Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft crewmember flight

  1. 14 CFR 135.107 - Flight attendant crewmember requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight attendant crewmember requirement... Flight Operations § 135.107 Flight attendant crewmember requirement. No certificate holder may operate an... is a flight attendant crewmember on board the aircraft....

  2. 14 CFR 135.100 - Flight crewmember duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember duties. 135.100 Section... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 135.100 Flight crewmember duties. (a) No certificate holder shall require, nor may any...

  3. 14 CFR 125.311 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 125.311... CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations § 125.311 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...

  4. 14 CFR 135.341 - Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot and flight attendant crewmember... ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.341 Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs. (a) Each certificate holder, other than one who uses only one pilot in the certificate holder's...

  5. 14 CFR 121.542 - Flight crewmember duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember duties. 121.542 Section... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.542 Flight crewmember duties. (a) No certificate holder shall require, nor may any flight crewmember perform, any duties during...

  6. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.543 Flight crewmembers at controls. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each required flight crewmember...

  7. 14 CFR 129.15 - Flight crewmember certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmember certificates. 129.15 Section 129.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... § 129.15 Flight crewmember certificates. No person may act as a flight crewmember unless he holds...

  8. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105 Section 91.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... required flight crewmember shall— (1) Be at the crewmember station unless the absence is necessary...

  9. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105 Section 91.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... required flight crewmember shall— (1) Be at the crewmember station unless the absence is necessary...

  10. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105 Section 91.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... required flight crewmember shall— (1) Be at the crewmember station unless the absence is necessary...

  11. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105 Section 91.105 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... required flight crewmember shall— (1) Be at the crewmember station unless the absence is necessary...

  12. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at stations. 91.105... (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules General § 91.105 Flight crewmembers at stations. (a) During takeoff and landing, and while en route,...

  13. 14 CFR 121.543 - Flight crewmembers at controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight crewmembers at controls. 121.543 Section 121.543 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  14. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  15. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  16. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  17. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  18. 14 CFR 135.171 - Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shoulder harness installation at flight crewmember stations. 135.171 Section 135.171 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... harness installed for each flight crewmember station. (b) Each flight crewmember occupying a...

  19. 78 FR 52848 - Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... conditions of aircraft cabin crew while they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: This action becomes... the working conditions of aircraft cabin crewmembers while they are onboard aircraft in operation... enforcement onboard the aircraft. The FAA agrees with the proposed recommendation. Specific procedures...

  20. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  1. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  2. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  3. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember. 121.483 Section 121.483 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  4. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers. 121.471 Section 121.471 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight...

  5. Temperature Regulation in Crewmembers After a 115-Day Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Williams, W. J.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Mikhavlov, V.; Kobzev, Y.; Fortney, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    Impaired thermoregulation, which has been observed during exercise following bed rest, may significantly impact crewmembers during space flight operations by decreasing exercise capacity and orthostatic tolerance. Impaired temperature regulation would cause higher levels of core temperature, due to an attenuated cutaneous vasodilatory reflex and sweating response, for a given oxygen consumption. Two mate crewmembers of the Mir 18 mission performed supine cycle exercise se (20 min @ 40% and 20 min @ 65% preflight VO2pk) 145 days preflight and 5 days postflight. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured by an ingestible telemetry pill, skin blood flow (SBF) by laser Doppler velocimetry, and sweat rate (SR) by dew point hygrometry. Tcore at the time of test termination was similar (37.8 C) for both subjects before and after flight despite a shorter test duration (40 vs 28-29 minutes) postflight. The slopes of the SBF/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 396 vs 214; Subj 2: 704 vs 143 Perfusion Unit/degC) and SR/Tcore relationship (Subj 1: 4.5 vs 2.1; Subj 2: 11.0 vs 3.6mg/min/sq cm/degC) were reduced postflight. Tcore thresholds for both SR (Subj 1: 37.4 vs 37.6; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.6 C) and SBF (Subj 1: 37.3 vs 37.5; Subj 2: 37.6 vs 37.7 C) were similar pre- to postflight. For these 2 crewmembers, it appeared that thermoregulation during exercise was impaired as evidenced by compromised heat loss responses after long-duration space flight.

  6. 14 CFR 63.2 - Certification of foreign flight crewmembers other than pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of foreign flight crewmembers other than pilots. 63.2 Section 63.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS General §...

  7. 14 CFR 63.2 - Certification of foreign flight crewmembers other than pilots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of foreign flight crewmembers other than pilots. 63.2 Section 63.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....2 Certification of foreign flight crewmembers other than pilots. A person who is neither a...

  8. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  9. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. STS-33 crewmembers on OV-103's aft flight deck photograph Earth observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 crewmembers are positioned on the aft flight deck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, to record Earth observations. Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton views Earth through an overhead window before taking a picture. A second crewmember behind Thornton, holding viewfinder to his eye, records the scenery. The view was taken by a crewmember on the middeck looking up through the interdeck access hatch.

  11. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  12. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  13. 14 CFR 121.805 - Crewmember training for in-flight medical events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... events. 121.805 Section 121.805 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.805 Crewmember training for in-flight medical events. (a) Each training program must provide the... event procedures, including coordination among crewmembers. (2) Instruction in the location,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.805 - Crewmember training for in-flight medical events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... events. 121.805 Section 121.805 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.805 Crewmember training for in-flight medical events. (a) Each training program must provide the... event procedures, including coordination among crewmembers. (2) Instruction in the location,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.805 - Crewmember training for in-flight medical events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... events. 121.805 Section 121.805 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.805 Crewmember training for in-flight medical events. (a) Each training program must provide the... event procedures, including coordination among crewmembers. (2) Instruction in the location,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.805 - Crewmember training for in-flight medical events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... events. 121.805 Section 121.805 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... § 121.805 Crewmember training for in-flight medical events. (a) Each training program must provide the... event procedures, including coordination among crewmembers. (2) Instruction in the location,...

  17. Analyzing commercial flight crewmember perceptions' regarding airline security effectiveness, morale, and professionalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belanger, James Durham

    Since the formation of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) following the September 11, 2001 terrorist's attacks few studies involving commercial flight crewmember perceptions' of the organization's efficacy have been conducted, nor has there been any research into the effects on crewmember morale and professionalism resulting from their interactions with the TSA. This researcher surveyed 624 flight crewmembers, using a multiple-choice instrument to ascertain both their perceptions of TSA effectiveness involving an array of security issues, in addition to how crewmember interactions with the TSA may have affected their morale and professionalism. A 2-sample t-test measured the difference in the means of pilots and flight attendants regarding the study's scope, as did 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD comparisons, which factored in gender. The study found that crewmembers indicated some confidence in the areas of passenger and baggage screening and the Armed Pilot Program, with less confidence regarding ancillary personnel screening, airport perimeter security, and in both crewmember anti-terrorist training and human error issues. Statistical testing indicated varying differences in sample means concerning all study related issues. Finally, crewmembers indicated some effects on morale and professionalism, with a majority indicating a negative effect on both.

  18. 14 CFR 135.43 - Crewmember certificates: International operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crewmember certificates: International... General § 135.43 Crewmember certificates: International operations. (a) This section describes the... issuance as flight crewmembers on United States registered aircraft engaged in international air...

  19. 14 CFR 135.43 - Crewmember certificates: International operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Crewmember certificates: International... General § 135.43 Crewmember certificates: International operations. (a) This section describes the... issuance as flight crewmembers on United States registered aircraft engaged in international air...

  20. 14 CFR 135.43 - Crewmember certificates: International operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Crewmember certificates: International... General § 135.43 Crewmember certificates: International operations. (a) This section describes the... issuance as flight crewmembers on United States registered aircraft engaged in international air...

  1. 14 CFR 135.43 - Crewmember certificates: International operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Crewmember certificates: International... General § 135.43 Crewmember certificates: International operations. (a) This section describes the... issuance as flight crewmembers on United States registered aircraft engaged in international air...

  2. 14 CFR 135.43 - Crewmember certificates: International operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember certificates: International... General § 135.43 Crewmember certificates: International operations. (a) This section describes the... issuance as flight crewmembers on United States registered aircraft engaged in international air...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1097 - Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs. 91.1097 Section 91.1097 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1067 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 91.1067 Section 91.1067 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers. 91.1057 Section 91.1057 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers. 91.1057 Section 91.1057 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1057 Flight, duty and rest...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1067 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 91.1067 Section 91.1067 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional...

  8. 14 CFR 135.295 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 135.295 Section 135.295 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  9. 14 CFR 125.289 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 125.289 Section 125.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION...

  10. 14 CFR 135.295 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 135.295 Section 135.295 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  11. 14 CFR 125.289 - Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Initial and recurrent flight attendant crewmember testing requirements. 125.289 Section 125.289 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION...

  12. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.

  13. STS-44 crewmembers test flight equipment onboard KC-135 NASA 930

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers take a break from testing flight equipment onboard KC-135 NASA 930 and tumble in the microgravity created during parabolic flight. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) Mario Runco, Jr, Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen (mustache), Commander Frederick D. Gregory, MS F. Story Musgrave (in background), MS James S. Voss, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks. The crew was experimenting with equipment they will operate during their mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  14. STS-38 Atlantis, OV-104, crewmembers on Bldg 9A CCT flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers participate in training activities in the One Gravity Mockup and Training Facilities Bldg 9A crew compartment trainer (CCT). Commander Richard O. Covey, Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, MS Carl J. Meade, and MS Charles D. 'Sam' Gemar are suited in launch and entry suits (LESs) and seated on flight deck. In flight seating arrangement are (from left to right) Culbertson, Covey, Meade, Springer, and Gemar (standing).

  15. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  16. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  17. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

  18. STS-30 crewmembers train on JSC shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wearing headsets, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee (left), MS Mary L. Cleave (center), and MS Norman E. Thagard pose on aft flight deck in JSC's fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). In background, Commander David M. Walker and Pilot Ronald J. Grabe check data on forward flight deck CRT monitors. FB-SMS is located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Crewmembers are scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, in April 1989 for NASA mission STS-30.

  19. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  20. STS-36 crewmembers in LESs pose for portrait on JSC's CCT flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-36 Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEHs), are stationed in their assigned positions on the flight deck of the crew compartment trainer (CCT) during a simulation at JSC's Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9A. On the forward flight deck are Commander John O. Creighton at the commanders station (far right) and Pilot John H. Casper at the pilots station (far left). Seated behind them in the mission specialists seats on the aft flight deck are Mission Specialist (MS) Pierre J. Thout (left) and MS David C. Hilmers (center). MS Richard M. Mullane stands since his seat is on the middeck. He joined the crew on the flight deck for this portrait taken with a fisheye lens.

  1. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... military flight check required for a pilot in command with instrument privileges, in an aircraft that the military requires to be operated by more than one pilot flight crewmember. (e) A check or test described in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pilot-in-command proficiency...

  2. 14 CFR 61.58 - Pilot-in-command proficiency check: Operation of aircraft requiring more than one pilot flight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... military flight check required for a pilot in command with instrument privileges, in an aircraft that the military requires to be operated by more than one pilot flight crewmember. (e) A check or test described in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pilot-in-command proficiency...

  3. High altitude aircraft flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmken, Henry; Emmons, Peter; Homeyer, David

    1996-03-01

    In order to make low earth orbit L-band propagation measurements and test new voice communication concepts, a payload was proposed and accepted for flight aboard the COMET (now METEOR) spacecraft. This Low Earth Orbiting EXperiment payload (LEOEX) was designed and developed by Motorola Inc. and sponsored by the Space Communications Technology Center (SCTC), a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) located at Florida Atlantic University. In order to verify the LEOEX payload for satellite operation and obtain some preliminary propagation data, a series of 9 high altitude aircraft (SR-71 and ER-2) flight tests were conducted. These flights took place during a period of 7 months, from October 1993 to April 1994. This paper will summarize the operation of the LEOEX payload and the particular configuration used for these flights. The series of flyby tests were very successful and demonstrated how bi-directional, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) voice communication will work in space-to-ground L-band channels. The flight tests also acquired propagation data which will be representative of L-band Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communication systems. In addition to verifying the LEOEX system operation, it also uncovered and ultimately aided the resolution of several key technical issues associated with the payload.

  4. PIK-20 Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photo shows NASA's PIK-20E motor-glider sailplane during a research flight from the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1991. The PIK-20E was a sailplane flown at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) beginning in 1981. The vehicle, bearing NASA tail number 803, was used as a research vehicle on projects calling for high lift-over-drag and low-speed performance. Later NASA used the PIK-20E to study the flow of fluids over the aircraft's surface at various speeds and angles of attack as part of a study of airflow efficiency over lifting surfaces. The single-seat aircraft was used to begin developing procedures for collecting sailplane glide performance data in a program carried out by Ames-Dryden. It was also used to study high-lift aerodynamics and laminar flow on high-lift airfoils. Built by Eiri-Avion in Finland, the PIK-20E is a sailplane with a two-cylinder 43-horsepower, retractable engine. It is made of carbon fiber with sandwich construction. In this unique configuration, it takes off and climbs to altitude on its own. After reaching the desired altitude, the engine is shut down and folded back into the fuselage and the aircraft is then operated as a conventional sailplane. Construction of the PIK-20E series was rather unusual. The factory used high-temperature epoxies cured in an autoclave, making the structure resistant to deformation with age. Unlike today's normal practice of laying glass over gelcoat in a mold, the PIK-20E was built without gelcoat. The finish is the result of smooth glass lay-up, a small amount of filler, and an acrylic enamel paint. The sailplane was 21.4 feet long and had a wingspan of 49.2 feet. It featured a wooden, fixed-pitch propeller, a roomy cockpit, wingtip wheels, and a steerable tailwheel.

  5. Fighter aircraft flight control technology design requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, W. E., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of fighter aircraft flight control technology is briefly surveyed. Systems engineering, battle damage considerations for adaptive flutter suppression, in-flight simulation, and artificial intelligence are briefly discussed.

  6. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Domestic Operations § 121.471 Flight time limitations and rest...

  7. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  8. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  9. 14 CFR 121.471 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All flight crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations and Rest Requirements: Domestic Operations § 121.471 Flight time limitations and rest...

  10. 14 CFR 121.483 - Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one... AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.483 Flight time limitations: Two pilots and one additional...

  11. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  12. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  13. Vertical flight path steering system for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Disclosed is a vertical flight path angle steering system for aircraft, utilizing a digital flight control computer which processes pilot control inputs and aircraft response parameters into suitable elevator commands and control information for display to the pilot on a cathode ray tube. The system yields desirable airplane control handling qualities and responses as well as improvements in pilot workload and safety during airplane operation in the terminal area and under windshear conditions.

  14. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  15. Statistical Detection of Atypical Aircraft Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving; Chidester, Thomas; Shafto, Michael; Ferryman, Thomas; Amidan, Brett; Whitney, Paul; White, Amanda; Willse, Alan; Cooley, Scott; Jay, Joseph; Rosenthal, Loren; Swickard, Andrea; Bates, Derrick; Scherrer, Chad; Webb, Bobbie-Jo; Lawrence, Robert; Mosbrucker, Chris; Prothero, Gary; Andrei, Adi; Romanowski, Tim; Robin, Daniel; Prothero, Jason; Lynch, Robert; Lowe, Michael

    2006-01-01

    A computational method and software to implement the method have been developed to sift through vast quantities of digital flight data to alert human analysts to aircraft flights that are statistically atypical in ways that signify that safety may be adversely affected. On a typical day, there are tens of thousands of flights in the United States and several times that number throughout the world. Depending on the specific aircraft design, the volume of data collected by sensors and flight recorders can range from a few dozen to several thousand parameters per second during a flight. Whereas these data have long been utilized in investigating crashes, the present method is oriented toward helping to prevent crashes by enabling routine monitoring of flight operations to identify portions of flights that may be of interest with respect to safety issues.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of transport aircraft flight performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the art in comprehensive performance codes for fixed-wing aircraft. The importance of system analysis in flight performance is discussed. The paper highlights the role of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight mechanics, aeroacoustics, flight operation, numerical optimisation, stochastic methods and numerical analysis. The latter discipline is used to investigate the sensitivities of the sub-systems to uncertainties in critical state parameters or functional parameters. The paper discusses critically the data used for performance analysis, and the areas where progress is required. Comprehensive analysis codes can be used for mission fuel planning, envelope exploration, competition analysis, a wide variety of environmental studies, marketing analysis, aircraft certification and conceptual aircraft design. A comprehensive program that uses the multi-disciplinary approach for transport aircraft is presented. The model includes a geometry deck, a separate engine input deck with the main parameters, a database of engine performance from an independent simulation, and an operational deck. The comprehensive code has modules for deriving the geometry from bitmap files, an aerodynamics model for all flight conditions, a flight mechanics model for flight envelopes and mission analysis, an aircraft noise model and engine emissions. The model is validated at different levels. Validation of the aerodynamic model is done against the scale models DLR-F4 and F6. A general model analysis and flight envelope exploration are shown for the Boeing B-777-300 with GE-90 turbofan engines with intermediate passenger capacity (394 passengers in 2 classes). Validation of the flight model is done by sensitivity analysis on the wetted area (or profile drag), on the specific air range, the brake-release gross weight and the aircraft noise. A variety of results is shown, including specific air range charts, take-off weight-altitude charts, payload-range performance

  17. Aurora Flight Sciences' Perseus B Remotely Piloted Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A long, slender wing and a pusher propeller at the rear characterize the Perseus B remotely piloted research aircraft, seen here during a test flight in June 1998. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the Perseus design, which began with the Perseus Proof-Of-Concept aircraft. Perseus was initially developed as part of NASA's Small High-Altitude Science Aircraft (SHASA) program, which later evolved into the ERAST

  18. Iced Aircraft Flight Data for Flight Simulator Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratvasky, Thomas P.; Blankenship, Kurt; Rieke, William; Brinker, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is developing and validating technology to incorporate aircraft icing effects into a flight training device concept demonstrator. Flight simulation models of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were developed from wind tunnel data using a subscale, complete aircraft model with and without simulated ice, and from previously acquired flight data. The validation of the simulation models required additional aircraft response time histories of the airplane configured with simulated ice similar to the subscale model testing. Therefore, a flight test was conducted using the NASA Twin Otter Icing Research Aircraft. Over 500 maneuvers of various types were conducted in this flight test. The validation data consisted of aircraft state parameters, pilot inputs, propulsion, weight, center of gravity, and moments of inertia with the airplane configured with different amounts of simulated ice. Emphasis was made to acquire data at wing stall and tailplane stall since these events are of primary interest to model accurately in the flight training device. Analyses of several datasets are described regarding wing and tailplane stall. Key findings from these analyses are that the simulated wing ice shapes significantly reduced the C , max, while the simulated tail ice caused elevator control force anomalies and tailplane stall when flaps were deflected 30 deg or greater. This effectively reduced the safe operating margins between iced wing and iced tail stall as flap deflection and thrust were increased. This flight test demonstrated that the critical aspects to be modeled in the icing effects flight training device include: iced wing and tail stall speeds, flap and thrust effects, control forces, and control effectiveness.

  19. Schlieren Imaging Of An Aircraft In Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M.

    1994-01-01

    Technique for making schlieren images of airplanes and missiles in supersonic flight devised to help understand physics of compressible aerodynamic flows about complicated aircraft shapes. Technique also used to study far-field sonic booms. Data obtained from schlieren images useful in optimizing designs of prototype aircraft. Technique incorporates elements of focusing schlieren photography, astronomical photography, and streak photography. Using sun or moon as source of light, apparatus forms image revealing gradients of density in air flow.

  20. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  1. Real Time Correction of Aircraft Flight Fonfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schipper, John F. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Method and system for monitoring and analyzing, in real time, variation with time of an aircraft flight parameter. A time-dependent recovery band, defined by first and second recovery band boundaries that are spaced apart at at least one time point, is constructed for a selected flight parameter and for a selected time recovery time interval length .DELTA.t(FP;rec). A flight parameter, having a value FP(t=t.sub.p) at a time t=t.sub.p, is likely to be able to recover to a reference flight parameter value FP(t';ref), lying in a band of reference flight parameter values FP(t';ref;CB), within a time interval given by t.sub.p.ltoreq.t'.ltoreq.t.sub.p.DELTA.t(FP;rec), if (or only if) the flight parameter value lies between the first and second recovery band boundary traces.

  2. Flight Safety Aircraft Risk: A Growing Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing awareness of the need to have appropriate criteria for protection of aircraft from debris resulting from the flight termination of a malfunctioning space booster. There have been several sequences of events that have interacted to bring us to the current risk management problem. With the advent of the US initiative to have common flight safety analysis processes and criteria, it was recognized that the traditional aircraft protection approach was inadequate. It did not consider the added public concern for catastrophic events. While the probability may have been small for downing a large commercial passenger plane, the public outrage if it happened would not be adequately measured by the individual risk to passengers nor the collective (societal risk) presented by a single airplane. Over a period of a number of years the US has developed and evolved a criterion to address catastrophic risk protection. Beginning in the same time period, it was recognized the assertion that all debris with masses greater than one gram were lethal to aircraft was unduly conservative. Over this same period initiatives have been developed to refine aircraft vulnerability models. There were, however, two significant unconservative assumptions that were made in the early years. It was presumed that significant risk to aircraft could only occur in the launch area. In addition, aircraft risk assessments, when they were made were based on debris lists designed to protect people on the ground (typically debris with an impact kinetic energy greater than 11 ft-lb). Good debris lists for aircraft protection do not yet exist. However, it has become increasingly clear that even with partial breakup lists large regions were required from which aircraft flight would be restricted using the normal exclusion approaches. We provide a review of these events and an indication of the way forward.

  3. 14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section 91.1091 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this... aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1091 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 91.1091 Section 91.1091 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). (a) For the purposes of this... aircraft, in a flight simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type, class, or...

  5. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  6. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  7. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  8. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  9. Aircraft digital flight control technical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, Otha B.; Leggett, David B.

    1993-01-01

    The Aircraft Digital Flight Control Technical Review was initiated by two pilot induced oscillation (PIO) incidents in the spring and summer of 1992. Maj. Gen. Franklin (PEO) wondered why the Air Force development process for digital flight control systems was not preventing PIO problems. Consequently, a technical review team was formed to examine the development process and determine why PIO problems continued to occur. The team was also to identify the 'best practices' used in the various programs. The charter of the team was to focus on the PIO problem, assess the current development process, and document the 'best practices.' The team reviewed all major USAF aircraft programs with digital flight controls, specifically, the F-15E, F-16C/D, F-22, F-111, C-17, and B-2. The team interviewed contractor, System Program Office (SPO), and Combined Test Force (CTF) personnel on these programs. The team also went to NAS Patuxent River to interview USN personnel about the F/A-18 program. The team also reviewed experimental USAF and NASA systems with digital flight control systems: X-29, X-31, F-15 STOL and Maneuver Technology Demonstrator (SMTD), and the Variable In-Flight Stability Test Aircraft (VISTA). The team also discussed the problem with other experts in the field including Ralph Smith and personnel from Calspan. The major conclusions and recommendations from the review are presented.

  10. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil...

  11. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft flight risks... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft flight risks... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft flight risks... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  15. 48 CFR 1852.228-71 - Aircraft flight risks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Aircraft flight risks. 1852... 1852.228-71 Aircraft flight risks. (a) As prescribed in 1828.311-2, insert the following clause: Aircraft Flight Risks (DEC 1988) (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this contract...

  16. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  17. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  18. 14 CFR 375.31 - Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.31 Demonstration flights of foreign aircraft. Flights of foreign civil aircraft... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration flights of foreign...

  19. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership is seen here photographed from a KC-135 Tanker aircraft. The X-43 adapter is visible attached to the right wing. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and is also both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported

  20. STS-44 crewmembers on EAFB runway survey post flight servicing operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing launch and entry suits (LESs), stand on Runway 05 dry lake bed at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. From left to right Mission Specialist (MS) Mario Runco, Jr, Commander Frederick D. Gregory, and Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen survey Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, postflight servicing operations

  1. Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  2. 77 FR 72998 - Policy Statement on Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Aircraft Cabin Crewmembers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background documents or... they are onboard aircraft in operation. DATES: Send comments on or before January 7, 2013....

  3. 14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator). 135.340 Section 135.340... and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator... simulator, or in a flight training device. This paragraph applies after March 19, 1997. (b) The...

  4. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  5. Rotor systems research aircraft airplane configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, W. D.; Erickson, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The rotor systems research aircraft (RSRA) has undergone ground and flight tests, primarily as a compound aircraft. The purpose was to train pilots and to check out and develop the design flight envelope. The preparation and flight test of the RSRA in the airplane, or fixed-wind, configuration are reviewed and the test results are discussed.

  6. Design and flight test of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system on the NASA F-15 test aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Edward A.; Urnes, James M., Sr.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the design, development and flight testing of the Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight control system performed at McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA), St. Louis, Missouri and at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards Air Force Base, California. This research and development program was conducted by MDA and directed by NASA through the Dryden Flight Research Facility for the period beginning January 1991 and ending December 1993. A propulsion steering backup to the aircraft conventional flight control system has been developed and flight demonstrated on a NASA F-15 test aircraft. The Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) flight system utilizes collective and differential thrust changes to steer an aircraft that experiences partial or complete failure of the hydraulically actuated control surfaces. The PCA flight control research has shown that propulsion steering is a viable backup flight control mode and can assist the pilot in safe landing recovery of a fighter aircraft that has damage to or loss of the flight control surfaces. NASA, USAF and Navy evaluation test pilots stated that the F-15 PCA design provided the control necessary to land the aircraft. Moreover, the feasibility study showed that PCA technology can be directly applied to transport aircraft and provide a major improvement in the survivability of passengers and crew of controls damaged aircraft.

  7. Crew-MC communication and characteristics of crewmembers' sleep under conditions of simulated prolonged space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shved, Dmitry; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna; Ehmann, Bea; Balazs, Laszlo; Zavalko, Irina

    Characteristics of crew-MC communication and psychophysiological state of the crewmembers were studied in simulation experiment with 520-day isolation. We used method of computerized quantitative content analysis to investigate psychologically relevant characteristics of the crew’s messages content. Content analysis is a systematic, reproducible method of reducing of a text array to a limited number of categories by means of preset scientifically substantiated rules of coding (Berelson, 1971, Krippendorff, 2004). All statements in the crew’s messages to MC were coded with certain psychologically relevant content analysis categories (e.g. ‘Needs’, ‘Negativism’, ‘Time’). We attributed to the ‘Needs’ category statements (semantic units), containing the words, related to subject’s needs and their satisfaction, e.g. ‘‘necessary, need, wish, want, demand’’. To the ‘Negativism’ category we refer critical statements, containing such words as ‘‘mistakes, faults, deficit, shortage’’. The ‘Time’ category embodies statements related to time perception, e.g. “hour, day, always, never, constantly”. Sleep study was conducted with use of EEG and actigraphy techniques to assess characteristics of the crewmembers’ night sleep, reflecting the crew’s adaptation to the experimental conditions. The overall amount of communication (quantity of messages and their length) positively correlated with sleep effectiveness (time of sleep related to time in bed) and with delta sleep latency. Occurrences of semantic units in categories ‘Time’ and ‘Negativism’ negatively correlated with sleep latency, and positively - with delta sleep latency and sleep effectiveness. Frequency of time-related semantic units’ utilization in the crew’s messages was significantly increasing during or before the key events of the experiment (beginning of high autonomy, planetary landing simulation, etc.). It is known that subjective importance of time

  8. Optimum flight paths of turbojet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, Angelo

    1955-01-01

    The climb of turbojet aircraft is analyzed and discussed including the accelerations. Three particular flight performances are examined: minimum time of climb, climb with minimum fuel consumption, and steepest climb. The theoretical results obtained from a previous study are put in a form that is suitable for application on the following simplifying assumptions: the Mach number is considered an independent variable instead of the velocity; the variations of the airplane mass due to fuel consumption are disregarded; the airplane polar is assumed to be parabolic; the path curvatures and the squares of the path angles are disregarded in the projection of the equation of motion on the normal to the path; lastly, an ideal turbojet with performance independent of the velocity is involved. The optimum Mach number for each flight condition is obtained from the solution of a sixth order equation in which the coefficients are functions of two fundamental parameters: the ratio of minimum drag in level flight to the thrust and the Mach number which represents the flight at constant altitude and maximum lift-drag ratio.

  9. Two YF-12 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The YF-12A (60-6935) carries the 'coldwall' heat transfer pod on a pylon beneath the forward fuselage. The pod is seen with its insulating coating intact. In the foreground, the YF-12C flies photo chase. The coldwall project, supported by Langley Research Center, consisted of a stainless steel tube equipped with thermocouples and pressure-sensors. A special insulating coating covered the tube, which was chilled with liquid nitrogen. At Mach 3, the insulation could be pyrotechnically blown away from the tube, instantly exposing it to the thermal environment. The experiment caused many inflight difficulties, such as engine unstarts, but eventually researchers got a successful flight. The Flight Research Center's involvement with the YF-12A, an interceptor version of the Lockheed A-12, began in 1967. Ames Research Center was interested in using wind tunnel data that had been generated at Ames under extreme secrecy. Also, the Office of Advanced Research and Technology (OART) saw the YF-12A as a means to advance high-speed technology, which would help in designing the Supersonic Transport (SST). The Air Force needed technical assistance to get the latest reconnaissance version of the A-12 family, the SR-71A, fully operational. Eventually, the Air Force offered NASA the use of two YF-12A aircraft, 60-6935 and 60-6936. A joint NASA-USAF program was mapped out in June 1969. NASA and Air Force technicians spent three months readying 935 for flight. On 11 December 1969, the flight program got underway with a successful maiden flight piloted by Col. Joe Rogers and Maj. Gary Heidelbaugh of the SR-71/F-12 Test Force. During the program, the Air Force concentrated on military applications, and NASA pursued a loads research program. NASA studies included inflight heating, skin-friction cooling, 'coldwall' research (a heat transfer experiment), flowfield studies, shaker vane research, and tests in support of the Space Shuttle landing program. Ultimately, 935 became the workhorse

  10. NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft 911's Final Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA 911, one of NASA's two modified Boeing 747 space shuttle carrier aircraft, flew its final flight Feb. 8, a short hop from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base to the ...

