fuel recirculation loops using engine lube heat and generator heat. Environmental control system bleed air heat was used for tank heating in a water recirculation loop. The results showed that fundamentally all of the three advanced systems are feasible but vary in their degree of compatibility with broadened-property fuel.

  17. Flight testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. K.; Hall, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a dedicated rotor test vehicle whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel tests and flight verification data. Its flight test envelope has been designed to encompass the expected envelopes of future rotor systems under all flight conditions. The test configurations of the RSRA include pure helicopter and compound (winged helicopter) modes. In addition, should it become necessary to jettison an unstable rotor system in flight, the RSRA may be flown as a fixed wing aircraft. The heart of the RSRA's electronic flight control system is the TDY-43 computer, which can be programmed in numerous ways to change stability and control or force feel system gains. Computer programming changes allow the RSRA to be used as a five-degree-of-freedom inflight simulator for studying the handling qualities of research rotors.

  18. Flight assessment of the onboard propulsion system model for the Performance Seeking Control algorithm on an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Schkolnik, Gerard S.

    1995-01-01

    Performance Seeking Control (PSC), an onboard, adaptive, real-time optimization algorithm, relies upon an onboard propulsion system model. Flight results illustrated propulsion system performance improvements as calculated by the model. These improvements were subject to uncertainty arising from modeling error. Thus to quantify uncertainty in the PSC performance improvements, modeling accuracy must be assessed. A flight test approach to verify PSC-predicted increases in thrust (FNP) and absolute levels of fan stall margin is developed and applied to flight test data. Application of the excess thrust technique shows that increases of FNP agree to within 3 percent of full-scale measurements for most conditions. Accuracy to these levels is significant because uncertainty bands may now be applied to the performance improvements provided by PSC. Assessment of PSC fan stall margin modeling accuracy was completed with analysis of in-flight stall tests. Results indicate that the model overestimates the stall margin by between 5 to 10 percent. Because PSC achieves performance gains by using available stall margin, this overestimation may represent performance improvements to be recovered with increased modeling accuracy. Assessment of thrust and stall margin modeling accuracy provides a critical piece for a comprehensive understanding of PSC's capabilities and limitations.

  19. The Effect of Functional Flow Diagrams on the Technical System Understanding of Apprentice Aircraft Maintenance Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.; Satchwell, Richard E.

    A quasiexperimental study involved 18 male students enrolled in an aircraft systems course at the University of Illinois. The control group of 10 students studied 39 schematic diagrams of aircraft systems. The treatment group of eight students studied the same schematic diagrams plus conceptual diagrams of the systems. Otherwise, the instruction…

  20. Aircraft performance and control in downburst wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Richard S.

    1986-01-01

    The methods developed for analyses of the winds and of aircraft performance during an investigation of a downburst wind-shear-induced accident have been utilized in a more general study of aircraft performance in such encounters. The computed responses of a generic, large transport aircraft to take-off and approach encounters with a downburst wind field were used in examining the effects of performance factors and control procedures on the ability of the aircraft to survive. Obvious benefits are seen for higher initial encounter speeds, maximum thrust-weight values typical of two-engined aircraft, and immediacy of pilot response. The results of controlling to a constant, predetermined, pitch attitude are demonstrated. Control algorithms that sacrifice altitude for speed appear to provide a higher level of survivability, but guidance displays more explicitly defining flightpath than those commonly in use might be required.

  1. Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

  2. Aircraft Interior Noise Control Using Distributed Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Jian Q.

    1996-01-01

    Developing a control system that can reduce the noise and structural vibration at the same time is an important task. This talk presents one possible technical approach for accomplishing this task. The target application of the research is for aircraft interior noise control. The emphasis of the present approach is not on control strategies, but rather on the design of actuators for the control system. In the talk, a theory of distributed piezoelectric actuators is introduced. A uniform cylindrical shell is taken as a simplified model of fuselage structures to illustrate the effectiveness of the design theory. The actuators developed are such that they can reduce the tonal structural vibration and interior noise in a wide range of frequencies. Extensive computer simulations have been done to study various aspects of the design theory. Experiments have also been conducted and the test results strongly support the theoretical development.

  3. Aircraft Weather Mitigation for the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stough, H. Paul, III

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on aviation are described by Mahapatra (1999) as including (1) atmospheric phenomena involving air motion - wind shear and turbulence; (2) hydrometeorological phenomena - rain, snow and hail; (3) aircraft icing; (4) low visibility; and (5) atmospheric electrical phenomena. Aircraft Weather Mitigation includes aircraft systems (e.g. airframe, propulsion, avionics, controls) that can be enacted (by a pilot, automation or hybrid systems) to suppress and/or prepare for the effects of encountered or unavoidable weather or to facilitate a crew operational decision-making process relative to weather. Aircraft weather mitigation can be thought of as a continuum (Figure 1) with the need to avoid all adverse weather at one extreme and the ability to safely operate in all weather conditions at the other extreme. Realistic aircraft capabilities fall somewhere between these two extremes. The capabilities of small general aviation aircraft would be expected to fall closer to the "Avoid All Adverse Weather" point, and the capabilities of large commercial jet transports would fall closer to the "Operate in All Weather Conditions" point. The ability to safely operate in adverse weather conditions is dependent upon the pilot s capabilities (training, total experience and recent experience), the airspace in which the operation is taking place (terrain, navigational aids, traffic separation), the capabilities of the airport (approach guidance, runway and taxiway lighting, availability of air traffic control), as well as the capabilities of the airplane. The level of mitigation may vary depending upon the type of adverse weather. For example, a small general aviation airplane may be equipped to operate "in the clouds" without outside visual references, but not be equipped to prevent airframe ice that could be accreted in those clouds.

  4. Aircraft noise synthesis system: Version 4 user instructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A modified version of the Aircraft Noise Synthesis System with improved directivity and tonal content modeling has been developed. The synthesis system is used to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics such as duration or tonal content are independently varied while the remaining characteristics such as broadband content are held constant. The modified version of the system provides improved modeling of noise directivity patterns and an increased number of pure tone components. User instructions for the modified version of the synthesis system are provided.

  5. High Reliability Engine Control Demonstrated for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    1999-01-01

    For a dual redundant-control system, which is typical for short-haul aircraft, if a failure is detected in a control sensor, the engine control is transferred to a safety mode and an advisory is issued for immediate maintenance action to replace the failed sensor. The safety mode typically results in severely degraded engine performance. The goal of the High Reliability Engine Control (HREC) program was to demonstrate that the neural-network-based sensor validation technology can safely operate an engine by using the nominal closed-loop control during and after sensor failures. With this technology, engine performance could be maintained, and the sensor could be replaced as a conveniently scheduled maintenance action.

  6. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  7. Ride quality systems for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, D. R.; Hammond, T. A.; Amin, S. P.

    1983-01-01

    The state-of-the-art in Active Ride Augmentation, specifically in terms of its feasibility for commuter aircraft applications. A literature survey was done, and the principal results are presented here through discussion of different Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) designs and advances in related technologies. Recommended follow-on research areas are discussed, and a preliminary RQAS configuration for detailed design and development is proposed.

  8. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  9. Laser-based air data system for aircraft control using Raman and elastic backscatter for the measurement of temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter coefficient.

    PubMed

    Fraczek, Michael; Behrendt, Andreas; Schmitt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-10

    Flight safety in all weather conditions demands exact and reliable determination of flight-critical air parameters. Air speed, temperature, density, and pressure are essential for aircraft control. Conventional air data systems can be impacted by probe failure caused by mechanical damage from hail, volcanic ash, and icing. While optical air speed measurement methods have been discussed elsewhere, in this paper, a new concept for optically measuring the air temperature, density, pressure, moisture, and particle backscatter is presented, being independent on assumptions on the atmospheric state and eliminating the drawbacks of conventional aircraft probes by providing a different measurement principle. The concept is based on a laser emitting laser pulses into the atmosphere through a window and detecting the signals backscattered from a fixed region just outside the disturbed area of the fuselage flows. With four receiver channels, different spectral portions of the backscattered light are extracted. The measurement principle of air temperature and density is based on extracting two signals out of the rotational Raman (RR) backscatter signal of air molecules. For measuring the water vapor mixing ratio-and thus the density of the moist air-a water vapor Raman channel is included. The fourth channel serves to detect the elastic backscatter signal, which is essential for extending the measurements into clouds. This channel contributes to the detection of aerosols, which is interesting for developing a future volcanic ash warning system for aircraft. Detailed and realistic optimization and performance calculations have been performed based on the parameters of a first prototype of such a measurement system. The impact and correction of systematic error sources, such as solar background at daytime and elastic signal cross talk appearing in optically dense clouds, have been investigated. The results of the simulations show the high potential of the proposed system for

  10. Small Aircraft Transportation System Concept and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Durham, Michael H.; Tarry, Scott E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper summarizes both the vision and the early public-private collaborative research for the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS). The paper outlines an operational definition of SATS, describes how SATS conceptually differs from current air transportation capabilities, introduces four SATS operating capabilities, and explains the relation between the SATS operating capabilities and the potential for expanded air mobility. The SATS technology roadmap encompasses on-demand, widely distributed, point-to-point air mobility, through hired-pilot modes in the nearer-term, and through self-operated user modes in the farther-term. The nearer-term concept is based on aircraft and airspace technologies being developed to make the use of smaller, more widely distributed community reliever and general aviation airports and their runways more useful in more weather conditions, in commercial hired-pilot service modes. The farther-term vision is based on technical concepts that could be developed to simplify or automate many of the operational functions in the aircraft and the airspace for meeting future public transportation needs, in personally operated modes. NASA technology strategies form a roadmap between the nearer-term concept and the farther-term vision. This paper outlines a roadmap for scalable, on-demand, distributed air mobility technologies for vehicle and airspace systems. The audiences for the paper include General Aviation manufacturers, small aircraft transportation service providers, the flight training industry, airport and transportation authorities at the Federal, state and local levels, and organizations involved in planning for future National Airspace System advancements.

  11. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1995-01-01

    During this year, we concentrated our efforts on the design of controllers for lateral/directional control using mu synthesis. This proved to be a more difficult task than we anticipated and we are still working on the designs. In the lateral-directional control problem, the inputs are pilot lateral stick and pedal commands and the outputs are roll rate about the velocity vector and side slip angle. The control effectors are ailerons, rudder deflection, and directional thrust vectoring vane deflection which produces a yawing moment about the body axis. Our math model does not contain any provision for thrust vectoring of rolling moment. This has resulted in limitations of performance at high angles of attack. During 1994-95, the following tasks for the lateral-directional controllers were accomplished: (1) Designed both inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers. These controllers are implemented using accelerometer outputs rather than an a priori model of the vehicle aerodynamics; (2) Used classical techniques to design controllers for the system linearized by dynamics inversion. These controllers acted to control roll rate and Dutch roll response; (3) Implemented the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers on the six DOF simulation; (4) Developed a lateral-directional control allocation scheme based on minimizing required control effort among the ailerons, rudder, and directional thrust vectoring; and (5) Developed mu outer loop controllers combined with classical inner loop controllers.

  12. Feedback control laws for highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Balas, Gary J.

    1994-01-01

    During the first half of the year, the investigators concentrated their efforts on completing the design of control laws for the longitudinal axis of the HARV. During the second half of the year they concentrated on the synthesis of control laws for the lateral-directional axes. The longitudinal control law design efforts can be briefly summarized as follows. Longitudinal control laws were developed for the HARV using mu synthesis design techniques coupled with dynamic inversion. An inner loop dynamic inversion controller was used to simplify the system dynamics by eliminating the aerodynamic nonlinearities and inertial cross coupling. Models of the errors resulting from uncertainties in the principal longitudinal aerodynamic terms were developed and included in the model of the HARV with the inner loop dynamic inversion controller. This resulted in an inner loop transfer function model which was an integrator with the modeling errors characterized as uncertainties in gain and phase. Outer loop controllers were then designed using mu synthesis to provide robustness to these modeling errors and give desired response to pilot inputs. Both pitch rate and angle of attack command following systems were designed. The following tasks have been accomplished for the lateral-directional controllers: inner and outer loop dynamic inversion controllers have been designed; an error model based on a linearized perturbation model of the inner loop system was derived; controllers for the inner loop system have been designed, using classical techniques, that control roll rate and Dutch roll response; the inner loop dynamic inversion and classical controllers have been implemented on the six degree of freedom simulation; and lateral-directional control allocation scheme has been developed based on minimizing required control effort.

  13. Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The research during the third reporting period focused on fixed order robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. A new technique was developed to synthesize fixed order H(sub infinity) controllers. A controller canonical form is imposed on the compensator structure and a homotopy algorithm is employed to perform the controller design. Various reduced order controllers are designed for a simplified version of the hypersonic vehicle model used in our previous studies to demonstrate the capabilities of the code. However, further work is needed to investigate the issue of numerical ill-conditioning for large order systems and to make the numerical approach more reliable.

  14. A system approach to aircraft optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    1991-01-01

    Mutual couplings among the mathematical models of physical phenomena and parts of a system such as an aircraft complicate the design process because each contemplated design change may have a far reaching consequence throughout the system. Techniques are outlined for computing these influences as system design derivatives useful for both judgemental and formal optimization purposes. The techniques facilitate decomposition of the design process into smaller, more manageable tasks and they form a methodology that can easily fit into existing engineering organizations and incorporate their design tools.

  15. Components for digitally controlled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Control system components suitable for use in digital electronic control systems are defined. Compressor geometry actuation concepts and fuel handling system concepts suitable for use in large high performance turbofan/turbojet engines are included. Eight conceptual system designs were formulated for the actuation of the compressor geometry. Six conceptual system designs were formulated for the engine fuel handling system. Assessment criteria and weighting factors were established and trade studies performed on their candidate systems to establish the relative merits of the various concepts. Fuel pumping and metering systems for small turboshaft engines were also studied. Seven conceptual designs were formulated, and trade studies performed. A simplified bypassing fuel metering scheme was selected and a preliminary design defined.

  16. Fires in P-3 Aircraft Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Fires in three P3 aircraft oxygen systems have occurred: one in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in 1984 and two in the U.S. Navy in 1998 and 2003. All three fires started in the aluminum manifold and check valve (MCV) assembly and produced similar damages to the aircraft in which they occurred. This paper discusses a failure analysis conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Oxygen Hazards and Testing Team on the 2003 U.S. Navy VP62 fire. It was surmised that the fire started due to heat generated by an oxygen leak past a silicone check valve seal or possibly because of particle impact near the seat of one of the MCV assembly check valves. An additional analysis of fires in several check valve poppet seals from other aircraft is discussed. These burned poppet seals came from P3 oxygen systems that had been serviced at the Naval Air Station (NAS) in Jacksonville following standard fill procedures. It was concluded that these seal fires occurred due to the heat from compression heating, particle impact, or the heat generated by an oxygen leak past the silicone check valve seal. The fact that catastrophic fires did not occur in the case of each check valve seal fire was attributed to the protective nature of the aluminum oxide layer on the check valve poppets. To prevent future fires of this nature, the U.S. and Canadian fleets of P3 aircraft have been retrofitted with MCV assemblies with an upgraded design and more burn-resistant materials.

  17. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  18. 11. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT MODEL AIRCRAFT CONTROL ROOM; MODEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW LOOKING EAST AT MODEL AIRCRAFT CONTROL ROOM; MODEL OF BOEING 737 AT TOP OF PHOTOGRAPH IN FULL-SCALE WIND TUNNEL. - NASA Langley Research Center, Full-Scale Wind Tunnel, 224 Hunting Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  19. MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR BASEMENT. GENERAL ELECTRIC CONTROL CONSOLE FOR AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION EXPERIMENT NO. 1. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6510. Unknown Photographer, 9/29/1959 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  20. Research in robust control for hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The research during the second reporting period has focused on robust control design for hypersonic vehicles. An already existing design for the Hypersonic Winged-Cone Configuration has been enhanced. Uncertainty models for the effects of propulsion system perturbations due to angle of attack variations, structural vibrations, and uncertainty in control effectiveness were developed. Using H(sub infinity) and mu-synthesis techniques, various control designs were performed in order to investigate the impact of these effects on achievable robust performance.

  1. YO-3A acoustics research aircraft systems manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The flight testing techniques, equipment, and procedures employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters using the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft are discussed. The research aircraft instrumentation system is described as well as hardware installation on the test aircraft and techniques used during the tests. Emphasis is placed on formation flying, position locations, test matrices, and test procedures.

  2. Aircraft Pitch Control with Fixed Order LQ Compensators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, James; Ashokkumar, Cr.; Homaifar, A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper considers a given set of fixed order compensators for aircraft pitch control problem. By augmenting compensator variables to the original state equations of the aircraft, a new dynamic model is considered to seek a LQ controller. While the fixed order compensators can achieve a set of desired poles in a specified region, LQ formulation provides the inherent robustness properties. The time response for ride quality is significantly improved with a set of dynamic compensators.

  3. Dynamics and Adaptive Control for Stability Recovery of Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Kaneshige, John; Nespeca, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a recent study of a damaged generic transport model as part of a NASA research project to investigate adaptive control methods for stability recovery of damaged aircraft operating in off-nominal flight conditions under damage and or failures. Aerodynamic modeling of damage effects is performed using an aerodynamic code to assess changes in the stability and control derivatives of a generic transport aircraft. Certain types of damage such as damage to one of the wings or horizontal stabilizers can cause the aircraft to become asymmetric, thus resulting in a coupling between the longitudinal and lateral motions. Flight dynamics for a general asymmetric aircraft is derived to account for changes in the center of gravity that can compromise the stability of the damaged aircraft. An iterative trim analysis for the translational motion is developed to refine the trim procedure by accounting for the effects of the control surface deflection. A hybrid direct-indirect neural network, adaptive flight control is proposed as an adaptive law for stabilizing the rotational motion of the damaged aircraft. The indirect adaptation is designed to estimate the plant dynamics of the damaged aircraft in conjunction with the direct adaptation that computes the control augmentation. Two approaches are presented 1) an adaptive law derived from the Lyapunov stability theory to ensure that the signals are bounded, and 2) a recursive least-square method for parameter identification. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is conducted and demonstrates the effectiveness of the direct neural network adaptive flight control in the stability recovery of the damaged aircraft. A preliminary simulation of the hybrid adaptive flight control has been performed and initial data have shown the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid approach. Future work will include further investigations and high-fidelity simulations of the proposed hybrid adaptive Bight control approach.

  4. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  5. Neural Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen

    2003-01-01

    The Neural Flight Control System (NFCS) was developed to address the need for control systems that can be produced and tested at lower cost, easily adapted to prototype vehicles and for flight systems that can accommodate damaged control surfaces or changes to aircraft stability and control characteristics resulting from failures or accidents. NFCS utilizes on a neural network-based flight control algorithm which automatically compensates for a broad spectrum of unanticipated damage or failures of an aircraft in flight. Pilot stick and rudder pedal inputs are fed into a reference model which produces pitch, roll and yaw rate commands. The reference model frequencies and gains can be set to provide handling quality characteristics suitable for the aircraft of interest. The rate commands are used in conjunction with estimates of the aircraft s stability and control (S&C) derivatives by a simplified Dynamic Inverse controller to produce virtual elevator, aileron and rudder commands. These virtual surface deflection commands are optimally distributed across the aircraft s available control surfaces using linear programming theory. Sensor data is compared with the reference model rate commands to produce an error signal. A Proportional/Integral (PI) error controller "winds up" on the error signal and adds an augmented command to the reference model output with the effect of zeroing the error signal. In order to provide more consistent handling qualities for the pilot, neural networks learn the behavior of the error controller and add in the augmented command before the integrator winds up. In the case of damage sufficient to affect the handling qualities of the aircraft, an Adaptive Critic is utilized to reduce the reference model frequencies and gains to stay within a flyable envelope of the aircraft.

  6. NASA Aircraft Vortex Spacing System Development Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.; Charnock, James K.; Bagwell, Donald R.; Grigsby, Donner

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is addressing airport capacity enhancements during instrument meteorological conditions through the Terminal Area Productivity (TAP) program. Within TAP, the Reduced Spacing Operations (RSO) subelement at the NASA Langley Research Center is developing an Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS). AVOSS will integrate the output of several systems to produce weather dependent, dynamic wake vortex spacing criteria. These systems provide current and predicted weather conditions, models of wake vortex transport and decay in these weather conditions, and real-time feedback of wake vortex behavior from sensors. The goal of the NASA program is to provide the research and development to demonstrate an engineering model AVOSS in real-time operation at a major airport. The demonstration is only of concept feasibility, and additional effort is required to deploy an operational system for actual aircraft spacing reduction. This paper describes the AVOSS system architecture, a wake vortex facility established at the Dallas-Fort Worth International Airport (DFW), initial operational experience with the AVOSS system, and emerging considerations for subsystem requirements. Results of the initial system operation suggest a significant potential for reduced spacing.

  7. Application of nonlinear feedback control theory to supermaneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, William L.; Enns, Dale F.

    1991-01-01

    Controlled flight at extremely high angles of attack, far exceeding the stall angle, and/or at high angular rates is sometimes referred to as supermaneuvering flight. The objective was to examine methods for design of control laws for aircraft performing supermaneuvers. Since the equations which govern the motion of aircraft during supermaneuvers are nonlinear, this study concentrated on nonlinear control law design procedures. The two nonlinear techniques considered were Nonlinear Quadratic Regulator (NLQR) theory and nonlinear dynamic inversion. A conventional gain scheduled proportional plus integral (P + I) controller was also developed to serve as a baseline design typical of current control laws used in aircraft. A mathematical model of a generic supermaneuverable aircraft was developed from data obtained from the literature. A detailed computer simulation of the aircraft was also developed. This simulation allowed the flying of proposed supermaneuvers and was used to evaluate the performance of the control law designs and to generate linearized models of the aircraft at different flight conditions.

  8. Microwave System for Detecting Ice on Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, Philip J.; Glynn, Dennis P., Jr.; Joseph, John C.

    2004-01-01

    A microwave-based system has been developed as a means of detecting ice on aircraft surfaces, with enough sensitivity to provide a warning before the ice accretes to a dangerous thickness. The system can measure the thickness of ice from a few mils (1 mil = 0.0254 mm) to about 1/4 in. (.6 mm) and can distinguish among (1) ice, (2) water (or deicing fluid), and (3) a mixture of ice and water (or deicing fluid). Sensors have been ruggedized to withstand the rain erosion environment.

  9. Quelling Cabin Noise in Turboprop Aircraft via Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kincaid, Rex K.; Laba, Keith E.; Padula, Sharon L.

    1997-01-01

    Cabin noise in turboprop aircraft causes passenger discomfort, airframe fatigue, and employee scheduling constraints due to OSHA standards for exposure to high levels of noise. The noise levels in the cabins of turboprop aircraft are typically 10 to 30 decibels louder than commercial jet noise levels. However. unlike jet noise the turboprop noise spectrum is dominated by a few low frequency tones. Active structural acoustic control is a method in which the control inputs (used to reduce interior noise) are applied directly to a vibrating structural acoustic system. The control concept modeled in this work is the application of in-plane force inputs to piezoceramic patches bonded to the wall of a vibrating cylinder. The goal is to determine the force inputs and locations for the piezoceramic actuators so that: (1) the interior noise is effectively damped; (2) the level of vibration of the cylinder shell is not increased; and (3) the power requirements needed to drive the actuators are not excessive. Computational experiments for data taken from a computer generated model and from a laboratory test article at NASA Langley Research Center are provided.

  10. Practical applications of cosmic ray science: Spacecraft, aircraft, ground based computation and control systems, and human health and safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, William; Koontz, Steve; Normand, Eugene

    2013-02-01

    In this paper we review cosmic ray effects on the performance and reliability of microelectronic systems and human health as well as the development of the engineering and health science tools used to evaluate and mitigate cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments. Ground based test methods applied to microelectronic components and systems are used in combination with radiation transport and reaction codes to predict the performance of microelectronic systems in their operating environments. Similar radiation transport codes are an important tool for evaluating possible human health effects of cosmic ray. Finally, the limitations on human space operations beyond low-Earth orbit imposed by long term exposure to galactic cosmic rays are discussed.

  11. Non-linear controls influence functions in an aircraft dynamics simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Hubbard, James E., Jr.; Motter, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    In the development and testing of novel structural and controls concepts, such as morphing aircraft wings, appropriate models are needed for proper system characterization. In most instances, available system models do not provide the required additional degrees of freedom for morphing structures but may be modified to some extent to achieve a compatible system. The objective of this study is to apply wind tunnel data collected for an Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV), that implements trailing edge morphing, to create a non-linear dynamics simulator, using well defined rigid body equations of motion, where the aircraft stability derivatives change with control deflection. An analysis of this wind tunnel data, using data extraction algorithms, was performed to determine the reference aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for the aircraft. Further, non-linear influence functions were obtained for each of the aircraft s control surfaces, including the sixteen trailing edge flap segments. These non-linear controls influence functions are applied to the aircraft dynamics to produce deflection-dependent aircraft stability derivatives in a non-linear dynamics simulator. Time domain analysis of the aircraft motion, trajectory, and state histories can be performed using these nonlinear dynamics and may be visualized using a 3-dimensional aircraft model. Linear system models can be extracted to facilitate frequency domain analysis of the system and for control law development. The results of this study are useful in similar projects where trailing edge morphing is employed and will be instrumental in the University of Maryland s continuing study of active wing load control.

  12. Lightweight sidewalls for aircraft interior noise control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, D. N.; Plotkin, K. J.; Selden, R. G.; Sharp, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was performed to devise lightweight sidewalls for turboprop aircraft. Seven concepts for new sidewalls were analyzed and tested for noise reduction using flat panels of 1.2 m x 1.8 m (4 ft x 6 ft), some of which were aircraft-type constructions and some of which were simpler, easier-to-construct panels to test the functioning of an acoustic principle. Aircraft-application sidewalls were then conceived for each of the seven concepts, and were subjectively evaluated for their ability to meet aircraft nonacoustic design requirements. As a result of the above, the following sidewall concepts were recommended for further investigation: a sidewall in which the interior cavity is vented to ceiling and underfloor areas; sidewalls with wall-mounted resonators, one having a conventional trim panel and one a limp one; and a sidewall with a stiff outer wall and a limp trim panel. These sidewalls appear to promise lower weights than conventional sidewalls adjusted to meet similar acoustic requirements, and further development may prove them to be practical.

  13. Cryogenic system options for a superconducting aircraft propulsion system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, F.; Palmer, J.; Bertola, L.; Miller, Paul; Dodds, Graham

    2015-12-01

    There is a perceived need in the future for a move away from traditional aircraft designs in order to meet ambitious emissions and fuel burn targets. High temperature superconducting distributed propulsion may be an enabler for aircraft designs that have better propulsive efficiency and lower drag. There has been significant work considering the electrical systems required, but less on the cryogenics to enable it. This paper discusses some of the major choices to be faced in cryocooling for aircraft. The likely need for a disposable cryogen to reduce power demand is explained. A set of cryocooling methods are considered in a sensitivity study, which shows that the feasibility of the cryogenic system will depend strongly on the superconducting technology and the aircraft platform. It is argued that all three aspects must be researched and designed in close collaboration to reach a viable solution.

  14. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  15. F-15 IFCS Intelligent Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the F-15 aircraft, flight tests, aircraft performance and overall advanced neural network based flight control technologies for aerospace systems designs.

  16. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  17. Longitudinal control of aircraft dynamics based on optimization of PID parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deepa, S. N.; Sudha, G.

    2016-03-01

    Recent years many flight control systems and industries are employing PID controllers to improve the dynamic behavior of the characteristics. In this paper, PID controller is developed to improve the stability and performance of general aviation aircraft system. Designing the optimum PID controller parameters for a pitch control aircraft is important in expanding the flight safety envelope. Mathematical model is developed to describe the longitudinal pitch control of an aircraft. The PID controller is designed based on the dynamic modeling of an aircraft system. Different tuning methods namely Zeigler-Nichols method (ZN), Modified Zeigler-Nichols method, Tyreus-Luyben tuning, Astrom-Hagglund tuning methods are employed. The time domain specifications of different tuning methods are compared to obtain the optimum parameters value. The results prove that PID controller tuned by Zeigler-Nichols for aircraft pitch control dynamics is better in stability and performance in all conditions. Future research work of obtaining optimum PID controller parameters using artificial intelligence techniques should be carried out.

  18. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  19. An Immunized Aircraft Maneuver Selection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project, as stated in the original proposal, was to develop an immunized aircraft maneuver selection (IAMS) system. The IAMS system was to be composed of computational and informational building blocks that resemble structures in natural immune systems. The ultimate goal of the project was to develop a software package that could be flight tested on aircraft models. This report describes the work performed in the first year of what was to have been a two year project. This report also describes efforts that would have been made in the final year to have completed the project, had it been continued for the final year. After introductory material is provided in Section 2, the end-of-year-one status of the effort is discussed in Section 3. The remainder of the report provides an accounting of first year efforts. Section 4 provides background information on natural immune systems while Section 5 describes a generic ar&itecture developed for use in the IAMS. Section 6 describes the application of the architecture to a system identification problem. Finally, Section 7 describes steps necessary for completing the project.

  20. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  1. Biomechanically Induced and Controller Coupled Oscillations Experienced on the F-16XL Aircraft During Rolling Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John W.; Montgomery, Terry

    1996-01-01

    During rapid rolling maneuvers, the F-16 XL aircraft exhibits a 2.5 Hz lightly damped roll oscillation, perceived and described as 'roll ratcheting.' This phenomenon is common with fly-by-wire control systems, particularly when primary control is derived through a pedestal-mounted side-arm controller. Analytical studies have been conducted to model the nature of the integrated control characteristics. The analytical results complement the flight observations. A three-degree-of-freedom linearized set of aerodynamic matrices was assembled to simulate the aircraft plant. The lateral-directional control system was modeled as a linear system. A combination of two second-order transfer functions was derived to couple the lateral acceleration feed through effect of the operator's arm and controller to the roll stick force input. From the combined systems, open-loop frequency responses and a time history were derived, describing and predicting an analogous in-flight situation. This report describes the primary control, aircraft angular rate, and position time responses of the F-16 XL-2 aircraft during subsonic and high-dynamic-pressure rolling maneuvers. The analytical description of the pilot's arm and controller can be applied to other aircraft or simulations to assess roll ratcheting susceptibility.

  2. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  3. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  4. The Development of a Highly Reliable Power Management and Distribution System for Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Anthony S.; Hansen, Irving G.

    1994-01-01

    NASA is pursuing a program in Advanced Subsonic Transport (AST) to develop the technology for a highly reliable Fly-By-Light/Power-By-WIre aircraft. One of the primary objectives of the program is to develop the technology base for confident application of integrated PBW components and systems to transport aircraft to improve operating reliability and efficiency. Technology will be developed so that the present hydraulic and pneumatic systems of the aircraft can be systematically eliminated and replaced by electrical systems. These motor driven actuators would move the aircraft wing surfaces as well as the rudder to provide steering controls for the pilot. Existing aircraft electrical systems are not flight critical and are prone to failure due to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) (1), ground faults and component failures. In order to successfully implement electromechanical flight control actuation, a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) System must be designed having a reliability of 1 failure in 10(exp +9) hours, EMI hardening and a fault tolerance architecture to ensure uninterrupted power to all aircraft flight critical systems. The focus of this paper is to analyze, define, and describe technically challenging areas associated with the development of a Power By Wire Aircraft and typical requirements to be established at the box level. The authors will attempt to propose areas of investigation, citing specific military standards and requirements that need to be revised to accommodate the 'More Electric Aircraft Systems'.

  5. Detailed design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suikat, Reiner; Donaldson, Kent E.; Downing, David R.

    1989-01-01

    The design of a Ride Quality Augmentation System (RQAS) for commuter aircraft is documented. The RQAS is designed for a Cessna 402B, an 8 passenger prop twin representative to this class of aircraft. The purpose of the RQAS is the reduction of vertical and lateral accelerations of the aircraft due to atmospheric turbulence by the application of active control. The detailed design of the hardware (the aircraft modifications, the Ride Quality Instrumentation System (RQIS), and the required computer software) is examined. The aircraft modifications, consisting of the dedicated control surfaces and the hydraulic actuation system, were designed at Cessna Aircraft by Kansas University-Flight Research Laboratory. The instrumentation system, which consist of the sensor package, the flight computer, a Data Acquisition System, and the pilot and test engineer control panels, was designed by NASA-Langley. The overall system design and the design of the software, both for flight control algorithms and ground system checkout are detailed. The system performance is predicted from linear simulation results and from power spectral densities of the aircraft response to a Dryden gust. The results indicate that both accelerations are possible.

  6. Flight experience with manually controlled unconventional aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfield, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    A modified YF-16 aircraft was used to flight demonstrate decoupled modes under the USAF Fighter Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) Program. The direct force capabilities were used to implement seven manually controlled unconventional modes on the aircraft, allowing flat turns, decoupled normal acceleration control, independent longitudinal and lateral translations, uncoupled elevation and azimuth aiming, and blended direct lift. This paper describes the design, development, and flight testing of these control modes. The need for task-tailored mode authorities, gain-scheduling and selected closed-loop design is discussed.

  7. Experimental investigation of active loads control for aircraft landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, J. R.; Dreher, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft dynamic loads and vibrations resulting from landing impact and from runway and taxiway unevenness are recognized as significant in causing fatigue damage, dynamic stress on the airframe, crew and passenger discomfort, and reduction of the pilot's ability to control the aircraft during ground operations. One potential method for improving operational characteistics of aircraft on the ground is the application of active control technology to the landing gears to reduce ground loads applied to the airframe. An experimental investigation was conducted which simulated the landing dynamics of a light airplane to determine the feasibility and potential of a series hydraulic active control main landing gear. The experiments involved a passive gear and an active control gear. Results of this investigation show that a series hydraulically controlled gear is feasible and that such a gear is very effective in reducing the loads transmitted by the gear to the airframe during ground operations.

  8. Modal Filtering for Control of Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suh, Peter M.; Mavris, Dimitri N.

    2013-01-01

    Modal regulators and deformation trackers are designed for an open-loop fluttering wing model. The regulators are designed with modal coordinate and accelerometer inputs respectively. The modal coordinates are estimated with simulated fiber optics. The robust stability of the closed-loop systems is compared in a structured singular-value vector analysis. Performance is evaluated and compared in a gust alleviation and flutter suppression simulation. For the same wing and flight condition two wing-shape-tracking control architectures are presented, which achieve deformation control at any point on the wing.

  9. Aerodynamic control of fighter aircraft by manipulation of forebody vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malcolm, Gerald N.; Ng, T. Terry

    1991-01-01

    Methods of enhancing aircraft controllability and maneuverability at high angles of attack by manipulating the forebody vortices are discussed. Pneumatic control methods including jet blowing, slot blowing, and suction, and mechanical control methods using forebody and nose tip strakes are reviewed. The potential of various control devices in controlling the forebody flow, and thus, providing controlled yawing moments at high angles of attack are illustrated using wind tunnel results from a generic fighter and water tunnel results from an F/A-18.