  11. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  12. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  13. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  14. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... excess of seven days may be given at any time before the pilot is again scheduled for flight duty on...

  15. Rapid Automated Aircraft Simulation Model Updating from Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, Geoff; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2011-01-01

    Techniques to identify aircraft aerodynamic characteristics from flight measurements and compute corrections to an existing simulation model of a research aircraft were investigated. The purpose of the research was to develop a process enabling rapid automated updating of aircraft simulation models using flight data and apply this capability to all flight regimes, including flight envelope extremes. The process presented has the potential to improve the efficiency of envelope expansion flight testing, revision of control system properties, and the development of high-fidelity simulators for pilot training.

  16. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight.

    PubMed

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members is common. This study quantified the physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles using electromyography (EMG) measures during helicopter flight. Nine standardized sorties were performed, encompassing: cruising from location A to location B (AB) and performing search and rescue (SAR). SAR was performed with Night Vision Goggles (NVG), while AB was performed with (AB+NVG) and without NVG (AB-NVG). EMG was recorded for: trapezius (TRA), upper neck extensors (UNE), and sternocleido-mastoid (SCM). Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) were performed for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from pre- (0.7±1.3) to post-sortie (1.6±1.9) for pilots (p=0.028). If sustained, UNE activity of ∼10% MVE is high, and implies a risk for neck disorders. PMID:26852114

  17. Serial Escape System For Aircraft Crews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Kenneth E.

    1990-01-01

    Emergency escape system for aircraft and aerospace vehicles ejects up to seven crewmembers, one by one, within 120 s. Intended for emergencies in which disabled craft still in stable flight at no more than 220 kn (113 m/s) equivalent airspeed and sinking no faster than 110 ft/s (33.5 m/s) at altitudes up to 50,000 ft (15.2 km). Ejection rockets load themselves from magazine after each crewmember ejected. Jumpmaster queues other crewmembers and helps them position themselves on egress ramp. Rockets pull crewmembers clear of aircraft structure. Provides orderly, controlled exit and avoids ditching at sea or landing in rough terrain.

  18. 14 CFR 121.485 - Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots and an additional flight crewmember.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations: Three or more... OPERATIONS Flight Time Limitations: Flag Operations § 121.485 Flight time limitations: Three or more pilots... his base and who is a pilot on an airplane that has a crew of three or more pilots and an...

  19. Flight director design for a STOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seitz, W. R.; Goodson, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The study described here was intended to explore some ways of giving the pilot the information necessary to perform as well as an autopilot. A fixed-base flight simulator was built to study pilot/director/aircraft performance. Instrument rated pilots used the different director-displays in an approach down to touchdown, including a flare and decrab maneuver. Two well established areas of control theory are combined in the design of the cockpit display. Optimal control theory and the theory of manual control are used to find the feedback gains required to drive the display symbols. Conclusions based on the simulator are presented. The results show that the director display developed in the work provides more than adequate information for simulated landing in highly turbulent conditions.

  20. Adaptive Flight Control for Aircraft Safety Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Gregory, Irene M.; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2008-01-01

    This poster presents the current adaptive control research being conducted at NASA ARC and LaRC in support of the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project. The technique "Approximate Stability Margin Analysis of Hybrid Direct-Indirect Adaptive Control" has been developed at NASA ARC to address the needs for stability margin metrics for adaptive control that potentially enables future V&V of adaptive systems. The technique "Direct Adaptive Control With Unknown Actuator Failures" is developed at NASA LaRC to deal with unknown actuator failures. The technique "Adaptive Control with Adaptive Pilot Element" is being researched at NASA LaRC to investigate the effects of pilot interactions with adaptive flight control that can have implications of stability and performance.

  1. Flight simulation - A vital and expanding technology in aircraft development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, P. A.; Hall, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    Flight simulation, both ground and in-flight, is experiencing major technological improvement and growth. The increased capabilities are providing new opportunities for support of the aircraft development process. The development of faster digital computers, improved visual displays, better motion systems and increased interest in simulation fidelity has improved the ground simulator to the point where it accomplishes a major portion of the aircraft development before work on the flight article begins. The efficiency of the ground simulator as a forecaster for the flight testing phase is becoming well established. In-flight simulation is properly being used to bridge the gap between the ground simulator and the flight test article. Simulation provides the vital link between analysis, aerodynamic tests, and subsystem tests and the flight test article. This paper describes the latest advances in flight simulation and its increasing role in the aircraft development process.

  2. A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, R. F.; Robinson, A. C.

    1971-01-01

    A proposed criterion for aircraft flight in turbulent conditions is presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) the problem of flight safety in turbulence, (2) new criterion for turbulence flight where existing ones seem adequate, and (3) computational problems associated with new criterion. Primary emphasis is placed on catastrophic occurrences in subsonic cruise with the aircraft under automatic control. A Monte Carlo simulation is used in the formulation and evaluation of probabilities of survival of an encounter with turbulence.

  3. STS-31 crewmembers during simulation on the flight deck of JSC's FB-SMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    On the flight deck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS), Mission Specialist (MS) Steven A. Hawley (left), on aft flight deck, looks over the shoulders of Commander Loren J. Shriver, seated at the commanders station (left) and Pilot Charles F. Bolden, seated at the pilots station and partially blocked by the seat's headrest (right). The three astronauts recently named to the STS-31 mission aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, go through a procedures checkout in the FB-SMS. The training simulation took place in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  4. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  5. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  6. 14 CFR 91.1057 - Flight, duty and rest time requirements: All crewmembers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... pilots. Calendar day means the period of elapsed time, using Coordinated Universal Time or local time... is interrupted by nonflight-related duties. The time is calculated using either Coordinated Universal... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight, duty and rest time...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1097 - Pilot and flight attendant crewmember training programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ground and flight training curriculums for— (1) Initial training; (2) Transition training; (3) Upgrade... programs or appropriate portions used for those facilities must also be furnished. Curricula that follow FAA published curricula may be cited by reference in the copy of the training program furnished to...

  8. Flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartley, J.

    1975-01-01

    Extensive flight flutter tests were conducted by BAC on B-52 and KC-135 prototype airplanes. The need for and importance of these flight flutter programs to Boeing airplane design are discussed. Basic concepts of flight flutter testing of multi-jet aircraft and analysis of the test data will be presented. Exciter equipment and instrumentation employed in these tests will be discussed.

  9. HiMAT highly maneuverable aircraft technology, flight report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Flight verification of a primary flight control system, designed to control the unstable HiMAT aircraft is presented. The initial flight demonstration of a maneuver autopilot in the level cruise mode and the gathering of a limited amount of airspeed calibration data.

  10. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... General Note 6, HTSUS, as a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or ground flight simulator, or their parts... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components,...

  12. A neural based intelligent flight control system for the NASA F-15 flight research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urnes, James M.; Hoy, Stephen E.; Ladage, Robert N.; Stewart, James

    1993-01-01

    A flight control concept that can identify aircraft stability properties and continually optimize the aircraft flying qualities has been developed by McDonnell Aircraft Company under a contract with the NASA-Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight concept, termed the Intelligent Flight Control System, utilizes Neural Network technology to identify the host aircraft stability and control properties during flight, and use this information to design on-line the control system feedback gains to provide continuous optimum flight response. This self-repairing capability can provide high performance flight maneuvering response throughout large flight envelopes, such as needed for the National Aerospace Plane. Moreover, achieving this response early in the vehicle's development schedule will save cost.

  13. RSRA flight control and stabilization. [Rotor Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linden, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Handling qualities of the RSRA (rotor systems research aircraft), a special test vehicle with optional configurations (forewings, removable horizontal tailplanes, main rotor, tail rotor, and twin engines for forward flight all removable), are described. The aircraft can be fitted to fly as a conventional rotary-wing aircraft, fixed-wing aircraft, or compound helicopter, and is designed for testing existing and future rotor systems in flight. Controls include full-authority fly-by-wire controls and mechanical controls for rotary wing and for fixed wing. Stability augmentation, rotor test measurement systems, variable center of gravity capability, and rotor loading potential of the RSRA are also described.

  14. 14 CFR 65.70 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.70 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records. (a) The operator of an aircraft...

  15. 14 CFR 65.70 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.70 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records. (a) The operator of an aircraft...

  16. 14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 135.338 Section 135.338 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Training § 135.338 Qualifications:...

  17. Evaluation of Contrail Reduction Strategies Based on Aircraft Flight Distances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Neil Y.; Sridhar, Banavar; Li, Jinhua; Ng, Hok Kwan

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates a set of contrail reduction strategies based on the flight range of aircraft as contrail reduction strategies have different impacts on aircraft depending on how they plan to fly. In general, aircraft with longer flight distances cruise at the altitudes where contrails are more likely to form. The concept of the contrail frequency index is used to quantify contrail impacts. The strategy for reducing the persistent contrail formation is to minimize the contrail frequency index by altering the aircraft's cruising altitude. A user-defined factor is used to trade off between contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. A higher value of tradeoff factor results in more contrail reduction and extra CO2 emissions. Results show that contrail reduction strategies using various tradeo factors behave differently from short-range flights to long-range ights. Analysis shows that short-distance flights (less than 500 miles) are the most frequent flights but contribute least to contrail reduction. Therefore these aircraft have the lowest priority when applying contrail reduction strategies. Medium-distance flights (500 to 1000 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction in total; long-distance flights (1000 to 1500 miles) have a higher priority if the goal is to achieve maximum contrail reduction per flight. The characteristics of transcontinental flights (greater than 1500 miles) vary with different weather days so the priority of applying contrail reduction strategies to the group needs to be evaluated based on the locations of the contrail areas during any given day. For the days tested, medium-distance ights contribute up to 42.6% of the reduction among the groups during a day. The contrail frequency index per 1,000 miles for medium-distance, long-distance, and transcontinental flights can be reduced by an average of 75%. The results provide a starting point for developing operational policies to reduce the impact of

  18. Flight Test Safety Considerations for Airborne Science Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Randolph S.

    1997-01-01

    Most of the scientific community that require scientific data or scientific measurements from aircraft do not understand the full implications of putting certain equipment on board high performance aircraft. It is the duty of the NASA Flight Operations personnel to ensure that all Principal Investigators who are given space on NASA flight research aircraft, comply with stringent safety requirements. The attitude of the experienced Flight operations personnel given this duty has been and remains one of insuring that the PI's experiment is allowed to be placed on the aircraft (facility) and can be operated in a manner that will obtain the expected data. This is sometimes a challenge. The success that NASA has in this regard is due to the fact that it is its own authority under public law, to certify its aircraft as airworthy. Airworthiness, fitness for flight, is a complex issue which pulls together all aspects of configuration management, engineering, quality, and flight safety. It is often the case at each NASA Center that is conducting airborne research, that unique solutions to some challenging safety issues are required. These solutions permit NASA to do things that would not be permitted by the Department of Transportation. This paper will use examples of various flight research configurations to show the necessity of a disciplined process leading up to flight test and mission implementation. All new configurations required engineering flight test but many, as noted in this paper, require that the modifications be flight tested to insure that they do not negatively impact on any part of the aircraft operational profiles. The success of these processes has been demonstrated over many years and NASA has accommodated experimental packages that cannot be flown on any other aircraft.

  19. 75 FR 68189 - Crewmember Requirements When Passengers are Onboard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... the FAA issued an NPRM, Crewmember Requirements When Passengers Are Onboard (74 FR 3469; January 21... Use of Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that would, if adopted... Crewmembers and Aircraft Dispatchers (74 FR 1280; January 12, 2009) that proposes to change the...

  20. A review of foreign technology in aircraft flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, M. D.; Rediess, H. A.; Buckley, E. C.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of U.S. and foreign technology in aircraft flight controls was conducted for NASA Langley Research Center as a data base for planning future research and technology programs. The survey covers control and hardware configurations of major contemporary systems on operational aircraft, R&D flight programs, advanced aircraft developments and significant research and technology programs. This paper concentrates on the foreign technology elements and findings of the survey with primary emphasis on Western Europe, where most of the advanced technology resides.

  1. 76 FR 22163 - Ninth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  2. 76 FR 38741 - Tenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  3. 75 FR 9016 - Fifth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of RTCA Special Committee 221 meeting: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck... Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures....

  4. A flight test method for pilot/aircraft analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehler, R.; Buchacker, E.

    1986-01-01

    In high precision flight maneuvres a pilot is a part of a closed loop pilot/aircraft system. The assessment of the flying qualities is highly dependent on the closed loop characteristics related to precision maneuvres like approach, landing, air-to-air tracking, air-to-ground tracking, close formation flying and air-to air refueling of the receiver. The object of a research program at DFVLR is the final flight phase of an air to ground mission. In this flight phase the pilot has to align the aircraft with the target, correct small deviations from the target direction and keep the target in his sights for a specific time period. To investigate the dynamic behavior of the pilot-aircraft system a special ground attack flight test technique with a prolonged tracking maneuvres was developed. By changing the targets during the attack the pilot is forced to react continously on aiming errors in his sights. Thus the closed loop pilot/aircraft system is excited over a wide frequency range of interest, the pilot gets more information about mission oriented aircraft dynamics and suitable flight test data for a pilot/aircraft analysis can be generated.

  5. Risk assessment of high altitude free flight commercial aircraft operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.; Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Sanzo, D.L.

    1998-04-23

    A quantitative model is under development to assess the safety and efficiency of commercial aircraft operations under the Free Flight Program proposed for air traffic control for the US National Airspace System. The major objective of the Free Flight Program is to accommodate the dramatic growth anticipated in air traffic in the US. However, the potential impacts upon aircraft safety from implementing the Program have not been fully explored and evaluated. The model is directed at assessing aircraft operations at high altitude over the continental US airspace since this action is the initial step for Free Flight. Sequential steps with analysis, assessment, evaluation, and iteration will be required to satisfactorily accomplish the complete transition of US commercial aircraft traffic operations.

  6. Survey of aircraft subcritical flight flutter testing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenbaum, R.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a survey of U. S., British and French subcritical aircraft flight flutter testing methods are presented and evaluation of the applicability of these methods to the testing of the space shuttle are discussed. Ten U. S. aircraft programs covering the large civil transport aircraft and a variety of military aircraft are reviewed. In addition, three major French and British programs are covered by the survey. The significant differences between the U. S., French and British practices in the areas of methods of excitation, data acquisition, transmission and analysis are reviewed. The effect of integrating the digital computer into the flight flutter test program is discussed. Significant saving in analysis and flight test time are shown to result from the use of special digital computer routines and digital filters.

  7. Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project Full Scale Flight Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosworth, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Provide validation of adaptive control law concepts through full scale flight evaluation. Technical Approach: a) Engage failure mode - destabilizing or frozen surface. b) Perform formation flight and air-to-air tracking tasks. Evaluate adaptive algorithm: a) Stability metrics. b) Model following metrics. Full scale flight testing provides an ability to validate different adaptive flight control approaches. Full scale flight testing adds credence to NASA's research efforts. A sustained research effort is required to remove the road blocks and provide adaptive control as a viable design solution for increased aircraft resilience.

  8. Flight Testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Merrill, R. K.

    1983-01-01

    In the late 1960s, efforts to advance the state-of-the-art in rotor systems technology indicated a significant gap existed between our ability to accurately predict the characteristics of a complex rotor system and the results obtained through flight verification. Even full scale wind tunnel efforts proved inaccurate because of the complex nature of a rotating, maneuvering rotor system. The key element missing, which prevented significant advances, was our inability to precisely measure the exact rotor state as a function of time and flight condition. Two Rotor Research Aircraft (RSRA) were designed as pure research aircraft and dedicated rotor test vehicles whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel testing, and flight verification. The two aircraft, the development of the piloting techniques required to safely fly the compound helicopter, the government flight testing accomplished to date, and proposed future research programs.

  9. Optimal nonlinear estimation for aircraft flight control in wind shear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulgund, Sandeep S.

    1994-01-01

    The most recent results in an ongoing research effort at Princeton in the area of flight dynamics in wind shear are described. The first undertaking in this project was a trajectory optimization study. The flight path of a medium-haul twin-jet transport aircraft was optimized during microburst encounters on final approach. The assumed goal was to track a reference climb rate during an aborted landing, subject to a minimum airspeed constraint. The results demonstrated that the energy loss through the microburst significantly affected the qualitative nature of the optimal flight path. In microbursts of light to moderate strength, the aircraft was able to track the reference climb rate successfully. In severe microbursts, the minimum airspeed constraint in the optimization forced the aircraft to settle on a climb rate smaller than the target. A tradeoff was forced between the objectives of flight path tracking and stall prevention.

  10. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, E. J., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A procedure is developed for deriving the level flight drag and propulsive efficiency of propeller-driven aircraft. This is a method in which the overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag. The aircraft is flown in unaccelerated, straight and level flight, and thus includes the effects of the propeller drag and slipstream. Propeller efficiency and airplane drag are computed on the basis of data obtained during flight test and do not rely on the analytical calculations of inadequate theory.

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  12. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  13. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  14. A Preliminary Flight Investigation of Formation Flight for Drag Reduction on the C-17 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahle, Joe; Berger, Dave; Venti, Michael W.; Faber, James J.; Duggan, Chris; Cardinal, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Many theoretical and experimental studies have shown that aircraft flying in formation could experience significant reductions in fuel use compared to solo flight. To date, formation flight for aerodynamic benefit has not been thoroughly explored in flight for large transport-class vehicles. This paper summarizes flight data gathered during several two ship, C-17 formation flights at a single flight condition of 275 knots, at 25,000 ft MSL. Stabilized test points were flown with the trail aircraft at 1,000 and 3,000 ft aft of the lead aircraft at selected crosstrack and vertical offset locations within the estimated area of influence of the vortex generated by the lead aircraft. Flight data recorded at test points within the vortex from the lead aircraft are compared to data recorded at tare flight test points outside of the influence of the vortex. Since drag was not measured directly, reductions in fuel flow and thrust for level flight are used as a proxy for drag reduction. Estimated thrust and measured fuel flow reductions were documented at several trail test point locations within the area of influence of the leads vortex. The maximum average fuel flow reduction was approximately 7-8%, compared to the tare points flown before and after the test points. Although incomplete, the data suggests that regions with fuel flow and thrust reduction greater than 10% compared to the tare test points exist within the vortex area of influence.

  15. Integrated flight/propulsion control for supersonic STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Stortz, Michael W.; Mihaloew, James R.

    1990-01-01

    A technology program to investigate integrated flight/propulsion control-system design for STOVL fighter aircraft is described. Integrated control systems being developed by U.S. industry for specific STOVL concepts are discussed. Attention is given to NASA involvement in the definition of control concepts, design-methods and flying-qualities criteria, and the evaluation of these concepts and criteria in analytical design studies, in ground-based experiments, and in flight on the Harrier V/STOL research aircraft. Initial fixed-base simulation experiments conducted for two STOVL fighter concepts are discussed. These simulations defined acceptable transition flight envelopes, determined control power used during transition and hover, and provided evaluations of the integration of the flight and propulsion controls to achieve good flying qualities throughout the low-speed flight envelope.

  16. Flight testing the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, R. K.; Hall, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a dedicated rotor test vehicle whose function is to fill the gap between theory, wind tunnel tests and flight verification data. Its flight test envelope has been designed to encompass the expected envelopes of future rotor systems under all flight conditions. The test configurations of the RSRA include pure helicopter and compound (winged helicopter) modes. In addition, should it become necessary to jettison an unstable rotor system in flight, the RSRA may be flown as a fixed wing aircraft. The heart of the RSRA's electronic flight control system is the TDY-43 computer, which can be programmed in numerous ways to change stability and control or force feel system gains. Computer programming changes allow the RSRA to be used as a five-degree-of-freedom inflight simulator for studying the handling qualities of research rotors.

  17. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The tailless X-36 technology demonstrator research aircraft cruises over the California desert at low altitude during a 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams International F112 turbofan engine

  18. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The lack of a vertical tail on the X-36 technology demonstrator is evident as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a low-altitude research flight above Rogers Dry Lake at Edwards Air Force Base in the California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three

  19. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  20. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoff, W. G., III

    The textbook provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of properties of the atmosphere. How different…

  1. Theory of Aircraft Flight. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmer, James D.

    This revised textbook, one in the Aerospace Education II series, provides answers to many questions related to airplanes and properties of air flight. The first chapter provides a description of aerodynamic forces and deals with concepts such as acceleration, velocity, and forces of flight. The second chapter is devoted to the discussion of…

  2. Eclipse program F-106 aircraft in flight, front view

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shot of the QF-106 aircraft in flight with the landing gear deployed. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  3. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight, view from tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane from a KC-135 tanker aircraft. The Eclipse aircraft was not refueling but simply flying below and behind the tanker for purposes of shooting the photograph from the air. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  4. 14 CFR 91.1089 - Qualifications: Check pilots (aircraft) and check pilots (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... simulator, or in a flight training device for a particular type aircraft. (2) A check pilot (simulator) is a person who is qualified to conduct flight checks, but only in a flight simulator, in a flight training... (simulator) must accomplish the following— (1) Fly at least two flight segments as a required crewmember...

  5. Interactive aircraft flight control and aeroelastic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The potential benefits and costs of optimizing both the structural stiffness and the active control of aircraft in a rational manner are investigated. The ultimate goal is to arrive at a unified treatment of structural and active control design for the stability augmentation of flexible aircraft. An exhaustive literature evaluation in the area of passive tailoring for aircraft performance is undertaken. A mathematical technique to be used for aeroservoelastic tailoring studies is described. Two analytical models, one elementary, the other sophisticated, are developed to illustrate the potential for aeroservoelastic tailoring. Both models have essential features of real world hardware, yet the physical understanding is not buried in a myriad of detail. These models are also described.

  6. 14 CFR 65.67 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.67 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel. (a) Each applicant for an...

  7. 14 CFR 65.67 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.67 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel. (a) Each applicant for an...

  8. 14 CFR 65.70 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Records. 65.70 Section 65.70 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.70 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Records. (a) The operator of an aircraft...

  9. 14 CFR 65.67 - Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft dispatcher certification courses... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Aircraft Dispatchers § 65.67 Aircraft dispatcher certification courses: Personnel. (a) Each applicant for an...

  10. X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The X-36 technology demonstrator shows off its distinctive shape as the remotely piloted aircraft flies a research mission over the Southern California desert on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of just over 10 feet. A Williams

  11. Flight experience with manually controlled unconventional aircraft motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barfield, A. F.

    1978-01-01

    A modified YF-16 aircraft was used to flight demonstrate decoupled modes under the USAF Fighter Control Configured Vehicle (CCV) Program. The direct force capabilities were used to implement seven manually controlled unconventional modes on the aircraft, allowing flat turns, decoupled normal acceleration control, independent longitudinal and lateral translations, uncoupled elevation and azimuth aiming, and blended direct lift. This paper describes the design, development, and flight testing of these control modes. The need for task-tailored mode authorities, gain-scheduling and selected closed-loop design is discussed.

  12. Aircraft Configured for Flight in an Atmosphere Having Low Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croom, Mark A. (Inventor); Smith, Stephen C. (Inventor); Gelhausen, Paul A. (Inventor); Guynn, Mark D. (Inventor); Hunter, Craig A. (Inventor); Paddock, David A. (Inventor); Riddick, Steven E. (Inventor); Teter, Jr., John E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An aircraft is configured for flight in an atmosphere having a low density. The aircraft includes a fuselage, a pair of wings, and a rear stabilizer. The pair of wings extends from the fuselage in opposition to one another. The rear stabilizer extends from the fuselage in spaced relationship to the pair of wings. The fuselage, the wings, and the rear stabilizer each present an upper surface opposing a lower surface. The upper and lower surfaces have X, Y, and Z coordinates that are configured for flight in an atmosphere having low density.

  13. Optimizing aircraft performance with adaptive, integrated flight/propulsion control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. H.; Chisholm, J. D.; Stewart, J. F.

    1991-01-01

    The Performance-Seeking Control (PSC) integrated flight/propulsion adaptive control algorithm presented was developed in order to optimize total aircraft performance during steady-state engine operation. The PSC multimode algorithm minimizes fuel consumption at cruise conditions, while maximizing excess thrust during aircraft accelerations, climbs, and dashes, and simultaneously extending engine service life through reduction of fan-driving turbine inlet temperature upon engagement of the extended-life mode. The engine models incorporated by the PSC are continually upgraded, using a Kalman filter to detect anomalous operations. The PSC algorithm will be flight-demonstrated by an F-15 at NASA-Dryden.

  14. On-Line Safe Flight Envelope Determination for Impaired Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombaerts, Thomas; Schuet, Stefan; Acosta, Diana; Kaneshige, John

    2015-01-01

    The design and simulation of an on-line algorithm which estimates the safe maneuvering envelope of aircraft is discussed in this paper. The trim envelope is estimated using probabilistic methods and efficient high-fidelity model based computations of attainable equilibrium sets. From this trim envelope, a robust reachability analysis provides the maneuverability limitations of the aircraft through an optimal control formulation. Both envelope limits are presented to the flight crew on the primary flight display. In the results section, scenarios are considered where this adaptive algorithm is capable of computing online changes to the maneuvering envelope due to impairment. Furthermore, corresponding updates to display features on the primary flight display are provided to potentially inform the flight crew of safety critical envelope alterations caused by the impairment.

  15. Flight-deck display of neighboring aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holforty, Wendy L.

    Over the coming decades, aviation operations are predicted to rise steadily, increasing the burden on already congested and constrained airspace. A major factor governing the safe minimum separation distance between aircraft is the hazard generated by the wake of neighboring aircraft. Unaware of their proximity to other traffic, aircraft have encountered the wake turbulence of neighboring aircraft tens of miles ahead of them with serious or fatal consequences. The wake display described herein is a perspective view, synthetic vision, flight deck display that enables flight crews to "see" neighboring aircraft, as well as their wakes via a predictive algorithm. Capable of enhancing the situational awareness with respect to the wake-vortex encounter hazard by enabling the flight crew to see the relative position of their aircraft with respect to the wake hazard, the display may allow for a decrease in the standard aircraft spacing to those now used in VFR conditions and an increase in airport and airspace capacity. At present, there is no mechanism in place in the National Airspace System that warns pilots of potential wake vortex encounters. The concept of a wake vortex display addresses the need for a real-time wake vortex avoidance scheme available directly to the pilot. The wake display has been evaluated under both simulated and actual flight conditions. Thirteen pilots with flight experience ranging from a student pilot to commercial airline and military pilots served as pilot test subjects evaluating the display under simulated conditions. The pilot test subjects completed a survey concerning their knowledge and understanding of wake vortices prior to the simulation data trials and, after the trials, they completed a pilot evaluation and postflight survey rating their experience and providing feedback for the display design. One test pilot and four guest pilots flew the display during the in-flight evaluations incorporating three wake encounter scenarios. They

  16. 14 CFR 135.340 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator). 135.340 Section 135.340 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR...

  17. 14 CFR 135.338 - Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualifications: Flight instructors (aircraft) and flight instructors (simulator). 135.338 Section 135.338 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  18. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors (simulator). 91.1095 Section 91.1095 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING...

  19. Dryden B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight over Dryden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA's venerable B-52 mothership flies over the main building at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The B-52, used for launching experimental aircraft and for other flight research projects, has been a familiar sight in the skies over Edwards for more than 40 years and has also been both the oldest B-52 still flying and the aircraft with the lowest flight time of any B-52. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most significant research projects in aerospace history. Some of the significant projects supported by B-52 008 include the X-15, the lifting bodies, HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology), Pegasus, validation of parachute systems developed for the space shuttle program (solid-rocket-booster recovery system and the orbiter drag chute system), and the X-38. The B-52 served as the launch vehicle on 106 X-15 flights and flew a total of 159 captive-carry and launch missions in support of that program from June 1959 to October 1968. Information gained from the highly successful X-15 program contributed to the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo human spaceflight programs as well as space shuttle development. Between 1966 and 1975, the B-52 served as the launch aircraft for 127 of the 144 wingless lifting body flights. In the 1970s and 1980s, the B-52 was the launch aircraft for several aircraft at what is now the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, to study spin-stall, high-angle-of attack, and maneuvering characteristics. These included the 3/8-scale F-15/spin research vehicle (SRV), the HiMAT (Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology) research vehicle, and the DAST (drones for aerodynamic and structural testing). The aircraft supported the development of

  20. System identification methods for aircraft flight control development and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.

    1995-01-01

    System-identification methods compose a mathematical model, or series of models, from measurements of inputs and outputs of dynamic systems. The extracted models allow the characterization of the response of the overall aircraft or component subsystem behavior, such as actuators and on-board signal processing algorithms. This paper discusses the use of frequency-domain system-identification methods for the development and integration of aircraft flight-control systems. The extraction and analysis of models of varying complexity from nonparametric frequency-responses to transfer-functions and high-order state-space representations is illustrated using the Comprehensive Identification from FrEquency Responses (CIFER) system-identification facility. Results are presented for test data of numerous flight and simulation programs at the Ames Research Center including rotorcraft, fixed-wing aircraft, advanced short takeoff and vertical landing (ASTOVL), vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), tiltrotor aircraft, and rotor experiments in the wind tunnel. Excellent system characterization and dynamic response prediction is achieved for this wide class of systems. Examples illustrate the role of system-identification technology in providing an integrated flow of dynamic response data around the entire life-cycle of aircraft development from initial specifications, through simulation and bench testing, and into flight-test optimization.