  10. Robust Damage-Mitigating Control of Aircraft for High Performance and Structural Durability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey; Ray, Asok; Joshi, Suresh M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the concept and a design methodology for robust damage-mitigating control (DMC) of aircraft. The goal of DMC is to simultaneously achieve high performance and structural durability. The controller design procedure involves consideration of damage at critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. An aeroelastic model of the wings has been formulated and is incorporated into a nonlinear rigid-body model of aircraft flight-dynamics. Robust damage-mitigating controllers are then designed using the H(infinity)-based structured singular value (mu) synthesis method based on a linearized model of the aircraft. In addition to penalizing the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, frequency-dependent weights are placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. Using each controller in turn, the control system is put through an identical sequence of maneuvers, and the resulting (varying amplitude cyclic) stress profiles are analyzed using a fatigue crack growth model that incorporates the effects of stress overload. Comparisons are made to determine the impact of different weights on the resulting fatigue crack damage in the wings. The results of simulation experiments show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  11. Damage-mitigating control of aircraft for high performance and life extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplin, Jeffrey

    1998-12-01

    A methodology is proposed for the synthesis of a Damage-Mitigating Control System for a high-performance fighter aircraft. The design of such a controller involves consideration of damage to critical points of the structure, as well as the performance requirements of the aircraft. This research is interdisciplinary, and brings existing knowledge in the fields of unsteady aerodynamics, structural dynamics, fracture mechanics, and control theory together to formulate a new approach towards aircraft flight controller design. A flexible wing model is formulated using the Finite Element Method, and the important mode shapes and natural frequencies are identified. The Doublet Lattice Method is employed to develop an unsteady flow model for computation of the unsteady aerodynamic loads acting on the wing due to rigid-body maneuvers and structural deformation. These two models are subsequently incorporated into a pre-existing nonlinear rigid-body aircraft flight-dynamic model. A family of robust Damage-Mitigating Controllers is designed using the Hinfinity-optimization and mu-synthesis method. In addition to weighting the error between the ideal performance and the actual performance of the aircraft, weights are also placed on the strain amplitude at the root of each wing. The results show significant savings in fatigue life of the wings while retaining the dynamic performance of the aircraft.

  12. Comparative study of flare control laws. [optimal control of b-737 aircraft approach and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadkarni, A. A.; Breedlove, W. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    A digital 3-D automatic control law was developed to achieve an optimal transition of a B-737 aircraft between various initial glid slope conditions and the desired final touchdown condition. A discrete, time-invariant, optimal, closed-loop control law presented for a linear regulator problem, was extended to include a system being acted upon by a constant disturbance. Two forms of control laws were derived to solve this problem. One method utilized the feedback of integral states defined appropriately and augmented with the original system equations. The second method formulated the problem as a control variable constraint, and the control variables were augmented with the original system. The control variable constraint control law yielded a better performance compared to feedback control law for the integral states chosen.

  13. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... can be found in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System...

  14. Optimal cooperative control synthesis applied to a control-configured aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.; Innocenti, M.

    1984-01-01

    A multivariable control augmentation synthesis method is presented that is intended to enable the designer to directly optimize pilot opinion rating of the augmented system. The approach involves the simultaneous solution for the augmentation and predicted pilot's compensation via optimal control techniques. The methodology is applied to the control law synthesis for a vehicle similar to the AFTI F16 control-configured aircraft. The resulting dynamics, expressed in terms of eigenstructure and time/frequency responses, are presented with analytical predictions of closed loop tracking performance, pilot compensation, and other predictors of pilot acceptance.

  15. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  16. System design requirements for advanced rotary-wing agricultural aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemont, H. E.

    1979-01-01

    Helicopter aerial dispersal systems were studied to ascertain constraints to the system, the effects of removal of limitations (technical and FAA regulations), and subsystem improvements. Productivity indices for the aircraft and swath effects were examined. Typical missions were formulated through conversations with operators, and differing gross weight aircraft were synthesized to perform these missions. Economic analysis of missions and aircraft indicated a general correlation of small aircraft (3000 lb gross weight) suitability for small fields (25 acres), and low dispersion rates (less than 32 lb/acre), with larger aircraft (12,000 lb gross weight) being more favorable for bigger fields (200 acres) and heavier dispersal rates (100 lb/acre). Operator problems, possible aircraft and system improvements, and selected removal of operating limitations were reviewed into recommendations for future NASA research items.

  17. Active Structural Control for Aircraft Efficiency with the X-56A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouellette, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The X-56A Multi-Utility Technology Testbed is an experimental aircraft designed to study active control of flexible structures. The vehicle is easily reconfigured to allow for testing of different configurations. The vehicle is being used to study new sensor, actuator, modeling and controls technologies. These new technologies will allow for lighter vehicles and new configurations that exceed the efficiency currently achievable. A description of the vehicle and the current research efforts that it enables are presented.

  18. Application of robust control to a rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkoglu, Ercument

    The thesis is concerned with the application of robust controller synthesis and analysis tools to a rotary-wing aircraft: the Bell 205 teetering-rotor helicopter. The Tioo loop-shaping approach is central to the work and two main issues concerned with its application will be considered. Firstly, the construction of diagonal (structured) and non- diagonal (unstructured) weighting functions will be considered. Secondly, the analysis of the implications of different weighting function structures in the controller implementation. A two stage cross-comparative analysis of a series of 1 Dof (Degree of Freedom) and 2 Dof controllers synthesized with both diagonal and non-diagonal weights using the Hqo loop- shaping technique will be presented for square and non-square multi input multi output, unstable, non-minimum phase and ill-conditioned models of the helicopter. Handling qualities of each control law augmented system will be assessed quantitatively and qualitatively. A quantitative analysis, in view of the specifications in ADS-33E, will be given based on a combination of flight data from in-flight tested controllers and, desk-top simula tions run on a fully augmented 12 Dof nonlinear helicopter model provided by QinetiQ, UK. A qualitative analysis will be given based on the pilot comments compiled (in view of the Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating scale) from the evaluated in-flight control laws.

  19. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  1. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  2. Laser beacon system for aircraft collision hazard determination.

    PubMed

    Miles, R B

    1980-07-01

    A laser beacon collision hazard determination system is capable of simultaneously determining range, bearing, and heading of threat aircraft. Calculations demonstrate that threat aircraft may be observed at > 10 km under good visibility conditions. When the visibility is limited to 5.6 km (3 nautical miles), the shortest possible warning time for aircraft below 3000 m (10,000 ft) can be > 15 sec. A wide variety of detection systems may be chosen based on cost, detection range, and sophistication. Traffic saturation is not a problem since closer aircraft produce easily distinguishable signals so traffic may be prioritized. Preliminary tests demonstrate that accurate range measurements are possible under daylight conditions.

  3. Exploratory Studies in Generalized Predictive Control for Active Aeroelastic Control of Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kvaternik, Raymond G.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Bennett, Richard L.

    2000-01-01

    The Aeroelasticity Branch at NASA Langley Research Center has a long and substantive history of tiltrotor aeroelastic research. That research has included a broad range of experimental investigations in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) using a variety of scale models and the development of essential analyses. Since 1994, the tiltrotor research program has been using a 1/5-scale, semispan aeroelastic model of the V-22 designed and built by Bell Helicopter Textron Inc. (BHTI) in 1981. That model has been refurbished to form a tiltrotor research testbed called the Wing and Rotor Aeroelastic Test System (WRATS) for use in the TDT. In collaboration with BHTI, studies under the current tiltrotor research program are focused on aeroelastic technology areas having the potential for enhancing the commercial and military viability of tiltrotor aircraft. Among the areas being addressed, considerable emphasis is being directed to the evaluation of modern adaptive multi-input multi- output (MIMO) control techniques for active stability augmentation and vibration control of tiltrotor aircraft. As part of this investigation, a predictive control technique known as Generalized Predictive Control (GPC) is being studied to assess its potential for actively controlling the swashplate of tiltrotor aircraft to enhance aeroelastic stability in both helicopter and airplane modes of flight. This paper summarizes the exploratory numerical and experimental studies that were conducted as part of that investigation.

  4. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 2: Conceptual study report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, S. A.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The overall feasibility of the technical requirements and concepts for a rotor system research aircraft (RSRA) was determined. The designs of two aircraft were then compared against the RSRA requirements. One of these is an all new aircraft specifically designed as an RSRA vehicle. A new main rotor, transmission, wings, and fuselage are included in this design. The second aircraft uses an existing Sikorsky S-61 main rotor, an S-61 roller gearbox, and a highly modified Sikorsky S-67 airframe. The wing for this aircraft is a new design. Both aircraft employ a fan-in-fin anti-torque/yaw control system, T58-GE-16 engines for rotor power, and TF34-GE-2 turbofans for auxiliary thrust. Each aircraft meets the basic requirements and goals of the program. The all new aircraft has inflight variable main rotor shaft tilt, a side-by-side cockpit seating arrangement, and is slightly faster in the compound mode. It is also somewhat lighter since it uses new dynamic components specifically designed for the RSRA. Preliminary development plans, including schedules and costs, were prepared for both of these aircraft.

  5. On the safety of aircraft systems: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Guridi, G.; Hall, R.E.; Fullwood, R.R.

    1997-05-14

    An airplane is a highly engineered system incorporating control- and feedback-loops which often, and realistically, are non-linear because the equations describing such feedback contain products of state variables, trigonometric or square-root functions, or other types of non-linear terms. The feedback provided by the pilot (crew) of the airplane also is typically non-linear because it has the same mathematical characteristics. An airplane is designed with systems to prevent and mitigate undesired events. If an undesired triggering event occurs, an accident may process in different ways depending on the effectiveness of such systems. In addition, the progression of some accidents requires that the operating crew take corrective action(s), which may modify the configuration of some systems. The safety assessment of an aircraft system typically is carried out using ARP (Aerospace Recommended Practice) 4761 (SAE, 1995) methods, such as Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA). Such methods may be called static because they model an aircraft system on its nominal configuration during a mission time, but they do not incorporate the action(s) taken by the operating crew, nor the dynamic behavior (non-linearities) of the system (airplane) as a function of time. Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), also known as Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), has been applied to highly engineered systems, such as aircraft and nuclear power plants. PSA encompasses a wide variety of methods, including event tree analysis (ETA), FTA, and common-cause analysis, among others. PSA should not be confused with ARP 4761`s proposed PSSA (Preliminary System Safety Assessment); as its name implies, PSSA is a preliminary assessment at the system level consisting of FTA and FMEA.

  6. An aircraft model for the AIAA controls design challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumbaugh, Randal W.

    1991-01-01

    A generic, state-of-the-art, high-performance aircraft model, including detailed, full-envelope, nonlinear aerodynamics, and full-envelope thrust and first-order engine response data is described. While this model was primarily developed Controls Design Challenge, the availability of such a model provides a common focus for research in aeronautical control theory and methodology. An implementation of this model using the FORTRAN computer language, associated routines furnished with the aircraft model, and techniques for interfacing these routines to external procedures is also described. Figures showing vehicle geometry, surfaces, and sign conventions are included.

  7. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  8. Decentralized aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuanyuan

    The existing air transportation system is approaching a bottleneck because its dominant hub-and-spoke model results in a concentration of a large percentage of the air traffic at a few hub airports. Advanced technologies are greatly needed to enhance the transportation capabilities of the small airports in the U.S.A., and distribute the high volume of air traffic at the hub airports to those small airports, which are mostly non-controlled airports. Currently, two major focus areas of research are being pursued to achieve this objective. One focus concentrates on the development of tools to improve operations in the current Air Traffic Management system. A more long-term research effort focuses on the development of decentralized Air Traffic Management techniques. This dissertation takes the latter approach and seeks to analyze the degree of decentralization for scheduling aircraft landings in the dynamic operational environment at single runway non-controlled airports. Moreover, it explores the feasibility and capability of scheduling aircraft landings within uninterrupted free-flight environment in which there is no existence of Air Traffic Control (ATC). First, it addresses the approach of developing static optimization algorithms for scheduling aircraft landings and, thus, analyzes the capability of automated aircraft landing scheduling at single runway non-controlled airports. Then, it provides detailed description of the implementation of a distributed Air Traffic Management (ATM) system that achieves decentralized aircraft landing scheduling with acceptable performance whereas a solution to the distributed coordination issues is presented. Finally real-time Monte Carlo flight simulations of multi-aircraft landing scenarios are conducted to evaluate the static and dynamic performance of the aircraft landing scheduling algorithms and operation concepts introduced. Results presented in the dissertation demonstrate that decentralized aircraft landing scheduling

  9. Comparison of piezoelectric systems and aerodynamic systems for aircraft vibration alleviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Juergen; Luber, Wolfgang G.

    1998-06-01

    A comparison of active smart structure - piezoelectric control system and aerodynamic active systems for vibration alleviation and elastic mode damping of a military aircraft structure is presented. The vibration alleviation systems which are operative at flight in turbulence or during maneuvers at high incidence corresponding to severe buffeting conditions are under investigation by DASA as a part of research study on advanced aircraft structures. The active systems for elastic mode damping are designed as digital systems to provide vibration alleviation and have an interface to the flight control system (FCS) or are directly part of the FCS. The sensor concept of all different systems is the same as the sensor concept used for the FCS with the corresponding benefits of redundancy and safety. The design of systems and the comparisons of system properties are based on open and closed loop response calculations, performed with the dynamic model of the total aircraft including coupling of flight mechanics, structural dynamics, FCS dynamics and hydraulic actuator or piezo-actuator dynamics. Aerodynamic systems, like active foreplane and flap concepts, rudder and auxiliary rudder concepts, and piezoelectric systems, like piezo interface at the interconnection fin to rear fuselage and integrated piezo concepts are compared. Besides the essential effects on flexible aircraft mode stability and vibration alleviation factors system complexity and safety aspects are described.

  10. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) has been undergoing ground and flight tests by Ames Research Center since late 1979, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope established by the Sikorsky Aircraft Company. This paper reviews the preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wing, configuration and discusses the results of that test.

  11. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  12. Feedback Linearized Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS ) Neural Network was developed which learns a topology representing network (TRN) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is combined with a feedback linearized tracking controller to produce a robust control architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off-nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes network and its performance for accident scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control, stability derivative variation, and turbulence.

  13. Towards Intelligent Control for Next Generation CESTOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, Diana Michelle

    2008-01-01

    This talk will present the motivation, research approach and status of intelligent control research for Next Generation Cruise Efficient Short Take Off and Landing (CESTOL) aircraft. An introduction to the challenges of CESTOL control will be given, leading into an assessment of potential control solutions. The approach of the control research will be discussed, including a brief overview of the technical aspects of the research.

  14. Combined dynamic inversion and QFT flight control of an unstable high performance aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Perry Walter

    Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) is a control system synthesis, technique that directly considers system uncertainties and disturbance magnitudes when formulating closed-loop control algorithms. Dynamic Inversion is a nonlinear control system design technique that relies on accurate mathematical models to compute control inputs producing arbitrary system responses. Both techniques have been applied to unstable high performance aircraft flight control, and produced effective aircraft controllers. Both techniques have certain drawbacks: Nonlinear QFT controllers tend to be unnecessarily conservative (the computed controllers have excessive bandwidth) because known system properties are treated as "unknown" disturbances during loop synthesis. Meanwhile Dynamic Inversion control is sensitive to differences between assumed mathematical models and actual system dynamic properties. Combining the two control techniques provides the benefit of both while suffering the drawbacks of neither, as demonstrated by Single Input, Single Output (SISO) control of a constant airspeed, no roll, no yaw nonlinear model of the F-16 aircraft, and by Multi-Input, Multi-Output (MIMO) control of a full six-degree-of-freedom version. Design performance of the combined controllers is verified by reduced actuator efforts and by reduced sensor noise to actuator input (U( s)/n(s)) transfer function magnitudes compared to standard QFT versions.

  15. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  16. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  17. A linear input-varying framework for modeling and control of morphing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Daniel T.

    2011-12-01

    a method to relate the flight dynamics of morphing aircraft by interpreting a time-varying eigenvector in terms of flight modes. The time-varying eigenvector is actually defined through a decomposition of the state-transition matrix and thus describes an entire response through a morphing trajectory. A variable-sweep aircraft is analyzed to demonstrate the information that is obtained through this method and how the flight dynamics are altered by the time-varying morphing. Also, morphing vehicles have inherently time-varying dynamics due to the alteration of their configurations; consequently, the numerous techniques for analysis and control of time-invariant systems are inappropriate. Therefore, a control scheme is introduced that directly considers a concept of time-varying pole to command morphing. The resulting trajectory minimizing tracking error for either a state response or a pole response.

  18. Portable Integrated Wireless Device Threat Assessment to Aircraft Radio Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salud, Maria Theresa P.; Williams, Reuben A. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    An assessment was conducted on multiple wireless local area network (WLAN) devices using the three wireless standards for spurious radiated emissions to determine their threat to aircraft radio navigation systems. The measurement process, data and analysis are provided for devices tested using IEEE 802.11a, IEEE 802.11b, and Bluetooth as well as data from portable laptops/tablet PCs and PDAs (grouping known as PEDs). A comparison was made between wireless LAN devices and portable electronic devices. Spurious radiated emissions were investigated in the radio frequency bands for the following aircraft systems: Instrument Landing System Localizer and Glideslope, Very High Frequency (VHF) Communication, VHF Omnidirectional Range, Traffic Collision Avoidance System, Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System, Microwave Landing System and Global Positioning System. Since several of the contiguous navigation systems were grouped under one encompassing measurement frequency band, there were five measurement frequency bands where spurious radiated emissions data were collected for the PEDs and WLAN devices. The report also provides a comparison between emissions data and regulatory emission limit.

  19. A Generic Guidance and Control Structure for Six-Degree-of-Freedom Conceptual Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotting, M. Christopher; Cox, Timothy H.

    2005-01-01

    A control system framework is presented for both real-time and batch six-degree-of-freedom simulation. This framework allows stabilization and control with multiple command options, from body rate control to waypoint guidance. Also, pilot commands can be used to operate the simulation in a pilot-in-the-loop environment. This control system framework is created by using direct vehicle state feedback with nonlinear dynamic inversion. A direct control allocation scheme is used to command aircraft effectors. Online B-matrix estimation is used in the control allocation algorithm for maximum algorithm flexibility. Primary uses for this framework include conceptual design and early preliminary design of aircraft, where vehicle models change rapidly and a knowledge of vehicle six-degree-of-freedom performance is required. A simulated airbreathing hypersonic vehicle and a simulated high performance fighter are controlled to demonstrate the flexibility and utility of the control system.

  20. Drone Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Drones, subscale vehicles like the Firebees, and full scale retired military aircraft are used to test air defense missile systems. The DFCS (Drone Formation Control System) computer, developed by IBM (International Business Machines) Federal Systems Division, can track ten drones at once. A program called ORACLS is used to generate software to track and control Drones. It was originally developed by Langley and supplied by COSMIC (Computer Software Management and Information Center). The program saved the company both time and money.

  1. Damped Windows for Aircraft Interior Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehrle, Ralph D.; Klos, Jacob; Gibbs, Gary P.

    2004-01-01

    Windows are a significant path for structure-borne and air-borne noise transmission into aircraft. To improve the acoustical performance, damped windows were fabricated using two or three layers of plexiglas with transparent viscoelastic damping material sandwiched between the layers. In this paper, numerical and experimental results are used to evaluate the acoustic benefits of damped windows. Tests were performed in the Structural Acoustic Loads and Transmission Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to measure the transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation and radiated sound power for point force excitation. Comparisons between uniform and damped plexiglas windows showed increased transmission loss of 6 dB at the first natural frequency, 6 dB at coincidence, and 4.5 dB over a 50 to 4k Hz range. Radiated sound power was reduced up to 7 dB at the lower natural frequencies and 3.7 dB over a 1000 Hz bandwidth. Numerical models are presented for the prediction of radiated sound power for point force excitation and transmission loss for diffuse acoustic excitation. Radiated sound power and transmission loss predictions are in good agreement with experimental data. A parametric study is presented that evaluates the optimum configuration of the damped plexiglas windows for reducing the radiated sound power.

  2. Design and simulation of a descent controller for strategic four-dimensional aircraft navigation. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lax, F. M.

    1975-01-01

    A time-controlled navigation system applicable to the descent phase of flight for airline transport aircraft was developed and simulated. The design incorporates the linear discrete-time sampled-data version of the linearized continuous-time system describing the aircraft's aerodynamics. Using optimal linear quadratic control techniques, an optimal deterministic control regulator which is implementable on an airborne computer is designed. The navigation controller assists the pilot in complying with assigned times of arrival along a four-dimensional flight path in the presence of wind disturbances. The strategic air traffic control concept is also described, followed by the design of a strategic control descent path. A strategy for determining possible times of arrival at specified waypoints along the descent path and for generating the corresponding route-time profiles that are within the performance capabilities of the aircraft is presented. Using a mathematical model of the Boeing 707-320B aircraft along with a Boeing 707 cockpit simulator interfaced with an Adage AGT-30 digital computer, a real-time simulation of the complete aircraft aerodynamics was achieved. The strategic four-dimensional navigation controller for longitudinal dynamics was tested on the nonlinear aircraft model in the presence of 15, 30, and 45 knot head-winds. The results indicate that the controller preserved the desired accuracy and precision of a time-controlled aircraft navigation system.

  3. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  4. Optical wireless networked-systems: applications to aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on leveraging the progress in semiconductor technologies to facilitate production of efficient light-based in-flight entertainment (IFE), distributed sensing, navigation and control systems. We demonstrate the ease of configuring "engineered pipes" using cheap lenses, etc. to achieve simple linear transmission capacity growth. Investigation of energy-efficient, miniaturized transceivers will create a wireless medium, for both inter and intra aircrafts, providing enhanced security, and improved quality-of-service for communications links in greater harmony with onboard systems. The applications will seamlessly inter-connect multiple intelligent devices in a network that is deployable for aircrafts navigation systems, onboard sensors and entertainment data delivery systems, and high-definition audio-visual broadcasting systems. Recent experimental results on a high-capacity infrared (808 nm) system are presented. The light source can be applied in a hybrid package along with a visible lighting LED for both lighting and communications. Also, we present a pragmatic combination of light communications through "Spotlighting" and existing onboard power-lines. It is demonstrated in details that a high-capacity IFE visible light system communicating over existing power-lines (VLC/PLC) may lead to savings in many areas through reduction of size, weight and energy consumption. This paper addresses the challenges of integrating optimized optical devices in the variety of environments described above, and presents mitigation and tailoring approaches for a multi-purpose optical network.

  5. Optimal Aircraft Control Upset Recovery With and Without Component Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sparks, Dean W.; Moerder, Daniel D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of recovering sustainable nondescending (safe) flight in a transport aircraft after one or more of its control effectors fail. Such recovery can be a challenging goal for many transport aircraft currently in the operational fleet for two reasons. First, they have very little redundancy in their means of generating control forces and moments. These aircraft have, as primary control surfaces, a single rudder and pairwise elevators and aileron/spoiler units that provide yaw, pitch, and roll moments with sufficient bandwidth to be used in stabilizing and maneuvering the airframe. Beyond this, throttling the engines can provide additional moments, but on a much slower time scale. Other aerodynamic surfaces, such as leading and trailing edge flaps, are only intended to be placed in a position and left, and are, hence, very slow-moving. Because of this, loss of a primary control surface strongly degrades the controllability of the vehicle, particularly when the failed effector becomes stuck in a non-neutral position where it exerts a disturbance moment that must be countered by the remaining operating effectors. The second challenge in recovering safe flight is that these vehicles are not agile, nor can they tolerate large accelerations. This is of special importance when, at the outset of the recovery maneuver, the aircraft is flying toward the ground, as is frequently the case when there are major control hardware failures. Recovery of safe flight is examined in this paper in the context of trajectory optimization. For a particular transport aircraft, and a failure scenario inspired by an historical air disaster, recovery scenarios are calculated with and without control surface failures, to bring the aircraft to safe flight from the adverse flight condition that it had assumed, apparently as a result of contact with a vortex from a larger aircraft's wake. An effort has been made to represent relevant airframe dynamics, acceleration limits

  6. Stability boundaries for aircraft with unstable lateral-directional dynamics and control saturation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrivastava, Prakash C.; Stengel, Robert F.

    1989-01-01

    Aircraft that do not possess inherent (aerodynamic) stability must rely on closed-loop control systems for stable operation. Because there are limits on the deflections of an aircraft's control surfaces, the region of stable operation also is bounded. These boundaries are investigated for a lateral-directional example in which vertical fin size is inadequate to provide directional stability and where aileron and rudder deflections are subject to saturation. Fourth-order models are used in this study, with flight control logic based on minimum-control-energy linear-quadratic-regulatory theory. It is found that the stability boundaries can be described by unstable limit cycles surrounding stable equilibrium points. Variations in regions of stability with gain levels and command inputs are illustrated. Current results suggest guidelines for permissible limits on the open-loop instability of an aircraft's lateral-directional modes.

  7. Output model-following control synthesis for an oblique-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joseph W.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in oblique-wing aircraft has focused on the potential aerodynamic performance advantage of a variable-skew oblique wing over a conventional or symmetric sweep wing. Unfortunately, the resulting asymmetric configuration has significant aerodynamic and inertial cross-coupling between the aircraft longitudinal and lateral-directional axes. Presented here is a decoupling control law synthesis technique that integrates stability augmentation, decoupling, and the direct incorporation of desired handling qualities into an output feedback controller. The proposed design technique uses linear quadratic regulator concepts in the framework of explicit model following. The output feedback strategy used is a suboptimal projection from the state space to the output space. Dynamics are then introduced into the controller to improve steady-state performance and increase system robustness. Closed-loop performance is shown by application of the control laws to the linearized equations of motion and nonlinear simulation of an oblique-wing aircraft.

  8. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  9. Intelligent flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The capabilities of flight control systems can be enhanced by designing them to emulate functions of natural intelligence. Intelligent control functions fall in three categories. Declarative actions involve decision-making, providing models for system monitoring, goal planning, and system/scenario identification. Procedural actions concern skilled behavior and have parallels in guidance, navigation, and adaptation. Reflexive actions are spontaneous, inner-loop responses for control and estimation. Intelligent flight control systems learn knowledge of the aircraft and its mission and adapt to changes in the flight environment. Cognitive models form an efficient basis for integrating 'outer-loop/inner-loop' control functions and for developing robust parallel-processing algorithms.

  10. Automatic Aircraft Collision Avoidance System and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skoog, Mark (Inventor); Hook, Loyd (Inventor); McWherter, Shaun (Inventor); Willhite, Jaimie (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The invention is a system and method of compressing a DTM to be used in an Auto-GCAS system using a semi-regular geometric compression algorithm. In general, the invention operates by first selecting the boundaries of the three dimensional map to be compressed and dividing the three dimensional map data into regular areas. Next, a type of free-edged, flat geometric surface is selected which will be used to approximate terrain data of the three dimensional map data. The flat geometric surface is used to approximate terrain data for each regular area. The approximations are checked to determine if they fall within selected tolerances. If the approximation for a specific regular area is within specified tolerance, the data is saved for that specific regular area. If the approximation for a specific area falls outside the specified tolerances, the regular area is divided and a flat geometric surface approximation is made for each of the divided areas. This process is recursively repeated until all of the regular areas are approximated by flat geometric surfaces. Finally, the compressed three dimensional map data is provided to the automatic ground collision system for an aircraft.

  11. A unified method for evaluating real-time computer controllers: A case study. [aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Krishna, C. M.; Lee, Y. H.

    1982-01-01

    A real time control system consists of a synergistic pair, that is, a controlled process and a controller computer. Performance measures for real time controller computers are defined on the basis of the nature of this synergistic pair. A case study of a typical critical controlled process is presented in the context of new performance measures that express the performance of both controlled processes and real time controllers (taken as a unit) on the basis of a single variable: controller response time. Controller response time is a function of current system state, system failure rate, electrical and/or magnetic interference, etc., and is therefore a random variable. Control overhead is expressed as a monotonically nondecreasing function of the response time and the system suffers catastrophic failure, or dynamic failure, if the response time for a control task exceeds the corresponding system hard deadline, if any. A rigorous probabilistic approach is used to estimate the performance measures. The controlled process chosen for study is an aircraft in the final stages of descent, just prior to landing. First, the performance measures for the controller are presented. Secondly, control algorithms for solving the landing problem are discussed and finally the impact of the performance measures on the problem is analyzed.

  12. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  13. Problems related to the integration of fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bannister, J. A.; Adlakha, V.; Triyedi, K.; Alspaugh, T. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Problems related to the design of the hardware for an integrated aircraft electronic system are considered. Taxonomies of concurrent systems are reviewed and a new taxonomy is proposed. An informal methodology intended to identify feasible regions of the taxonomic design space is described. Specific tools are recommended for use in the methodology. Based on the methodology, a preliminary strawman integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic system is proposed. Next, problems related to the programming and control of inegrated aircraft electronic systems are discussed. Issues of system resource management, including the scheduling and allocation of real time periodic tasks in a multiprocessor environment, are treated in detail. The role of software design in integrated fault tolerant aircraft electronic systems is discussed. Conclusions and recommendations for further work are included.

  14. Direct Adaptive Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Charles C.

    1997-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS) Neural Network was developed which learns topology representing networks (TRNS) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is integrated into a direct adaptive tracking controller. The combination produces a robust adaptive architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off- nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes the DCS network and modifications to the parameter estimation procedure. The work represents one step towards an integrated real-time reconfiguration control architecture for rapid prototyping of new aircraft designs. Performance was evaluated using three off-line benchmarks and on-line nonlinear Virtual Reality simulation. Flight control was evaluated under scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control and stability derivative variations, and air turbulence.

  15. Dynamics of aircraft antiskid braking systems. [conducted at the Langley aircraft landing loads and traction facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.; Stubbs, S. M.; Dreher, R. C.; Smith, E. G.

    1982-01-01

    A computer study was performed to assess the accuracy of three brake pressure-torque mathematical models. The investigation utilized one main gear wheel, brake, and tire assembly of a McDonnell Douglas DC-9 series 10 airplane. The investigation indicates that the performance of aircraft antiskid braking systems is strongly influenced by tire characteristics, dynamic response of the antiskid control valve, and pressure-torque response of the brake. The computer study employed an average torque error criterion to assess the accuracy of the models. The results indicate that a variable nonlinear spring with hysteresis memory function models the pressure-torque response of the brake more accurately than currently used models.

  16. Dynamics and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aditya Avinash

    There is a considerable interest in developing robotic aircraft, inspired by birds, for a variety of missions covering reconnaissance and surveillance. Flapping wing aircraft concepts have been put forth in light of the efficiency of flapping flight at small scales. These aircraft are naturally equipped with the ability to rotate their wings about the root, a form of wing articulation. This thesis covers some problems concerning the performance, stability and control of robotic aircraft with articulated wings in gliding flight. Specifically, we are interested in aircraft without a vertical tail, which would then use wing articulation for longitudinal as well as lateral-directional control. Although the dynamics and control of articulated wing aircraft share several common features with conventional fixed wing aircraft, the presence of wing articulation presents several unique benefits as well as limitations from the perspective of performance and control. One of the objective of this thesis is to understand these features using a combination of theoretical and numerical tools. The aircraft concept envisioned in this thesis uses the wing dihedral angles for longitudinal and lateral-directional control. Aircraft with flexible articulated wings are also investigated. We derive a complete nonlinear model of the flight dynamics incorporating dynamic CG location and the changing moment of inertia. We show that symmetric dihedral configuration, along with a conventional horizontal tail, can be used to control flight speed and flight path angle independently of each other. This characteristic is very useful for initiating an efficient perching maneuver. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. We compute the turning performance limitations that arise due to the use of wing dihedral for yaw control

  17. Systems integration studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mascitti, V. R.

    1975-01-01

    Technical progress in each of the disciplinary research areas affecting the design of supersonic cruise aircraft is discussed. The NASA AST/SCAR Program supported the integration of these technical advances into supersonic cruise aircraft configuration concepts. While the baseline concepts reflect differing design philosophy, all reflect a level of economic performance considerably above the current foreign aircraft as well as the former U.S. SST. Range-payload characteristics of the study configurating show significant improvement, while meeting environmental goals such as takeoff and landing noise and upper atmospheric pollution.

  18. Developments in Stochastic Fuel Efficient Cruise Control and Constrained Control with Applications to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonough, Kevin K.

    The dissertation presents contributions to fuel-efficient control of vehicle speed and constrained control with applications to aircraft. In the first part of this dissertation a stochastic approach to fuel-efficient vehicle speed control is developed. This approach encompasses stochastic modeling of road grade and traffic speed, modeling of fuel consumption through the use of a neural network, and the application of stochastic dynamic programming to generate vehicle speed control policies that are optimized for the trade-off between fuel consumption and travel time. The fuel economy improvements with the proposed policies are quantified through simulations and vehicle experiments. It is shown that the policies lead to the emergence of time-varying vehicle speed patterns that are referred to as time-varying cruise. Through simulations and experiments it is confirmed that these time-varying vehicle speed profiles are more fuel-efficient than driving at a comparable constant speed. Motivated by these results, a simpler implementation strategy that is more appealing for practical implementation is also developed. This strategy relies on a finite state machine and state transition threshold optimization, and its benefits are quantified through model-based simulations and vehicle experiments. Several additional contributions are made to approaches for stochastic modeling of road grade and vehicle speed that include the use of Kullback-Liebler divergence and divergence rate and a stochastic jump-like model for the behavior of the road grade. In the second part of the dissertation, contributions to constrained control with applications to aircraft are described. Recoverable sets and integral safe sets of initial states of constrained closed-loop systems are introduced first and computational procedures of such sets based on linear discrete-time models are given. The use of linear discrete-time models is emphasized as they lead to fast computational procedures. Examples of

  19. Behavior of aircraft antiskid braking systems on dry and wet runway surfaces - A velocity-rate-controlled, pressure-bias-modulated system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbs, S. M.; Tanner, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    During maximum braking the average ratio of drag-force friction coefficient developed by the antiskid system to maximum drag-force friction coefficient available at the tire/runway interface was higher on dry surfaces than on wet surfaces. The gross stopping power generated by the brake system on the dry surface was more than twice that obtained on the wet surfaces. With maximum braking applied, the average ratio of side-force friction coefficient developed by the tire under antiskid control to maximum side-force friction available at the tire/runway interface of a free-rolling yawed tire was shown to decrease with increasing yaw angle. Braking reduced the side-force friction coefficient on a dry surface by 75 percent as the wheel slip ratio was increased to 0.3; on a flooded surface the coefficient dropped to near zero for the same slip ratio. Locked wheel skids were observed when the tire encountered a runway surface transition from dry to flooded, due in part to the response time required for the system to sense abrupt changes in the runway friction; however, the antiskid system quickly responded by reducing brake pressure and cycling normally during the remainder of the run on the flooded surface.

  20. Adaptive Data-based Predictive Control for Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan Spencer; Acosta, Diana Michelle; Phan, Minh Q.