  1. Propulsion systems for vertical flight aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, A.

    1990-01-01

    The present evaluation of VTOL airframe/powerplant integration configurations combining high forward flight speed with safe and efficient vertical flight identifies six configurations that can be matched with one of three powerplant types: turboshafts, convertible-driveshaft lift fans, and gas-drive lift fans. The airframes configurations are (1) tilt-rotor, (2) folded tilt-rotor, (3) tilt-wing, (4) rotor wing/disk wing, (5) lift fan, and (6) variable-diameter rotor. Attention is given to the lift-fan VTOL configuration. The evaluation of these configurations has been conducted by both a joint NASA/DARPA program and the NASA High Speed Rotorcraft program. 7 refs.

  2. A practical scheme for adaptive aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Athans, M.; Willner, D.

    1974-01-01

    A flight control system design is presented, that can be implemented by analog hardware, to be used to control an aircraft with uncertain parameters. The design is based upon the use of modern control theory. The ideas are illustrated by considering control of STOL longitudinal dynamics.

  3. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John H.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to develop algorithms and architectures for embedding artificial intelligence in aircraft guidance and control systems. With the approach adopted, AI-computing is used to create an outer guidance loop for driving the usual aircraft autopilot. That is, a symbolic processor monitors the operation and performance of the aircraft. Then, based on rules and other stored knowledge, commands are automatically formulated for driving the autopilot so as to accomplish desired flight operations. The focus is on developing a software system which can respond to linguistic instructions, input in a standard format, so as to formulate a sequence of simple commands to the autopilot. The instructions might be a fairly complex flight clearance, input either manually or by data-link. Emphasis is on a software system which responds much like a pilot would, employing not only precise computations, but, also, knowledge which is less precise, but more like common-sense. The approach is based on prior work to develop a generic 'shell' architecture for an AI-processor, which may be tailored to many applications by describing the application in appropriate processor data bases (libraries). Such descriptions include numerical models of the aircraft and flight control system, as well as symbolic (linguistic) descriptions of flight operations, rules, and tactics.

  4. Water vapor in the lower stratosphere measured from aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Guenther, B.; Dunn, P.

    1977-01-01

    Water vapor in the lower stratosphere was measured in situ by two aluminum oxide hygrometers mounted on the nose of an RB57 aircraft. Data were taken nearly continuously from January to May 1974 from an altitude of approximately 11-19 km as the aircraft flew between 70 deg N and 50 deg S over the land areas in the Western Hemisphere. Pseudomeridional cross sections of water vapor and temperature were derived from the flight data and show mixing ratios predominantly between 2 and 4 microg/g with an extreme range of 1-8 microg/g. Measurement precision was estimated by comparing the simultaneously measured values from the two flight hygrometer systems. Accuracy was estimated to be about + or - 40% at 19 km. A height-averaged latitudinal cross section of water vapor indicates symmetry of wet and dry zones. This cross section is compared with other aircraft measurements and relates to meridional circulation models.

  5. X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability aircraft in flight over California's Mojave desert during a 1992 test flight. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat

  6. Flight mechanics of a tailless articulated wing aircraft.

    PubMed

    Paranjape, Aditya A; Chung, Soon-Jo; Selig, Michael S

    2011-06-01

    This paper investigates the flight mechanics of a micro aerial vehicle without a vertical tail in an effort to reverse-engineer the agility of avian flight. The key to stability and control of such a tailless aircraft lies in the ability to control the incidence angles and dihedral angles of both wings independently. The dihedral angles can be varied symmetrically on both wings to control aircraft speed independently of the angle of attack and flight path angle, while asymmetric dihedral can be used to control yaw in the absence of a vertical stabilizer. It is shown that wing dihedral angles alone can effectively regulate sideslip during rapid turns and generate a wide range of equilibrium turn rates while maintaining a constant flight speed and regulating sideslip. Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis are used to compute trim states and assess their stability. This paper lays the foundation for design and stability analysis of a flapping wing aircraft that can switch rapidly from flapping to gliding flight for agile manoeuvring in a constrained environment. PMID:21487173

  7. Virtual Flight Demonstration of the Stratospheric Dual-Aircraft Platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engblom, W. A.; Decker, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    A baseline configuration for the dual-aircraft platform (DAP) concept is described and evaluated in a physics-based flight dynamics simulations for two month-long missions as a communications relay in the lower stratosphere above central Florida. The DAP features two unmanned aerial vehicles connected via a long adjustable cable which effectively sail back-and-forth using wind velocity gradients and solar energy. Detailed atmospheric profiles in the vicinity of 60,000-ft derived from archived data measured by the 50-Mhz Doppler Radar Wind Profiler at Cape Canaveral are used in the flight simulations. An overview of the novel guidance and flight control strategies are provided. The energy-usage of the baseline configuration during month-long stationkeeping missions (i.e., within 150-mile radius of downtown Orlando) is characterized and compared to that of a pure solar aircraft.

  8. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft ground and flight... and Clauses 1852.228-70 Aircraft ground and flight risk. As prescribed in 1828.370(a), insert the... merely incident to work being performed under the contract. Aircraft Ground and Flight Risk (OCT 1996)...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft ground and flight... and Clauses 1852.228-70 Aircraft ground and flight risk. As prescribed in 1828.370(a), insert the... merely incident to work being performed under the contract. Aircraft Ground and Flight Risk (OCT 1996)...

  10. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft ground and flight... and Clauses 1852.228-70 Aircraft ground and flight risk. As prescribed in 1828.370(a), insert the... merely incident to work being performed under the contract. Aircraft Ground and Flight Risk (OCT 1996)...

  11. X-29A aircraft structural loads flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Robert; Mccrosson, Paul; Ryan, Robert; Rivera, Joe

    1989-01-01

    The X-29A research and technology demonstrator aircraft has completed a highly successful multiphase flight test program. The primary research objective was to safely explore, evaluate, and validate a number of aerodynamic, structural, and flight control technologies, all highly integrated into the vehicle design. Most of these advanced technologies, particularly the forward-swept-wing platform, had a major impact on the structural design. Throughout the flight test program, structural loads clearance was an ongoing activity to provide a safe maneuvering envelope sufficient to accomplish the research objectives. An overview is presented of the technologies, flight test approach, key results, and lessons learned from the structural flight loads perspective. The overall design methodology was considered validated, but a number of structural load characteristics were either not adequately predicted or totally unanticipated prior to flight test. While conventional flight testing techniques were adequate to insure flight safety, advanced analysis tools played a key role in understanding some of the structural load characteristics, and in maximizing flight test productivity.

  12. STOVL aircraft simulation for integrated flight and propulsion control research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, James R.; Drummond, Colin K.

    1989-01-01

    The United States is in the initial stages of committing to a national program to develop a supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft. The goal of the propulsion community in this effort is to have the enabling propulsion technologies for this type aircraft in place to permit a low risk decision regarding the initiation of a research STOVL supersonic attack/fighter aircraft in the late mid-90's. This technology will effectively integrate, enhance, and extend the supersonic cruise, STOVL and fighter/attack programs to enable U.S. industry to develop a revolutionary supersonic short takeoff and vertical landing fighter/attack aircraft in the post-ATF period. A joint NASA Lewis and NASA Ames research program, with the objective of developing and validating technology for integrated-flight propulsion control design methodologies for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) aircraft, was planned and is underway. This program, the NASA Supersonic STOVL Integrated Flight-Propulsion Controls Program, is a major element of the overall NASA-Lewis Supersonic STOVL Propulsion Technology Program. It uses an integrated approach to develop an integrated program to achieve integrated flight-propulsion control technology. Essential elements of the integrated controls research program are realtime simulations of the integrated aircraft and propulsion systems which will be used in integrated control concept development and evaluations. This paper describes pertinent parts of the research program leading up to the related realtime simulation development and remarks on the simulation structure to accommodate propulsion system hardware drop-in for real system evaluation.

  13. In-flight Fault Detection and Isolation in Aircraft Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azam, Mohammad; Pattipati, Krishna; Allanach, Jeffrey; Poll, Scott; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of test design for real-time fault detection and isolation (FDI) in the flight control system of fixed-wing aircraft. We focus on the faults that are manifested in the control surface elements (e.g., aileron, elevator, rudder and stabilizer) of an aircraft. For demonstration purposes, we restrict our focus on the faults belonging to nine basic fault classes. The diagnostic tests are performed on the features extracted from fifty monitored system parameters. The proposed tests are able to uniquely isolate each of the faults at almost all severity levels. A neural network-based flight control simulator, FLTZ(Registered TradeMark), is used for the simulation of various faults in fixed-wing aircraft flight control systems for the purpose of FDI.

  14. Autonomous Flight Safety System September 27, 2005, Aircraft Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, James C.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the first aircraft test of the Autonomous Flight Safety System (AFSS). The test was conducted on September 27, 2005, near Kennedy Space Center (KSC) using a privately-owned single-engine plane and evaluated the performance of several basic flight safety rules using real-time data onboard a moving aerial vehicle. This test follows the first road test of AFSS conducted in February 2005 at KSC. AFSS is a joint KSC and Wallops Flight Facility (WEF) project that is in its third phase of development. AFSS is an independent subsystem intended for use with Expendable Launch Vehicles that uses tracking data from redundant onboard sensors to autonomously make flight termination decisions using software-based rules implemented on redundant flight processors. The goals of this project are to increase capabilities by allowing launches from locations that do not have or cannot afford extensive ground-based range safety assets, to decrease range costs, and to decrease reaction time for special situations. The mission rules are configured for each operation by the responsible Range Safety authorities and can be loosely categorized in four major categories: Parameter Threshold Violations, Physical Boundary Violations present position and instantaneous impact point (TIP), Gate Rules static and dynamic, and a Green-Time Rule. Examples of each of these rules were evaluated during this aircraft test.

  15. Aircraft Integration and Flight Testing of 4STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, CJ; Kassianov, E; Russell, P; Redemann, J; Dunagan, S; Holben, B

    2012-10-12

    Under funding from the U.S. Dept. of Energy, in conjunction with a funded NASA 2008 ROSES proposal, with internal support from Battelle Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD), and in collaboration with NASA Ames Research Center, we successfully integrated the Spectrometer for Sky-Scanning, Sun-Tracking Atmospheric Research (4STAR-Air) instrument for flight operation aboard Battelle’s G-1 aircraft and conducted a series of airborne and ground-based intensive measurement campaigns (hereafter referred to as “intensives”) for the purpose of maturing the initial 4STAR-Ground prototype to a flight-ready science-ready configuration.

  16. Development and Flight Testing of a Neural Network Based Flight Control System on the NF-15B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bomben, Craig R.; Smolka, James W.; Bosworth, John T.; Silliams-Hayes, Peggy S.; Burken, John J.; Larson, Richard R.; Buschbacher, Mark J.; Maliska, Heather A.

    2006-01-01

    The Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards AFB, CA, has been investigating the use of neural network based adaptive control on a unique NF-15B test aircraft. The IFCS neural network is a software processor that stores measured aircraft response information to dynamically alter flight control gains. In 2006, the neural network was engaged and allowed to learn in real time to dynamically alter the aircraft handling qualities characteristics in the presence of actual aerodynamic failure conditions injected into the aircraft through the flight control system. The use of neural network and similar adaptive technologies in the design of highly fault and damage tolerant flight control systems shows promise in making future aircraft far more survivable than current technology allows. This paper will present the results of the IFCS flight test program conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center in 2006, with emphasis on challenges encountered and lessons learned.

  17. Water vapor in the lower stratosphere measured from aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Guenther, B.; Dunn, P.

    1976-01-01

    Water vapor in the lower stratosphere was measured in situ by two aluminum oxide hygrometers mounted on the nose of an RB57 aircraft. Data were taken nearly continuously from January to May 1974 from an altitude of approximately 11 km to 19 km as the aircraft flew between 70 deg N and 50 deg S over the land areas in the Western Hemisphere. Pseudomeridional cross sections of water vapor and temperature are derived from the flight data and show mixing ratios predominantly between 2 and 4 micron gm/gm with an extreme range of 1 to 8 micron gm/gm. Measurement precision is estimated by comparing the simultaneously measured values from the two flight hygrometer systems. Accuracy is estimated to be about + or - 40 percent at 19 km. A height-averaged latitudinal cross section of water vapor shows symmetry of wet and dry zones.

  18. Interactive aircraft flight control and aeroelastic stabilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    Aeroservoelastic optimization techniques were studied to determine a methodology for maximization of the stable flight envelope of an idealized, actively controlled, flexible airfoil. The equations of motion for the airfoil were developed in state-space form to include time-domain representations of aerodynamic forces and active control. The development of an optimization scheme to stabilize the aeroelastic system over a range of airspeeds, including the design airspeed is outlined. The solution approach was divided in two levels: (1) the airfoil structure, with a design variable represented by the shear center position; and (2) the control system. An objective was stated in mathematical form and a search was conducted with the restriction that each subsystem be constrained to be optimal in some sense. Analytical expressions are developed to compute the changes in the eigenvalues of the closed-loop, actively controlled system. A stability index is constructed to ensure that stability is present at the design speed and at other airspeeds away from the design speed.

  19. Modeling flight attendants' exposures to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Isukapalli, Sastry; Georgopoulos, Panos; Weisel, Clifford

    2013-12-17

    Aircraft cabin disinsection is required by some countries to kill insects that may pose risks to public health and native ecological systems. A probabilistic model has been developed by considering the microenvironmental dynamics of the pesticide in conjunction with the activity patterns of flight attendants, to assess their exposures and risks to pesticide in disinsected aircraft cabins under three scenarios of pesticide application. Main processes considered in the model are microenvironmental transport and deposition, volatilization, and transfer of pesticide when passengers and flight attendants come in contact with the cabin surfaces. The simulated pesticide airborne mass concentration and surface mass loadings captured measured ranges reported in the literature. The medians (means ± standard devitions) of daily total exposure intakes were 0.24 (3.8 ± 10.0), 1.4 (4.2 ± 5.7), and 0.15 (2.1 ± 3.2) μg day(-1) kg(-1) of body weight for scenarios of residual application, preflight, and top-of-descent spraying, respectively. Exposure estimates were sensitive to parameters corresponding to pesticide deposition, body surface area and weight, surface-to-body transfer efficiencies, and efficiency of adherence to skin. Preflight spray posed 2.0 and 3.1 times higher pesticide exposure risk levels for flight attendants in disinsected aircraft cabins than top-of-descent spray and residual application, respectively. PMID:24251734

  20. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  1. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  2. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  3. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and... RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying...

  4. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and... RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying...

  5. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and... RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying...

  6. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and... RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying...

  7. 14 CFR 91.9 - Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and... RULES General § 91.9 Civil aircraft flight manual, marking, and placard requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, no person may operate a civil aircraft without complying...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  10. Centurion solar-powered high-altitude aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Since 1980 AeroVironment, Inc. (founded in 1971 by the ultra-light airplane innovator--Dr. Paul MacCready) has been experimenting with solar-powered aircraft, often in conjunction with the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Thus far, AeroVironment, now headquartered in Monrovia, California, has achieved several altitude records with its Solar Challenger, Pathfinder, and Pathfinder-Plus aircraft. It expects to exceed these records with the newer and larger solar-powered Centurion and its successors the Centelios and Helios vehicles, in the NASA Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. The Centurion is a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft that is demonstrating the technology of applying solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. It is considered to be a prototype technology demonstrator for a future fleet of solar-powered aircraft that could stay airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions or while serving as telecommunications relay platforms. Although it shares many of the design concepts of the Pathfinder, the Centurion has a wingspan of 206 feet, more than twice the 98-foot span of the original Pathfinder and 70-percent longer than the Pathfinder-Plus' 121-foot span. At the same time, Centurion maintains the 8-foot chord (front to rear distance) of the Pathfinder wing, giving the wing an aspect ratio (length-to-chord) of 26 to 1. Other visible changes from its predecessor include a modified wing airfoil designed for flight at extreme altitude and four underwing pods to support its landing gear and electronic systems (compared with two such pods on the Pathfinder). The flexible wing is primarily fabricated from carbon fiber, graphite epoxy composites, and kevlar. It is built in five sections, a 44-foot-long center section and middle and outer sections just over 40 feet long. All five sections have an identical thickness--12 percent of the chord

  11. Coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of fully flexible aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Weihua

    This dissertation introduces an approach to effectively model and analyze the coupled nonlinear aeroelasticity and flight dynamics of highly flexible aircraft. A reduced-order, nonlinear, strain-based finite element framework is used, which is capable of assessing the fundamental impact of structural nonlinear effects in preliminary vehicle design and control synthesis. The cross-sectional stiffness and inertia properties of the wings are calculated along the wing span, and then incorporated into the one-dimensional nonlinear beam formulation. Finite-state unsteady subsonic aerodynamics is used to compute airloads along lifting surfaces. Flight dynamic equations are then introduced to complete the aeroelastic/flight dynamic system equations of motion. Instead of merely considering the flexibility of the wings, the current work allows all members of the vehicle to be flexible. Due to their characteristics of being slender structures, the wings, tail, and fuselage of highly flexible aircraft can be modeled as beams undergoing three dimensional displacements and rotations. New kinematic relationships are developed to handle the split beam systems, such that fully flexible vehicles can be effectively modeled within the existing framework. Different aircraft configurations are modeled and studied, including Single-Wing, Joined-Wing, Blended-Wing-Body, and Flying-Wing configurations. The Lagrange Multiplier Method is applied to model the nodal displacement constraints at the joint locations. Based on the proposed models, roll response and stability studies are conducted on fully flexible and rigidized models. The impacts of the flexibility of different vehicle members on flutter with rigid body motion constraints, flutter in free flight condition, and roll maneuver performance are presented. Also, the static stability of the compressive member of the Joined-Wing configuration is studied. A spatially-distributed discrete gust model is incorporated into the time simulation

  12. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center: Unmanned Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several topics related to operating unmanned aircraft in particular sharing aspects of unmanned aircraft from the perspective of a pilot. There is a section on the Global Hawk project which contains information about the first Global Hawk science mission, (i.e., Global Hawk Pacific (GloPac). Included in this information is GloPac science highlights, a listing of the GloPac Instruments. The second Global Hawk science mission was Genesis and Rapid Intensification Process (GRIP), for the NASA Hurricane Science Research Team. Information includes the instrumentation and the flights that were undertaken during the program. A section on Ikhana is next. This section includes views of the Ground Control Station (GCS), and a discussion of how the piloting of UAS is different from piloting in a manned aircraft. There is also discussion about displays and controls of aircraft. There is also discussion about what makes a pilot. The last section relates the use of Ikhana in the western states fire mission.

  13. Altus I aircraft in flight, retracting landing gear after takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The landing gear of the remotely piloted Altus I aircraft retracts into the fuselage after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, was designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology project, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet.

  14. Flight testing a propulsion-controlled aircraft emergency flight control system on an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, F. W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system on an F-15 airplane have been conducted at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The airplane was flown with all flight control surfaces locked both in the manual throttles-only mode and in an augmented system mode. In the latter mode, pilot thumbwheel commands and aircraft feedback parameters were used to position the throttles. Flight evaluation results showed that the PCA system can be used to land an airplane that has suffered a major flight control system failure safely. The PCA system was used to recover the F-15 airplane from a severe upset condition, descend, and land. Pilots from NASA, U.S. Air Force, U.S. Navy, and McDonnell Douglas Aerospace evaluated the PCA system and were favorably impressed with its capability. Manual throttles-only approaches were unsuccessful. This paper describes the PCA system operation and testing. It also presents flight test results and pilot comments.

  15. Flight Test of ASAC Aircraft Interior Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Dan; Cabell, Ran; Cline, John; Sullivan, Brenda

    1999-01-01

    A flight test is described in which an active structural/acoustic control system reduces turboprop induced interior noise on a Raytheon Aircraft Company 1900D airliner. Control inputs to 21 inertial force actuators were computed adaptively using a transform domain version of the multichannel filtered-X LMS algorithm to minimize the mean square response of 32 microphones. A combinatorial search algorithm was employed to optimize placement of the force actuators on the aircraft frame. Both single frequency and multi-frequency results are presented. Reductions of up to 15 dB were obtained at the blade passage frequency (BPF) during single frequency control tests. Simultaneous reductions of the BPF and next 2 harmonics of 10 dB, 2.5 dB and 3.0 dB, were obtained in a multi-frequency test.

  16. Emergency in-flight egress opening for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1980-01-01

    In support of a stall/spin research program, an emergency in-flight egress system is being installed in a light general aviation airplane. To avoid a major structural redesign for a mechanical door, an add-on 11.2 kg pyrotechnic-actuated system was developed to create an opening in the existing structure. The airplane skin will be explosively severed around the side window, across a central stringer, and down to the floor, creating an opening of approximately 76 by 76 cm. The severed panel will be jettisoned at an initial velocity of approximately 13.7 m/sec. System development included a total of 68 explosive severance tests on aluminum material using small samples, small and full scale flat panel aircraft structural mock-ups, and an actual aircraft fuselage. These tests proved explosive sizing/severance margins, explosive initiation, explosive product containment, and system dynamics.

  17. Flight Dynamics Modeling and Simulation of a Damaged Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Gautam H.; Hill, Melissa A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken at NASA Langley Research Center to establish, demonstrate, and apply methodology for modeling and implementing the aerodynamic effects of MANPADS damage to a transport aircraft into real-time flight simulation, and to demonstrate a preliminary capability of using such a simulation to conduct an assessment of aircraft survivability. Key findings from this study include: superpositioning of incremental aerodynamic characteristics to the baseline simulation aerodynamic model proved to be a simple and effective way of modeling damage effects; the primary effect of wing damage rolling moment asymmetry may limit minimum airspeed for adequate controllability, but this can be mitigated by the use of sideslip; combined effects of aerodynamics, control degradation, and thrust loss can result in significantly degraded controllability for a safe landing; and high landing speeds may be required to maintain adequate control if large excursions from the nominal approach path are allowed, but high-gain pilot control during landing can mitigate this risk.

  18. Flight assessment of a large supersonic drone aircraft for research use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckstrom, C. V.; Peele, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    An assessment is made of the capabilities of the BQM-34E supersonic drone aircraft as a test bed research vehicle. This assessment is made based on a flight conducted for the purpose of obtaining flight test measurements of wing loads at various maneuver flight conditions. Flight plan preparation, flight simulation, and conduct of the flight test are discussed along with a presentation of the test data obtained and an evaluation of how closely the flight test followed the test plan.

  19. Autonomous earth feature classification - Shuttle and aircraft flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.; Bullock, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on the Shuttle STS-2 mission November 12-14, 1981, tested a technique for autonomous real-time classification of selected earth features, i.e., water; bare land; vegetation; and clouds, snow, and ice. A second instrument, designed for aircraft flights, flew over regions of the west and east coasts of the United States and across the country. In each instrument, two bore-sighted CCD cameras image earth scenes in two spectral bands. Each camera includes a 100-element by 100-element detector array, and classification circuits. A simple algorithm and logic circuit provides classification decisions within a few microseconds. The experiment records the number of picture elements (pixels) representing each feature and the reflected solar radiation for each band. After flight, pixel-by-pixel classification images are constructed and compared with 70-mm color photographs taken simultaneously with the CCD-camera data.

  20. Aircraft flight flutter testing at the NASA Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    Many parameter identification techniques have been used at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Research Facility at Edwards Air Force Base to determine the aeroelastic stability of new and modified research vehicles in flight. This paper presents a summary of each technique used with emphasis on fast Fourier transform methods. Experiences gained from application of these techniques to various flight test programs are discussed. Also presented are data-smoothing techniques used for test data distorted by noise. Data are presented for various aircraft to demonstrate the accuracy of each parameter identification technique discussed.

  1. CID-720 aircraft high-environment flight instrumentation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calloway, R. S.

    1986-01-01

    The high-environment flight instrumentation system was designed to acquire Langley's structural response data during the full scale transport-controlled impact demonstration test. There was only one opportunity for data acquisition. Thus, a high reliability and crashworthy design approach was implemented. The approach featured multi-level redundancy and a vigorous quality assurance testing program. Complying with an accelerated schedule, the instrumentation system was developed, tested and shipped within 18 months to Dryden Flight Research Facility. The flight instrumentation system consists of two autonomous data systems, DAS #1 and #2, and an excellent checkout subsystem. Each data system is partitioned into four pallets. The system was designed to operate on manned and unmanned flights. There are 176 data channels per data system. These channels are sequentially sampled and encoded into 1 megabit/sec pulse code modulation (PCM) data signal. To increase the probability of success, a special PCM distribution subsystem was developed. This subsystem distributes the PCM signal to two transmitters, one delay memory, and eight recorder tracks. The data on four of these trackes was digitally delayed approximately 300 msec to maximize data acquisition during impact. Therefore each data system's data is redundantly recorded onboard and on the ground. There are two time code generators. Parallel time from each is encoded into both data systems. Serial time from each is redundantly recorded on both onboard recorders. Instrumentation power is independent of aircraft power and self-contained.

  2. In-flight and simulated aircraft fuel temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svehla, Roger A.

    1990-01-01

    Fuel tank measurements from ten flights of an L1011 commercial aircraft are reported for the first time. The flights were conducted from 1981 to 1983. A thermocouple rake was installed in an inboard wing tank and another in an outboard tank. During the test periods of either 2 or 5 hr, at altitudes of 10,700 m (35,000 ft) or higher, either the inboard or the outboard tank remained full. Fuel temperature profiles generally developed in the expected manner. The bulk fuel was mixed by natural convection to a nearly uniform temperature, especially in the outboard tank, and a gradient existed at the bottom conduction zone. The data indicated that when full, the upper surface of the inboard tank was wetted and the outboard tank was unwetted. Companion NASA Lewis Research Center tests were conducted in a 0.20 cubic meter (52 gal) tank simulator of the outboard tank, chilled on the top and bottom, and insulated on the sides. Even though the simulator tank had no internal components corresponding to the wing tank, temperatures agreed with the flight measurements for wetted upper surface conditions, but not for unwetted conditions. It was concluded that if boundary conditions are carefully controlled, simulators are a useful way of evaluating actual flight temperatures.

  3. Best-range flight conditions for cruise-climb flight of a jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, F. J.

    1976-01-01

    The Breguet range equation was developed for cruise climb flight of a jet aircraft to include the climb angle and is then maximized with respect to the no wind true airspeed. The expression for the best range airspeed is a function of the specific fuel consumption and minimum drag airspeed and indicates that an operational airspeed equal to the fourth root of three times the minimum-drag airspeed introduces range penalties of the order of one percent.

  4. Modeling Aircraft Wing Loads from Flight Data Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Michael J.; Dibley, Ryan P.

    2003-01-01

    Neural networks were used to model wing bending-moment loads, torsion loads, and control surface hinge-moments of the Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) aircraft. Accurate loads models are required for the development of control laws designed to increase roll performance through wing twist while not exceeding load limits. Inputs to the model include aircraft rates, accelerations, and control surface positions. Neural networks were chosen to model aircraft loads because they can account for uncharacterized nonlinear effects while retaining the capability to generalize. The accuracy of the neural network models was improved by first developing linear loads models to use as starting points for network training. Neural networks were then trained with flight data for rolls, loaded reversals, wind-up-turns, and individual control surface doublets for load excitation. Generalization was improved by using gain weighting and early stopping. Results are presented for neural network loads models of four wing loads and four control surface hinge moments at Mach 0.90 and an altitude of 15,000 ft. An average model prediction error reduction of 18.6 percent was calculated for the neural network models when compared to the linear models. This paper documents the input data conditioning, input parameter selection, structure, training, and validation of the neural network models.

  5. Flight dynamics analysis and control of transport aircraft subject to failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daşkɪran, O.; Kavsaoğlu, M. Ş.

    2013-12-01

    After a structural damage or component failure during any flight mode, aircraft dynamics are dramatically altered. A quick and adequate stabilization effort is crucial. Flight dynamics for several failure scenarios are analyzed. Necessary amounts of control deflections for postfailure trim are calculated. These trim values are used as control input in an open loop manner and validity of this approach is tested via flight simulations. Alternatively, a closed loop flight control system, which does not need the postfailure trim values, is also designed. This closed loop controller is based on a linearized aircraft model whereas flight simulations are based on nonlinear aircraft dynamics.

  6. Full Flight Envelope Direct Thrust Measurement on a Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Direct thrust measurement using strain gages offers advantages over analytically-based thrust calculation methods. For flight test applications, the direct measurement method typically uses a simpler sensor arrangement and minimal data processing compared to analytical techniques, which normally require costly engine modeling and multisensor arrangements throughout the engine. Conversely, direct thrust measurement has historically produced less than desirable accuracy because of difficulty in mounting and calibrating the strain gages and the inability to account for secondary forces that influence the thrust reading at the engine mounts. Consequently, the strain-gage technique has normally been used for simple engine arrangements and primarily in the subsonic speed range. This paper presents the results of a strain gage-based direct thrust-measurement technique developed by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and successfully applied to the full flight envelope of an F-15 aircraft powered by two F100-PW-229 turbofan engines. Measurements have been obtained at quasi-steady-state operating conditions at maximum non-augmented and maximum augmented power throughout the altitude range of the vehicle and to a maximum speed of Mach 2.0 and are compared against results from two analytically-based thrust calculation methods. The strain-gage installation and calibration processes are also described.

  7. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  8. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  9. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  10. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  11. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  12. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  13. 14 CFR 135.265 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.265 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Scheduled operations. (a) No certificate...

  14. 14 CFR 135.263 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.263 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: All certificate holders. (a) A...

  15. Development of a Low-Cost Sub-Scale Aircraft for Flight Research: The FASER Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, Donald B.; Cox, David E.; Morelli, Eugene A.