    2010-01-01

    Data-based Predictive Control is an emerging control method that stems from Model Predictive Control (MPC). MPC computes current control action based on a prediction of the system output a number of time steps into the future and is generally derived from a known model of the system. Data-based predictive control has the advantage of deriving predictive models and controller gains from input-output data. Thus, a controller can be designed from the outputs of complex simulation code or a physical system where no explicit model exists. If the output data happens to be corrupted by periodic disturbances, the designed controller will also have the built-in ability to reject these disturbances without the need to know them. When data-based predictive control is implemented online, it becomes a version of adaptive control. The characteristics of adaptive data-based predictive control are particularly appropriate for the control of nonlinear and time-varying systems, such as Short Take-off and Landing (STOL) aircraft. STOL is a capability of interest to NASA because conceptual Cruise Efficient Short Take-off and Landing (CESTOL) transport aircraft offer the ability to reduce congestion in the terminal area by utilizing existing shorter runways at airports, as well as to lower community noise by flying steep approach and climb-out patterns that reduce the noise footprint of the aircraft. In this study, adaptive data-based predictive control is implemented as an integrated flight-propulsion controller for the outer-loop control of a CESTOL-type aircraft. Results show that the controller successfully tracks velocity while attempting to maintain a constant flight path angle, using longitudinal command, thrust and flap setting as the control inputs.

  1. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 7: Tilt rotor flight control program feedback studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. R.; Eason, W.; Gillmore, K.; Morris, J.; Spittle, R.

    1973-01-01

    An exploratory study has been made of the use of feedback control in tilt rotor aircraft. This has included the use of swashplate cyclic and collective controls and direct lift control. Various sensor and feedback systems are evaluated in relation to blade loads alleviation, improvement in flying qualities, and modal suppression. Recommendations are made regarding additional analytical and wind tunnel investigations and development of feedback systems in the full scale flight vehicle. Estimated costs and schedules are given.

  2. Coupled nonlinear flight dynamics, aeroelasticity, and control of very flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Christopher M.

    Flight dynamics and control of rigid aircraft motion coupled with linearized structural dynamics has been studied for several decades. However, new requirements for very flexible aircraft are challenging the validity of most rigid body coupled linearized structural motion formulations, due to the presence of large elastic motions. This dissertation presents, the flight dynamics, integration, and control of the six degree-of-freedom equations of motion of a reference point on a very flexible aircraft coupled with the aeroelastic equations which govern the geometrically nonlinear structural response of the vehicle. A low-order strain-based nonlinear structural analysis coupled with unsteady finite-state potential flow aerodynamics form the basis for the aeroelastic formulation. The nonlinear beam structural model is based upon the finite strain approach. Kinematic differential equations are used to provide orientation and position of the fixed reference point. The resulting governing differential equations are non-linear, first- and second-order differential algebraic equations and provide a low-order complete nonlinear aircraft formulation. The resulting equations are integrated using an implicit Modified Newmark Method. The method incorporates both first- and second-order nonlinear equations without the necessity of transforming second-order equations to first-order form. The method also incorporates a Newton-Raphson sub-iteration scheme to reduce residual error. Due to the inherent flexibility of these aircraft, the low order structural modes couple directly with the rigid body modes. This creates a system which cannot be separated as in traditional control schemes. Trajectory control techniques are developed based upon a combination of linear and nonlinear inner-loop tracking and an outer-loop nonlinear transformation from desired trajectories to reference frame velocities. Numerical simulations are presented validating the proposed integration scheme and the

  3. A knowledge based application of the extended aircraft interrogation and display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Richard D.; Larson, Richard R.

    1991-01-01

    A family of multiple-processor ground support test equipment was used to test digital flight-control systems on high-performance research aircraft. A unit recently built for the F-18 high alpha research vehicle project is the latest model in a series called the extended aircraft interrogation and display system. The primary feature emphasized monitors the aircraft MIL-STD-1553B data buses and provides real-time engineering units displays of flight-control parameters. A customized software package was developed to provide real-time data interpretation based on rules embodied in a highly structured knowledge database. The configuration of this extended aircraft interrogation and display system is briefly described, and the evolution of the rule based package and its application to failure modes and effects testing on the F-18 high alpha research vehicle is discussed.

  4. Survey of aircraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. H.; Brandner, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    Areas investigated include: (1) load analysis; (2) power distribution, conversion techniques and generation; (3) design criteria and performance capabilities of hydraulic and pneumatic systems; (4) system control and protection methods; (5) component and heat transfer systems cooling; and (6) electrical system reliability.

  5. Robust integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft using H-infinity control design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented from an application of H-infinity control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The emphasis is on formulating the H-infinity optimal control synthesis problem such that the critical requirements for the flight and propulsion systems are adequately reflected within the linear, centralized control problem formulation and the resulting controller provides robustness to modeling uncertainties and model parameter variations with flight condition. Detailed evaluation results are presented for a reduced order controller obtained from the improved H-infinity control design showing that the control design meets the specified nominal performance objective as well as provides stability robustness for variations in plant system dynamics with changes in aircraft trim speed within the transition flight envelope.

  6. Theoretical modeling and computational simulation of robust control for Mars aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seyool

    The focus of this dissertation is the development of control system design algorithms for autonomous operation of an aircraft in the Martian atmosphere. This research will show theoretical modeling and computational simulation of robust control and gain scheduling for a prototype Mars aircraft. A few hundred meters above the surface of Mars, the air density is less than 1% of the density of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level. However, at about 33 km (110,000 ft) above the Earth, the air density is similar to that near the surface of Mars. Marsflyer II was designed to investigate these flight regimes: 33 km above the Earth and the actual Mars environment. The fuselage for the preliminary design was cylindrical with a length of 2.59 m (8.49 ft), the wing span was 3.98 m (13.09 ft). The total weight of the demonstrator aircraft was around 4.54 kg (10.02 lb). Aircraft design tools have been developed based on successful aircraft for the Earth`s atmosphere. However, above Mars an airborne robotic explorer would encounter low Reynolds Number flow phenomena combined with high Mach numbers, a region that is unknown for normal Earth aerodynamic applications. These flows are more complex than those occurring at high Reynolds numbers. The performance of airfoils at low Reynolds numbers is poorly understood and generally results in unfavorable aerodynamic characteristics. Design and simulation tools for the low Reynolds number Martian environment could be used to develop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). In this study, a robust control method is used to analyze a prototype Mars aircraft. The purpose of this aircraft is to demonstrate stability, control, and performance within a simulated Mars environment. Due to uncertainty regarding the actual Martian environment, flexibility in the operation of the aircraft`s control system is important for successful performance. The stability and control derivatives of Marsflyer II were obtained by using the Advanced Aircraft Analysis (AAA

  7. Actively Controlled Landing Gear for Aircraft Vibration Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horta, Lucas G.; Daugherty, Robert H.; Martinson, Veloria J.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts for long-range air travel are characterized by airframe designs with long, slender, relatively flexible fuselages. One aspect often overlooked is ground induced vibration of these aircraft. This paper presents an analytical and experimental study of reducing ground-induced aircraft vibration loads using actively controlled landing gears. A facility has been developed to test various active landing gear control concepts and their performance. The facility uses a NAVY A6-intruder landing gear fitted with an auxiliary hydraulic supply electronically controlled by servo valves. An analytical model of the gear is presented including modifications to actuate the gear externally and test data is used to validate the model. The control design is described and closed-loop test and analysis comparisons are presented.

  8. Switching LPV Control for High Performance Tactical Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines a switching Linear Parameter-Varying (LPV) control approach to determine if it is practical to use for flight control designs within a wide angle of attack region. The approach is based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions. The full parameter space is partitioned into overlapping subspaces and a family of LPV controllers are designed, each suitable for a specific parameter subspace. The hysteresis switching logic is used to accomplish the transition among different parameter subspaces. The proposed switching LPV control scheme is applied to an F-16 aircraft model with different actuator dynamics in low and high angle of attack regions. The nonlinear simulation results show that the aircraft performs well when switching among different angle of attack regions.

  9. Multivariable control of a forward swept wing aircraft. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The impact of independent canard and flaperon control of the longitudinal axis of a generic forward swept wing aircraft is examined. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG)/Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) method is used to design three compensators: two single-input-single-output (SISO) systems, one with angle of attack as output and canard as control, the other with pitch attitude as output and canard as control, and a two-input-two-output system with both canard and flaperon controlling both the pitch attitude and angle of attack. The performances of the three systems are compared showing the addition of flaperon control allows the aircraft to perform in the precision control modes with very little loss of command following accuracy.

  10. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  11. Advanced Air Data Systems for Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    It is possible to get a crude estimate of wind speed and direction while driving a car at night in the rain, with the motion of the raindrop reflections in the headlights providing clues about the wind. The clues are difficult to interpret, though, because of the relative motions of ground, car, air, and raindrops. More subtle interpretation is possible if the rain is replaced by fog, because the tiny droplets would follow the swirling currents of air around an illuminated object, like, for example, a walking pedestrian. Microscopic particles in the air (aerosols) are better for helping make assessments of the wind, and reflective air molecules are best of all, providing the most refined measurements. It takes a bright light to penetrate fog, so it is easy to understand how other factors, like replacing the headlights with the intensity of a searchlight, can be advantageous. This is the basic principle behind a lidar system. While a radar system transmits a pulse of radiofrequency energy and interprets the received reflections, a lidar system works in a similar fashion, substituting a near-optical laser pulse. The technique allows the measurement of relative positions and velocities between the transmitter and the air, which allows measurements of relative wind and of air temperature (because temperature is associated with high-frequency random motions on a molecular level). NASA, as well as the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), have interests in this advanced lidar technology, as much of their explorative research requires the ability to measure winds and turbulent regions within the atmosphere. Lidar also shows promise for providing warning of turbulent regions within the National Airspace System to allow commercial aircraft to avoid encounters with turbulence and thereby increase the safety of the traveling public. Both agencies currently employ lidar and optical sensing for a variety of weather-related research projects, such as analyzing

  12. Active vibration control of a full scale aircraft wing using a reconfigurable controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashikala; Renjith Kumar, T. G.; Raja, S.; Dwarakanathan, D.; Subramani, H.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2016-01-01

    This work highlights the design of a Reconfigurable Active Vibration Control (AVC) System for aircraft structures using adaptive techniques. The AVC system with a multichannel capability is realized using Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm (FxLMS) on Xilinx Virtex-4 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform in Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language, (VHDL). The HDL design is made based on Finite State Machine (FSM) model with Floating point Intellectual Property (IP) cores for arithmetic operations. The use of FPGA facilitates to modify the system parameters even during runtime depending on the changes in user's requirements. The locations of the control actuators are optimized based on dynamic modal strain approach using genetic algorithm (GA). The developed system has been successfully deployed for the AVC testing of the full-scale wing of an all composite two seater transport aircraft. Several closed loop configurations like single channel and multi-channel control have been tested. The experimental results from the studies presented here are very encouraging. They demonstrate the usefulness of the system's reconfigurability for real time applications.

  13. A High-Authority/Low-Authority Control Strategy for Coupled Aircraft-Style Bays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, N. H.; Fuller, C. R.; Cabell, R. H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of an active structural acoustic control strategy for coupled aircraft-style bays. While structural coupling can destabilize or limit the performance of some model-based decentralized control systems, fullycoupled centralized control strategies are impractical for typical aircraft containing several hundred bays. An alternative is to use classical rate feedback with matched, collocated transducer pairs to achieve active damping. Unfortunately, due to the conservative nature of this strategy, stability is guaranteed at the expense of achievable noise reduction. Therefore, this paper describes the development of a combined control strategy using robust active damping in addition to a high-authority controller based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory. The combined control system is evaluated on a tensioned, two-bay model using piezoceramic actuators and ideal point velocity sensors. Transducer placement on the two-bay structure is discussed, and the advantages of a combined control strategy are presented.

  14. Atmospheric Observations from Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) provide a new and exciting avenue for atmospheric observations. NASA has a number of UASs. Amongst these are the Ikhana (24 hrs., 7000 km), the Altair (120 hrs., 6500 km), the Aerosonde (30 hrs., 3000 km), and the Global Hawk (30 hrs., 22,000 km). This presentation provides a brief history of UASs which is followed by a description of their capabilities. The presentation concludes by describing an example mission - the UAS Aura Validation Experiment (UAS-AVE). This mission will be flown on the NASA Global Hawk in the Spring/Summer of 2009. The goals fo the mission are to: 1) provide Aura validation observations, 2) sample the break up of the Arctic polar vortex, 3) observed cross-Pacific transport of aerosols and pollutants such as ozone, and 4) sample intense water advective events that impact the U.S. west coast (atmospheric rivers). Because of their range and duration, UASs provide new and exciting opportunities for atmospheric science.

  15. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  16. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  17. Flight propulsion control integration for V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of the propulsion community is to have the enabling propulsion technologies in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack fighter aircraft in the mid-1990's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL, and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. The rationale, methods, and criteria used in developing a joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program to develop the technology element for integrated flight propulsion control through integrated methodologies is presented. This program, the Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight Propulsion Controls Program, is part of the overall NASA Lewis Supersonic STOVL integrated approach to an integrated program to achieve integrated flight propulsion control technology.

  18. Selection of sampling rate for digital control of aircrafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, P.; Powell, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    The considerations in selecting the sample rates for digital control of aircrafts are identified and evaluated using the optimal discrete method. A high performance aircraft model which includes a bending mode and wind gusts was studied. The following factors which influence the selection of the sampling rates were identified: (1) the time and roughness response to control inputs; (2) the response to external disturbances; and (3) the sensitivity to variations of parameters. It was found that the time response to a control input and the response to external disturbances limit the selection of the sampling rate. The optimal discrete regulator, the steady state Kalman filter, and the mean response to external disturbances are calculated.

  19. Current Methods for Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ralvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam

    2008-01-01

    Icing alters the shape and surface characteristics of aircraft components, which results in altered aerodynamic forces and moments caused by air flow over those iced components. The typical effects of icing are increased drag, reduced stall angle of attack, and reduced maximum lift. In addition to the performance changes, icing can also affect control surface effectiveness, hinge moments, and damping. These effects result in altered aircraft stability and control and flying qualities. Over the past 80 years, methods have been developed to understand how icing affects performance, stability and control. Emphasis has been on wind tunnel testing of two-dimensional subscale airfoils with various ice shapes to understand their effect on the flow field and ultimately the aerodynamics. This research has led to wind tunnel testing of subscale complete aircraft models to identify the integrated effects of icing on the aircraft system in terms of performance, stability, and control. Data sets of this nature enable pilot in the loop simulations to be performed for pilot training, or engineering evaluation of system failure impacts or control system design.

  20. Current Methods Modeling and Simulating Icing Effects on Aircraft Performance, Stability, Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Barnhart, Billy P.; Lee, Sam

    2010-01-01

    Icing alters the shape and surface characteristics of aircraft components, which results in altered aerodynamic forces and moments caused by air flow over those iced components. The typical effects of icing are increased drag, reduced stall angle of attack, and reduced maximum lift. In addition to the performance changes, icing can also affect control surface effectiveness, hinge moments, and damping. These effects result in altered aircraft stability and control and flying qualities. Over the past 80 years, methods have been developed to understand how icing affects performance, stability, and control. Emphasis has been on wind-tunnel testing of two-dimensional subscale airfoils with various ice shapes to understand their effect on the flowfield and ultimately the aerodynamics. This research has led to wind-tunnel testing of subscale complete aircraft models to identify the integrated effects of icing on the aircraft system in terms of performance, stability, and control. Data sets of this nature enable pilot-in-the-loop simulations to be performed for pilot training or engineering evaluation of system failure impacts or control system design.

  1. Linear matrix inequality-based proportional-integral control design with application to F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Zachary B.

    A robust proportional-integral (PI) controller was synthesized for the F-16 VISTA (Variable stability In-flight Simulator Test Aircraft) using a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, with the goal of eventually designing and implementing a linear parameter-varying PI controller on high performance aircraft. The combination of classical and modern control theory provides theoretically guaranteed stability and performance throughout the flight envelope and ease of implementation due to the simplicity of the PI controller structure. The controller is designed by solving a set of LMIs with pole placement constraints. This closed-loop system was simulated in MATLAB/Simulink to analyze the performance of the controller. A robust Hinfinity controller was also developed to compare performance with PI controller. The simulation results showed stability, albeit with poor performance compared to the Hinfinity controlle.

  2. Integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft using H-infinity control design techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Ouzts, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic short take-off and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft in transition flight. The emphasis is on formulating the H(infinity) control design problem such that the resulting controller provides robustness to modeling uncertainties and model parameter variations with flight condition. Experience gained from a preliminary H(infinity)=based IFPC design study performed earlier is used as the base to formulate the robust H(infinity) control design problem and improve the previous design. Detailed evaluation results are presented for a reduced-order controller obtained from the improved H(infinity) control design showing that the control design meets the specified nominal performance objectives as well as provides stability robustness for variations in plant system dynamics with chnages in aircraft trim speed within the transition flight envelope.

  3. Development and evaluation of a profile negotiation process for integrating aircraft and air traffic control automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Denbraven, Wim; Williams, David H.

    1993-01-01

    The development and evaluation of the profile negotiation process (PNP), an interactive process between an aircraft and air traffic control (ATC) that integrates airborne and ground-based automation capabilities to determine conflict-free trajectories that are as close to an aircraft's preference as possible, are described. The PNP was evaluated in a real-time simulation experiment conducted jointly by NASA's Ames and Langley Research Centers. The Ames Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) was used to support the ATC environment, and the Langley Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) piloted cab was used to simulate a 4D Flight Management System (FMS) capable aircraft. Both systems were connected in real time by way of voice and data lines; digital datalink communications capability was developed and evaluated as a means of supporting the air/ground exchange of trajectory data. The controllers were able to consistently and effectively negotiate nominally conflict-free vertical profiles with the 4D-equipped aircraft. The actual profiles flown were substantially closer to the aircraft's preference than would have been possible without the PNP. However, there was a strong consensus among the pilots and controllers that the level of automation of the PNP should be increased to make the process more transparent. The experiment demonstrated the importance of an aircraft's ability to accurately execute a negotiated profile as well as the need for digital datalink to support advanced air/ground data communications. The concept of trajectory space is proposed as a comprehensive approach for coupling the processes of trajectory planning and tracking to allow maximum pilot discretion in meeting ATC constraints.

  4. Parametric study of transport aircraft systems cost and weight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Trapp, D. L.; Kimoto, B. W.; Marsh, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a NASA study to develop production cost estimating relationships (CERs) and weight estimating relationships (WERs) for commercial and military transport aircraft at the system level are presented. The systems considered correspond to the standard weight groups defined in Military Standard 1374 and are listed. These systems make up a complete aircraft exclusive of engines. The CER for each system (or CERs in several cases) utilize weight as the key parameter. Weights may be determined from detailed weight statements, if available, or by using the WERs developed, which are based on technical and performance characteristics generally available during preliminary design. The CERs that were developed provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the production cost of an aircraft. Likewise, the WERs provide a very useful tool for making preliminary estimates of the weight of aircraft based on conceptual design information.

  5. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  6. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  7. Aircraft Engine-Monitoring System And Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed Engine Health Monitoring System and Display (EHMSD) provides enhanced means for pilot to control and monitor performances of engines. Processes raw sensor data into information meaningful to pilot. Provides graphical information about performance capabilities, current performance, and operational conditions in components or subsystems of engines. Provides means to control engine thrust directly and innovative means to monitor performance of engine system rapidly and reliably. Features reduce pilot workload and increase operational safety.

  8. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  9. Systems study for an Integrated Digital-Electric Aircraft (IDEA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tagge, G. E.; Irish, L. A.; Bailey, A. R.

    1985-01-01

    The results of the Integrated Digital/Electric Aircraft (IDEA) Study are presented. Airplanes with advanced systems were, defined and evaluated, as a means of identifying potential high payoff research tasks. A baseline airplane was defined for comparison, typical of a 1990's airplane with advanced active controls, propulsion, aerodynamics, and structures technology. Trade studies led to definition of an IDEA airplane, with extensive digital systems and electric secondary power distribution. This airplane showed an improvement of 3% in fuel use and 1.8% in DOC relative to the baseline configuration. An alternate configuration, an advanced technology turboprop, was also evaluated, with greater improvement supported by digital electric systems. Recommended research programs were defined for high risk, high payoff areas appropriate for implementation under NASA leadership.

  10. Fault tolerant architectures for integrated aircraft electronics systems, task 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, K. N.; Melliar-Smith, P. M.; Schwartz, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    The architectural basis for an advanced fault tolerant on-board computer to succeed the current generation of fault tolerant computers is examined. The network error tolerant system architecture is studied with particular attention to intercluster configurations and communication protocols, and to refined reliability estimates. The diagnosis of faults, so that appropriate choices for reconfiguration can be made is discussed. The analysis relates particularly to the recognition of transient faults in a system with tasks at many levels of priority. The demand driven data-flow architecture, which appears to have possible application in fault tolerant systems is described and work investigating the feasibility of automatic generation of aircraft flight control programs from abstract specifications is reported.

  11. The 400-Hz aircraft power-generation systems: Advancing the baseline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glennon, T.

    1983-01-01

    Today's benchmark system for the Boeing 757/767/A310 airplanes and future trends in hydromechanical aircraft power generating systems are discussed. The 757/767/A310 system represents the commercial state of the art and the direction in which Sundstrand Corp. is headed, particularly in regard to weight reduction. Sundstrand introduced microprocessor control in an in service system in the Boeing 767 and was the first to use databus communications between the controls. Plans to develop this technology are briefly discussed. Alternative ways to produce and use power in aircraft are discussed. The integrated starter drive is discussed.

  12. Nonlinear stability and control study of highly maneuverable high performance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohler, R. R.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose was to develop and apply new nonlinear system methodologies to the stability analysis and adaptive control of high angle of attack (alpha) aircraft such as the F-18. Considerable progress is documented on nonlinear adaptive control and associated model development, identification, and simulation. The analysis considered linear and nonlinear, longitudinal, high alpha aircraft dynamics with varying degrees of approximation dependent on the purpose. In all cases, angle of attack or pitch rate was controlled primarily by a horizontal stabilizer. In most cases studied, a linear adaptive controller provided sufficient stability. However, it has been demonstrated by simulation of a simplified nonlinear model that certain large rapid maneuvers were not readily stabilized by the investigated linear adaptive control, but were controlled instead by means of a nonlinear time-series based adaptive control.

  13. Controlled mobility of unmanned aircraft chains to optimize network capacity in realistic communication environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, Cory

    This dissertation presents a decentralized gradient-based mobility control algorithm for the formation and maintenance of an optimal end-to-end communication chain using a team of unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays. With the use of unmanned aircraft (UA) as communication relays, a common mode of operation is to form a communication relay chain between a lead exploring node (which may be ground based or another UA) and a control station. In this type of operation the lead node is typically deployed to explore (sense) a remote region of interest that is beyond direct radio frequency (RF) communication range, or out of line-of-sight, to the control station. To provide non-line-of-sight service, and extend the communication range of the lead node, unmanned aircraft acting as communication relays are deployed in a convoy fashion behind the lead vehicle to form a cascaded relay chain. The focus of this work is the use of the mobility of a fixed number of relay aircraft to maximize the capacity of a directed communication chain from a source node to a destination node. Local objective functions are presented that use the signal-to-noise-and-interference ratio (SNIR) of neighbor communication links as inputs to maximize the end-to-end capacity of packet-based and repeater-type network chains. An adaptive gradient-based SNIR controller using the local objective function can show significant improvement in the capacity of the communication chain that is not possible with range-based controllers, or static deployment strategies, in RF environments containing unknown localized noise sources and terrain effects. Since the SNIR field is unknown, an online estimate of the SNIR field gradient is formed using methods of Stochastic Approximation from the orbital motion of the aircraft tracking a control point. Flight demonstrations using the Networked Unmanned Aircraft System Command, Control and Communications testbed were conducted to validate the controller

  14. Design and verification by nonlinear simulation of a Mach/CAS control law for the NASA TCV B737 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1986-01-01

    A Mach/CAS control system using an elevator was designed and developed for use on the NASA TCV B737 aircraft to support research in profile descent procedures and approach energy management. The system was designed using linear analysis techniques primarily. The results were confirmed and the system validated at additional flight conditions using a nonlinear 737 aircraft simulation. All design requirements were satisfied.

  15. An electric control for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.; Edson, R.

    1979-01-01

    An electronic controller for an electrohydraulic active control aircraft landing gear was developed. Drop tests of a modified gear from a 2722 Kg (6000 lbm) class of airplane were conducted to illustrate controller performance. The results indicate that the active gear effects a force reduction, relative to that of the passive gear, from 9 to 31 percent depending on the aircraft sink speed and the static gear pressure.

  16. Force modification and deflection loss compensation to the pilot's controls in an aircraft simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleveland, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Control loader systems are used widely in flight simulator cockpits so that pilots may experience the correct forces while manipulating the flight controls. Two simulators at Ames Research Center the Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA) and the Moving Cab Transport Simulator (MCTS) - contain control loader systems that exhibit small control deflection losses at high forces. These losses make force calibration and documentation difficult and also may cause losses in control authority of the simulated aircraft. The study of the deflection losses indicates that the major cause is a structural or mechanical distortion that is linear with applied force. Thus, the phenomena may be modeled and, subsequently, compensation for the losses may be made in the associated simulation computer.

  17. Practical Applications of Cosmic Ray Science: Spacecraft, Aircraft, Ground-Based Computation and Control Systems, Exploration, and Human Health and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation a review of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) effects on microelectronic systems and human health and safety is given. The methods used to evaluate and mitigate unwanted cosmic ray effects in ground-based, atmospheric flight, and space flight environments are also reviewed. However not all GCR effects are undesirable. We will also briefly review how observation and analysis of GCR interactions with planetary atmospheres and surfaces and reveal important compositional and geophysical data on earth and elsewhere. About 1000 GCR particles enter every square meter of Earth’s upper atmosphere every second, roughly the same number striking every square meter of the International Space Station (ISS) and every other low- Earth orbit spacecraft. GCR particles are high energy ionized atomic nuclei (90% protons, 9% alpha particles, 1% heavier nuclei) traveling very close to the speed of light. The GCR particle flux is even higher in interplanetary space because the geomagnetic field provides some limited magnetic shielding. Collisions of GCR particles with atomic nuclei in planetary atmospheres and/or regolith as well as spacecraft materials produce nuclear reactions and energetic/highly penetrating secondary particle showers. Three twentieth century technology developments have driven an ongoing evolution of basic cosmic ray science into a set of practical engineering tools needed to design, test, and verify the safety and reliability of modern complex technological systems and assess effects on human health and safety effects. The key technology developments are: 1) high altitude commercial and military aircraft; 2) manned and unmanned spacecraft; and 3) increasingly complex and sensitive solid state micro-electronics systems. Space and geophysical exploration needs drove the development of the instruments and analytical tools needed to recover compositional and structural data from GCR induced nuclear reactions and secondary particle showers. Finally, the

  18. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  19. Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

  20. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Normal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Jones, Kenneth M.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Williams, Daniel M.; Adams, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    This document defines the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS), Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept for normal conditions. In this concept, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports during periods of poor weather. Within this new airspace, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Using onboard equipment and procedures, they would then approach and land at the airport. Departures would be handled in a similar fashion. The details for this operational concept are provided in this document.

  1. Preliminary Considerations for Classifying Hazards of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Miner, Paul S.; Szatkowski, George N.; Ulrey, Michael L.; DeWalt, Michael P.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft in national airspace has been characterized as the next great step forward in the evolution of civil aviation. To make routine and safe operation of these aircraft a reality, a number of technological and regulatory challenges must be overcome. This report discusses some of the regulatory challenges with respect to deriving safety and reliability requirements for unmanned aircraft. In particular, definitions of hazards and their classification are discussed and applied to a preliminary functional hazard assessment of a generic unmanned system.

  2. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  3. Small Aircraft Transportation System, Higher Volume Operations Concept: Off-Nominal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Baxley, Brian T.; Williams, Daniel M.; Conway, Sheila R.

    2005-01-01

    This document expands the Small Aircraft Transportation System, (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) concept to include off-nominal conditions. The general philosophy underlying the HVO concept is the establishment of a newly defined area of flight operations called a Self-Controlled Area (SCA). During periods of poor weather, a block of airspace would be established around designated non-towered, non-radar airports. Aircraft flying enroute to a SATS airport would be on a standard instrument flight rules flight clearance with Air Traffic Control providing separation services. Within the SCA, pilots would take responsibility for separation assurance between their aircraft and other similarly equipped aircraft. Previous work developed the procedures for normal HVO operations. This document provides details for off-nominal and emergency procedures for situations that could be expected to occur in a future SCA.

  4. Emergency Flight Control of a Twin-Jet Commercial Aircraft using Manual Throttle Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Cogan, Bruce R.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Burken, John J.; Venti, Michael W.; Burcham, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) created the PCAR (Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Recovery) project in 2005 to mitigate the ManPADS (man-portable air defense systems) threat to the commercial aircraft fleet with near-term, low-cost proven technology. Such an attack could potentially cause a major FCS (flight control system) malfunction or other critical system failure onboard the aircraft, despite the extreme reliability of current systems. For the situations in which nominal flight controls are lost or degraded, engine thrust may be the only remaining means for emergency flight control [ref 1]. A computer-controlled thrust system, known as propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA), was developed in the mid 1990s with NASA, McDonnell Douglas and Honeywell. PCA's major accomplishment was a demonstration of an automatic landing capability using only engine thrust [ref 11. Despite these promising results, no production aircraft have been equipped with a PCA system, due primarily to the modifications required for implementation. A minimally invasive option is TOC (throttles-only control), which uses the same control principles as PCA, but requires absolutely no hardware, software or other aircraft modifications. TOC is pure piloting technique, and has historically been utilized several times by flight crews, both military and civilian, in emergency situations stemming from a loss of conventional control. Since the 1990s, engineers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) have studied TOC, in both simulation and flight, for emergency flight control with test pilots in numerous configurations. In general, it was shown that TOC was effective on certain aircraft for making a survivable landing. DHS sponsored both NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, CA) and United Airlines (Denver, Colorado) to conduct a flight and simulation study of the TOC characteristics of a twin-jet commercial transport, and assess the ability of a crew to control an aircraft down to

  5. Longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephenson, Jack D.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    1989-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate various aerodynamic characteristics of the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA), an experimental aircraft that makes use of the upper-surface blown (USB) powered-lift concept. Time-history records from maneuvers performed with the aircraft in landing-approach and take-off configurations (with its stability augmentation system disengaged) were analyzed to obtain longitudinal stability and control derivatives and performance characteristics. The experiments included measuring the aircraft responses to variations in the deflection of direct-lift control spoilers and to thrust variations as well as to elevator inputs. The majority of the results are given for the aircraft in a landing configuration with the USB flaps at 50 degrees. For this configuration, if the static longitudinal stability is defined as the variation of the pitching-moment coefficient with the lift coefficient at a constant thrust coefficient, this stability decreases significantly with increasing angle of attack above 9 degrees. For this configuration, at small and negative angles of attack and high levels of thrust, the elevators and the horizontal stabilizer lost effectiveness owing to incipent stalling, but this occurred only during unsteady maneuvers and for brief time intervals.

  6. Aircraft control-display analysis and design using the optimal control model of the human pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the optimal control model (OCM) of the human pilot as a design tool is discussed. A novel procedure for the assignment and selection of model parameters in the absence of experimental data is proposed. A technique for partitioning a weakly coupled, multiaxis task into approximate state-uncoupled, single-axis tasks is introduced. The resulting modeling technique is utilized in the design and analysis of an aircraft flight-director system. This flight-director design technique differs from previous related work using the OCM in that considerable effort is devoted to ensuring that the OCM-designed director exhibits the desirable frequency-domain characteristics associated with experimentally verified classical designs (e.g., K/s 'effective vehicle' characteristics, noninteracting controls). The implications of the technique in the design of automatic flight control systems which employ the human pilot as a performance assessor and failure detector are briefly discussed.

  7. Registration and Marking Requirements for UAS. Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Registration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The registration of an aircraft is a prerequisite for issuance of a U.S. certificate of airworthiness by the FAA. The procedures and requirements for aircraft registration, and the subsequent issuance of registration numbers, are contained in FAR Part 47. However, the process/method(s) for applying the requirements of Parts 45 & 47 to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) has not been defined. This task resolved the application of 14 CFR Parts 45 and 47 to UAS. Key Findings: UAS are aircraft systems and as such the recommended approach to registration is to follow the same process for registration as manned aircraft. This will require manufacturers to comply with the requirements for 14 CFR 47, Aircraft Registration and 14 CFR 45, Identification and Registration Marking. In addition, only the UA should be identified with the N number registration markings. There should also be a documentation link showing the applicability of the control station and communication link to the UA. The documentation link can be in the form of a Type Certificate Data Sheet (TCDS) entry or a UAS logbook entry. The recommended process for the registration of UAS is similar to the manned aircraft process and is outlined in a 6-step process in the paper.

  8. Near-field noise prediction for aircraft in cruising flight: Methods manual. [laminar flow control noise effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tibbetts, J. G.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for predicting noise at any point on an aircraft while the aircraft is in a cruise flight regime are presented. Developed for use in laminar flow control (LFC) noise effects analyses, they can be used in any case where aircraft generated noise needs to be evaluated at a location on an aircraft while under high altitude, high speed conditions. For each noise source applicable to the LFC problem, a noise computational procedure is given in algorithm format, suitable for computerization. Three categories of noise sources are covered: (1) propulsion system, (2) airframe, and (3) LFC suction system. In addition, procedures are given for noise modifications due to source soundproofing and the shielding effects of the aircraft structure wherever needed. Sample cases, for each of the individual noise source procedures, are provided to familiarize the user with typical input and computed data.

  9. Overview of Propulsion Systems for a Mars Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.

  10. A formal structure for advanced automatic flight-control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, G.; Cicolani, L. S.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques were developed for the unified design of multimode, variable authority automatic flight-control systems for powered-lift STOL and VTOL aircraft. A structure for such systems is developed to deal with the strong nonlinearities inherent in this class of aircraft, to admit automatic coupling with advanced air traffic control, and to admit a variety of active control tasks. The aircraft being considered is the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft.

  11. Systems study of transport aircraft incorporating advanced aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakata, I. F.

    1982-01-01

    A study was performed to quantify the potential benefits of utilizing advanced aluminum alloys in commercial transport aircraft and to define the effort necessary to develop fully the alloys to a viable commercial production capability. The comprehensive investigation (1) established realistic advanced aluminum alloy property goals to maximize aircraft systems effectiveness (2) identified performance and economic benefits of incorporating the advanced alloy in future advanced technology commercial aircraft designs (3) provided a recommended plan for development and integration of the alloys into commercial aircraft production (4) provided an indication of the timing and investigation required by the metal producing industry to support the projected market and (5) evaluate application of advanced aluminum alloys to other aerospace and transit systems as a secondary objective. The results of the investigation provided a roadmap and identified key issues requiring attention in an advanced aluminum alloy and applications technology development program.

  12. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  13. Active Control of Turbulent Boundary Layer Induced Sound Radiation from Multiple Aircraft Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Gary P.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work is to experimentally investigate active structural acoustic control of turbulent boundary layer (TBL) induced sound radiation from multiple panels on an aircraft sidewall. One possible approach for controlling sound radiation from multiple panels is a multi-input/multi-output scheme which considers dynamic coupling between the panels. Unfortunately, this is difficult for more than a few panels, and is impractical for a typical aircraft which contains several hundred such panels. An alternative is to implement a large number of independent control systems. Results from the current work demonstrate the feasibility of reducing broadband radiation from multiple panels utilizing a single-input/single-output (SISO) controller per bay, and is the first known demonstration of active control of TBL induced sound radiation on more than two bays simultaneously. The paper compares sound reduction for fully coupled control of six panels versus independent control on each panel. An online adaptive control scheme for independent control is also demonstrated. This scheme will adjust for slow time varying dynamic systems such as fuselage response changes due to aircraft pressurization, etc.