    2006-01-01

    An inexpensive unmanned sub-scale aircraft was developed to conduct frequent flight test experiments for research and demonstration of advanced dynamic modeling and control design concepts. This paper describes the aircraft, flight systems, flight operations, and data compatibility including details of some practical problems encountered and the solutions found. The aircraft, named Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, or FASER, was outfitted with high-quality instrumentation to measure aircraft inputs and states, as well as vehicle health parameters. Flight data are stored onboard, but can also be telemetered to a ground station in real time for analysis. Commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and software were used as often as possible. The flight computer is based on the PC104 platform, and runs xPC-Target software. Extensive wind tunnel testing was conducted with the same aircraft used for flight testing, and a six degree-of-freedom simulation with nonlinear aerodynamics was developed to support flight tests. Flight tests to date have been conducted to mature the flight operations, validate the instrumentation, and check the flight data for kinematic consistency. Data compatibility analysis showed that the flight data are accurate and consistent after corrections are made for estimated systematic instrumentation errors.

  16. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  17. Career Excess Mortality Risk from Diagnostic Radiological Exams Required for Crewmembers Participating in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, C. W.; Gonzalez, S. M.; Picco, C. E.; Johnston, S. L.; Shavers, M. R.; VanBaalen, M.

    2008-01-01

    NASA requires astronauts to undergo diagnostic x-ray examinations as a condition for their employment. The purpose of these procedures is to assess the astronaut s overall health and to diagnose conditions that could jeopardize the success of long duration space missions. These include exams for acceptance into the astronaut corps, routine periodic exams, as well as evaluations taken pre and post missions. Issues: According to NASA policy these medical examinations are considered occupational radiological exposures, and thus, are included when computing the astronaut s overall radiation dose and associated excess cancer mortality risk. As such, astronauts and administrators are concerned about the amount of radiation received from these procedures due to the possibility that these additional doses may cause astronauts to exceed NASA s administrative limits, thus disqualifying them from future flights. Methods: Radiation doses and cancer mortality risks following required medical radiation exposures are presented herein for representative male and female astronaut careers. Calculation of the excess cancer mortality risk was performed by adapting NASA s operational risk assessment model. Averages for astronaut height, weight, number of space missions and age at selection into the astronaut corps were used as inputs to the NASA risk model. Conclusion: The results show that the level of excess cancer mortality imposed by all required medical procedures over an entire astronaut s career is approximately the same as that resulting from a single short duration space flight (i.e. space shuttle mission). In short the summation of all medical procedures involving ionizing radiation should have no impact on the number of missions an astronaut can fly over their career. Learning Objectives: 1. The types of diagnostic medical exams which astronauts are subjected to will be presented. 2. The level of radiation dose and excess mortality risk to the average male and female

  18. Development and flight test of an experimental maneuver autopilot for a highly maneuverable aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Jones, Frank P.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents the development of an experimental flight test maneuver autopilot (FTMAP) for a highly maneuverable aircraft. The essence of this technique is the application of an autopilot to provide precise control during required flight test maneuvers. This newly developed flight test technique is being applied at the Dryden Flight Research Facility of NASA Ames Research Center. The FTMAP is designed to increase the quantity and quality of data obtained in test flight. The technique was developed and demonstrated on the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle. This report describes the HiMAT vehicle systems, maneuver requirements, FTMAP development process, and flight results.

  19. X-38 research aircraft - First drop flight and landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. Those tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  20. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  1. Modeled Impact of Cirrus Cloud Increases Along Aircraft Flight Paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Lonergan, P.; Shah, K.

    1999-01-01

    The potential impact of contrails and alterations in the lifetime of background cirrus due to subsonic airplane water and aerosol emissions has been investigated in a set of experiments using the GISS GCM connected to a q-flux ocean. Cirrus clouds at a height of 12-15km, with an optical thickness of 0.33, were input to the model "x" percentage of clear-sky occasions along subsonic aircraft flight paths, where x is varied from .05% to 6%. Two types of experiments were performed: one with the percentage cirrus cloud increase independent of flight density, as long as a certain minimum density was exceeded; the other with the percentage related to the density of fuel expenditure. The overall climate impact was similar with the two approaches, due to the feedbacks of the climate system. Fifty years were run for eight such experiments, with the following conclusions based on the stable results from years 30-50 for each. The experiments show that adding cirrus to the upper troposphere results in a stabilization of the atmosphere, which leads to some decrease in cloud cover at levels below the insertion altitude. Considering then the total effect on upper level cloud cover (above 5 km altitude), the equilibrium global mean temperature response shows that altering high level clouds by 1% changes the global mean temperature by 0.43C. The response is highly linear (linear correlation coefficient of 0.996) for high cloud cover changes between 0. 1% and 5%. The effect is amplified in the Northern Hemisphere, more so with greater cloud cover change. The temperature effect maximizes around 10 km (at greater than 40C warming with a 4.8% increase in upper level clouds), again more so with greater warming. The high cloud cover change shows the flight path influence most clearly with the smallest warming magnitudes; with greater warming, the model feedbacks introduce a strong tropical response. Similarly, the surface temperature response is dominated by the feedbacks, and shows

  2. Wind tunnel and flight test of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, R. L.; Blackman, S.; Weiberg, J. A.; Schroers, L. G.

    1979-01-01

    The XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft Project involves design, fabrication, and flight testing of two aircraft. This program is currently in the test phase for concept evaluation and substantiation of design. As part of this evaluation, one of the aircraft was tested in the NASA-Ames 40- by 80-foot wind tunnel. The status of testing to date and some of the results of the wind tunnel and flight tests are presented.

  3. Fiber optic (flight quality) sensors for advanced aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppel, Gary L.

    1994-01-01

    Development of flight prototype, fiber-optic sensing system components for measuring nine sensed parameters (three temperatures, two speeds, three positions, and one flame) on an F404-400 aircraft engine is described. Details of each sensor's design, functionality, and environmental testing, and the electro-optics architecture for sensor signal conditioning are presented. Eight different optical sensing techniques were utilized. Design, assembly, and environmental testing of an engine-mounted, electro-optics chassis unit (EOU), providing MIL-C-1553 data output, are related. Interconnection cables and connectors between the EOU and the sensors are identified. Results of sensor/cable/circuitry integrated testing, and installation and ground testing of the sensor system on an engine in October 1993 and April 1994 are given, including comparisons with the engine control system's electrical sensors. Lessons learned about the design, fabrication, testing, and integration of the sensor system components are included.

  4. Dynamics of tilting proprotor aircraft in cruise flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W.

    1974-01-01

    A nine degree-of-freedom theoretical model is developed for investigations of the dynamics of a proprotor operating in high inflow axial flight on a cantilever wing. The basic characteristics of the rotor high inflow aerodynamics and the resulting rotor aeroelastic behavior are discussed. The problems of classical whirl flutter, the two-bladed rotor, and the influence of the proprotor on the stability derivatives of the aircraft are treated briefly. The influence of various elements of the theoretical model is discussed, including the modeling used for the blade and wing aerodynamics, and the influence of the rotor lag degree of freedom. The results from tests of two full-scale proprotors - a gimballed, stiff-inplane rotor and a hingeless, soft-inplane rotor - are presented; comparisons with the theoretical results show good correlation.

  5. Effect of stabilization on VTOL aircraft in hovering flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greif, R. K.; Fry, E. B.; Gerdes, R. M.; Gossett, T. D.

    1972-01-01

    A motion simulator study was conducted to determine the effects of roll and pitch stabilization on the handling qualities and control power requirements of VTOL aircraft during hover and short-distance maneuvering flight. Three levels of stabilization complexity were compared: (1) no stabilization, (2) rate stabilization, and (3) attitude stabilization. Control sensitivities and stabilization gains were optimized prior to comparison. Results are presented to show how the optimum systems were determined and how they compared with each other at different levels of control power. Comparisons were made both in calm air and in the presence of roll disturbances. Results indicate the attitude-stabilized system provides the best handling qualities for the least amount of control power.

  6. Flight control synthesis for flexible aircraft using Eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. B.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1986-01-01

    The use of eigenspace assignment techniques to synthesize flight control systems for flexible aircraft is explored. Eigenspace assignment techniques are used to achieve a specified desired eigenspace, chosen to yield desirable system impulse residue magnitudes for selected system responses. Two of these are investigated. The first directly determines constant measurement feedback gains that will yield a close-loop system eigenspace close to a desired eigenspace. The second technique selects quadratic weighting matrices in a linear quadratic control synthesis that will asymptotically yield the close-loop achievable eigenspace. Finally, the possibility of using either of these techniques with state estimation is explored. Application of the methods to synthesize integrated flight-control and structural-mode-control laws for a large flexible aircraft is demonstrated and results discussed. Eigenspace selection criteria based on design goals are discussed, and for the study case it would appear that a desirable eigenspace can be obtained. In addition, the importance of state-space selection is noted along with problems with reduced-order measurement feedback. Since the full-state control laws may be implemented with dynamic compensation (state estimation), the use of reduced-order measurement feedback is less desirable. This is especially true since no change in the transient response from the pilot's input results if state estimation is used appropriately. The potential is also noted for high actuator bandwidth requirements if the linear quadratic synthesis approach is utilized. Even with the actuator pole location selected, a problem with unmodeled modes is noted due to high bandwidth. Some suggestions for future research include investigating how to choose an eigenspace that will achieve certain desired dynamics and stability robustness, determining how the choice of measurements effects synthesis results, and exploring how the phase relationships between desired

  7. Knowledge-based processing for aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John H.; Glass, Emily; Economides, Gregory; Russell, Paul

    1994-01-01

    This Contractor Report documents research in Intelligent Control using knowledge-based processing in a manner dual to methods found in the classic stochastic decision, estimation, and control discipline. Such knowledge-based control has also been called Declarative, and Hybid. Software architectures were sought, employing the parallelism inherent in modern object-oriented modeling and programming. The viewpoint adopted was that Intelligent Control employs a class of domain-specific software architectures having features common over a broad variety of implementations, such as management of aircraft flight, power distribution, etc. As much attention was paid to software engineering issues as to artificial intelligence and control issues. This research considered that particular processing methods from the stochastic and knowledge-based worlds are duals, that is, similar in a broad context. They provide architectural design concepts which serve as bridges between the disparate disciplines of decision, estimation, control, and artificial intelligence. This research was applied to the control of a subsonic transport aircraft in the airport terminal area.

  8. Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Jones, C.R.; Mihelic, J.E.; Barnes, J.D.

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration`s Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft`s right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in-flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft`s right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft`s structural integrity are discussed.

  9. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  10. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  11. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  12. 41 CFR 102-33.115 - Are there special requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements for acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-33.115 Section 102-33... acquiring military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? Yes, when you acquire military Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP), you must— (a) Accept a FSCAP only when it is documented...

  13. Flight control system development and flight test experience with the F-111 mission adaptive wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. R.

    1986-01-01

    The wing on the NASA F-111 transonic aircraft technology airplane was modified to provide flexible leading and trailing edge flaps. This wing is known as the mission adaptive wing (MAW) because aerodynamic efficiency can be maintained at all speeds. Unlike a conventional wing, the MAW has no spoilers, external flap hinges, or fairings to break the smooth contour. The leading edge flaps and three-segment trailing edge flaps are controlled by a redundant fly-by-wire control system that features a dual digital primary system architecture providing roll and symmetric commands to the MAW control surfaces. A segregated analog backup system is provided in the event of a primary system failure. This paper discusses the design, development, testing, qualification, and flight test experience of the MAW primary and backup flight control systems.

  14. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  15. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  16. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.269 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three-...

  17. 14 CFR 135.267 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one- and two-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.267 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled one-...

  18. 14 CFR 135.269 - Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three- and four-pilot crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight time limitations and rest... AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Flight Time and Duty Period Limitations and Rest Requirements § 135.269 Flight time limitations and rest requirements: Unscheduled three-...

  19. Analysis and Monte Carlo simulation of near-terminal aircraft flight paths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiess, J. R.; Matthews, C. G.

    1982-01-01

    The flight paths of arriving and departing aircraft at an airport are stochastically represented. Radar data of the aircraft movements are used to decompose the flight paths into linear and curvilinear segments. Variables which describe the segments are derived, and the best fitting probability distributions of the variables, based on a sample of flight paths, are found. Conversely, given information on the probability distribution of the variables, generation of a random sample of flight paths in a Monte Carlo simulation is discussed. Actual flight paths at Dulles International Airport are analyzed and simulated.

  20. A Flight Investigation of the STOL Characteristics of an Augmented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quigley, H. C.; Innis, R. C.; Grossmith, S.

    1974-01-01

    The flight test program objectives are: (1) To determine the in-flight aerodynamic, performance, and handling qualities of a jet STOL aircraft incorporating the augmented jet flap concept; (2) to compare the results obtained in flight with characteristics predicted from wind tunnel and simulator test results; (3) to contribute to the development of criteria for design and operation of jet STOL transport aircraft; and (4) to provide a jet STOL transport aircraft for STOL systems research and development. Results obtained during the first 8 months of proof-of-concept flight testing of the aircraft in STOL configurations are reported. Included are a brief description of the aircraft, fan-jet engines, and systems; a discussion of the aerodynamic, stability and control, and STOL performance; and pilot opinion of the handling qualities and operational characteristics.

  1. 75 FR 67450 - Eighth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Flight Deck Security Procedures. SUMMARY: The FAA is issuing this notice to advise the public of a meeting of RTCA Special Committee 221: Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck...

  2. Flight Test Results on the Stability and Control of the F-15B Quiet Spike Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moua, Cheng; McWherter, Shaun H.; Cox, Timothy H.; Gera, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    The Quiet Spike (QS) flight research program was an aerodynamic and structural proof-of-concept of a telescoping sonic-boom suppressing nose boom on an F-15 B aircraft. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. The primary test philosophy was maintaining safety of flight. In the area of stability and controls the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the spike on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the aircraft and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire QS flight envelop. This paper reports on the stability and control methods used for flight envelope clearance and flight test results of the F-15B Quiet Spike. Also discussed are the flight test approach, the criteria to proceed to the next flight condition, brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks, approach and landing, and refueling task, and air data sensitivity to the flight control system.

  3. Biosignal alterations generated by parabolic flights of small aerobatic aircrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. Jose; Perez-Poch, Antoni; Ruiz, Xavier; Gavalda, Fina; Saez, Nuria

    Since the pioneering works of Prof. Strughold in 1948, the aerospace medicine aimed to characterize the modifications induced in the human body by changes in the gravity level. In this respect, it is nowadays well known that one of the most serious problems of these kind of environments is the fluid shift. If this effect is enough severe and persistent, serious changes in the hemodynamic of the brain (cerebral blood flow and blood oxigenation level) appear which could be detected as alterations in the electroencephalogram, EEG [1]. Also, this fluid redistribution, together with the relocation of the heart in the thorax, induces detectable changes in the electrocardiogram, ECG [2]. Other kind of important problems are related with vestibular instability, kinetosis and illusory sensations. In particular since the seventies [3,4] it is known that in parabolic flights and due to eye movements triggered by the changing input from the otholith system, fixed real targets appeared to have moved downward while visual afterimages appeared to have moved upward (oculogravic illusions). In order to cover all the above-mentioned potential alterations, the present work, together with the gravity level, continuously monitors the electroencephalogram, EEG, the electrocardiogram, ECG and the electrooculogram, EOG of a normal subject trying to detect correlations between the different alterations observed in these signals and the changes of gravity during parabolic flights. The small aerobatic aircraft used is a CAP10B and during the flight the subject is located near the pilot. To properly cover all the range of accelerations we have used two sensitive triaxial accelerometers covering the high and low ranges of acceleration. Biosignals have been gathered using a Biopac data unit together with the Acknowledge software package (from BionicÔ). It is important to finally remark that, due to the obvious difference between the power of the different engines, the accelerometric

  4. A review of in-flight detection and identification of aircraft icing and reconfigurable control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliskan, Fikret; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2013-07-01

    The recent improvements and research on aviation have focused on the subject of aircraft safe flight even in the severe weather conditions. As one type of such weather conditions, aircraft icing considerably has negative effects on the aircraft flight performance. The risks of the iced aerodynamic surfaces of the flying aircraft have been known since the beginning of the first flights. Until recent years, as a solution for this event, the icing conditions ahead flight route are estimated from radars or other environmental sensors, hence flight paths are changed, or, if it exists, anti-icing/de-icing systems are used. This work aims at the detection and identification of airframe icing based on statistical properties of aircraft dynamics and reconfigurable control protecting aircraft from hazardous icing conditions. In this review paper, aircraft icing identification based on neural network (NN), batch least-squares algorithm, Kalman filtering (KF), combined NN/KF, and H∞ parameter identification techniques are investigated, and compared with each other. Following icing identification, reconfigurable control is applied for protecting the aircraft from hazardous icing conditions.

  5. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort response data from TIFS ride-quality flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoonover, W. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The aircraft motion data and passenger comfort response data obtained during ride-quality flight experiments using the USAD Total In-Flight Simulator (TIFS) are given. During each of 40 test flights, 10 passenger subjects individually assessed the ride comfort of various types of aircraft motions. The 115 individuals who served as passenger subjects were selected to be representative of air travelers in general. Aircraft motions tested consisted of both random and sinusoidal oscillations in various combinations of five degrees of freedom (transverse, normal, roll, pitch, and yaw), as well as of terminal-area flight maneuvers. The data are sufficiently detailed to allow analysis of passenger reactions to flight environments, evaluation of the use of a portable environment measuring/recording system and comparison of the in-flight simulator responses with input commands.

  6. Piracetam and fish orientation during parabolic aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, R. B.; Salinas, G. A.; Homick, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Goldfish were flown in parabolic Keplerian trajectories in a KC-135 aircraft to assay both the effectiveness of piracetam as an antimotion sickness drug and the effectiveness of state-dependent training during periods of oscillating gravity levels. Single-frame analyses of infrared films were performed for two classes of responses - role rates in hypogravity or hypogravity orienting responses (LGR) and climbing responses in hypergravity or hypergravity orienting responses (HGR). In Experiment I, preflight training with the vestibular stressor facilitated suppression of LGR by the 10th parabola. An inverse correlation was found between the magnitudes of LGR and HGR. Piracetam was not effective in a state-dependent design, but the drug did significantly increase HGR when injected into trained fish shortly before flight. In Experiment II, injections of saline, piracetam, and modifiers of gamma-aminobutyric acid - aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) and isonicotinic acid did not modify LGR. AOAA did significantly increase HGR. Thus, the preflight training has a beneficial effect in reducing disorientation in the fish in weightlessness, but the drugs employed were ineffective.

  7. Forced Oscillation Wind Tunnel Testing for FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoe, Garrison; Owens, Donald B.; Denham, Casey

    2012-01-01

    As unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) continue to expand their flight envelopes into areas of high angular rate and high angle of attack, modeling the complex unsteady aerodynamics for simulation in these regimes has become more difficult using traditional methods. The goal of this experiment was to improve the current six degree-of-freedom aerodynamic model of a small UAV by replacing the analytically derived damping derivatives with experimentally derived values. The UAV is named the Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research, FASER, and was tested in the NASA Langley Research Center 12- Foot Low-Speed Tunnel. The forced oscillation wind tunnel test technique was used to measure damping in the roll and yaw axes. By imparting a variety of sinusoidal motions, the effects of non-dimensional angular rate and reduced frequency were examined over a large range of angle of attack and side-slip combinations. Tests were performed at angles of attack from -5 to 40 degrees, sideslip angles of -30 to 30 degrees, oscillation amplitudes from 5 to 30 degrees, and reduced frequencies from 0.010 to 0.133. Additionally, the effect of aileron or elevator deflection on the damping coefficients was examined. Comparisons are made of two different data reduction methods used to obtain the damping derivatives. The results show that the damping derivatives are mainly a function of angle of attack and have dependence on the non-dimensional rate and reduced frequency only in the stall/post-stall regime

  8. Dynamic ground effects flight test of an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Stephenson, Mark T.; Burcham, Frank W.; Curry, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    Flight tests to determine the changes in the aerodynamic characteristics of an F-15 aircraft caused by dynamic ground effects are described. Data were obtained for low and high sink rates between 0.7 and 6.5 ft/sec and at two landing approach speeds and flap settings: 150 kn with the flaps down and 170 kn with the flaps up. Simple correlation curves are given for the change in aerodynamic coefficients because of ground effects as a function of sink rate. Ground effects generally caused an increase in the lift, drag, and nose-down pitching movement coefficients. The change in the lift coefficient increased from approximately 0.05 at the high-sink rate to approximately 0.10 at the low-sink rate. The change in the drag coefficient increased from approximately 0 to 0.03 over this decreasing sink rate range. No significant difference because of the approach configuration was evident for lift and drag; however, a significant difference in pitching movement was observed for the two approach speeds and flap settings. For the 170 kn with the flaps up configuration, the change in the nose-down pitching movement increased from approximately -0.008 to -0.016. For the 150 kn with the flaps down configuration, the change was approximately -0.008 to -0.038.

  9. NDE of Damage in Aircraft Flight Control Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, David K.; Barnard, Daniel J.; Dayal, Vinay

    2007-03-01

    Flight control surfaces on an aircraft, such as ailerons, flaps, spoilers and rudders, are typically adhesively bonded composite or aluminum honeycomb sandwich structures. These components can suffer from damage caused by hail stone, runway debris, or dropped tools during maintenance. On composites, low velocity impact damages can escape visual inspection, whereas on aluminum honeycomb sandwich, budding failure of the honeycomb core may or may not be accompanied by a disbond. This paper reports a study of the damage morphology in such structures and the NDE methods for detecting and characterizing them. Impact damages or overload failures in composite sandwiches with Nomex or fiberglass core tend to be a fracture or crinkle or the honeycomb cell wall located a distance below the facesheet-to-core bondline. The damage in aluminum honeycomb is usually a buckling failure, propagating from the top skin downward. The NDE methods used in this work for mapping out these damages were: air-coupled ultrasonic scan, and imaging by computer aided tap tester. Representative results obtained from the field will be shown.

  10. Use of eternal flight unmanned aircraft in military operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kök, Zafer

    2014-06-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), are planned to use solar energy, are being more common and interesting gradually. Today, these systems are very promising while fossil fuels are diminishing rapidly. Academic research is still being conducted to develop unmanned aerial systems which will store energy during day time and use it during night time. Development of unmanned aerial systems, which have eternal flight or very long loiter periods, could be possible by such an energy management. A UAV, which can fly very long time, could provide many advantages that cannot be obtained by conventional aircrafts and satellites. Such systems can be operated as fixed satellites on missions with very low cost in circumstances that require continuous intelligence. By improving automation systems these vehicles could be settled on operation area autonomously and can be grounded easily in case of necessities and maintenance. In this article, the effect of solar powered UAV on operation area has been done a literature review, to be used in surveillance and reconnaissance missions.

  11. Modeling of Selected Aircraft Flight Phases Using Data from Flight Data Recorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Anna

    2012-02-01

    While observing the dynamic air traffic increase, the issue of continuous controlling and monitoring every individual phase of flights becomes an essential matter. One of the phase of flight that has been studied is landing. At the commercial airports, landings take place every several dozen seconds up to few minutes. The correctness of carrying out required procedures has a crucial impact on the runway throughput, number of operations performed in the aerodrome vicinity and, above all, safety of the passengers. For obvious reasons the research and analysis of these processes cannot be done on objects in real conditions. Therefore, there is a tendency to use IT tools and other methods for the purpose of the analysis of the operations which take place in the aerodrome vicinity. In order to make use of the computer simulation it is essential to have mathematical models of these operations. The purpose of this article is to present methodology and defined a model that is based on parameters recorded by the flight data recorder. Models developed in that way map reality with high accuracy. Such models map the real aircraft operations in the aerodrome vicinity and can be applied in practice.

  12. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  13. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  14. The Proteus aircraft and NASA Dryden's T-34 in flight over Las Cruces, New Mexico.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  15. Flight parameters monitoring system for tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohammadi, Jamshid; Olkiewicz, Craig

    1994-01-01

    Recent developments in advanced monitoring systems used in conjunction with tracking structural integrity of rotary-wing aircraft are explained. The paper describes: (1) an overview of rotary-wing aircraft flight parameters that are critical to the aircraft loading conditions and each parameter's specific requirements in terms of data collection and processing; (2) description of the monitoring system and its functions used in a survey of rotary-wing aircraft; and (3) description of the method of analysis used for the data. The paper presents a newly-developed method in compiling flight data. The method utilizes the maneuver sequence of events in several pre-identified flight conditions to describe various flight parameters at three specific weight ranges.

  16. Experimental flight test vibration measurements and nondestructive inspection on a USCG HC-130H aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G.; Jones, C. R.; Mihelic, J. E.; Barnes, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental flight test vibration measurements and structural inspections performed by the Federal Aviation Administration's Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) at Sandia National Laboratories and the US Coast Guard Aircraft Repair and Supply Center (ARSC). Structural and aerodynamic changes induced by mounting a Forward Looking Infrared (FLIR) system on a USCG HC-130H aircraft are described. The FLIR adversely affected the air flow characteristics and structural vibration on the external skin of the aircraft's right main wheel well fairing. Upon initial discovery of skin cracking and visual observation of skin vibration in flight by the FLIR, a baseline flight without the FLIR was conducted and compared to other measurements with the FLIR installed. Nondestructive inspection procedures were developed to detect cracks in the skin and supporting structural elements and document the initial structural condition of the aircraft. Inspection results and flight test vibration data revealed that the FLIR created higher than expected flight loading and was the possible source of the skin cracking. The Coast Guard performed significant structural repair and enhancement on this aircraft, and additional in-flight vibration measurements were collected on the strengthened area both with and without the FLIR installed. After three months of further operational FLIR usage, the new aircraft skin with the enhanced structural modification was reinspected and found to be free of flaws. Additional US Coast Guard HC-130H aircraft are now being similarly modified to accommodate this FLIR system. Measurements of in- flight vibration levels with and without the FLIR installed, and both before and after the structural enhancement and repair were conducted on the skin and supporting structure in the aircraft's right main wheel fairing. Inspection results and techniques developed to verify the aircraft's structural integrity are discussed.

  17. Some flight data extraction techniques used on a general aviation spin research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    Some methods for obtaining flight data from a highly instrumented general aviation spin research aircraft are developed and illustrated. The required correction terms for the measurement of body accelerations, body velocities, and aircraft orientation are presented. In addition, the equations of motion are utilized to derive total aerodynamic coefficients for comparison with model tests and for analysis. Flight test experience is used to evaluate the utility of various instruments and calculation techniques for spin research.

  18. Application of trajectory optimization techniques to upper atmosphere sampling flights using the F-15 Eagle aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hague, D. S.; Merz, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric sampling has been carried out by flights using an available high-performance supersonic aircraft. Altitude potential of an off-the-shelf F-15 aircraft is examined. It is shown that the standard F-15 has a maximum altitude capability in excess of 100,000 feet for routine flight operation by NASA personnel. This altitude is well in excess of the minimum altitudes which must be achieved for monitoring the possible growth of suspected aerosol contaminants.

  19. Review of the FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) program. [applications in aircraft flight control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    A joint NASA/NAVY program, called FOCSI, is reviewed which is aimed at designing optical sensor systems to fit the installation and environmentally test passive optical sensors and electrooptic architectures. These optical sensor systems will be flown on an F18 aircraft to collect data on the operability and maintainability of these systems in a flight environment. The NASA F-18 aircraft will be equipped with a 1773 optical databus to transfer the optical sensor information to the aircraft data collection location.

  20. Aircraft interrogation and display system: A ground support equipment for digital flight systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A microprocessor-based general purpose ground support equipment for electronic systems was developed. The hardware and software are designed to permit diverse applications in support of aircraft flight systems and simulation facilities. The implementation of the hardware, the structure of the software, describes the application of the system to an ongoing research aircraft project are described.

  1. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  2. Flight Dynamics of Flexible Aircraft with Aeroelastic and Inertial Force Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Tuzcu, Ilhan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated flight dynamic modeling method for flexible aircraft that captures coupled physics effects due to inertial forces, aeroelasticity, and propulsive forces that are normally present in flight. The present approach formulates the coupled flight dynamics using a structural dynamic modeling method that describes the elasticity of a flexible, twisted, swept wing using an equivalent beam-rod model. The structural dynamic model allows for three types of wing elastic motion: flapwise bending, chordwise bending, and torsion. Inertial force coupling with the wing elasticity is formulated to account for aircraft acceleration. The structural deflections create an effective aeroelastic angle of attack that affects the rigid-body motion of flexible aircraft. The aeroelastic effect contributes to aerodynamic damping forces that can influence aerodynamic stability. For wing-mounted engines, wing flexibility can cause the propulsive forces and moments to couple with the wing elastic motion. The integrated flight dynamics for a flexible aircraft are formulated by including generalized coordinate variables associated with the aeroelastic-propulsive forces and moments in the standard state-space form for six degree-of-freedom flight dynamics. A computational structural model for a generic transport aircraft has been created. The eigenvalue analysis is performed to compute aeroelastic frequencies and aerodynamic damping. The results will be used to construct an integrated flight dynamic model of a flexible generic transport aircraft.

  3. Identifying the principal noise sources of fixed-wing combat aircraft in high-speed flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryce, W. D.; Pinker, R. A.; Strange, P. J. R.

    1992-04-01

    Before considering means for alleviating the noise from modern military combat aircraft operating in high-speed low-level flight, it is important to identify the principal noise sources. To this end, a carefully-controlled flight test program has been carried out using a Tornado aircraft (in standard training configuration) operating at flight speeds from 0.5M to 0.8M. The major sources of the aircraft noise, airframe noise, installed jet mixing noise and jet shock noise, have been successfully identified, quantified and correlated. Although the jet mixing noise tends to be the major source at low flight speeds, and the shock noise at high flight speeds, all three sources are comparable in magnitude during the rapid rise-time of the noise signal and at its peak. Indeed, were it possible to reduce greatly both the jet mixing and shock noise, the peak noise levels would only reduce by about 5 dBA.

  4. 41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36.345 Section 102-36.345 Public Contracts and... Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May we dispose of excess Flight Safety... appropriate Criticality Code on the SF 120, and ensure that all available historical and maintenance...

  5. 41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36.345 Section 102-36.345 Public Contracts and... Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May we dispose of excess Flight Safety... appropriate Criticality Code on the SF 120, and ensure that all available historical and maintenance...

  6. 41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36.345 Section 102-36.345 Public Contracts and... Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May we dispose of excess Flight Safety... appropriate Criticality Code on the SF 120, and ensure that all available historical and maintenance...

  7. 41 CFR 102-36.345 - May we dispose of excess Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Flight Safety Critical Aircraft Parts (FSCAP)? 102-36.345 Section 102-36.345 Public Contracts and... Requires Special Handling Aircraft and Aircraft Parts § 102-36.345 May we dispose of excess Flight Safety... appropriate Criticality Code on the SF 120, and ensure that all available historical and maintenance...

  8. Radiation exposure of aviation crewmembers and cancer.

    PubMed

    Bramlitt, Edward T; Shonka, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    Crewmembers are exposed to galactic cosmic radiation on every flight and occasionally to solar protons on polar flights. Data are presented showing that the proton occasions are seven times more frequent than generally believed. Crewmembers are also exposed to neutrons and gamma rays from the sun and to gamma rays from terrestrial thunderstorms. Solar neutrons and gamma rays (1) expose the daylight side of Earth, (2) are most intense at lower latitudes, (3) may be as or more frequent than solar protons, and (4) have relativistic energies. The U.S. agency responsible for crewmember safety only considers the galactic component with respect to its recommended 20 mSv y(-1) limit, but it has an estimate for a thunderstorm dose of 30 mSv. In view of overlooked sources, possible over-limit doses, and lack of dosimetry, dose reconstructions are needed. However, using the agency dose estimates and the compensation procedure for U.S. nuclear weapon workers, the probability of crewmember cancers can be at least as likely as not. Ways to improve the quality of dose estimates are suggested, and a worker's compensation program specific to aviation crewmembers is recommended. PMID:25437523

  9. Data acquisition/reduction system for flight testing general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummer, D. I.; Mosser, M. A.; Renz, R. R. L.

    1982-01-01

    The development of a data acquisition/reduction system for use in the flight testing of general aviation aircraft is described. Design objectives for the system are adequate accuracy, ease of installation and removal from aircraft, simplicity of operation, and low cost. A 16-channel working system has been constructed, and tested in the collection of flight test data from a Cessna 172 aircraft, which uses as the basis of its design an AIM65 microcomputer. Data is reduced with a MINC minicomputer system. Attention is given to the onboard installation of computer, battery and transducer modules incorporated by the system.

  10. Development of control laws for a flight test maneuver autopilot for an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alag, G. S.; Duke, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    An autopilot can be used to provide precise control to meet the demanding requirements of flight research maneuvers with high-performance aircraft. The development of control laws within the context of flight test maneuver requirements is discussed. The control laws are developed using eigensystem assignment and command generator tracking. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors are chosen to provide the necessary handling qualities, while the command generator tracking enables the tracking of a specified state during the maneuver. The effectiveness of the control laws is illustrated by their application to an F-15 aircraft to ensure acceptable aircraft performance during a maneuver.

  11. 14 CFR 91.1053 - Crewmember experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Crewmember experience. 91.1053 Section 91.1053 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... deviations from paragraph (a)(1) of this section if the Flight Standards District Office that issued...

  12. Aircraft signal definition for flight safety system monitoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Michael (Inventor); Omen, Debi Van (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A system and method compares combinations of vehicle variable values against known combinations of potentially dangerous vehicle input signal values. Alarms and error messages are selectively generated based on such comparisons. An aircraft signal definition is provided to enable definition and monitoring of sets of aircraft input signals to customize such signals for different aircraft. The input signals are compared against known combinations of potentially dangerous values by operational software and hardware of a monitoring function. The aircraft signal definition is created using a text editor or custom application. A compiler receives the aircraft signal definition to generate a binary file that comprises the definition of all the input signals used by the monitoring function. The binary file also contains logic that specifies how the inputs are to be interpreted. The file is then loaded into the monitor function, where it is validated and used to continuously monitor the condition of the aircraft.

  13. Longitudinal aerodynamic parameters of the Kestrel aircraft (XV-6A) extracted from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suit, W. T.; Williams, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    Flight-test data have been used to extract the longitudinal aerodynamic parameters of a vectored-thrust aircraft. The results show that deflecting the thrust past 15 has an effect on the pitching-moment derivatives and tends to reduce the static stability. The trend toward reduction in the longitudinal stability also been noted by the pilots conducting the flight tests.

  14. 14 CFR § 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false International Space Station crewmember... ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. (a) All NASA-provided International Space Station crewmembers are subject to specified...

  15. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  16. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  17. State estimation applications in aircraft flight-data analysis: A user's manual for SMACK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution in the use of state estimation is traced for the analysis of aircraft flight data. A unifying mathematical framework for state estimation is reviewed, and several examples are presented that illustrate a general approach for checking instrument accuracy and data consistency, and for estimating variables that are difficult to measure. Recent applications associated with research aircraft flight tests and airline turbulence upsets are described. A computer program for aircraft state estimation is discussed in some detail. This document is intended to serve as a user's manual for the program called SMACK (SMoothing for AirCraft Kinematics). The diversity of the applications described emphasizes the potential advantages in using SMACK for flight-data analysis.

  18. 14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings? 61.417 Section 61.417 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...

  19. 14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings? 61.417 Section 61.417 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...

  20. 14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings? 61.417 Section 61.417 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...

  1. 14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings? 61.417 Section 61.417 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...

  2. 14 CFR 61.417 - Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and class ratings? 61.417 Section 61.417 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.417 Will my flight instructor certificate with a sport pilot rating list aircraft category and...

  3. Man-vehicle systems research facility advanced aircraft flight simulator throttle mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurasaki, S. S.; Vallotton, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Aircraft Flight Simulator is equipped with a motorized mechanism that simulates a two engine throttle control system that can be operated via a computer driven performance management system or manually by the pilots. The throttle control system incorporates features to simulate normal engine operations and thrust reverse and vary the force feel to meet a variety of research needs. While additional testing to integrate the work required is principally now in software design, since the mechanical aspects function correctly. The mechanism is an important part of the flight control system and provides the capability to conduct human factors research of flight crews with advanced aircraft systems under various flight conditions such as go arounds, coupled instrument flight rule approaches, normal and ground operations and emergencies that would or would not normally be experienced in actual flight.

  4. Reconfigurable flight control for high angle of attack fighter aircraft, with wind tunnel study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqui, Bilal Ahmed

    In this work we studied Reconfigurable Flight Control Systems to achieve acceptable performance of a fighter aircraft, even in the event of wing damage to the aircraft at low speeds and high angle of attack, which is typical of many combat maneuvers. Equations of motion for the damaged aircraft were derived, which helped in building simulators. A new methodology combining experimental and numerical aerodynamic prediction was proposed and implemented. For this a wind-tunnel study of a similar configuration was carried out to study the aerodynamics at low speeds and high angle of attack. A baseline control system for undamaged aircraft was developed, and finally a reconfigurable flight control scheme was implemented to keep the aircraft flyable even after the damage.

  5. Flight simulator experiments to determine human reaction to aircraft motion environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Rudrapatna, A. N.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of human response to aircraft motion is presented using data obtained on the NASA Flight Research Center's Jetstar aircraft. The purpose of these tests was to explore the relationship of vertical and transverse accelerations to human comfort as well as obtain information on the maximum comfortable bank angle for commercial aircraft operations. A preliminary study was also conducted to establish the importance or lack thereof of the low frequency content of aircraft motion due to natural turbulence. An effort has been made to model these data and comparisons with appropriate sources are made.

  6. Flight test techniques for validating simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse aircraft responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, R. M.; Neely, W. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An attempt has been made to determine the effects of nuclear EM pulses (NEMPs) on aircraft systems, using a highly instrumented NASA F-106B to document the simulated NEMP environment at the Kirtland Air Force Base's Vertically Polarized Dipole test facility. Several test positions were selected so that aircraft orientation relative to the test facility would be the same in flight as when on the stationary dielectric stand, in order to validate the dielectric stand's use in flight configuration simulations. Attention is given to the flight test portions of the documentation program.

  7. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1989-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objectives. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Because of the number of systems involved and the variety of engineering disciplines, systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control system is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary objective is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs are reviewed: the X-29 forward-swept wing, the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16, and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating anomalies and the design errors which cause them, are examined to help identify what functions a system design/information tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  8. Aircraft health and usage monitoring system for in-flight strain measurement of a wing structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Yurim; Kim, Yoon-Young; Shrestha, Pratik; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents an aircraft health and usage monitoring system (HUMS) using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. This study aims to implement and evaluate the HUMS for in-flight strain monitoring of aircraft structures. An optical-fiber-based HUMS was developed and applied to an ultralight aircraft that has a rectangular wing shape with a strut-braced configuration. FBG sensor arrays were embedded into the wing structure during the manufacturing process for effective sensor implementation. Ground and flight tests were conducted to verify the integrity and availability of the installed FBG sensors and HUMS devices. A total of 74 flight tests were conducted using the HUMS implemented testbed aircraft, considering various maneuvers and abnormal conditions. The flight test results revealed that the FBG-based HUMS was successfully implemented on the testbed aircraft and operated normally under the actual flight test environments as well as providing reliable in-flight strain data from the FBG sensors over a long period of time.

  9. A knowledge-based system design/information tool for aircraft flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, Dale A.; Allen, James G.

    1991-01-01

    Research aircraft have become increasingly dependent on advanced electronic control systems to accomplish program goals. These aircraft are integrating multiple disciplines to improve performance and satisfy research objective. This integration is being accomplished through electronic control systems. Systems design methods and information management have become essential to program success. The primary objective of the system design/information tool for aircraft flight control is to help transfer flight control system design knowledge to the flight test community. By providing all of the design information and covering multiple disciplines in a structured, graphical manner, flight control systems can more easily be understood by the test engineers. This will provide the engineers with the information needed to thoroughly ground test the system and thereby reduce the likelihood of serious design errors surfacing in flight. The secondary object is to apply structured design techniques to all of the design domains. By using the techniques in the top level system design down through the detailed hardware and software designs, it is hoped that fewer design anomalies will result. The flight test experiences are reviewed of three highly complex, integrated aircraft programs: the X-29 forward swept wing; the advanced fighter technology integration (AFTI) F-16; and the highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) program. Significant operating technologies, and the design errors which cause them, is examined to help identify what functions a system design/informatin tool should provide to assist designers in avoiding errors.

  10. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  11. Analytical design and simulation evaluation of an approach flight director system for a jet STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, R. H.; Hofmann, L. G.; Mcruer, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    A program was undertaken to develop design criteria and operational procedures for STOL transport aircraft. As part of that program, a series of flight tests shall be performed in an Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Aircraft. In preparation for the flight test programs, an analytical study was conducted to gain an understanding of the characteristics of the vehicle for manual control, to assess the relative merits of the variety of manual control techniques available with attitude and thrust vector controllers, and to determine what improvements can be made over manual control of the bare airframe by providing the pilot with suitable command guidance information and by augmentation of the bare airframe dynamics. The objective of the study is to apply closed-loop pilot/vehicle analysis techniques to the analysis of manual flight control of powered-lift STOL aircraft in the landing approach and to the design and experimental verification of an advanced flight director display.

  12. Short Term Variation of Cosmic Radiation on Aircraft at Constant Flight Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Nam, U. W.; Pyo, J.; Kim, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Kim, M. H. Y.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variation of cosmic radiation was measured by Liulin detector on aircraft at constant flight condition. In this experiment, instead of using a commercial aircraft that flies over long distances, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight over Korean Peninsula. Measurements indicate that the radiation dose is approximately 2.12 ~ 2.88 Sv/hr at 30,000 ft. We obtained two observational results from this experiment. First, changes in dose rate occurred within a flight time of 5 - 7 hours. Second, no strong correlation was revealed between cosmic rays observed from the ground using the Neutron Monitor and the radiation dose. Our experimental results imply that changes in cosmic radiation at the flight altitude are affected by unknown factors that might be investigated in the point of space weather.

  13. Effects of aircraft noise on flight and ground structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mixson, J. S.; Mayes, W. H.; Willis, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    Acoustic loads measured on jet-powered STOL configurations are presented for externally blown and upper surface blown flap models ranging in size from a small laboratory model up to a full-scale aircraft model. The implications of the measured loads for potential acoustic fatigue and cabin noise are discussed. Noise transmission characteristics of light aircraft structures are presented. The relative importance of noise transmission paths, such as fuselage sidewall and primary structure, is estimated. Acceleration responses of a historic building and a residential home are presented for flyover noise from subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Possible effects on occupant comfort are assessed. The results from these three examples show that aircraft noise can induce structural responses that are large enough to require consideration in the design or operation of the aircraft.

  14. Perseus A High Altitude Remotely Piloted Aircraft being Towed in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Perseus A, a remotely piloted, high-altitude research vehicle designed by Aurora Flight Sciences Corp., takes off from Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Perseus was towed into the air by a ground vehicle. At about 700 ft. the aircraft was released and the engine turned the propeller to take the plane to its desired altitude. Perseus B is a remotely piloted aircraft developed as a design-performance testbed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. Perseus is one of several flight vehicles involved in the ERAST project. A piston engine, propeller-powered aircraft, Perseus was designed and built by Aurora Flight Sciences Corporation, Manassas, Virginia. The objectives of Perseus B's ERAST flight tests have been to reach and maintain horizontal flight above altitudes of 60,000 feet and demonstrate the capability to fly missions lasting from 8 to 24 hours, depending on payload and altitude requirements. The Perseus B aircraft established an unofficial altitude record for a single-engine, propeller-driven, remotely piloted aircraft on June 27, 1998. It reached an altitude of 60,280 feet. In 1999, several modifications were made to the Perseus aircraft including engine, avionics, and flight-control-system improvements. These improvements were evaluated in a series of operational readiness and test missions at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Perseus is a high-wing monoplane with a conventional tail design. Its narrow, straight, high-aspect-ratio wing is mounted atop the fuselage. The aircraft is pusher-designed with the propeller mounted in the rear. This design allows for interchangeable scientific-instrument payloads to be placed in the forward fuselage. The design also allows for unobstructed airflow to the sensors and other devices mounted in the payload compartment. The Perseus B that underwent test and development in 1999 was the third generation of the

  15. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert

    1991-01-01

    High angle-of-attack flight regime research is currently being conducted for modern fighter aircraft at the NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. This flight regime provides enhanced maneuverability to fighter pilots in combat situations. Flight research data are being acquired to compare and validate advanced computational fluid dynamic solutions and wind-tunnel models. High angle-of-attack flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena including wing rock and buffet on the airframe. These phenomena increase the level of excitation of the structural modes, especially on the vertical and horizontal stabilizers. With high gain digital flight-control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. A structural interaction on the X-29A aircraft was observed during high angle-of-attack flight testing. The roll and yaw rate gyros sensed the aircraft's structural modes at 11, 13, and 16 Hz. The rate gyro output signals were then amplified through the flight-control laws and sent as commands to the flaperons and rudder. The flight data indicated that as the angle of attack increased, the amplitude of the buffet on the vertical stabilizer increased, which resulted in more excitation to the structural modes. The flight-control system sensors and command signals showed this increase in modal power at the structural frequencies up to a 30 degree angle-of-attack. Beyond a 30 degree angle-of-attack, the vertical stabilizer response, the feedback sensor amplitude, and control surface command signal amplitude remained relatively constant. Data are presented that show the increased modal power in the aircraft structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of angle of attack. This structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  16. The Small Aircraft Transportation System Higher Volume Operations (SATS HVO) Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Daniel M.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Adams, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of conclusions from the Small Aircraft Transportation System (SATS) Higher Volume Operations (HVO) Flight Experiment which NASA conducted to determine pilot acceptability of the HVO concept for normal conditions. The SATS HVO concept improves efficiency at non-towered, non-radar airports in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) while achieving a level of safety equal to today s system. Reported are results from flight experiment data that indicate that the SATS HVO concept is viable. The success of the SATS HVO concept is based on acceptable pilot workload, performance, and subjective criteria when compared to the procedural control operations in use today at non-towered, non-radar controlled airfields in IMC. The HVO Flight Experiment, flown on NASA's Cirrus SR22, used a subset of the HVO Simulation Experiment scenarios and evaluation pilots in order to validate the simulation experiment results. HVO and Baseline (today s system) scenarios flown included: single aircraft arriving for a GPS non-precision approach; aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft; and aircraft arriving for the approach with multiple traffic aircraft and then conducting a missed approach. Results reveal that all twelve low-time instrument-rated pilots preferred SATS HVO when compared to current procedural separation operations. These pilots also flew the HVO procedures safely and proficiently without additional workload in comparison to today s system (Baseline). Detailed results of pilot flight technical error, and their subjective assessments of workload and situation awareness are presented in this paper.

  17. Aircraft Flight Envelope Determination using Upset Detection and Physical Modeling Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Jeffrey D.; McKillip, Robert M. Jr.; Kim, Singwan

    2009-01-01

    The development of flight control systems to enhance aircraft safety during periods of vehicle impairment or degraded operations has been the focus of extensive work in recent years. Conditions adversely affecting aircraft flight operations and safety may result from a number of causes, including environmental disturbances, degraded flight operations, and aerodynamic upsets. To enhance the effectiveness of adaptive and envelope limiting controls systems, it is desirable to examine methods for identifying the occurrence of anomalous conditions and for assessing the impact of these conditions on the aircraft operational limits. This paper describes initial work performed toward this end, examining the use of fault detection methods applied to the aircraft for aerodynamic performance degradation identification and model-based methods for envelope prediction. Results are presented in which a model-based fault detection filter is applied to the identification of aircraft control surface and stall departure failures/upsets. This application is supported by a distributed loading aerodynamics formulation for the flight dynamics system reference model. Extensions for estimating the flight envelope due to generalized aerodynamic performance degradation are also described.

  18. Robotics and Automation for Flight Deck Aircraft Servicing

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, J.B.; Draper, J.V.; Pin, F.G.

    1999-03-01

    One of the missions of the Future Aircraft Carriers Program is to investigate methods that would improve aircraft turnaround servicing activities on carrier decks. The major objectives and criteria for evaluating alternative aircraft servicing methods are to reduce workload requirements, turnaround times (TAT), and life-cycle costs (LCC). Technologies in the field of Robotics and Automation (R and A) have the potential to significantly contribute to these objectives. The objective of this study was to investigate aircraft servicing functions on carrier decks which would offer the potentially most significant payoff if improved by various R and A technologies. Improvement in this case means reducing workload, time and LCC. This objective was accomplished using a ''bottom-up'' formalized approach as described in the following.

  19. Flight testing the fixed-wing configuration of the Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, G. W.; Morris, P. M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) is a unique research aircraft designed to flight test advanced helicopter rotor system. Its principal flight test configuration is as a compound helicopter. The fixed wing configuration of the RSRA was primarily considered an energy fly-home mode in the event it became necessary to sever an unstable rotor system in flight. While it had always been planned to flight test the fixed wing configuration, the selection of the RSRA as the flight test bed for the X-wing rotor accelerated this schedule. This paper discusses the build-up to, and the test of, the RSRA fixed wing configuration. It is written primarily from the test pilot's perspective.

  20. Subscale Flight Testing for Aircraft Loss of Control: Accomplishments and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, David E.; Cunningham, Kevin; Jordan, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    Subscale flight-testing provides a means to validate both dynamic models and mitigation technologies in the high-risk flight conditions associated with aircraft loss of control. The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) facility was designed to be a flexible and efficient research facility to address this type of flight-testing. Over the last several years (2009-2011) it has been used to perform 58 research flights with an unmanned, remotely-piloted, dynamically-scaled airplane. This paper will present an overview of the facility and its architecture and summarize the experimental data collected. All flights to date have been conducted within visual range of a safety observer. Current plans for the facility include expanding the test volume to altitudes and distances well beyond visual range. The architecture and instrumentation changes associated with this upgrade will also be presented.

  1. Flight testing a highly flexible aircraft - Case study on the MIT Light Eagle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zerweckh, S. H.; Von Flotow, A. H.; Murray, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the techniques developed for a flight test program of a human powered aircraft, the application of these techniques in the winter of 1987/88 and the results of the flight testing. A system of sensors, signal conditioning and data recording equipment was developed and installed in the aircraft. Flight test maneuvers which do not exceed the aircraft's limited capability were developed and refined in an iterative sequence of test flights. The test procedures were adjusted to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. Structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics are modeled in an ad hoc manner, capturing the effects observed during the test flights. A model with flexibility-extended equations of motion is presented. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions of that model and analyzed. Finally the results of the flight test program are examined critically, especially with respect to future applications, and suggestions are made in order to improve maneuvers for parameter estimation of very flexible aircraft.

  2. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in any... crewmember's flight time or duty period will exceed, or rest time will be less than— 3-Pilot crew...

  3. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in any... crewmember's flight time or duty period will exceed, or rest time will be less than— 3-Pilot crew...

  4. 14 CFR 91.1061 - Augmented flight crews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... crewmember, and no flight crewmember may accept an assignment, for flight time as a member of an augmented crew if that crewmember's total flight time in all commercial flying will exceed— (1) 500 hours in any... crewmember's flight time or duty period will exceed, or rest time will be less than— 3-Pilot crew...

  5. 76 FR 76611 - Interference With a Crewmember via Laser

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... constitute interference with a crewmember under 14 CFR 91.11. The FAA's understanding of the plain language... was initially adopted in 1961 in reaction to increased hijackings of aircraft. See 26 FR 7009 (Aug. 4... other `person' on board the aircraft.'' 64 FR 1076, 1077 (Jan. 7, 1999). Although the primary focus...

  6. Flight Validation of a Handling Qualities Metric for a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: a) Develop an asymmetric handling qualities metric to predict cross coupling effects of a damaged aircraft: 1) Initial use of U.S Army Aeronautical Design Specification ADS-33; 2) Modification as required based on flight test results. b) Simulation and Flight Validation of proposed metric: 1) F-16 VISTA (March 2010); 2) F-18 Full Scale Test bed (Potential Early Experiment); and 3) Flight Simulators (GTM, ACFS, F-18 HILS). c) Provide flight validated metric and tool box to control law designers.

  7. Comparison of model and flight test data for an augmented jet flap STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. L.; Whittley, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic design data for the Augmented Jet Flap STOL Research Aircraft or commonly known as the Augmentor-Wing Jet-STOL Research Aircraft was based on results of tests carried out on a large scale research model in the NASA Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel. Since the model differs in some respects from the aircraft, precise correlation between tunnel and flight test is not expected, however the major areas of confidence derived from the wind tunnel tests are delineated, and for the most part, tunnel results compare favorably with flight experience. In some areas the model tests were known to be nonrepresentative so that a degree of uncertainty remained: these areas of greater uncertainty are identified, and discussed in the light of subsequent flight tests.

  8. On-Line Mu Method for Robust Flutter Prediction in Expanding a Safe Flight Envelope for an Aircraft Model Under Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Richard C. (Inventor); Brenner, Martin J.

    2001-01-01

    A structured singular value (mu) analysis method of computing flutter margins has robust stability of a linear aeroelastic model with uncertainty operators (Delta). Flight data is used to update the uncertainty operators to accurately account for errors in the computed model and the observed range of aircraft dynamics of the aircraft under test caused by time-varying aircraft parameters, nonlinearities, and flight anomalies, such as test nonrepeatability. This mu-based approach computes predict flutter margins that are worst case with respect to the modeling uncertainty for use in determining when the aircraft is approaching a flutter condition and defining an expanded safe flight envelope for the aircraft that is accepted with more confidence than traditional methods that do not update the analysis algorithm with flight data by introducing mu as a flutter margin parameter that presents several advantages over tracking damping trends as a measure of a tendency to instability from available flight data.

  9. Flight test and evaluation of Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. Volume 1: Technical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, J. D.; Hoffman, W. C.; Hwoschinsky, P. V.; Wischmeyer, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A low cost flight research program was conducted to evaluate the performance of differential Omega navigation in a general aviation aircraft. The flight program consisted of two distinct parts corresponding to the two major objectives of the study. The Wallops Flight Program was conducted to obtain Omega signal and phase data in the Wallops Flight Center vicinity to provide preliminary technical information and experience in preparation for a comprehensive NASA/FAA flight test program of an experimental differential Omega system. The Northeast Corridor Flight Program was conducted to examine Omega operational suitability and performance on low altitude area navigation (RNAV) routes for city-center to city-center VTOL commercial operations in the Boston-New York-Washington corridor. The development, execution and conclusions of the flight research program are discribed. The results of the study provide both quantitative and qualitative data on the Omega Navigation System under actual operating conditions.

  10. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... methods, procedures, and techniques for conducting flight instruction. (4) Proper evaluation of student... required normal, abnormal, and emergency maneuvers to ensure competence to conduct the flight instruction... normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures to ensure competence to conduct the flight...

  11. Lockheed ER-2 #806 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 806, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  12. Lockheed ER-2 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 706, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  13. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  14. Lockheed ER-2 #809 high altitude research aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-2 tail number 809, is one of two Airborne Science ER-2s used as science platforms by Dryden. The aircraft are platforms for a variety of high-altitude science missions flown over various parts of the world. They are also used for earth science and atmospheric sensor research and development, satellite calibration and data validation. The ER-2s are capable of carrying a maximum payload of 2,600 pounds of experiments in a nose bay, the main equipment bay behind the cockpit, two wing-mounted superpods and small underbody and trailing edges. Most ER-2 missions last about six hours with ranges of about 2,200 nautical miles. The aircraft typically fly at altitudes above 65,000 feet. On November 19, 1998, the ER-2 set a world record for medium weight aircraft reaching an altitude of 68,700 feet. The aircraft is 63 feet long, with a wingspan of 104 feet. The top of the vertical tail is 16 feet above ground when the aircraft is on the bicycle-type landing gear. Cruising speeds are 410 knots, or 467 miles per hour, at altitude. A single General Electric F-118 turbofan engine rated at 17,000 pounds thrust powers the ER-2.

  15. Aircraft Configuration and Flight Crew Compliance with Procedures While Conducting Flight Deck Based Interval Management (FIM) Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shay, Rick; Swieringa, Kurt A.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    Flight deck based Interval Management (FIM) applications using ADS-B are being developed to improve both the safety and capacity of the National Airspace System (NAS). FIM is expected to improve the safety and efficiency of the NAS by giving pilots the technology and procedures to precisely achieve an interval behind the preceding aircraft by a specific point. Concurrently but independently, Optimized Profile Descents (OPD) are being developed to help reduce fuel consumption and noise, however, the range of speeds available when flying an OPD results in a decrease in the delivery precision of aircraft to the runway. This requires the addition of a spacing buffer between aircraft, reducing system throughput. FIM addresses this problem by providing pilots with speed guidance to achieve a precise interval behind another aircraft, even while flying optimized descents. The Interval Management with Spacing to Parallel Dependent Runways (IMSPiDR) human-in-the-loop experiment employed 24 commercial pilots to explore the use of FIM equipment to conduct spacing operations behind two aircraft arriving to parallel runways, while flying an OPD during high-density operations. This paper describes the impact of variations in pilot operations; in particular configuring the aircraft, their compliance with FIM operating procedures, and their response to changes of the FIM speed. An example of the displayed FIM speeds used incorrectly by a pilot is also discussed. Finally, this paper examines the relationship between achieving airline operational goals for individual aircraft and the need for ATC to deliver aircraft to the runway with greater precision. The results show that aircraft can fly an OPD and conduct FIM operations to dependent parallel runways, enabling operational goals to be achieved efficiently while maintaining system throughput.

  16. Modeling flight attendants' exposure to secondhand smoke in commercial aircraft: historical trends from 1955 to 1989.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruiling; Dix-Cooper, Linda; Hammond, S Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Flight attendants were exposed to elevated levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) in commercial aircraft when smoking was allowed on planes. During flight attendants' working years, their occupational SHS exposure was influenced by various factors, including the prevalence of active smokers on planes, fliers' smoking behaviors, airplane flight load factors, and ventilation systems. These factors have likely changed over the past six decades and would affect SHS concentrations in commercial aircraft. However, changes in flight attendants' exposure to SHS have not been examined in the literature. This study estimates the magnitude of the changes and the historic trends of flight attendants' SHS exposure in U.S. domestic commercial aircraft by integrating historical changes of contributing factors. Mass balance models were developed and evaluated to estimate flight attendants' exposure to SHS in passenger cabins, as indicated by two commonly used tracers (airborne nicotine and particulate matter (PM)). Monte Carlo simulations integrating historical trends and distributions of influence factors were used to simulate 10,000 flight attendants' exposure to SHS on commercial flights from 1955 to 1989. These models indicate that annual mean SHS PM concentrations to which flight attendants were exposed in passenger cabins steadily decreased from approximately 265 μg/m(3) in 1955 and 1960 to 93 μg/m(3) by 1989, and airborne nicotine exposure among flight attendants also decreased from 11.1 μg/m(3) in 1955 to 6.5 μg/m(3) in 1989. Using duration of employment as an indicator of flight attendants' cumulative occupational exposure to SHS in epidemiological studies would inaccurately assess their lifetime exposures and thus bias the relationship between the exposure and health effects. This historical trend should be considered in future epidemiological studies. PMID:25587876

  17. Expansion of flight simulator capability for study and solution of aircraft directional control problems on runways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kibbee, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The development, evaluation, and evaluation results of a DC-9-10 runway directional control simulator are described. An existing wide bodied flight simulator was modified to this aircraft configuration. The simulator was structured to use either two of antiskid simulations; (1) an analog mechanization that used aircraft hardware; or (2) a digital software simulation. After the simulation was developed it was evaluated by 14 pilots who made 818 simulated flights. These evaluations involved landings, rejected takeoffs, and various ground maneuvers. Qualitatively most pilots evaluated the simulator as realistic with good potential especially for pilot training for adverse runway conditions.