  14. Adaptive Control Using Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Karneshige, J. T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Description of the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network augmentation follows. Simulation studies focus on the results with and without neural network adaptation through the use of an F-15 aircraft simulator that has been modified to include canards. Simulated control law performance with a surface failure, in addition to an aerodynamic failure, is presented. The aircraft, with adaptation, attempts to minimize the inertial cross-coupling effect of the failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed control surface). The dynamic inversion controller calculates necessary surface commands to achieve desired rates. The dynamic inversion controller uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. The yaw axis controller is a sideslip rate command system. Methods are described to reduce the cross-coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors for control surface failures. The aerodynamic failure destabilizes the pitching moment due to angle of attack. The results show that control of the aircraft with the neural networks is easier (more damped) than without the neural networks. Simulation results show neural network augmentation of the controller improves performance with aerodynamic and control surface failures in terms of tracking error and cross-coupling reduction.

  15. Reconfigurable Control with Neural Network Augmentation for a Modified F-15 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Williams-Hayes, Peggy; Kaneshige, John T.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2006-01-01

    Description of the performance of a simplified dynamic inversion controller with neural network augmentation follows. Simulation studies focus on the results with and without neural network adaptation through the use of an F-15 aircraft simulator that has been modified to include canards. Simulated control law performance with a surface failure, in addition to an aerodynamic failure, is presented. The aircraft, with adaptation, attempts to minimize the inertial cross-coupling effect of the failure (a control derivative anomaly associated with a jammed control surface). The dynamic inversion controller calculates necessary surface commands to achieve desired rates. The dynamic inversion controller uses approximate short period and roll axis dynamics. The yaw axis controller is a sideslip rate command system. Methods are described to reduce the cross-coupling effect and maintain adequate tracking errors for control surface failures. The aerodynamic failure destabilizes the pitching moment due to angle of attack. The results show that control of the aircraft with the neural networks is easier (more damped) than without the neural networks. Simulation results show neural network augmentation of the controller improves performance with aerodynamic and control surface failures in terms of tracking error and cross-coupling reduction.

  16. Transonic stability and control of aircraft using CFD methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinh, Lam-Son; Edwards, John W.; Seidel, David A.; Batina, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Implementation of a capability to calculate longitudinal short-period response in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) finite-difference code is described. The code, developed recently at the NASA Langley Research Center, is capable of solving steady and unsteady flows about complete aircraft configurations and is used primarily for aeroelastic calculations in the critical transonic speed range. The longitudinal short-period equations of motion in state-space form have been coupled to the time-accurate lift and moment calculated by the program. Transient responses to an elevator pulse for free-flying aircraft demonstrate the new capability. A trim routine is also added to the code to obtain trim automatically during steady-state flow field convergence. Stability and control derivatives are estimated from the calculated transient response by a maximum likelihood estimation program. Results for a fighter configuration and a general aviation configuration are presented to assess the capability.

  17. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  18. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  19. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  20. The development and evaluation of advanced technology laminar-flow-control subsonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgeon, R. F.

    1978-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of applying laminar flow control (LFC) to the wings and empennage of long-range subsonic transport aircraft for initial operation in 1985. For a design mission range of 5500 n mi, advanced technology LFC and turbulent-flow aircraft were developed for a 200-passenger payload, and compared on the basis of production costs, direct operating costs, and fuel efficiency. Parametric analyses were conducted to establish optimum geometry, advanced system concepts were evaluated, and configuration variations maximizing the effectiveness of LFC were developed. The final comparisons include consideation of maintenance costs and procedures, manufacturing costs and procedures, and operational considerations peculiar to LFC aircraft.

  1. Analysis of an electrohydraulic aircraft control surface servo and comparison with test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of an electrohydraulic aircraft control-surface system is made in which the system is modeled as a lumped, two-mass, spring-coupled system controlled by a servo valve. Both linear and nonlinear models are developed, and the effects of hinge-moment loading are included. Transfer functions of the system and approximate literal factors of the transfer functions for several cases are presented. The damping action of dynamic pressure feedback is analyzed. Comparisons of the model responses with results from tests made on a highly resonant rudder control-surface servo indicate the adequacy of the model. The effects of variations in hinge-moment loading are illustrated.

  2. Some wear studies on aircraft brake systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, T. L.

    1975-01-01

    An initial investigation of worn surfaces in friction pads and steel rotors used in current aircraft brakes was carried out using electron microprobe and X-ray diffraction analysis. It consists of the topographical study and the analysis of chemical element distribution. Based upon this initial examination, two approaches, microscopic and macroscopic have been conducted to interpret and formulate the wear mechanism of the aircraft brake materials. Microscopically, the wear particles were examined. The initiation and growth of surface cracks and the oxidation were emphasized in this investigation. Macroscopically, it has been found that, for the current copper based brake material sliding against 17-22 AS steel in a caliper brake, the surface temperature raised due to frictional heat is nonlinearly proportional to the load applied and slide time with speed at 1750 rpm. The wear of brake materials is then proportional to this temperature and is also a function of the melting temperature for copper.

  3. Project ADIOS: Aircraft Deployable Ice Observation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2013-12-01

    Regions of the Antarctic that are of scientific interest are often too heavily crevassed to enable a plane to land, or permit safe access from a field camp. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor that can be dropped from an overflying aircraft. Existing aircraft deployable sensors are not suitable for long term operations in areas where snow accumulates, as they are quickly buried. We have overcome this problem by shaping the sensor like an aerodynamic mast with fins and a small parachute. After being released from the aircraft, the sensor accelerates to 42m/s and stabilizes during a 10s descent. On impact with the snow surface the sensor package buries itself to a depth of 1m then uses the large surface area of the fins to stop it burying further. This leaves a 1.5m mast protruding high above the snow surface to ensure a long operating life. The high impact kinetic energy and robust fin braking mechanism ensure that the design works in both soft and hard snow. Over the past two years we have developed and tested our design with a series of aircraft and wind tunnel tests. Last season we used this deployment strategy to successfully install a network of 31 single band GPS sensors in regions where crevassing has previously prevented science operations: Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, and Scar Inlet, Antarctic Peninsula. This season we intend to expand on this network by deploying a further 25 single and dual band GPS sensors on Thwaites Glacier, West Antarctica.

  4. Artificial Intelligence Based Control Power Optimization on Tailless Aircraft. [ARMD Seedling Fund Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gern, Frank; Vicroy, Dan D.; Mulani, Sameer B.; Chhabra, Rupanshi; Kapania, Rakesh K.; Schetz, Joseph A.; Brown, Derrell; Princen, Norman H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods of control allocation optimization have shown difficulties in exploiting the full potential of controlling large arrays of control devices on innovative air vehicles. Artificial neutral networks are inspired by biological nervous systems and neurocomputing has successfully been applied to a variety of complex optimization problems. This project investigates the potential of applying neurocomputing to the control allocation optimization problem of Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) aircraft concepts to minimize control power, hinge moments, and actuator forces, while keeping system weights within acceptable limits. The main objective of this project is to develop a proof-of-concept process suitable to demonstrate the potential of using neurocomputing for optimizing actuation power for aircraft featuring multiple independently actuated control surfaces. A Nastran aeroservoelastic finite element model is used to generate a learning database of hinge moment and actuation power characteristics for an array of flight conditions and control surface deflections. An artificial neural network incorporating a genetic algorithm then uses this training data to perform control allocation optimization for the investigated aircraft configuration. The phase I project showed that optimization results for the sum of required hinge moments are improved by more than 12% over the best Nastran solution by using the neural network optimization process.

  5. Effects of control saturation on the command response of statically unstable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, G. D.; Stengel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Hanson and Stengel (1981) have described the effects of saturating controls on the initial-condition response of statically unstable aircraft. In an analysis of the stability augmentation system, consideration was given to maximizing the region of stable response. The present investigation is concerned with an extension of the control saturation analysis to the problem of command response, taking into account the main problem of control design for satisfactory flying qualities (as perceived by the pilot). A model for examining the effects of control saturation on longitudinal stability and command response is developed and applied to an aircraft with a static instability. Three parameters prescribing longitudinal flying qualities are examined with respect to their ability to identify proper flying qualities in the presence of control saturation. The presented analysis provides also satisfactory guidelines for establishing command saturation/stability boundaries.

  6. Application of aircraft navigation sensors to enhanced vision systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweet, Barbara T.

    1993-01-01

    In this presentation, the applicability of various aircraft navigation sensors to enhanced vision system design is discussed. First, the accuracy requirements of the FAA for precision landing systems are presented, followed by the current navigation systems and their characteristics. These systems include Instrument Landing System (ILS), Microwave Landing System (MLS), Inertial Navigation, Altimetry, and Global Positioning System (GPS). Finally, the use of navigation system data to improve enhanced vision systems is discussed. These applications include radar image rectification, motion compensation, and image registration.

  7. Study of aircraft in intraurban transportation systems, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stout, E. G.; Kesling, P. H.; Matteson, H. C.; Sherwood, D. E.; Tuck, W. R., Jr.; Vaughn, L. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analysis of an effective short range, high density computer transportation system for intraurban systems is presented. The seven county Detroit, Michigan, metropolitan area, was chosen as the scenario for the analysis. The study consisted of an analysis and forecast of the Detroit market through 1985, a parametric analysis of appropriate short haul aircraft concepts and associated ground systems, and a preliminary overall economic analysis of a simplified total system designed to evaluate the candidate vehicles and select the most promising VTOL and STOL aircraft. Data are also included on the impact of advanced technology on the system, the sensitivity of mission performance to changes in aircraft characteristics and system operations, and identification of key problem areas that may be improved by additional research. The approach, logic, and computer models used are adaptable to other intraurban or interurban areas.

  8. Propulsion system study for Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Warren, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    Propulsion system technologies applicable to the generation of commuter airline aircraft expected to enter service in the 1990's are identified and evaluated in terms of their impact on aircraft operating economics and fuel consumption. The most promising technologies in the areas of engine, propeller, gearbox, and nacelle design are recommended for future research. Each item under consideration is evaluated relative to a modern baseline engine, the General Electric CT7-5, in a current technology aircraft flying a fixed range and payload. The analysis is presented for two aircraft sizes (30 and 50 passenger), over a range of mission lengths (100 to 1100 km) and fuel costs ($264 to $396 per cu m).

  9. CID-720 aircraft high-environment flight instrumentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The high-environment flight instrumentation system was designed to acquire Langley's structural response data during the full scale transport-controlled impact demonstration test. There was only one opportunity for data acquisition. Thus, a high reliability and crashworthy design approach was implemented. The approach featured multi-level redundancy and a vigorous quality assurance testing program. Complying with an accelerated schedule, the instrumentation system was developed, tested and shipped within 18 months to Dryden Flight Research Facility. The flight instrumentation system consists of two autonomous data systems, DAS #1 and #2, and an excellent checkout subsystem. Each data system is partitioned into four pallets. The system was designed to operate on manned and unmanned flights. There are 176 data channels per data system. These channels are sequentially sampled and encoded into 1 megabit/sec pulse code modulation (PCM) data signal. To increase the probability of success, a special PCM distribution subsystem was developed. This subsystem distributes the PCM signal to two transmitters, one delay memory, and eight recorder tracks. The data on four of these trackes was digitally delayed approximately 300 msec to maximize data acquisition during impact. Therefore each data system's data is redundantly recorded onboard and on the ground. There are two time code generators. Parallel time from each is encoded into both data systems. Serial time from each is redundantly recorded on both onboard recorders. Instrumentation power is independent of aircraft power and self-contained.

  10. ANOPP programmer's reference manual for the executive System. [aircraft noise prediction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillian, R. E.; Brown, C. G.; Bartlett, R. W.; Baucom, P. H.

    1977-01-01

    Documentation for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program as of release level 01/00/00 is presented in a manual designed for programmers having a need for understanding the internal design and logical concepts of the executive system software. Emphasis is placed on providing sufficient information to modify the system for enhancements or error correction. The ANOPP executive system includes software related to operating system interface, executive control, and data base management for the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. It is written in Fortran IV for use on CDC Cyber series of computers.

  11. A conceptual study of the rotor systems research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical comparison of the two candidate Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) configurations selected by the Government at the completion of Part 1 of the RSRA Conceptual Predesign Study is presented. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the relative suitability of both vehicles for the RSRA missions described in the Government Statement of Work, and to assess their versatility in the testing of new rotor concepts. The analytical comparison was performed primarily with regard to performance and stability and control. A weights, center-of-gravity, and inertia computation was performed for each iteration in the analysis process. The dynamics investigation was not concerned so much with a comparison of the two vehicles, but explored the dynamic problems attending operation of any RSRA operating with large rotor RPM and diameter ranges over large forward speed ranges. Several means of isolating in- and out-of-plane rotor vibrations were analyzed. An optimum isolation scheme was selected.

  12. Conceptual design of an aircraft automated coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.E.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.; Primm, A.H.; Shekhar, S.

    1996-05-01

    Paint stripping of the U.S. Air Force`s large transport aircrafts is currently a labor-intensive, manual process. Significant reductions in costs, personnel and turnaround time can be accomplished by the judicious use of automation in some process tasks. This paper presents the conceptual design of a coating removal systems for the tail surfaces of the C-5 plane. Emphasis is placed on the technology selection to optimize human-automation synergy with respect to overall costs, throughput, quality, safety, and reliability. Trade- offs between field-proven vs. research-requiring technologies, and between expected gain vs. cost and complexity, have led to a conceptual design which is semi-autonomous (relying on the human for task specification and disturbance handling) yet incorporates sensor- based automation (for sweep path generation and tracking, surface following, stripping quality control and tape/breach handling).

  13. Personal Electronic Devices and Their Interference with Aircraft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Elden; Ely, Jay J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A compilation of data on personal electronic devices (PEDs) attributed to having created anomalies with aircraft systems. Charts and tables display 14 years of incidents reported by pilots to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). Affected systems, incident severity, sources of anomaly detection, and the most frequently identified PEDs are some of the more significant data. Several reports contain incidents of aircraft off course when all systems indicated on course and of critical events that occurred during landings and takeoffs. Additionally, PEDs that should receive priority in testing are identified.

  14. The all-electric aircraft - A systems view and proposed NASA research Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    It is expected that all-electric aircraft, whether military or commercial, will exhibit reduced weight, acquisition cost and fuel consumption, an expanded flight envelope and improved survivability and reliability, simpler maintenance, and reduced support equipment. Also noteworthy are dramatic improvements in mission adaptability, based on the degree to which control system performance relies on easily exchanged software. Flight-critical secondary power and control systems whose malfunction would mean loss of an aircraft pose failure detection and design methodology problems, however, that have only begun to be addressed. NASA-sponsored research activities concerned with these problems and prospective benefits are presently discussed.

  15. Rotor systems research aircraft of predesign study. Volume 1: Summary and conclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The results are summarized of a study to develop a versatile research aircraft for flight testing a wide variety of advanced helicopter and compound rotor systems. The aircraft is required to accept these rotors with minimal changes in the basic vehicle. Rotors envisioned for testing include conventional rotors plus variable geometry, variable twist, variable diameter, coaxial, jet flap, circulation control, and slowed rotors. Various disc loadings would be accommodated. The aircraft must be configured to measure performance more accurately than past test vehicles. In addition, the aircraft would have a wing to off load the rotor while measuring performance during lightly loaded conditions. It would have variable drag and propulsive force so that the rotor can be tested while producing different values of horizontal force.

  16. Abnormal/Emergency Situations. Impact of Unmanned Aircraft Systems Emergency and Abnormal Events on the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Access 5 analyzed the differences between UAS and manned aircraft operations under five categories of abnormal or emergency situations: Link Failure, Lost Communications, Onboard System Failures, Control Station Failures and Abnormal Weather. These analyses were made from the vantage point of the impact that these operations have on the US air traffic control system, with recommendations for new policies and procedures included where appropriate.

  17. Assessment of the suitability of public mobile data networks for aircraft telemetry and control purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, F.; Walker, R.; Rutherford, N.; Turner, C.

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a review of the state of the art of relevant work on the use of public mobile data networks for aircraft telemetry and control proposes. Moreover, it describes the characterisation for airborne uses of the public mobile data communication systems known broadly as 3G. The motivation for this study was to explore how this mature public communication systems could be used for aviation purposes. An experimental system was fitted to a light aircraft to record communication latency, line speed, RF level, packet loss and cell tower identifier. Communications was established using internet protocols and connection was made to a local server. The aircraft was flown in both remote and populous areas at altitudes up to 8500 ft in a region located in South East Queensland, Australia. Results show that the average airborne RF levels are better than those on the ground by 21% and in the order of -77 dbm. Latencies were in the order of 500 ms (1/2 the latency of Iridium), an average download speed of 0.48 Mb/s, average uplink speed of 0.85 Mb/s, a packet of information loss of 6.5%. The maximum communication range was also observed to be 70 km from a single cell station. The paper also describes possible limitations and utility of using such communications architecture for both manned and unmanned aircraft systems.