  18. Hot-wire anemometry for in-flight measurement of aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobsen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A development program has demonstrated that hot-wire anemometry can be used successfully on an aircraft in flight to make measurements of wake vortices produced by another aircraft. The probe, whose wires were made of platinum/rhodium, 10 microns in diameter, provides unambiguous results for inflow angles less than about 35 deg. off the probe axis. The high frequency response capability of the hot-wire system allows detailed measurement of the flow structure, and the study of aircraft hazards associated with wake turbulence.

  19. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  20. Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL): aircraft test-flight history and current plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, Sara C.; Weimer, Carl; Adkins, Mike; Delker, Tom; Gleeson, David; Kaptchen, Paul; Good, Bill; Kaplan, Mike; Applegate, Jeff; Taudien, Glenn

    2015-09-01

    To address mission risk and cost limitations the US has faced in putting a much needed Doppler wind lidar into space, Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, with support from NASA's Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO), has developed the Optical Autocovariance Wind Lidar (OAWL), designed to measure winds from aerosol backscatter at the 355 nm or 532 nm wavelengths. Preliminary proof of concept hardware efforts started at Ball back in 2004. From 2008 to 2012, under an ESTO-funded Instrument Incubator Program, Ball incorporated the Optical Autocovariance (OA) interferometer receiver into a prototype breadboard lidar system by adding a laser, telescope, and COTS-based data system for operation at the 355 nm wavelength. In 2011, the prototype system underwent ground-based validation testing, and three months later, after hardware and software modifications to ensure autonomous operation and aircraft safety, it was flown on the NASA WB-57 aircraft. The history of the 2011 test flights are reviewed, including efforts to get the system qualified for aircraft flights, modifications made during the flight test period, and the final flight data results. We also present lessons learned and plans for the new, robust, two-wavelength, aircraft system with flight demonstrations planned for Spring 2016.

  1. A crew-centered flight deck design philosophy for High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Michael T.; Rogers, William H.; Press, Hayes N.; Latorella, Kara A.; Abbott, Terence S.

    1995-01-01

    Past flight deck design practices used within the U.S. commercial transport aircraft industry have been highly successful in producing safe and efficient aircraft. However, recent advances in automation have changed the way pilots operate aircraft, and these changes make it necessary to reconsider overall flight deck design. The High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) mission will likely add new information requirements, such as those for sonic boom management and supersonic/subsonic speed management. Consequently, whether one is concerned with the design of the HSCT, or a next generation subsonic aircraft that will include technological leaps in automated systems, basic issues in human usability of complex systems will be magnified. These concerns must be addressed, in part, with an explicit, written design philosophy focusing on human performance and systems operability in the context of the overall flight crew/flight deck system (i.e., a crew-centered philosophy). This document provides such a philosophy, expressed as a set of guiding design principles, and accompanied by information that will help focus attention on flight crew issues earlier and iteratively within the design process. This document is part 1 of a two-part set.

  2. Some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that impacted the advancement of aeronautics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamar, John E.

    2009-08-01

    This paper highlights the three aerodynamic pillars of aeronautics; namely, theory/CFD, wind-tunnel experiments and flight tests, and notes that at any given time these three are not necessarily at the same level of maturity. After an initial history of these three pillars, the focus narrows to a brief history of some vortical-flow flight experiments on slender aircraft that have impacted the advancement of aeronautics in recent decades. They include the F-106, Concorde, SR-71, light-weight fighters (F-16, F/A-18), and F-16XL. These aircraft share in common the utilization of vortical flow and have flown at transonic speeds during a part of the flight envelope. Due to the vast amount of information from flight and CFD that has recently become available for the F-16XL, this aircraft is highlighted and its results detailed. Lastly, it is interesting to note that, though complicated, vortical flows over the F-16XL aircraft at subsonic speeds can be reliably and generally well-predicted with the current CFD flow solvers. However, these solvers still have some problems in matching flight pressure data at transonic speeds. That this problem has been highlighted is both an advancement in aeronautics and a tempting prize to those who would seek its solution.

  3. Production Support Flight Control Computers: Research Capability for F/A-18 Aircraft at Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, John F.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) is working with the United States Navy to complete ground testing and initiate flight testing of a modified set of F/A-18 flight control computers. The Production Support Flight Control Computers (PSFCC) can give any fleet F/A-18 airplane an in-flight, pilot-selectable research control law capability. NASA DFRC can efficiently flight test the PSFCC for the following four reasons: (1) Six F/A-18 chase aircraft are available which could be used with the PSFCC; (2) An F/A-18 processor-in-the-loop simulation exists for validation testing; (3) The expertise has been developed in programming the research processor in the PSFCC; and (4) A well-defined process has been established for clearing flight control research projects for flight. This report presents a functional description of the PSFCC. Descriptions of the NASA DFRC facilities, PSFCC verification and validation process, and planned PSFCC projects are also provided.

  4. Alaskan flight trials of a synthetic vision system for instrument landings of a piston twin aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, Andrew K.; Alter, Keith W.; Jennings, Chad W.; Powell, J. D.

    1999-07-01

    Stanford University has developed a low-cost prototype synthetic vision system and flight tested it onboard general aviation aircraft. The display aids pilots by providing an 'out the window' view, making visualization of the desired flight path a simple task. Predictor symbology provides guidance on straight and curved paths presented in a 'tunnel- in-the-sky' format. Based on commodity PC hardware to achieve low cost, the Tunnel Display system uses differential GPS (typically from Stanford prototype Wide Area Augmentation System hardware) for positioning and GPS-aided inertial sensors for attitude determination. The display has been flown onboard Piper Dakota and Beechcraft Queen Air aircraft at several different locations. This paper describes the system, its development, and flight trials culminating with tests in Alaska during the summer of 1998. Operational experience demonstrated the Tunnel Display's ability to increase flight- path following accuracy and situational awareness while easing the task instrument flying.

  5. Video Analysis of the Flight of a Model Aircraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Fazio, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    A video-analysis software tool has been employed in order to measure the steady-state values of the kinematics variables describing the longitudinal behaviour of a radio-controlled model aircraft during take-off, climbing and gliding. These experimental results have been compared with the theoretical steady-state configurations predicted by the…

  6. The Insulation of Houses against Noise from Aircraft in Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, W. E.; Parkin, P. H.

    Three groups of traditional houses were insulated against aircraft noise by double glazing and installing sound attenuating ventilator units. For upper floor rooms of two story houses, overall insulations of 35-40 dB were obtainable, providing transmission through the roofs and down flues were also reduced. The noise levels caused by ventilator…

  7. Celebrating 100 Years of Flight: Testing Wing Designs in Aircraft

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugalee, David K.; Nusinov, Chuck; Giersch, Chris; Royster, David; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an investigation involving several designs of airplane wings in trial flight simulations based on a NASA CONNECT program. Students' experiences with data collection and interpretation are highlighted. (Contains 5 figures.)

  8. Aerodynamic Modeling for Aircraft in Unsteady Flight Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, C. Edward

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities in unsteady aerodynamic modeling and application of unsteady aerodynamic models to flight dynamics. A public on briefing was presented on July 21, 1999 at Langley Research Center.

  9. Operational Concept for Flight Crews to Participate in Merging and Spacing of Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baxley, Brian T.; Barmore, Bryan E.; Abbott, Terence S.; Capron, William R.

    2006-01-01

    The predicted tripling of air traffic within the next 15 years is expected to cause significant aircraft delays and create a major financial burden for the airline industry unless the capacity of the National Airspace System can be increased. One approach to improve throughput and reduce delay is to develop new ground tools, airborne tools, and procedures to reduce the variance of aircraft delivery to the airport, thereby providing an increase in runway throughput capacity and a reduction in arrival aircraft delay. The first phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept employs a ground based tool used by Air Traffic Control that creates an arrival time to the runway threshold based on the aircraft s current position and speed, then makes minor adjustments to that schedule to accommodate runway throughput constraints such as weather and wake vortex separation criteria. The Merging and Spacing Concept also employs arrival routing that begins at an en route metering fix at altitude and continues to the runway threshold with defined lateral, vertical, and velocity criteria. This allows the desired spacing interval between aircraft at the runway to be translated back in time and space to the metering fix. The tool then calculates a specific speed for each aircraft to fly while enroute to the metering fix based on the adjusted land timing for that aircraft. This speed is data-linked to the crew who fly this speed, causing the aircraft to arrive at the metering fix with the assigned spacing interval behind the previous aircraft in the landing sequence. The second phase of the Merging and Spacing Concept increases the timing precision of the aircraft delivery to the runway threshold by having flight crews using an airborne system make minor speed changes during enroute, descent, and arrival phases of flight. These speed changes are based on broadcast aircraft state data to determine the difference between the actual and assigned time interval between the aircraft pair. The

  10. NASA rotor system research aircraft flight-test data report: Helicopter and compound configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Kufeld, R. M.; Cross, J. L.; Hodge, R. W.; Ericson, W. F.; Carter, R. D. G.

    1984-01-01

    The flight test activities of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, from June 30, 1981 to August 5, 1982 are reported. Tests were conducted in both the helicopter and compound configurations. Compound tests reconfirmed the Sikorsky flight envelope except that main rotor blade bending loads reached endurance at a speed about 10 knots lower than previously. Wing incidence changes were made from 0 to 10 deg.

  11. Identification of Spey engine dynamics in the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehoff, R. L.; Reed, W. B.; Trankle, T. L.

    1977-01-01

    The development and validation of a spey engine model is described. An analysis of the dynamical interactions involved in the propulsion unit is presented. The model was reduced to contain only significant effects, and was used, in conjunction with flight data obtained from an augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft, to develop initial estimates of parameters in the system. The theoretical background employed in estimating the parameters is outlined. The software package developed for processing the flight data is described. Results are summarized.

  12. H-infinity based integrated flight/propulsion control design for a STOVL aircraft in transition flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Bright, Michelle; Ouzts, Peter

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of H(infinity) control design methodology to a centralized integrated flight/propulsion control (IFPC) system design for a supersonic STOVL fighter aircraft in transition flight. The overall design methodology consists of a centralized IFPC design with controller partitioning. Design and evaluation vehicle models are summarized, and insight is provided into formulating the H(infinity) control problem such that it reflects the IFPC design objective. The H(infinity) controller is shown to provide decoupled command tracking for the design model. The controller order could be significantly reduced by modal residualization of the fast controller modes without any deterioration in performance.

  13. Rotary Balance Wind Tunnel Testing for the FASER Flight Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denham, Casey; Owens, D. Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Flight dynamics research was conducted to collect and analyze rotary balance wind tunnel test data in order to improve the aerodynamic simulation and modeling of a low-cost small unmanned aircraft called FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Sub-scale Experimental Research). The impetus for using FASER was to provide risk and cost reduction for flight testing of more expensive aircraft and assist in the improvement of wind tunnel and flight test techniques, and control laws. The FASER research aircraft has the benefit of allowing wind tunnel and flight tests to be conducted on the same model, improving correlation between wind tunnel, flight, and simulation data. Prior wind tunnel tests include a static force and moment test, including power effects, and a roll and yaw damping forced oscillation test. Rotary balance testing allows for the calculation of aircraft rotary derivatives and the prediction of steady-state spins. The rotary balance wind tunnel test was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) 20-Foot Vertical Spin Tunnel (VST). Rotary balance testing includes runs for a set of given angular rotation rates at a range of angles of attack and sideslip angles in order to fully characterize the aircraft rotary dynamics. Tests were performed at angles of attack from 0 to 50 degrees, sideslip angles of -5 to 10 degrees, and non-dimensional spin rates from -0.5 to 0.5. The effects of pro-spin elevator and rudder deflection and pro- and anti-spin elevator, rudder, and aileron deflection were examined. The data are presented to illustrate the functional dependence of the forces and moments on angle of attack, sideslip angle, and angular rate for the rotary contributions to the forces and moments. Further investigation is necessary to fully characterize the control effectors. The data were also used with a steady state spin prediction tool that did not predict an equilibrium spin mode.

  14. Emergency Flight Control of a Twin-Jet Commercial Aircraft using Manual Throttle Manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Cogan, Bruce R.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Burken, John J.; Venti, Michael W.; Burcham, Frank W.

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) created the PCAR (Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Recovery) project in 2005 to mitigate the ManPADS (man-portable air defense systems) threat to the commercial aircraft fleet with near-term, low-cost proven technology. Such an attack could potentially cause a major FCS (flight control system) malfunction or other critical system failure onboard the aircraft, despite the extreme reliability of current systems. For the situations in which nominal flight controls are lost or degraded, engine thrust may be the only remaining means for emergency flight control [ref 1]. A computer-controlled thrust system, known as propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA), was developed in the mid 1990s with NASA, McDonnell Douglas and Honeywell. PCA's major accomplishment was a demonstration of an automatic landing capability using only engine thrust [ref 11. Despite these promising results, no production aircraft have been equipped with a PCA system, due primarily to the modifications required for implementation. A minimally invasive option is TOC (throttles-only control), which uses the same control principles as PCA, but requires absolutely no hardware, software or other aircraft modifications. TOC is pure piloting technique, and has historically been utilized several times by flight crews, both military and civilian, in emergency situations stemming from a loss of conventional control. Since the 1990s, engineers at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) have studied TOC, in both simulation and flight, for emergency flight control with test pilots in numerous configurations. In general, it was shown that TOC was effective on certain aircraft for making a survivable landing. DHS sponsored both NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, CA) and United Airlines (Denver, Colorado) to conduct a flight and simulation study of the TOC characteristics of a twin-jet commercial transport, and assess the ability of a crew to control an aircraft down to

  15. Flight test of a pure-tone acoustic source. [aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, A. W.; Preisser, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    Static and flight testing of a pure-tone acoustic source were conducted in order to: (1) determine if a 4-KHz tone radiated by a source in flight and mixed with broadband aircraft flyover noise could be measured on the ground with a high degree of statistical confidence; (2) determine how well a comparison could be made of flight-to-static tone radiation pattern and a static radiation pattern; and (3) determine if there were any installation effects on the radiation pattern due to the flight vehicle. Narrow-band acoustic data were measured and averaged over eight microphones to obtain a high statistical confidence. The flight data were adjusted to an equivalent static condition by applying corrections for retarded time, spherical spreading, atmospheric absorption, ground impedance, instrumentation constraints, convective amplification, and the Doppler shift. The flight-to-static results are in excellent agreement with the measured static data. No installation effects were observed on the radiation pattern.

  16. Flight test evaluation of a method to determine the level flight performance of a propeller-driven aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, P. G.; Cross, E. J., Jr.; Boatwright, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The overall drag of the aircraft is expressed in terms of the measured increment of power required to overcome a corresponding known increment of drag, which is generated by a towed drogue. The simplest form of the governing equations, D = delta D SHP/delta SHP, is such that all of the parameters on the right side of the equation can be measured in flight. An evaluation of the governing equations has been performed using data generated by flight test of a Beechcraft T-34B. The simplicity of this technique and its proven applicability to sailplanes and small aircraft is well known. However, the method fails to account for airframe-propulsion system.

  17. Ground and Flight Evaluation of a Small-Scale Inflatable-Winged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James E.; Pahle, Joseph W.; Thornton, Stephen V.; Vogus, Shannon; Frackowiak, Tony; Mello, Joe; Norton, Brook; Bauer, Jeff (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A small-scale, instrumented research aircraft was flown to investigate the night characteristics of innersole wings. Ground tests measured the static structural characteristics of the wing at different inflation pressures, and these results compared favorably with analytical predictions. A research-quality instrumentation system was assembled, largely from commercial off-the-shelf components, and installed in the aircraft. Initial flight operations were conducted with a conventional rigid wing having the same dimensions as the inflatable wing. Subsequent flights were conducted with the inflatable wing. Research maneuvers were executed to identify the trim, aerodynamic performance, and longitudinal stability and control characteristics of the vehicle in its different wing configurations. For the angle-of-attack range spanned in this flight program, measured flight data demonstrated that the rigid wing was an effective simulator of the lift-generating capability of the inflatable wing. In-flight inflation of the wing was demonstrated in three flight operations, and measured flight data illustrated the dynamic characteristics during wing inflation and transition to controlled lifting flight. Wing inflation was rapid and the vehicle dynamics during inflation and transition were benign. The resulting angles of attack and of sideslip ere small, and the dynamic response was limited to roll and heave motions.

  18. Real-time flight test analysis and display techniques for the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, John W.; Petersen, Kevin L.

    1988-01-01

    The X-29A advanced technology demonstrator flight envelope expansion program and the subsequent flight research phase gave impetus to the development of several innovative real-time analysis and display techniques. These new techniques produced significant improvements in flight test productivity, flight research capabilities, and flight safety. These techniques include real-time measurement and display of in-flight structural loads, dynamic structural mode frequency and damping, flight control system dynamic stability and control response, aeroperformance drag polars, and aircraft specific excess power. Several of these analysis techniques also provided for direct comparisons of flight-measured results with analytical predictions. The aeroperformance technique was made possible by the concurrent development of a new simplified in-flight net thrust computation method. To achieve these levels of on-line flight test analysis, integration of ground and airborne systems was required. The capability of NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility's Western Aeronautical Test Range was a key factor in enabling implementation of these methods.

  19. Emergency in-flight egress for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.

    1981-01-01

    A NASA program for development of an inflight egress system for the left (pilot) door of general aviation aircraft is described. The pyrotechnic release door was felt to be necessary because of pilot difficulty in reaching the right door when subjected to spin/stall centrifugal effects. A flexible, linear shaped charged of hexanitrostibene II and a lanyard actuated detonator are discussed, along with mock-up tests and instrumentation. The egress system was designed for minimum structural impact, mimimum pilot initiation procedures, low weight, and no egress interference, and to provide sufficient force to blow off the door, have low required maintenance, and high reliability. Results of 68 tests are reviewed, noting the inclusion of a screen to keep glass fragments from spraying the cabin. Certification was achieved, and uses in the F-111 and B-1 aircraft are noted.

  20. Short-term variation of cosmic radiation measured by aircraft under constant flight conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaejin; Nam, Uk-Won; Pyo, Jeonghyun; Kim, Sunghwan; Kwon, Yong-Jun; Lee, Jaewon; Park, Inchun; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Dachev, Tsventan P.

    2015-11-01

    The temporal variations in cosmic radiation on aircraft under constant flight conditions were measured by a Liulin detector. Rather than a commercial long-distance aircraft, we used a military reconnaissance aircraft performing a circular flight at a constant altitude over the Korean Peninsula. At 9144 m (30,000 ft), the mean and standard deviation of the radiation dose rate (among 35 measurements) was 2.3 and 0.17 μSv/h, respectively. The experiment yielded two observational results. First, the dose rate changed over a flight time of 5-7 h; second, no strong correlation was revealed between the cosmic rays observed from the ground-based neutron monitor and the radiation doses at aircraft altitude. These observations can provide insight into the short-term variation of cosmic radiation at aviation altitudes. When discarding various negligible factors, it is postulated that the changes in the geomagnetic field and the air density still could affect the variation of cosmic radiation at aircraft altitude. However, various factors are less known about the dependence on the cosmic radiation. Therefore, investigations of possible factors are also warranted at the monitoring points of space weather.

  1. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  2. Modern digital flight control system design for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, J. R.; Berry, P. W.; Stengel, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for and results from the design and evaluation of a digital flight control system (DFCS) for a CH-47B helicopter are presented. The DFCS employed proportional-integral control logic to provide rapid, precise response to automatic or manual guidance commands while following conventional or spiral-descent approach paths. It contained altitude- and velocity-command modes, and it adapted to varying flight conditions through gain scheduling. Extensive use was made of linear systems analysis techniques. The DFCS was designed, using linear-optimal estimation and control theory, and the effects of gain scheduling are assessed by examination of closed-loop eigenvalues and time responses.

  3. Stability and control derivative estimates obtained from flight data for the Beech 99 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, R. R.; Montgomery, T. D.

    1979-01-01

    Lateral-directional and longitudinal stability and control derivatives were determined from flight data by using a maximum likelihood estimator for the Beech 99 airplane. Data were obtained with the aircraft in the cruise configuration and with one-third flap deflection. The estimated derivatives show good agreement with the predictions of the manufacturer.

  4. Airline Transport Pilot, Aircraft Dispatcher, and Flight Navigator. Question Book. Expires September 1, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This question book was developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for testing applicants who are preparing for certification as airline transport pilots, aircraft dispatchers, or flight navigators. The publication contains several innovative features that are a departure from previous FAA publications related to air carrier personnel…

  5. Survey of piloting factors in V/STOL aircraft with implications for flight control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ringland, R. F.; Craig, S. J.

    1977-01-01

    Flight control system design factors involved for pilot workload relief are identified. Major contributors to pilot workload include configuration management and control and aircraft stability and response qualities. A digital fly by wire stability augmentation, configuration management, and configuration control system is suggested for reduction of pilot workload during takeoff, hovering, and approach.

  6. 14 CFR 135.97 - Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft and facilities for recent flight experience. 135.97 Section 135.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND...

  7. 14 CFR 91.715 - Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Transportation (14 CFR part 375). (Approved by the Office of Management and... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special flight authorizations for foreign civil aircraft. 91.715 Section 91.715 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION,...

  8. Orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation: Wind tunnel, simulation, and flight test overview and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homan, D. J.; Denison, D. E.; Elchert, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    A summary of the approach and landing test phase of the space shuttle program is given from the orbiter/shuttle carrier aircraft separation point of view. The data and analyses used during the wind tunnel testing, simulation, and flight test phases in preparation for the orbiter approach and landing tests are reported.

  9. LFC leading edge glove flight: Aircraft modification design, test article development and systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Etchberger, F. R.

    1983-01-01

    Reduction of skin friction drag by suction of boundary layer air to maintain laminar flow has been known since Prandtl's published work in 1904. The dramatic increases in fuel costs and the potential for periods of limited fuel availability provided the impetus to explore technologies to reduce transport aircraft fuel consumption. NASA sponsored the Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program in 1976 to develop technologies to improve fuel efficiency. This report documents the Lockheed-Georgia Company accomplishments in designing and fabricating a leading-edge flight test article incorporating boundary layer suction slots to be flown by NASA on their modified JetStar aircraft. Lockheed-Georgia Company performed as the integration contractor to design the JetStar aircraft modification to accept both a Lockheed and a McDonnell Douglas flight test article. McDonnell Douglas uses a porous skin concept. The report describes aerodynamic analyses, fabrication techniques, JetStar modifications, instrumentation requirements, and structural analyses and testing for the Lockheed test article. NASA will flight test the two LFC leading-edge test articles in a simulated commercial environment over a 6 to 8 month period in 1984. The objective of the flight test program is to evaluate the effectiveness of LFC leading-edge systems in reducing skin friction drag and consequently improving fuel efficiency.

  10. 48 CFR 1852.228-70 - Aircraft ground and flight risk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... unusually high insurance premiums and are not covered by the contractor's contents, work-in-process, and... merely incident to work being performed under the contract. Aircraft Ground and Flight Risk (OCT 1996) (a... the work, including but not limited to any repairing, adjusting, servicing, or maintenance...

  11. Application of fiber Bragg grating sensors in light aircraft: ground and flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Shrestha, Pratik; Park, Yurim; Kim, Chun-Gon

    2014-05-01

    Fiber optic sensors are being spotlighted as the means to monitoring aircraft conditions due to their excellent characteristics. This paper presents an affordable structural health monitoring system based on a fiber Bragg grating sensor (FBG) for application in light aircrafts. A total of 24 FBG sensors were installed in the main wing of the test bed aircraft. In the ground test, the intactness of the installed sensors and device operability were confirmed. During the flight test, the strain and temperature responses of the wing structure were measured by the on-board low-speed FBG interrogator. The measured strains were successfully converted into the flight load history through the load calibration coefficient obtained from the ground calibration test.

  12. Buffet induced structural/flight-control system interaction of the X-29A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.; Clarke, Robert

    1991-01-01

    High-alpha flight creates unique aerodynamic phenomena which increase the level of structural mode excitation; in conjunction with high-gain digital control systems, this structural response may result in an aeroservoelastic interaction. One such interaction has been observed during high-alpha flight testing of the X-29A. Data are presented which demonstrate the enhanced modal power in this aircraft's structural accelerometers, the feedback sensors, and the command signals as a function of alpha value. The structural interaction is traced from the aerodynamic buffet to the flight-control surfaces.

  13. Flight of a UV spectrophotometer aboard Galileo 2, the NASA Convair 990 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, B.; Hunderwadel, J. L.; Hanser, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    An ultraviolet interference-filter spectrophotometer (UVS) fabricated for aircraft-borne use on the DOT Climatic Impact Assessment Program (CIAP) has been successfully tested in a series of flights on the NASA Convair 990, Galileo II. UV flux data and the calculated total ozone above the flight path are reported for several of the flights. Good agreement is obtained with the total ozone as deducted by integration of an ozone sonde vertical profile obtained at Wallops Island, Virginia near the time of a CV-990 underpass. Possible advantages of use of the UVS in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program are discussed.

  14. Parameter estimation techniques and application in aircraft flight testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Technical papers presented at the symposium by selected representatives from industry, universities, and various Air Force, Navy, and NASA installations are given. The topics covered include the newest developments in identification techniques, the most recent flight-test experience, and the projected potential for the near future.

  15. Initial results from flight testing a large, remotely piloted airplane model. [flight tests of remotely controlled scale model of F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holleman, E. C. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The first four flights of a remotely piloted airplane model showed that a flight envelope can be expanded rapidly and that hazardous flight tests can be conducted safely with good results. The flights also showed that aerodynamic data can be obtained quickly and effectively over a wide range of flight conditions, clear and useful impressions of handling and controllability of configurations can be obtained, and present computer and electronic technology provide the capability to close flight control loops on the ground, thus providing a new method of design and flight test for advanced aircraft.

  16. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  17. The Goodrich 3rd generation DB-110 system: successful flight test on the F-16 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Davis; Iyengar, Mrinal; Maver, Larry; Dyer, Gavin; Francis, John

    2007-04-01

    The 3rd Generation Goodrich DB-110 system provides users with a three (3) field-of-view high performance Airborne Reconnaissance capability that incorporates a dual-band day and nighttime imaging sensor, a real time recording and a real time data transmission capability to support long range, medium range, and short range standoff and over-flight mission scenarios, all within a single pod. Goodrich developed their 3rd Generation Airborne Reconnaissance Pod for operation on a range of aircraft types including F-16, F-15, F-18, Euro-fighter and older aircraft such as the F-4, F-111, Mirage and Tornado. This system upgrades the existing, operationally proven, 2nd generation DB-110 design with enhancements in sensor resolution, flight envelope and other performance improvements. Goodrich recently flight tested their 3rd Generation Reconnaissance System on a Block 52 F-16 aircraft with first flight success and excellent results. This paper presents key highlights of the system and presents imaging results from flight test.

  18. EOS Aqua AMSR-E Arctic Sea Ice Validation Program: Arctic2003 Aircraft Campaign Flight Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavalieri, D. J.; Markus,T.

    2003-01-01

    In March 2003 a coordinated Arctic sea ice validation field campaign using the NASA Wallops P-3B aircraft was successfully completed. This campaign was part of the program for validating the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) sea ice products. The AMSR-E, designed and built by the Japanese National Space Development Agency for NASA, was launched May 4, 2002 on the EOS Aqua spacecraft. The AMSR-E sea ice products to be validated include sea ice concentration, sea ice temperature, and snow depth on sea ice. This flight report describes the suite of instruments flown on the P-3, the objectives of each of the seven flights, the Arctic regions overflown, and the coordination among satellite, aircraft, and surface-based measurements. Two of the seven aircraft flights were coordinated with scientists making surface measurements of snow and ice properties including sea ice temperature and snow depth on sea ice at a study area near Barrow, AK and at a Navy ice camp located in the Beaufort Sea. Two additional flights were dedicated to making heat and moisture flux measurements over the St. Lawrence Island polynya to support ongoing air-sea-ice processes studies of Arctic coastal polynyas. The remaining flights covered portions of the Bering Sea ice edge, the Chukchi Sea, and Norton Sound.

  19. Simulator Evaluation of Simplified Propulsion-Only Emergency Flight Control Systems on Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Kaneshige, John; Bull, John; Maine, Trindel A.

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of digital engine control systems, considering the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control has become feasible. Many incidents have occurred in which engine thrust supplemented or replaced normal aircraft flight controls. In most of these cases, a crash has resulted, and more than 1100 lives have been lost. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control capability. Using this PCA system, an F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight controls. In simulations, C-17, B-757, and B-747 PCA systems have also been evaluated successfully. These tests used full-authority digital electronic control systems on the engines. Developing simpler PCA systems that can operate without full-authority engine control, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at lower cost, is also a desire. Studies have examined simplified ?PCA Ultralite? concepts in which thrust control is provided using an autothrottle system supplemented by manual differential throttle control. Some of these concepts have worked well. The PCA Ultralite study results are presented for simulation tests of MD-11, B-757, C-17, and B-747 aircraft.

  20. Induced Moment Effects of Formation Flight Using Two F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Jennifer L.; Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2002-01-01

    Previous investigations into formation flight have shown the possibility for significant fuel savings through drag reduction. Using two F/A-18 aircraft, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has investigated flying aircraft in autonomous formation. Positioning the trailing airplane for best drag reduction requires investigation of the wingtip vortex effects induced by the leading airplane. A full accounting of the vortex effect on the trailing airplane is desired to validate vortex-effect prediction methods and provide a database for the design of a formation flight autopilot. A recent flight phase has mapped the complete wingtip vortex effects at two flight conditions with the trailing airplane at varying distances behind the leading one. Force and moment data at Mach 0.56 and an altitude of 25,000 ft and Mach 0.86 and an altitude of 36,000 ft have been obtained with 20, 55, 110, and 190 ft of longitudinal distance between the aircraft. The moments induced by the vortex on the trailing airplane were well within the pilot's ability to control. This report discusses the data analysis methods and vortex-induced effects on moments and side force. An assessment of the impact of the nonlinear vortex effects on the design of a formation autopilot is offered.

  1. Analysis of Control Strategies for Aircraft Flight Upset Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.; Cox, David E.; Muri, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for studying the ability of a control strategy, consisting of a control law and a command law, to recover an aircraft from ight conditions that may extend beyond the normal ight envelope. This study was carried out (i) by evaluating time responses of particular ight upsets, (ii) by evaluating local stability over an equilibrium manifold that included stall, and (iii) by bounding the set in the state space from where the vehicle can be safely own to wings-level ight. These states comprise what will be called the safely recoverable ight envelope (SRFE), which is a set containing the aircraft states from where a control strategy can safely stabilize the aircraft. By safe recovery it is implied that the tran- sient response stays between prescribed limits before converging to a steady horizontal ight. The calculation of the SRFE bounds yields the worst-case initial state corresponding to each control strategy. This information is used to compare alternative recovery strategies, determine their strengths and limitations, and identify the most e ective strategy. In regard to the control law, the authors developed feedback feedforward laws based on the gain scheduling of multivariable controllers. In regard to the command law, which is the mechanism governing the exogenous signals driving the feed- forward component of the controller, we developed laws with a feedback structure that combines local stability and transient response considera- tions. The upset recovery of the Generic Transport Model, a sub-scale twin-engine jet vehicle developed by NASA Langley Research Center, is used as a case study.

  2. Effects of wing modification on an aircraft's aerodynamic parameters as determined from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of the effects of four wing-leading-edge modifications on a general aviation aircraft's stability and control parameters is presented. Flight data from the basic aircraft configuration and configurations with wing modifications are analyzed to determine each wing geometry's stability and control parameters. The parameter estimates and aerodynamic model forms are obtained using the stepwise regression and maximum likelihood techniques. The resulting parameter estimates and aerodynamic models are verified using vortex-lattice theory and by analysis of each model's ability to predict aircraft behavior. Comparisons of the stability and control derivative estimates from the basic wing and the four leading-edge modifications are accomplished so that the effects of each modification on aircraft stability and control derivatives can be determined.

  3. Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, Christopher L. (Editor); Whalley, Matthew S. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document contains papers from a specialists' meeting entitled 'Piloting Vertical Flight Aircraft: A Conference on Flying Qualities and Human Factors.' Vertical flight aircraft, including helicopters and a variety of Vertical Takeoff and Landing (VTOL) concepts, place unique requirements on human perception, control, and performance for the conduct of their design missions. The intent of this conference was to examine, for these vehicles, advances in: (1) design of flight control systems for ADS-33C standards; (2) assessment of human factors influences of cockpit displays and operational procedures; (3) development of VTOL design and operational criteria; and (4) development of theoretical methods or models for predicting pilot/vehicle performance and mission suitability. A secondary goal of the conference was to provide an initial venue for enhanced interaction between human factors and handling qualities specialists.

  4. Extraction from flight data of lateral aerodynamic coefficients for F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Suit, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    A parameter-extraction algorithm was used to determine the lateral aerodynamic derivatives from flight data for the F-8 aircraft with supercritical wing. The flight data used were the recorded responses to aileron or rudder pulses for Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.90, and 0.98. Results of this study showed that a set of derivatives were determined which yielded a calculated aircraft response almost identical with the response measured in flight. Derivatives extracted from motion resulting from rudder inputs were somewhat different from those resulting from aileron inputs. It was found that the derivatives obtained from the rudder-input data were highly correlated in some instances. Those from the aileron input had very low correlations and appeared to be the more reliable.

  5. Effect of motion frequency spectrum on subjective comfort response. [modeling passenger reactions to commercial aircraft flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Schoultz, M. B.; Blake, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    In order to model passenger reaction to present and future aircraft environments, it is necessary to obtain data in several ways. First, of course, is the gathering of environmental and passenger reaction data on commercial aircraft flights. In addition, detailed analyses of particular aspects of human reaction to the environment are best studied in a controllable experimental situation. Thus the use of simulators, both flight and ground based, is suggested. It is shown that there is a reasonably high probability that the low frequency end of the spectrum will not be necessary for simulation purposes. That is, the fidelity of any simulation which omits the very low frequency content will not yield results which differ significantly from the real environment. In addition, there does not appear to be significant differences between the responses obtained in the airborne simulator environment versus those obtained on commercial flights.

  6. Multiplexing electro-optic architectures for advanced aircraft integrated flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, D. W.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the results of a 10 month program sponsored by NASA. The objective of this program was to evaluate various optical sensor modulation technologies and to design an optimal Electro-Optic Architecture (EOA) for servicing remote clusters of sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft flight control systems. The EOA's supply optical power to remote sensors and actuators, process the modulated optical signals returned from the sensors, and produce conditioned electrical signals acceptable for use by a digital flight control computer or Vehicle Management System (VMS) computer. This study was part of a multi-year initiative under the Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program to design, develop, and test a totally integrated fiber optic flight/propulsion control system for application to advanced aircraft. Unlike earlier FOCSI studies, this program concentrated on the design of the EOA interface rather than the optical transducer technology itself.

  7. Design Challenges Encountered in a Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft Flight Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maine, Trindel; Burken, John; Burcham, Frank; Schaefer, Peter

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center conducted flight tests of a propulsion-controlled aircraft system on an F-15 airplane. This system was designed to explore the feasibility of providing safe emergency landing capability using only the engines to provide flight control in the event of a catastrophic loss of conventional flight controls. Control laws were designed to control the flightpath and bank angle using only commands to the throttles. Although the program was highly successful, this paper highlights some of the challenges associated with using engine thrust as a control effector. These challenges include slow engine response time, poorly modeled nonlinear engine dynamics, unmodeled inlet-airframe interactions, and difficulties with ground effect and gust rejection. Flight and simulation data illustrate these difficulties.

  8. A USA Commercial Flight Track Database for Upper Tropospheric Aircraft Emission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Donald P.; Minnis, Patrick; Costulis, Kay P.

    2003-01-01

    A new air traffic database over the contiguous United States of America (USA) has been developed from a commercially available real-time product for 2001-2003 for all non-military flights above 25,000 ft. Both individual flight tracks and gridded spatially integrated flight legs are available. On average, approximately 24,000 high-altitude flights were recorded each day. The diurnal cycle of air traffic over the USA is characterized by a broad daytime maximum with a 0130-LT minimum and a mean day-night air traffic ratio of 2.4. Each week, the air traffic typically peaks on Thursday and drops to a low Saturday with a range of 18%. Flight density is greatest during late summer and least during winter. The database records the disruption of air traffic after the air traffic shutdown during September 2001. The dataset should be valuable for realistically simulating the atmospheric effects of aircraft in the upper troposphere.

  9. Applicability of Randomdec technique to flight simulator for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, R. E., Jr.; Cole, H. A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of Randomdec analysis to detect certain changes in a flight simulator system is studied. Results show that (1) additional studies are needed to ensure effectiveness; (2) a trade-off exists between development complexity and level of malfunction to be detected; and (3) although the system generally limits the input signals to less than about 5 Hz, higher frequency components in the range of 9 Hz and its harmonics are possible.

  10. The History of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor Research Aircraft: From Concept to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maisel, Martin D.; Giulianetti, Demo J.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    2000-01-01

    This monograph is a testament to the efforts of many people overcoming multiple technical challenges encountered while developing the XV-15 tilt rotor research aircraft. The Ames involvement with the tilt rotor aircraft began in 1957 with investigations of the performance and dynamic behavior of the Bell XV-3 tilt rotor aircraft. At that time, Ames Research Center was known as the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As we approach the new millennium, and after more than 40 years of effort and the successful completion of our initial goals, it is appropriate to reflect on the technical accomplishments and consider the future applications of this unique aircraft class, the tilt rotor. The talented engineers, technicians, managers, and leaders at Ames have worked hard with their counterparts in the U.S. rotorcraft industry to overcome technology barriers and to make the military and civil tilt rotor aircraft safer, environmentally acceptable, and more efficient. The tilt rotor aircraft combines the advantages of vertical takeoff and landing capabilities, inherent to the helicopter, with the forward speed and range of a fixed wing turboprop airplane. Our studies have shown that this new vehicle type can provide the aviation transportation industry with the flexibility for highspeed, long-range flight, coupled with runway-independent operations, thus having a significant potential to relieve airport congestion. We see the tilt rotor aircraft as an element of the solution to this growing air transport problem.

  11. Aircraft flight simulation of spacelab experiment using an implanted telemetry system to obtain cardiovascular data from the monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccutcheon, E. P.; Miranda, R.; Fryer, T. B.; Hodges, G.; Newson, B. D.; Pace, N.

    1977-01-01

    The utility of a multichannel implantable telemetry system for obtaining cardiovascular data was tested in a monkey with a CV-990 aircraft flight simulation of a space flight experiment. Valuable data were obtained to aid planning and execution of flight experiments using chronically instrumented animals.

  12. Flight-service program for advanced composite rudders on transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Flight service experience and in-service inspection results are reported for DC-10 graphite composite rudders during the third year of airline service. Test results and status are also reported for ground-based and airborne graphite-epoxy specimens with three different epoxy resin systems to obtain moisture absorption data. Twenty graphite composite rudders were produced, nine of which were installed on commercial aircraft during the past three years. The rudders collectively accumulated 75,863 flight hours. The high time rudder accumulated 12,740 flight hours in slightly over 36 months. The graphite composite rudders were inspected visually at approximately 1000 flight hour intervals and ultrasonically at approximately 3000 flight hour intervals in accordance with in-service inspection plans. All rudders were judged acceptable for continued service as a result of these inspections. Composite moisture absorption data on small specimens, both ground-based and carried aboard three flight-service aircraft, are given. The specimens include Thornel 300 fibers in Narmco 5208 and 5209 resin systems, and Type AS fibers in the Hercules 3501-6 resin system.

  13. Manual Throttles-Only Control Effectivity for Emergency Flight Control of Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Richard; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    If normal aircraft flight controls are lost, emergency flight control may be attempted using only the thrust of engines. Collective thrust is used to control flightpath, and differential thrust is used to control bank angle. One issue is whether a total loss of hydraulics (TLOH) leaves an airplane in a recoverable condition. Recoverability is a function of airspeed, altitude, flight phase, and configuration. If the airplane can be recovered, flight test and simulation results on several transport-class airplanes have shown that throttles-only control (TOC) is usually adequate to maintain up-and-away flight, but executing a safe landing is very difficult. There are favorable aircraft configurations, and also techniques that will improve recoverability and control and increase the chances of a survivable landing. The DHS and NASA have recently conducted a flight and simulator study to determine the effectivity of manual throttles-only control as a way to recover and safely land a range of transport airplanes. This paper discusses TLOH recoverability as a function of conditions, and TOC landability results for a range of transport airplanes, and some key techniques for flying with throttles and making a survivable landing. Airplanes evaluated include the B-747, B-767, B-777, B-757, A320, and B-737 airplanes.

  14. In-flight acoustic testing techniques using the YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. L.; Watts, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    This report discusses the flight testing techniques and equipment employed during air-to-air acoustic testing of helicopters at Ames Research Center. The in flight measurement technique used enables acoustic data to be obtained without the limitations of anechoic chambers or the multitude of variables encountered in ground based flyover testing. The air-to-air testing is made possible by the NASA YO-3A Acoustic Research Aircraft. This "Quiet Aircraft' is an acoustically instrumented version of a quiet observation aircraft manufactured for the military. To date, tests with the following aircraft have been conducted: YO-3A background noise; Hughes 500D; Hughes AH-64; Bell AH-1S; Bell AH-1G. Several system upgrades are being designed and implemented to improve the quality of data. This report will discuss not only the equipment involved and aircraft tested, but also the techniques used in these tests. In particular, formation flying position locations, and the test matrices will be discussed. Examples of data taken will also be presented.

  15. Determination of longitudinal aerodynamic derivatives using flight data from an icing research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Batterson, J. G.; Reehorst, A. L.; Bond, T. H.; Omara, T. M.

    1989-01-01

    A flight test was performed with the NASA Lewis Research Center's DH-6 icing research aircraft. The purpose was to employ a flight test procedure and data analysis method, to determine the accuracy with which the effects of ice on aircraft stability and control could be measured. For simplicity, flight testing was restricted to the short period longitudinal mode. Two flights were flown in a clean (baseline) configuration, and two flights were flown with simulated horizontal tail ice. Forty-five repeat doublet maneuvers were performed in each of four test configurations, at a given trim speed, to determine the ensemble variation of the estimated stability and control derivatives. Additional maneuvers were also performed in each configuration, to determine the variation in the longitudinal derivative estimates over a wide range of trim speeds. Stability and control derivatives were estimated by a Modified Stepwise Regression (MSR) technique. A measure of the confidence in the derivative estimates was obtained by comparing the standard error for the ensemble of repeat maneuvers, to the average of the estimated standard errors predicted by the MSR program. A multiplicative relationship was determined between the ensemble standard error, and the averaged program standard errors. In addition, a 95 percent confidence interval analysis was performed for the elevator effectiveness estimates, C sub m sub delta e. This analysis identified the speed range where changes in C sub m sub delta e could be attributed to icing effects. The magnitude of icing effects on the derivative estimates were strongly dependent on flight speed and aircraft wing flap configuration. With wing flaps up, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at lower speeds corresponding to that configuration. With wing flaps extended to 10 degrees, the estimated derivatives were degraded most at the higher corresponding speeds. The effects of icing on the changes in longitudinal stability and control

  16. Boom and the problems related to the supersonic flights of military aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thery, Christian; Lecomte, Claude

    1992-04-01

    The flight of a supersonic projectile is accompanied by a clapping called ballistic detonation. At the same time an aircraft in supersonic flight creates a boom which travels to the ground. The boom represents an impulsional characteristic which provokes a startled reaction in living beings and makes structures vibrate. Because of the elevated altitude of the flight of aircraft the boom is felt along a band of terrain situated along each side of the trajectory of the aircraft, as large as many tens of kilometers. The intensity of the boom essentially depends on the size of the aircraft that creates it, on its altitude, and on the maneuver that it is executing; the maneuvers which are executed by military aircraft provoke locally a very great intensification of booms, these are focalizations and superfocalizations. These phenomena appear especially at the time of transonic acceleration and when turning. The annoyance resulting from these focalized booms is therefore certain and related damage to aging or poorly constructed structures can occur; the sole means of limiting the nuisance which results will be to situate these focalized boom zones over uninhabited regions. A good preview of the affected zones requires precise a priori knowledge of the actual trajectory of the aircraft and the meteorological conditions; in practice therefore, the zones susceptible to being affected by these phenomena are fairly large. Above all, the effects of boom must not be overestimated. The first temporary damages to the auditory system are observed for levels of wave intensity greatly superior to the levels of booms (3000 to 5000 Pa as opposed to 50 or 70 Pa for a boom). The structural effects of normal booms are comparable to those resulting from natural inclemency (wind) or related to modern life (highway traffic). The focalized boom cannot have an impact on sound and well-constructed buildings except by cumulative effect (fatigue).

  17. Flight Test Experience with an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David; Flick, Brad (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  18. Flight Test Experience With an Electromechanical Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Stephen C.; Jenney, Gavin D.; Raymond, Bruce; Dawson, David

    2000-01-01

    Development of reliable power-by-wire actuation systems for both aeronautical and space applications has been sought recently to eliminate hydraulic systems from aircraft and spacecraft and thus improve safety, efficiency, reliability, and maintainability. The Electrically Powered Actuation Design (EPAD) program was a joint effort between the Air Force, Navy, and NASA to develop and fly a series of actuators validating power-by-wire actuation technology on a primary flight control surface of a tactical aircraft. To achieve this goal, each of the EPAD actuators was installed in place of the standard hydraulic actuator on the left aileron of the NASA F/A-18B Systems Research Aircraft (SRA) and flown throughout the SRA flight envelope. Numerous parameters were recorded, and overall actuator performance was compared with the performance of the standard hydraulic actuator on the opposite wing. This paper discusses the integration and testing of the EPAD electromechanical actuator (EMA) on the SRA. The architecture of the EMA system is discussed, as well as its integration with the F/A-18 Flight Control System. The flight test program is described, and actuator performance is shown to be very close to that of the standard hydraulic actuator it replaced. Lessons learned during this program are presented and discussed, as well as suggestions for future research.

  19. Maritime acoustic detection of aircraft to increase flight safety and homeland security: an experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Latasha; Sim, Leng; Tenney, Stephen

    2008-04-01

    For several years ARL has studied acoustics to track vehicles, helicopters, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and others targets of interest. More recently these same acoustic sensors were placed on a "simulated" buoy in an attempt to detect and track aircraft over a large body of water. This report will investigate the advantages of using acoustic arrays to track air and water craft from a fixed floating platform as well as potential concerns associated with this technology. Continuous monitoring of aircraft overflight will increase situational awareness while persistent monitoring of commercial and military flight paths increases overall homeland security.

  20. What ASRS incident data tell about flight crew performance during aircraft malfunctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumwalt, Robert L.; Watson, Alan W.

    1995-01-01

    This research examined 230 reports in NASA's Aviation Safety Reporting System's (ASRS) database to develop a better understanding of factors that can affect flight crew performance when crew are faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions. Each report was placed into one of two categories, based on severity of the malfunction. Report analysis was then conducted to extract information regarding crew procedural issues, crew communications and situational awareness. A comparison of these crew factors across malfunction type was then performed. This comparison revealed a significant difference in ways that crews dealt with serious malfunctions compared to less serious malfunctions. The authors offer recommendations toward improving crew performance when faced with inflight aircraft malfunctions.

  1. Flight test results for the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, R. Bryan; Zerweckh, Siegfried H.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the flight test program of the Daedalus and Light Eagle human powered aircraft in the winter of 1987/88 are given. The results from experiments exploring the Light Eagle's rigid body and structural dynamics are presented. The interactions of these dynamics with the autopilot design are investigated. Estimates of the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft are detailed. The system of sensors, signal conditioning boards, and data acquisition equipment used to record the flight data is also described. In order to investigate the dynamics of the aircraft, flight test maneuvers were developed to yield maximum data quality from the point of view of estimating lateral and longitudinal stability derivatives. From this data, structural flexibility and unsteady aerodynamics have been modeled in an ad hoc manner and are used to augment the equations of motion with flexibility effects. Results of maneuvers that were flown are compared with the predictions from the flexibility model. To extend the ad hoc flexibility model, a fully flexible aeroelastic model has been developed. The model is unusual in the approximate equality of many structural natural frequencies and the importance of unsteady aerodynamic effects. the Gossamer Albatross. It is hypothesized that this inverse ground effect is caused by turbulence in the Earth's boundary layer. The diameters of the largest boundary layer eddies (which represent most of the turbulent kinetic energy) are proportional to altitude; thus, closer to the ground, the energy in the boundary layer becomes concentrated in eddies of smaller and smaller diameter. Eventually the eddies become sufficiently small (approximately 0.5 cm) that they trip the laminar boundary layer on the wing. As a result, a greater percentage of the wing area is covered with turbulent flow. Consequently the aircraft's drag and the pow er required both increase as the aircraft flies closer to the ground. The results of the flight test program are

  2. FCAP - A new tool for the evaluation of active control technology. [Flight Control Analysis Program for flexible aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Morino, L.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program has been developed for the evaluation of flight control systems designed for flexible aircraft. This Flight Control Analysis Program (FCAP) is designed in a modular fashion to incorporate sensor, actuator, and control logic element dynamics as well as aircraft dynamics and aerodynamics for complex configurations. Formulation of the total aircraft dynamic system is accomplished in matrix form by casting the equations in state vector format. The system stability and performance are determined in either the frequency or time domain using classical analysis techniques. The aerodynamic method used also permits evaluation of the flutter characteristics of the aircraft.

  3. Analytical redundancy management mechanization and flight data analysis for the F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft flight control sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    The details are presented of an onboard digital computer algorithm designed to reliably detect and isolate the first failure in a duplex set of flight control sensors aboard the NASA F-8 digital fly-by-wire aircraft. The algorithm's successful flight test program is summarized, and specific examples are presented of algorithm behavior in response to software-induced signal faults, both with and without aircraft parameter modeling errors.

  4. Flight Services and Aircraft Access: Active Flow Control Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation Flight Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the Flight Services and Aircraft Access task order NNL14AA57T as part of NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Project ITD12A+. It includes descriptions of flight test preparations and execution for the Active Flow Control (AFC) Vertical Tail and Insect Accretion and Mitigation (IAM) experiments conducted on the 757 ecoDemonstrator. For the AFC Vertical Tail, this is the culmination of efforts under two task orders. The task order was managed by Boeing Research & Technology and executed by an enterprise-wide Boeing team that included Boeing Research & Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Boeing Defense and Space and Boeing Test and Evaluation. Boeing BR&T in St. Louis was responsible for overall Boeing project management and coordination with NASA. The 757 flight test asset was provided and managed by the BCA ecoDemonstrator Program, in partnership with Stifel Aircraft Leasing and the TUI Group. With this report, all of the required deliverables related to management of this task order have been met and delivered to NASA as summarized in Table 1. In addition, this task order is part of a broader collaboration between NASA and Boeing.

  5. 14 CFR 135.301 - Crewmember: Tests and checks, grace provisions, training to accepted standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Crewmember Testing Requirements § 135.301 Crewmember: Tests and checks... test or check in the calendar month in which it is required. (b) If a pilot being checked under this... the pilot during the course of the check. In addition to repeating the maneuvers failed, the...

  6. Expanding a flutter envelope using data from accelerating flight: Application to the F-16 fighter aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Charles A.

    Due to the destructive nature of flutter, flutter testing is a mandatory requirement for certification of both civilian and military aircraft. However, along with the complexity of newer aircraft, the time and cost associated with flutter testing has increased dramatically. Considering that many of the test techniques and analysis methods used to perform flutter testing date back to the 1950s and 1960's it may be time to take a fresh look at how flutter testing can best be accomplished. This thesis revisits flutter testing techniques and proposes an alternative to traditional flutter testing. The alternative uses flight test data from an aircraft that is performing an acceleration to clear the flutter envelope of the aircraft. Four academic issues arise from this new test approach. (1) Are frequencies and dampings affected by the acceleration of the aircraft? (2) Can parameter identification algorithms extract frequency and damping values from the time varying data? (3) Can the vibration response at airspeeds (or Mach numbers) beyond which the aircraft has accelerated be anticipated? (4) What formal criteria can be used to determine when the aircraft needs to end the acceleration and terminate the test point? The academic contribution of this thesis is to address these issues. It is shown that although the frequencies and damping values do change the change is so small that it is irrelevant. It is also shown that by taking small windows of data, within which the change in parameters is small, it is possible to accurately identify parameters from the time varying data. Finally it is shown that at least in principal parameters can be predicted using data from sub-critical airspeeds, and that testing can be discontinued before an unstable flight condition is reached.

  7. In-flight lift-drag characteristics for a forward-swept wing aircraft and comparisons with contemporary aircraft)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saltzman, Edwin J.; Hicks, John W.; Luke, Sue (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Lift (L) and drag (D) characteristics have been obtained in flight for the X-29A airplane (a forward swept-wing demonstrator) for Mach numbers (M) from 0.4 to 1.3. Most of the data were obtained near an altitude of 30,000 ft. A representative Reynolds number for M = 0.9, and a pressure altitude of 30,000 ft, is 18.6 x 10(exp 6) based on the mean aerodynamic chord. The X-29A data (forward-swept wing) are compared with three high-performance fighter aircraft: the F-15C, F-16C, and F/A18. The lifting efficiency of the X-29A, as defined by the Oswald lifting efficiency factor, e, is about average for a cantilevered monoplane for M = 0.6 and angles of attack up to those required for maximum L/D. At M = 0.6 the level of L/D and e, as a function of load factor, for the X-29A was about the same as for the contemporary aircraft. The X-29A and its contemporaries have high transonic wave drag and equivalent parasite area compared with aircraft of the 1940's through 1960's.

  8. Collision avoidance in commercial aircraft Free Flight via neural networks and non-linear programming.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Manolis A; Kontogeorgou, Chrysa

    2008-10-01

    In recent years there has been a great effort to convert the existing Air Traffic Control system into a novel system known as Free Flight. Free Flight is based on the concept that increasing international airspace capacity will grant more freedom to individual pilots during the enroute flight phase, thereby giving them the opportunity to alter flight paths in real time. Under the current system, pilots must request, then receive permission from air traffic controllers to alter flight paths. Understandably the new system allows pilots to gain the upper hand in air traffic. At the same time, however, this freedom increase pilot responsibility. Pilots face a new challenge in avoiding the traffic shares congested air space. In order to ensure safety, an accurate system, able to predict and prevent conflict among aircraft is essential. There are certain flight maneuvers that exist in order to prevent flight disturbances or collision and these are graded in the following categories: vertical, lateral and airspeed. This work focuses on airspeed maneuvers and tries to introduce a new idea for the control of Free Flight, in three dimensions, using neural networks trained with examples prepared through non-linear programming. PMID:18991361

  9. Application of variable structure system theory to aircraft flight control. [AV-8A and the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calise, A. J.; Kadushin, I.; Kramer, F.

    1981-01-01

    The current status of research on the application of variable structure system (VSS) theory to design aircraft flight control systems is summarized. Two aircraft types are currently being investigated: the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA), and AV-8A Harrier. The AWJSRA design considers automatic control of longitudinal dynamics during the landing phase. The main task for the AWJSRA is to design an automatic landing system that captures and tracks a localizer beam. The control task for the AV-8A is to track velocity commands in a hovering flight configuration. Much effort was devoted to developing computer programs that are needed to carry out VSS design in a multivariable frame work, and in becoming familiar with the dynamics and control problems associated with the aircraft types under investigation. Numerous VSS design schemes were explored, particularly for the AWJSRA. The approaches that appear best suited for these aircraft types are presented. Examples are given of the numerical results currently being generated.

  10. Dryden F-8 Research Aircraft Fleet 1973 in flight, DFBW and SCW

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (left) and F-8 Supercritical Wing in flight. These two aircraft fundamentally changed the nature of aircraft design. The F-8 DFBW pioneered digital flight controls and led to such computer-controlled airacrft as the F-117A, X-29, and X-31. Airliners such as the Boeing 777 and Airbus A320 also use digital fly-by-wire systems. The other aircraft is a highly modified F-8A fitted with a supercritical wing. Dr. Richard T. Whitcomb of Langley Research Center originated the supercritical wing concept in the late 1960s. (Dr. Whitcomb also developed the concept of the 'area rule' in the early 1950s. It singificantly reduced transonic drag.) The F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) flight research project validated the principal concepts of all-electric flight control systems now used on nearly all modern high-performance aircraft and on military and civilian transports. The first flight of the 13-year project was on May 25, 1972, with research pilot Gary E. Krier at the controls of a modified F-8C Crusader that served as the testbed for the fly-by-wire technologies. The project was a joint effort between the NASA Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, (now the Dryden Flight Research Center) and Langley Research Center. It included a total of 211 flights. The last flight was December 16, 1985, with Dryden research pilot Ed Schneider at the controls. The F-8 DFBW system was the forerunner of current fly-by-wire systems used in the space shuttles and on today's military and civil aircraft to make them safer, more maneuverable, and more efficient. Electronic fly-by-wire systems replaced older hydraulic control systems, freeing designers to design aircraft with reduced in-flight stability. Fly-by-wire systems are safer because of their redundancies. They are more maneuverable because computers can command more frequent adjustments than a human pilot can. For airliners, computerized control ensures a smoother ride than a human pilot alone can provide

  11. Highly Maneuverable Aircraft Technology (HiMAT) flight-flutter test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    The highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT) vehicle was evaluated in a joint NASA and Air Force flight test program. The HiMAT vehicle is a remotely piloted research vehicle. Its design incorporates the use of advanced composite materials in the wings, and canards for aeroelastic tailoring. A flight-flutter test program was conducted to clear a sufficient flight envelope to allow for performance, stability and control, and loads testing. Testing was accomplished with and without flight control-surface dampers. Flutter clearance of the vehicle indicated satisfactory damping and damping trends for the structural modes of the HiMAT vehicle. The data presented include frequency and damping plotted as a function of Mach number.

  12. Salmonellosis outbreak on transatlantic flights; foodborne illness on aircraft: 1947-1984.

    PubMed

    Tauxe, R V; Tormey, M P; Mascola, L; Hargrett-Bean, N T; Blake, P A

    1987-01-01

    In March 1984, 186 cases of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enteritidis were reported after 29 flights to the United States on an international airline. An estimated 2,747 passengers on flights to the United States were affected. Illness was associated with flying supersonic or first class (odds ratio = 15, p less than 0.001). Eating food from the first-class menu was associated with illness (p = 0.09), and eating a tourist-class entree was protective (p less than 0.01). In 23 reported outbreaks of foodborne illness on aircraft, Salmonella has been the most common pathogen (seven outbreaks), followed by Staphylococcus (five outbreaks), and Vibrio species (five outbreaks). Outbreaks are most often the result of an improper temperature for preparation or for holding food in the flight kitchens. Serving the flight crew meals from one kitchen carries the risk that the entire crew will become ill. PMID:3788944

  13. Frequency-Domain Identification of XV-15 Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Dynamics in Hovering Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Mark B.; Leung, Joseph G. M.; Dugan, Daniel C.

    1985-01-01

    Frequency-domain methods are used to identify the open-loop dynamics of the XV-15 tilt-rotor aircraft from flight tests. Piloting and data analysis techniques are presented to determine frequency response plots and equivalent transfer function models. The open-loop pitch and roll dynamics for the hover flight condition exhibit unstable low-frequency oscillations, whereas the dynamics in the remaining degrees of freedom are lightly damped and generally decoupled. Comparisons of XV-15 flight-test and simulator data are more favorable for high-frequency inputs (omega greater than 1.0 rad/sec) than low-frequency inputs. Time-domain comparisons of the extracted transfer functions with step response flight data are very favorable, even for large amplitude motions. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the utility of the frequency-domain techniques for dynamics identification and simulator fidelity studies.