  18. Aircraft Icing Weather Data Reporting and Dissemination System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Ellen J.; Minsk, Brian; Lindholm, Tenny; Politovich, Marcia; Reehorst, Andrew (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The long-term operational concept of this research is to develop an onboard aircraft system that assesses and reports atmospheric icing conditions automatically and in a timely manner in order to improve aviation safety and the efficiency of aircraft operations via improved real-time and forecast weather products. The idea is to use current measurement capabilities on aircraft equipped with icing sensors and in-flight data communication technologies as a reporting source. Without requiring expensive avionics upgrades, aircraft data must be processed and available for downlink. Ideally, the data from multiple aircraft can then be integrated (along with other real-time and modeled data) on the ground such that aviation-centered icing hazard metrics for volumes of airspace can be assessed. As the effect of icing on different aircraft types can vary, the information should be displayed in meaningful ways such that multiple types of users can understand the information. That is, information must be presented in a manner to allow users to understand the icing conditions with respect to individual concerns and aircraft capabilities. This research provides progress toward this operational concept by: identifying an aircraft platform capable of digitally capturing, processing, and downlinking icing data; identifying the required in situ icing data processing; investigating the requirements for routing the icing data for use by weather products; developing an icing case study in order to gain insight into major air carrier needs; developing and prototyping icing display concepts based on the National Center for Atmospheric Research's existing diagnostic and forecast experimental icing products; and conducting a usability study for the prototyped icing display concepts.

  19. Estimated Benefits of Variable-Geometry Wing Camber Control for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolonkin, Alexander; Gilyard, Glenn B.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical benefits of variable-camber capability on subsonic transport aircraft are explored. Using aerodynamic performance models, including drag as a function of deflection angle for control surfaces of interest, optimal performance benefits of variable camber are calculated. Results demonstrate that if all wing trailing-edge surfaces are available for optimization, drag can be significantly reduced at most points within the flight envelope. The optimization approach developed and illustrated for flight uses variable camber for optimization of aerodynamic efficiency (maximizing the lift-to-drag ratio). Most transport aircraft have significant latent capability in this area. Wing camber control that can affect performance optimization for transport aircraft includes symmetric use of ailerons and flaps. In this paper, drag characteristics for aileron and flap deflections are computed based on analytical and wind-tunnel data. All calculations based on predictions for the subject aircraft and the optimal surface deflection are obtained by simple interpolation for given conditions. An algorithm is also presented for computation of optimal surface deflection for given conditions. Benefits of variable camber for a transport configuration using a simple trailing-edge control surface system can approach more than 10 percent, especially for nonstandard flight conditions. In the cruise regime, the benefit is 1-3 percent.

  20. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  1. An evaluation and force gradient determination of mechanically linked reversible sidestick controllers for General Aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergeron, H. P.

    1984-01-01

    In connection with the increase in air traffic, IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) flight in the air traffic control system has become very demanding. It has, therefore, become imperative to optimize the pilot's skills in his management of the various aircraft systems. The present investigation is concerned with the human factors aspects of the use of sidesticks in direct mechanical linkage (reversible) control systems in a production General Aviation (G.A.) aircraft. A total of 140 fifteen to twenty minute flight tasks were flown on the NASA Langley G.A. motion base simulator. The study involved a comparison of three locations of the sidestick, left side, center, and right side, and the standard yoke. It was found that the sidestick is preferable to the standard yoke. However, some of the design and installation features of the sidestick are critical for pilot acceptance.

  2. Control and Non-Payload Communications Links for Integrated Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Griner, James H.

    2012-01-01

    Technology for unmanned aircraft has advanced so rapidly in recent years that many new applications to public and commercial use are being proposed and implemented. In many countries, emphasis is now being placed on developing the means to allow unmanned aircraft to operate within non-segregated airspace along with commercial, cargo and other piloted and passenger-carrying aircraft.In the U.S., Congress has mandated that the Federal Aviation Administration reduce and remove restrictions on unmanned aircraft operations in a relatively short time frame. To accomplish this, a number of technical and regulatory hurdles must be overcome. A key hurdle involve the communications link connecting the remote pilot located at a ground control station with the aircraft in the airspace, referred to as the Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC) link. This link represents a safety critical communications link, and thus requires dedicated and protected aviation spectrum as well as national and international standards defining the operational requirements the CNPC system. The CNPC link must provide line-of-site (LOS) communications, primarily through a ground-based communication system, and beyond-line-of-sight (BLOS) communication achieved using satellite communications. In the U.S., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is charged with providing the technical body of evidence to support spectrum allocation requirements and national and international standards development for the CNPC link. This paper provides a description of the CNPC system, an overview of NASA's CNPC project, and current results in technology assessment, air-ground propagation characterization, and supporting system studies and analyses will be presented.

  3. The stochastic control of the F-8C aircraft using the Multiple Model Adaptive Control (MMAC) method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Dunn, K. P.; Greene, E. S.; Lee, W. H.; Sandel, N. R., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize results obtained for the adaptive control of the F-8C aircraft using the so-called Multiple Model Adaptive Control method. The discussion includes the selection of the performance criteria for both the lateral and the longitudinal dynamics, the design of the Kalman filters for different flight conditions, the 'identification' aspects of the design using hypothesis testing ideas, and the performance of the closed loop adaptive system.

  4. Sliding-Mode Control Applied for Robust Control of a Highly Unstable Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, Travis Kenneth

    2002-01-01

    An investigation into the application of an observer based sliding mode controller for robust control of a highly unstable aircraft and methods of compensating for actuator dynamics is performed. After a brief overview of some reconfigurable controllers, sliding mode control (SMC) is selected because of its invariance properties and lack of need for parameter identification. SMC is reviewed and issues with parasitic dynamics, which cause system instability, are addressed. Utilizing sliding manifold boundary layers, the nonlinear control is converted to a linear control and sliding manifold design is performed in the frequency domain. An additional feedback form of model reference hedging is employed which is similar to a prefilter and has large benefits to system performance. The effects of inclusion of actuator dynamics into the designed plant is heavily investigated. Multiple Simulink models of the full longitudinal dynamics and wing deflection modes of the forward swept aero elastic vehicle (FSAV) are constructed. Additionally a linear state space models to analyze effects from various system parameters. The FSAV has a pole at +7 rad/sec and is non-minimum phase. The use of 'model actuators' in the feedback path, and varying there design, is heavily investigated for the resulting effects on plant robustness and tolerance to actuator failure. The use of redundant actuators is also explored and improved robustness is shown. All models are simulated with severe failure and excellent tracking, and task dependent handling qualities, and low pilot induced oscillation tendency is shown.

  5. Hydraulic actuator mechanism to control aircraft spoiler movements through dual input commands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irick, S. C. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An aircraft flight spoiler control mechanism is described. The invention enables the conventional, primary spoiler control system to retain its operational characteristics while accommodating a secondary input controlled by a conventional computer system to supplement the settings made by the primary input. This is achieved by interposing springs between the primary input and the spoiler control unit. The springs are selected to have a stiffness intermediate to the greater force applied by the primary control linkage and the lesser resistance offered by the spoiler control unit. Thus, operation of the primary input causes the control unit to yield before the springs, yet, operation of the secondary input, acting directly on the control unit, causes the springs to yield and absorb adjustments before they are transmitted into the primary control system.

  6. Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.

  7. Flight Testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Merrill, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    In the late 1960s, efforts to advance the state-of-the-art in rotor systems technology indicated a significant gap existed between our ability to accurately predict the characteristics of a complex rotor system and the results obtained through flight verification. Even full scale wind tunnel efforts proved inaccurate because of the complex nature of a rotating, maneuvering rotor system. The key element missing, which prevented significant advances, was our inability to precisely measure the exact rotor state as a function of time and flight condition. Two Rotor Research Aircraft (RSRA) were designed as pure research aircraft and dedicated rotor test vehicles whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel testing, and flight verification. The two aircraft, the development of the piloting techniques required to safely fly the compound helicopter, the government flight testing accomplished to date, and proposed future research programs.

  8. The NASA Langley Research Center's Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Charles T., III; Jessup, Artie; Jones, Frank; Joyce, Claude; Sugden, Paul; Verstynen, Harry; Mielnik, John

    2010-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into a UAS Surrogate research aircraft to serve as a platform for UAS systems research, development, flight testing and evaluation. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and systems operator that allows for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be controlled from a modular, transportable ground station like a true UAS. The UAS Surrogate is able to file and fly in the NAS with normal traffic and is a better platform for real world UAS research and development than existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. The Cirrus Design SR22 aircraft is a small, singleengine, four-place, composite-construction aircraft that NASA Langley acquired to support NASA flight-research programs like the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Project. Systems were installed to support flight test research and data gathering. These systems include: separate research power; multi-function flat-panel displays; research computers; research air data and inertial state sensors; video recording; data acquisition; data-link; S-band video and data telemetry; Common Airborne Instrumentation System (CAIS); Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B); instrumented surfaces and controls; and a systems operator work station. The transformation of the SR22 to a UAS Surrogate was accomplished in phases. The first phase was to modify the existing autopilot to accept external commands from a research computer that was connected by redundant data-link radios to a ground control station. An electro-mechanical auto

  9. An electronic control for an electrohydraulic active control landing gear for the F-4 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, I.

    1982-01-01

    A controller for an electrohydraulic active control landing gear was developed for the F-4 aircraft. A controller was modified for this application. Simulation results indicate that during landing and rollout over repaired bomb craters the active gear effects a force reduction, relative to the passive gear, or approximately 70%.

  10. Switching LPV Control of an F-16 Aircraft via Controller State Reset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Bei; Wu, Fen; Kim, SungWan

    2004-01-01

    In flight control, the design objective and the aircraft dynamics may be different in low and high angle of attack regions. This paper presents a systematic switching Linear Parameter-varying LPV method to determine if it is practical to use for flight control designs over a wide angle of attack region. The approach is based on multiple parameter-dependent Lyapunov functions a family of LPV controllers are designed, and each of them is suitable for a specific parameter subspace. The state of the controller is reset to guarantee the stability requirement of the Lyapunov function when the switching event occurs. Two parameter-dependent switching logics, hysteresis switching and switching with average dwell times are examined. The proposed switching LPV control scheme is applied to an F-16 aircraft model with different design objectives and aircraft dynamics in low and high angle of attack regions. The nonlinear simulating results using both switching logics are compared.

  11. Automatic guidance and control of a transport aircraft during a helical landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A linear optimal regulator theory was applied to a nonlinear simulation of a transport aircraft performing a helical landing approach. A closed-form expression for the quasi-steady nominal flight path is presented along with the method for determining the corresponding constant nominal control inputs. The Jacobian matrices and the weighting matrices in the cost functional were time varying. A method of solving for the optimal feedback gains is reviewed. The control system was tested on several alternative landing approaches using both 3 deg and 6 deg flight path angles. On each landing approach, the aircraft was subjected to large random initial-state errors and to randomly directed crosswinds. The system was also tested for sensitivity to changes in the parameters of the aircraft and of the atmosphere. Results indicate that performance of the optimal controller on all the 3 deg approaches is very good. The control system proved to be reasonably insensitive to parametric uncertainties. Performance is not as good on the 6 deg approaches. A modification to the 6 deg flight path was proposed for the purpose of improving performance.

  12. Aircraft Detection System Ensures Free-Space Laser Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithgall, Brian; Wilson, Keith E.

    2004-01-01

    As scientists continue to explore our solar system, there are increasing demands to return greater volumes of data from smaller deep-space probes. Accordingly, NASA is studying advanced strategies based on free-space laser transmissions, which offer secure, high-bandwidth communications using smaller subsystems of much lower power and mass than existing ones. These approaches, however, can pose a danger to pilots in the beam path because the lasers may illuminate aircraft and blind them. Researchers thus are investigating systems that will monitor the surrounding airspace for aircraft that could be affected. This paper presents current methods for safe free space laser propagation.

  13. Lightweight, Efficient Power Converters for Advanced Turboelectric Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennessy, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is investigating advanced turboelectric aircraft propulsion systems that use superconducting motors to drive multiple distributed turbofans. Conventional electric motors are too large and heavy to be practical for this application; therefore, superconducting motors are required. In order to improve aircraft maneuverability, variable-speed power converters are required to throttle power to the turbofans. The low operating temperature and the need for lightweight components that place a minimum of additional heat load on the refrigeration system open the possibility of incorporating extremely efficient cryogenic power conversion technology. This Phase II project is developing critical components required to meet these goals.

  14. Solar Powered Aircraft, Photovoltaic Array/Battery System Tabletop Demonstration: Design and Operation Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Bailey, Sheila (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A system was constructed to demonstrate the power system operation of a solar powered aircraft. The system consists of a photovoltaic (PV) array, a charge controller, a battery, an electric motor and propeller. The system collects energy from the PV array and either utilizes this energy to operate an electric motor or stores it in a rechargeable battery for future use. The system has a control panel which displays the output of the array and battery as well as the total current going to the electric motor. The control panel also has a means for adjusting the output to the motor to control its speed. The entire system is regulated around 12 VDC.

  15. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  16. Emergency flight control system using one engine and fuel transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Jr., Frank W. (Inventor); Burken, John J. (Inventor); Le, Jeanette (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A system for emergency aircraft control uses at least one engine and lateral fuel transfer that allows a pilot to regain control over an aircraft under emergency conditions. Where aircraft propulsion is available only through engines on one side of the aircraft, lateral fuel transfer provides means by which the center of gravity of the aircraft can be moved over to the wing associated with the operating engine, thus inducing a moment that balances the moment from the remaining engine, allowing the pilot to regain control over the aircraft. By implementing the present invention in flight control programming associated with a flight control computer (FCC), control of the aircraft under emergency conditions can be linked to the yoke or autopilot knob of the aircraft. Additionally, the center of gravity of the aircraft can be shifted in order to effect maneuvers and turns by spacing such center of gravity either closer to or farther away from the propelling engine or engines. In an alternative embodiment, aircraft having a third engine associated with the tail section or otherwise are accommodated and implemented by the present invention by appropriately shifting the center of gravity of the aircraft. Alternatively, where a four-engine aircraft has suffered loss of engine control on one side of the plane, the lateral fuel transfer may deliver the center of gravity closer to the two remaining engines. Differential thrust between the two can then control the pitch and roll of the aircraft in conjunction with lateral fuel transfer.

  17. Variable-Speed Induction Motor Drives for Aircraft Environmental Control Compressors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Hansen, I. G.; Schreiner, K. E.; Roth, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    New, more-efficient designs for aircraft jet engines are not capable of supplying the large quantities of bleed air necessary to provide pressurization and air conditioning for the environmental control systems (ECS) of the next generation of large passenger aircraft. System analysis and engineering have determined that electrically-driven ECS can help to maintain the improved fuel efficiencies; and electronic controllers and induction motors are now being developed in a NASA/NPD SBIR Program to drive both types of ECS compressors. Previous variable-speed induction motor/controller system developments and publications have primarily focused on field-oriented control, with large transient reserve power, for maximum acceleration and optimum response in actuator and robotics systems. The application area addressed herein is characterized by slowly-changing inputs and outputs, small reserve power capability for acceleration, and optimization for maximum efficiency. This paper therefore focuses on the differences between this case and the optimum response case, and shows the development of this new motor/controller approach. It starts with the creation of a new set of controller requirements. In response to those requirements, new control algorithms are being developed and implemented in an embedded computer, which is integrated into the motor controller closed loop. Buffered logic outputs are used to drive the power switches in a resonant-technology, power processor/motor-controller, at switching/resonant frequencies high enough to support efficient high-frequency induction motor operation at speeds up to 50,000-RPA

  18. Enhanced Airport Capacity Through Safe, Dynamic Reductions in Aircraft Separation: NASA's Aircraft VOrtex Spacing System (AVOSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OConnor, Cornelius J.; Rutishauser, David K.

    2001-01-01

    An aspect of airport terminal operations that holds potential for efficiency improvements is the separation criteria applied to aircraft for wake vortex avoidance. These criteria evolved to represent safe spacing under weather conditions conducive to the longest wake hazards, and are consequently overly conservative during a significant portion of operations. Under many ambient conditions, such as moderate crosswinds or turbulence, wake hazard durations are substantially reduced. To realize this reduction NASA has developed a proof-of-concept Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS). Successfully operated in a real-time field demonstration during July 2000 at the Dallas Ft. Worth International Airport, AVOSS is a novel integration of weather sensors, wake sensors, and analytical wake prediction algorithms. Gains in airport throughput using AVOSS spacing as compared to the current criteria averaged 6%, with peak values approaching the theoretical maximum of 16%. The average throughput gain translates to 15-40% reductions in delay when applied to realistic capacity ratios at major airports.

  19. Technical Seminar: "Quest for Aircraft Stability and Control"

    NASA Video Gallery

    Testing of full-scale aircraft in flight to validate or improve predictions obtained through wind tunnel testing or CFD calculations is expensive and time-consuming. Being able to test aircraft sta...

  20. Knowledge-Based Aircraft Automation: Managers Guide on the use of Artificial Intelligence for Aircraft Automation and Verification and Validation Approach for a Neural-Based Flight Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broderick, Ron

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of this report was to integrate the powerful tools of artificial intelligence into the traditional process of software development. To maintain the US aerospace competitive advantage, traditional aerospace and software engineers need to more easily incorporate the technology of artificial intelligence into the advanced aerospace systems being designed today. The future goal was to transition artificial intelligence from an emerging technology to a standard technology that is considered early in the life cycle process to develop state-of-the-art aircraft automation systems. This report addressed the future goal in two ways. First, it provided a matrix that identified typical aircraft automation applications conducive to various artificial intelligence methods. The purpose of this matrix was to provide top-level guidance to managers contemplating the possible use of artificial intelligence in the development of aircraft automation. Second, the report provided a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the traditional process of software development. The matrix was developed by organizing the discipline of artificial intelligence into the following six methods: logical, object representation-based, distributed, uncertainty management, temporal and neurocomputing. Next, a study of existing aircraft automation applications that have been conducive to artificial intelligence implementation resulted in the following five categories: pilot-vehicle interface, system status and diagnosis, situation assessment, automatic flight planning, and aircraft flight control. The resulting matrix provided management guidance to understand artificial intelligence as it applied to aircraft automation. The approach taken to develop a methodology to formally evaluate neural networks as part of the software engineering life cycle was to start with the existing software quality assurance standards and to change these standards to include neural network