  14. Hybrid Kalman Filter: A New Approach for Aircraft Engine In-Flight Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a uniquely structured Kalman filter is developed for its application to in-flight diagnostics of aircraft gas turbine engines. The Kalman filter is a hybrid of a nonlinear on-board engine model (OBEM) and piecewise linear models. The utilization of the nonlinear OBEM allows the reference health baseline of the in-flight diagnostic system to be updated to the degraded health condition of the engines through a relatively simple process. Through this health baseline update, the effectiveness of the in-flight diagnostic algorithm can be maintained as the health of the engine degrades over time. Another significant aspect of the hybrid Kalman filter methodology is its capability to take advantage of conventional linear and nonlinear Kalman filter approaches. Based on the hybrid Kalman filter, an in-flight fault detection system is developed, and its diagnostic capability is evaluated in a simulation environment. Through the evaluation, the suitability of the hybrid Kalman filter technique for aircraft engine in-flight diagnostics is demonstrated.

  15. Estimation of Handling Qualities Parameters of the Tu-144 Supersonic Transport Aircraft from Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Timothy J.; Batterson, James G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Low order equivalent system (LOES) models for the Tu-144 supersonic transport aircraft were identified from flight test data. The mathematical models were given in terms of transfer functions with a time delay by the military standard MIL-STD-1797A, "Flying Qualities of Piloted Aircraft," and the handling qualities were predicted from the estimated transfer function coefficients. The coefficients and the time delay in the transfer functions were estimated using a nonlinear equation error formulation in the frequency domain. Flight test data from pitch, roll, and yaw frequency sweeps at various flight conditions were used for parameter estimation. Flight test results are presented in terms of the estimated parameter values, their standard errors, and output fits in the time domain. Data from doublet maneuvers at the same flight conditions were used to assess the predictive capabilities of the identified models. The identified transfer function models fit the measured data well and demonstrated good prediction capabilities. The Tu-144 was predicted to be between level 2 and 3 for all longitudinal maneuvers and level I for all lateral maneuvers. High estimates of the equivalent time delay in the transfer function model caused the poor longitudinal rating.

  16. Flight testing a V/STOL aircraft to identify a full-envelope aerodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnally, B. David; Bach, Ralph E., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Flight-test techniques are being used to generate a data base for identification of a full-envelope aerodynamic model of a V/STOL fighter aircraft, the YAV-8B Harrier. The flight envelope to be modeled includes hover, transition to conventional flight and back to hover, STOL operation, and normal cruise. Standard V/STOL procedures such as vertical takeoff and landings, and short takeoff and landings are used to gather data in the powered-lift flight regime. Long (3 to 5 min) maneuvers which include a variety of input types are used to obtain large-amplitude control and response excitations. The aircraft is under continuous radar tracking; a laser tracker is used for V/STOL operations near the ground. Tracking data are used with state-estimation techniques to check data consistency and to derive unmeasured variables, for example, angular accelerations. A propulsion model of the YAV-8B's engine and reaction control system is used to isolate aerodynamic forces and moments for model identification. Representative V/STOL flight data are presented. The processing of a typical short takeoff and slow landing maneuver is illustrated.

  17. Sound Pressures and Correlations of Noise on the Fuselage of a Jet Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shattuck, Russell D.

    1961-01-01

    Tests were conducted at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000, and 30,000 feet at speeds of Mach 0.4, 0.6, and O.8. It was found that the sound pressure levels on the aft fuselage of a jet aircraft in flight can be estimated using an equation involving the true airspeed and the free air density. The cross-correlation coefficient over a spacing of 2.5 feet was generalized with Strouhal number. The spectrum of the noise in flight is comparatively flat up to 10,000 cycles per second.

  18. Fly-by-light flight control system architectures for tactical military aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrigan, Jack; Jones, Jack E.; Shaw, Brad

    1995-05-01

    Requirements for future advanced tactical aircraft identify the need for flight control system architectures that provide a higher degree of performance with regard to electromagnetic interference immunity, communication bus data rate, propulsion/utility subsystem integration, and affordability. Evolution of highly centralized, digital, fly-by-wire flight/propulsion/utility control system is achieved as modular functions are implemented and integrated by serial, digital, fiber optics communication links. These adaptable architectures allow the user to configure the fly-by-light system to meet unique safety requirements, system performance, and design to cost targets.

  19. Simulation and Flight Evaluation of a Parameter Estimation Input Design Method for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Ratnayake, Nalin A.

    2010-01-01

    As part of an effort to improve emissions, noise, and performance of next generation aircraft, it is expected that future aircraft will make use of distributed, multi-objective control effectors in a closed-loop flight control system. Correlation challenges associated with parameter estimation will arise with this expected aircraft configuration. Research presented in this paper focuses on addressing the correlation problem with an appropriate input design technique and validating this technique through simulation and flight test of the X-48B aircraft. The X-48B aircraft is an 8.5 percent-scale hybrid wing body aircraft demonstrator designed by The Boeing Company (Chicago, Illinois, USA), built by Cranfield Aerospace Limited (Cranfield, Bedford, United Kingdom) and flight tested at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California, USA). Based on data from flight test maneuvers performed at Dryden Flight Research Center, aerodynamic parameter estimation was performed using linear regression and output error techniques. An input design technique that uses temporal separation for de-correlation of control surfaces is proposed, and simulation and flight test results are compared with the aerodynamic database. This paper will present a method to determine individual control surface aerodynamic derivatives.

  20. In-flight alignment using H ∞ filter for strapdown INS on aircraft.

    PubMed

    Pei, Fu-Jun; Liu, Xuan; Zhu, Li

    2014-01-01

    In-flight alignment is an effective way to improve the accuracy and speed of initial alignment for strapdown inertial navigation system (INS). During the aircraft flight, strapdown INS alignment was disturbed by lineal and angular movements of the aircraft. To deal with the disturbances in dynamic initial alignment, a novel alignment method for SINS is investigated in this paper. In this method, an initial alignment error model of SINS in the inertial frame is established. The observability of the system is discussed by piece-wise constant system (PWCS) theory and observable degree is computed by the singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. It is demonstrated that the system is completely observable, and all the system state parameters can be estimated by optimal filter. Then a H ∞ filter was designed to resolve the uncertainty of measurement noise. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reach a better accuracy under the dynamic disturbance condition. PMID:24511300

  1. A new tool for radiation exposure calculations in aircraft flights during disturbed solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalis, Pavlos; Tezari, Anastasia; Gerontidou, Maria; Mavromichalaki, Helen

    2016-04-01

    Galactic cosmic rays and solar energetic particles can penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and interact with its molecules, which can cause atmospheric showers of secondary particles that are detected by ground based neutron monitor detectors. The cascades are of great importance for the study of the radiation exposure of aircraft crews. A new Geant4 software application is presented based on DYASTIMA (Dynamic Atmospheric Shower Tracking Interactive Model Application), which calculates the effective dose that aviators may receive in different flight scenarios characterized by different altitudes and different flight routes, during quiet and disturbed solar and cosmic ray activity. The concept is based on Monte Carlo simulations by using phantoms for the aircraft and the aviator and experimenting with different shielding materials.

  2. Optimization of the terrain following radar flight cues in special operations aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garman, Patrick J.; Trang, Jeff A.

    1995-05-01

    Over the past 18 months the Army has been developing a terrain following capability in it's next generation special operations aircraft (SOA), the MH-60K and the MH-47E. As two experimental test pilots assigned to the Army's Airworthiness Qualification Test Directorate of the US Army Aviation Technical Test Center, we would like to convey the role that human factors has played in the development of the MMR for terrain following operations in the SOA. In the MH-60K, the pilot remains the interface between the aircraft, via the flight controls and the processed radar data, and the flight director cues. The presentation of the processed radar data to the pilot significantly affects the overall system performance, and is directly driven by the way humans see, process, and react to stimuli. Our development has been centered around the optimization of this man-machine interface.

  3. Flight test evaluation of predicted light aircraft drag, performance, and stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    A technique was developed which permits simultaneous extraction of complete lift, drag, and thrust power curves from time histories of a single aircraft maneuver such as a pull up (from V max to V stall) and pushover (to V max for level flight). The technique, which is an extension of nonlinear equations of motion of the parameter identification methods of Iliff and Taylor and includes provisions for internal data compatibility improvement as well, was shown to be capable of correcting random errors in the most sensitive data channel and yielding highly accurate results. Flow charts, listings, sample inputs and outputs for the relevant routines are provided as appendices. This technique was applied to flight data taken on the ATLIT aircraft. Lack of adequate knowledge of the correct full throttle thrust horsepower true airspeed variation and considerable internal data inconsistency made it impossible to apply the trajectory matching features of the technique.

  4. Comparisons of simulator and flight results on augmentor-wing jet STOL research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Innis, R. C.; Anderson, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    The considerations involved in making a piloted simulator an effective research tool in the design and development of new aircraft are discussed. An assessment of the limitations of the simulator in depicting real flight as well as the problem of recognizing erroneous results when the simulator is supplied with incorrect input data is made. Examples of the ways in which the simulator is used to design and develop the augmentor-wing aircraft are presented. Four areas of investigation are: (1) to design the lateral control system for proper feel and response, (2) determine the effect of engine failure during approach, (3) develop the best technique for controlling flight path during approach, and (4) the significance of lift loss in ground effect and how to compensate for such loss.

  5. In-Flight Lightning Measurements and Reconstruction on a Metallic and Composite Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boiddin, J.-F.; Flourens, F.; De Boer, A.; Bardet, M.; Herve, A.; Perez, G.; Riccio, L.

    2012-05-01

    Based on the success of the In-flight Lightning Strike Damage Assessment System (ILDAS) project launched within the scope of the Sixth Framework Programme of the European Commission and completed in July 2009, the results described in this paper form part of the ILDAS2 project initiated by Airbus Operations SAS in partnership with EADS IW and NLR. The principle aim of ILDAS2 project is to develop a system installed aboard an aircraft in order to determine the level, the current waveform and the attachments points of a lightning strike during an aircraft flight. The expectations linked to ILDAS2, the functional architecture of the system, the status and the projection of this development will be presented.

  6. In-Flight Alignment Using H∞ Filter for Strapdown INS on Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Fu-Jun; Liu, Xuan; Zhu, Li

    2014-01-01

    In-flight alignment is an effective way to improve the accuracy and speed of initial alignment for strapdown inertial navigation system (INS). During the aircraft flight, strapdown INS alignment was disturbed by lineal and angular movements of the aircraft. To deal with the disturbances in dynamic initial alignment, a novel alignment method for SINS is investigated in this paper. In this method, an initial alignment error model of SINS in the inertial frame is established. The observability of the system is discussed by piece-wise constant system (PWCS) theory and observable degree is computed by the singular value decomposition (SVD) theory. It is demonstrated that the system is completely observable, and all the system state parameters can be estimated by optimal filter. Then a H∞ filter was designed to resolve the uncertainty of measurement noise. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reach a better accuracy under the dynamic disturbance condition. PMID:24511300

  7. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  8. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center Unmanned Aircraft System Service Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Over 60 years of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) expertise at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center are being leveraged to provide capability and expertise to the international UAS community. The DFRC brings together technical experts, UAS, and an operational environment to provide government and industry a broad capability to conduct research, perform operations, and mature systems, sensors, and regulation. The cornerstone of this effort is the acquisition of both a Global Hawk (Northrop Grumman Corporation, Los Angeles, California) and Predator B (General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., San Diego, California) unmanned aircraft system (UAS). In addition, a test range for small UAS will allow developers to conduct research and development flights without the need to obtain approval from civil authorities. Finally, experts are available to government and industry to provide safety assessments in support of operations in civil airspace. These services will allow developers to utilize limited resources to their maximum capability in a highly competitive environment.

  9. Flight dynamics simulation modeling and control of a large flexible tiltrotor aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, Ondrej

    A high order rotorcraft mathematical model is developed and validated against the XV-15 and a Large Civil Tiltrotor (LCTR) concept. The mathematical model is generic and allows for any rotorcraft configuration, from single main rotor helicopters to coaxial and tiltrotor aircraft. Rigid-body and inflow states, as well as flexible wing and blade states are used in the analysis. The separate modeling of each rotorcraft component allows for structural flexibility to be included, which is important when modeling large aircraft where structural modes affect the flight dynamics frequency ranges of interest, generally 1 to 20 rad/sec. Details of the formulation of the mathematical model are given, including derivations of structural, aerodynamic, and inertial loads. The linking of the components of the aircraft is developed using an approach similar to multibody analyses by exploiting a tree topology, but without equations of constraints. Assessments of the effects of wing flexibility are given. Flexibility effects are evaluated by looking at the nature of the couplings between rigid-body modes and wing structural modes and vice versa. The effects of various different forms of structural feedback on aircraft dynamics are analyzed. A proportional-integral feedback on the structural acceleration is deemed to be most effective at both improving the damping and reducing the overall excitation of a structural mode. A model following control architecture is then implemented on full order flexible LCTR models. For this aircraft, the four lowest frequency structural modes are below 20 rad/sec, and are thus needed for control law development and analysis. The impact of structural feedback on both Attitude-Command, Attitude-Hold (ACAH) and Translational Rate Command (TRC) response types are investigated. A rigid aircraft model has optimistic performance characteristics, and a control system designed for a rigid aircraft could potentially destabilize a flexible one. The various

  10. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  11. Analysis of interior noise ground and flight test data for advanced turboprop aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, M. A.; Tran, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    Interior noise ground tests conducted on a DC-9 aircraft test section are described. The objectives were to study ground test and analysis techniques for evaluating the effectiveness of interior noise control treatments for advanced turboprop aircraft, and to study the sensitivity of the ground test results to changes in various test conditions. Noise and vibration measurements were conducted under simulated advanced turboprop excitation, for two interior noise control treatment configurations. These ground measurement results were compared with results of earlier UHB (Ultra High Bypass) Demonstrator flight tests with comparable interior treatment configurations. The Demonstrator is an MD-80 test aircraft with the left JT8D engine replaced with a prototype UHB advanced turboprop engine.

  12. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... characteristics of an applicant that could adversely affect safety. (5) The corrective action in the case of... situations that are likely to develop during instruction; (2) The potential results of improper or untimely... required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures in the aircraft. (7) Except for holders of a...

  13. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... characteristics of an applicant that could adversely affect safety. (5) The corrective action in the case of... situations that are likely to develop during instruction; (2) The potential results of improper or untimely... required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures in the aircraft. (7) Except for holders of a...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1095 - Initial and transition training and checking: Flight instructors (aircraft), flight instructors...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... characteristics of an applicant that could adversely affect safety. (5) The corrective action in the case of... situations that are likely to develop during instruction; (2) The potential results of improper or untimely... required normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures in the aircraft. (7) Except for holders of a...

  15. Flight control systems research. [optimization of F-8 aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, H. P.; Baram, Y.; Cheng, Y.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical development is reported for the parameter optimization design technique needed for digital flight control system design. The results of an example case study applying the optimization technique for continuous systems to an F-8 aircraft feedback control system are presented. The concept of evolving the simplest system configuration that is capable of meeting a specified set of performance requirements is illustrated in this work.

  16. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 7: Tilt rotor flight control program feedback studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, H. R.; Eason, W.; Gillmore, K.; Morris, J.; Spittle, R.

    1973-01-01

    An exploratory study has been made of the use of feedback control in tilt rotor aircraft. This has included the use of swashplate cyclic and collective controls and direct lift control. Various sensor and feedback systems are evaluated in relation to blade loads alleviation, improvement in flying qualities, and modal suppression. Recommendations are made regarding additional analytical and wind tunnel investigations and development of feedback systems in the full scale flight vehicle. Estimated costs and schedules are given.

  17. Criteria for design of integrated flight/propulsion control systems for STOVL fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.

    1993-01-01

    As part of NASA's program to develop technology for short takeoff and vertical landing (STOVL) fighter aircraft, control system designs have been developed for a conceptual STOVL aircraft. This aircraft is representative of the class of mixed-flow remote-lift concepts that was identified as the preferred design approach by the U.S./U.K. STOVL Joint Assessment and Ranking Team. The control system designs have been evaluated throughout the powered-lift flight envelope on the Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) at Ames Research Center. Items assessed in the control system evaluation were: maximum control power used in transition and vertical flight, control system dynamic response associated with thrust transfer for attitude control, thrust margin in the presence of ground effect and hot-gas ingestion, and dynamic thrust response for the engine core. Effects of wind, turbulence, and ship airwake disturbances are incorporated in the evaluation. Results provide the basis for a reassessment of existing flying-qualities design criteria applied to STOVL aircraft.

  18. CID-720 aircraft Langley Research Center preflight hardware tests: Development, flight acceptance and qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The testing conducted on LaRC-developed hardware for the controlled impact demonstration transport aircraft is discussed. To properly develop flight qualified crash systems, two environments were considered: the aircraft flight environment with the focus on vibration and temperature effects, and the crash environment with the long pulse shock effects. Also with the large quantity of fuel in the wing tanks the possibility of fire was considered to be a threat to data retrieval and thus fire tests were included in the development test process. The aircraft test successfully demonstrated the performance of the LaRC developed heat shields. Good telemetered data (S-band) was received during the impact and slide-out phase, and even after the aircraft came to rest. The two onboard DAS tape recorders were protected from the intense fire and high quality tape data was recovered. The complete photographic system performed as planned throughout the 40.0 sec of film supply. The four photo power distribution pallets remained in good condition and all ten onboard 16 mm high speed (400 frames/sec) cameras produced good film data.

  19. Ground-recorded sonic boom signatures of F-18 aircraft formation flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft. An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  20. Ground-Recorded Sonic Boom Signatures of F-18 Aircraft in Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahm, Catherine M.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Two F-18 aircraft were flown, one above the other, in two formations, in order for the shock systems of the two aircraft to merge and propagate to the ground. The first formation had the canopy of the lower F-18 in the tail shock of the upper F-18 (called tail-canopy). The second formation had the canopy of the lower F- 18 in the inlet shock of the upper F-18 (called inlet-canopy). The flight conditions were Mach 1.22 and an altitude of 23,500 ft . An array of five sonic boom recorders was used on the ground to record the sonic boom signatures. This paper describes the flight test technique and the ground level sonic boom signatures. The tail-canopy formation resulted in two, separated, N-wave signatures. Such signatures probably resulted from aircraft positioning error. The inlet-canopy formation yielded a single modified signature; two recorders measured an approximate flattop signature. Loudness calculations indicated that the single inlet-canopy signatures were quieter than the two, separated tail-canopy signatures. Significant loudness occurs after a sonic boom signature. Such loudness probably comes from the aircraft engines.

  1. 49 CFR 1544.233 - Security coordinators and crewmembers, training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Security coordinators and crewmembers, training. 1544.233 Section 1544.233 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY: AIR CARRIERS AND...

  2. The SR-71 Test Bed Aircraft: A Facility for High-Speed Flight Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corda, Stephen; Moes, Timothy R.; Mizukami, Masashi; Hass, Neal E.; Jones, Daniel; Monaghan, Richard C.; Ray, Ronald J.; Jarvis, Michele L.; Palumbo, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    The SR-71 test bed aircraft is shown to be a unique platform to flight-test large experiments to supersonic Mach numbers. The test bed hardware mounted on the SR-71 upper fuselage is described. This test bed hardware is composed of a fairing structure called the "canoe" and a large "reflection plane" flat plate for mounting experiments. Total experiment weights, including the canoe and reflection plane, as heavy as 14,500 lb can be mounted on the aircraft and flight-tested to speeds as fast as Mach 3.2 and altitudes as high as 80,000 ft. A brief description of the SR-71 aircraft is given, including details of the structural modifications to the fuselage, modifications to the J58 engines to provide increased thrust, and the addition of a research instrumentation system. Information is presented based on flight data that describes the SR-71 test bed aerodynamics, stability and control, structural and thermal loads, the canoe internal environment, and reflection plane flow quality. Guidelines for designing SR-71 test bed experiments are also provided.

  3. Deflection-Based Aircraft Structural Loads Estimation with Comparison to Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizotte, Andrew M.; Lokos, William A.

    2005-01-01

    Traditional techniques in structural load measurement entail the correlation of a known load with strain-gage output from the individual components of a structure or machine. The use of strain gages has proved successful and is considered the standard approach for load measurement. However, remotely measuring aerodynamic loads using deflection measurement systems to determine aeroelastic deformation as a substitute to strain gages may yield lower testing costs while improving aircraft performance through reduced instrumentation weight. With a reliable strain and structural deformation measurement system this technique was examined. The objective of this study was to explore the utility of a deflection-based load estimation, using the active aeroelastic wing F/A-18 aircraft. Calibration data from ground tests performed on the aircraft were used to derive left wing-root and wing-fold bending-moment and torque load equations based on strain gages, however, for this study, point deflections were used to derive deflection-based load equations. Comparisons between the strain-gage and deflection-based methods are presented. Flight data from the phase-1 active aeroelastic wing flight program were used to validate the deflection-based load estimation method. Flight validation revealed a strong bending-moment correlation and slightly weaker torque correlation. Development of current techniques, and future studies are discussed.

  4. Flight testing of a remotely piloted vehicle for aircraft parameter estimation purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seanor, Brad A.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of this research effort was to show that a reliable RPV could be built, tested, and successfully used for flight testing and parameter estimation purposes, in an academic setting. This was a fundamental step towards the creation of an automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). This research project was divided into four phases. Phase one involved the construction, development, and initial flight of a Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV), the West Virginia University (WVU) Boeing 777 (B777) aircraft. This phase included the creation of an onboard instrumentation system to provide aircraft flight data. The objective of the second phase was to estimate the longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control derivatives from actual flight data for the B777 model. This involved performing and recording flight test maneuvers used for analysis of the longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates. Flight maneuvers included control surface doublets produced by the elevator, aileron, and rudder controls. A parameter estimation program known as pEst, developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC), was used to compute the off-line estimates of parameters from collected flight data. This estimation software uses the Maximum Likelihood (ML) method with a Newton-Raphson (NR) minimization algorithm. The mathematical model used a traditional static and dynamic derivative buildup. Phase three focused on comparing a linear model obtained from the phase two ML estimates, with linear models obtained from a (i) Batch Least Squares Technique (BLS) and (ii) a technique from the Matlab system identification toolbox. Historically, aircraft parameter estimation has been performed off-line using recorded flight data from specifically designed maneuvers. In recent years, several on-line parameter identification techniques have been evaluated for real-time on-line applications. Along this research line, a novel contribution of this work was to compare the off

  5. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  6. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  7. The planning and execution of ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft flights over Antarctica, August and September 1987

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuck, A. F.; Watson, R. T.; Condon, E. P.; Toon, O. B.; Margitan, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    The significant ozone loss in the lower stratosphere over Antarctica during recent austral springs was studied by instrumented ER-2 and DC-8 aircraft. Data on the homogeneous gas composition, polar stratospheric clouds, and on tracers for dynamic motion are provided. The mission design is described, the aircraft and their payloads are documented, and the flight tracks are specified.

  8. An Evaluation Technique for an F/A-18 Aircraft Loads Model Using F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft Flight Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olney, Candida D.; Hillebrandt, Heather; Reichenbach, Eric Y.

    2000-01-01

    A limited evaluation of the F/A-18 baseline loads model was performed on the Systems Research Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Edwards, California). Boeing developed the F/A-18 loads model using a linear aeroelastic analysis in conjunction with a flight simulator to determine loads at discrete locations on the aircraft. This experiment was designed so that analysis of doublets could be used to establish aircraft aerodynamic and loads response at 20 flight conditions. Instrumentation on the right outboard leading edge flap, left aileron, and left stabilator measured the hinge moment so that comparisons could be made between in-flight-measured hinge moments and loads model-predicted values at these locations. Comparisons showed that the difference between the loads model-predicted and in-flight-measured hinge moments was up to 130 percent of the flight limit load. A stepwise regression technique was used to determine new loads derivatives. These derivatives were placed in the loads model, which reduced the error to within 10 percent of the flight limit load. This paper discusses the flight test methodology, a process for determining loads coefficients, and the direct comparisons of predicted and measured hinge moments and loads coefficients.

  9. High-angle-of-attack yawing moment asymmetry of the X-31 aircraft from flight test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    1994-01-01

    Significant yawing moment asymmetries were encountered during the high-angle-of-attack envelope expansion of the two X-31 aircraft. These asymmetries led to position saturations of the thrust vector vanes and trailing-edge flaps during some of the dynamic stability axis rolling maneuvers at high angles of attack. This slowed the high-angle-of-attack envelope expansion and resulted in maneuver restrictions. Several aerodynamic modifications were made to the X-31 forebody with the goal of minimizing the asymmetry. A method for determining the yawing moment asymmetry from flight data was developed and an analysis of the various configuration changes completed. The baseline aircraft were found to have significant asymmetries above 45 deg angle of attack with the largest asymmetry typically occurring around 60 deg angle of attack. Applying symmetrical boundary layer transition strips along the forebody sides increased the magnitude of the asymmetry and widened the angle-of-attack range over which the largest asymmetry acted. Installing longitudinal forebody strakes and rounding the sharp nose of the aircraft caused the yawing moment asymmetry magnitude to be reduced. The transition strips and strakes made the asymmetry characteristic of the aircraft more repeatable than the clean forebody configuration. Although no geometric differences between the aircraft were known, ship 2 consistently had larger yawing moment asymmetries than ship 1.

  10. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  11. Flight evaluation of configuration management system concepts during transition to the landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experiments were conducted to evaluate two control concepts for configuration management during the transition to landing approach for a powered-lift STOL aircraft. NASA Ames' augmentor wing research aircraft was used in the program. Transitions from nominal level-flight configurations at terminal area pattern speeds were conducted along straight and curved descending flightpaths. Stabilization and command augmentation for attitude and airspeed control were used in conjunction with a three-cue flight director that presented commands for pitch, roll, and throttle controls. A prototype microwave system provided landing guidance. Results of these flight experiments indicate that these configuration management concepts permit the successful performance of transitions and approaches along curved paths by powered-lift STOL aircraft. Flight director guidance was essential to accomplish the task.

  12. Tiltrotor noise reduction through flight trajectory management and aircraft configuration control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervais, Marc

    A tiltrotor can hover, takeoff and land vertically as well as cruise at high speeds and fly long distances. Because of these unique capabilities, tiltrotors are envisioned as an aircraft that could provide a solution to the issue of airport gridlock by operating on stub runways, helipads, or from smaller regional airports. However, during an approach-to-land a tiltrotor is susceptible to radiating strong impulsive noise, in particular, Blade-Vortex Interaction noise (BVI), a phenomenon highly dependent on the vehicle's performance-state. A mathematical model was developed to predict the quasi-static performance characteristics of a tiltrotor during a converting approach in the longitudinal plane. Additionally, a neural network was designed to model the acoustic results from a flight test of the XV-15 tiltrotor as a function of the aircraft's performance parameters. The performance model was linked to the neural network to yield a combined performance/acoustic model that is capable of predicting tiltrotor noise emitted during a decelerating approach. The model was then used to study noise trends associated with different combinations of airspeed, nacelle tilt, and flight path angle. It showed that BVI noise is the dominant noise source during a descent and that its strength increases with steeper descent angles. Strong BVI noise was observed at very steep flight path angles, suggesting that the tiltrotor's high downwash prevents the wake from being pushed above the rotor, even at such steep descent angles. The model was used to study the effects of various aircraft configuration and flight trajectory parameters on the rotor inflow, which adequately captured the measured BVI noise trends. Flight path management effectively constrained the rotor inflow during a converting approach and thus limited the strength of BVI noise. The maximum deceleration was also constrained by controlling the nacelle tilt-rate during conversion. By applying these constraints, low BVI noise

  13. Follow on Researches for X-56A Aircraft at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center (Progress Report)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2012-01-01

    A lot of composite materials are used for the modern aircraft to reduce its weight. Aircraft aeroservoelastic models are typically characterized by significant levels of model parameter uncertainty due to composite manufacturing process. Small modeling errors in the finite element model will eventually induce errors in the structural flexibility and mass, thus propagating into unpredictable errors in the unsteady aerodynamics and the control law design. One of the primary objectives of X-56A aircraft is the flight demonstration of active flutter suppression, and therefore in this study, the identification of the primary and secondary modes is based on the flutter analysis of X-56A aircraft. It should be noted that for all three Mach number cases rigid body modes and mode numbers seven and nine are participated 89.1 92.4 % of the first flutter mode. Modal participation of the rigid body mode and mode numbers seven and nine for the second flutter mode are 94.6 96.4%. Rigid body mode and the first two anti-symmetric modes, eighth and tenth modes, are participated 93.2 94.6% of the third flutter mode. Therefore, rigid body modes and the first four flexible modes of X-56A aircraft are the primary modes during the model tuning procedure. The ground vibration test-validated structural dynamic finite element model of the X-56A aircraft is to obtain in this study. The structural dynamics finite element model of X-56A aircraft is improved using the parallelized big-bang big-crunch algorithm together with a hybrid optimization technique.

  14. SR-71A in Flight with Test Fixture Mounted Atop the Aft Section of the Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This close-up, head-on view of NASA's SR-71A Blackbird in flight shows the aircraft with an experimental test fixture mounted on the back of the airplane. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used for the Linear Aerospike Rocket Engine, or LASRE Experiment. Another earlier project consisted of a series of flights using the SR-71 as a science camera platform for NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. An upward-looking ultraviolet video camera

  15. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  16. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.; Jordan, J. L.; Schinstock, W. C.; Platz, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degration in lift and drag.

  17. The measurement of aircraft performance and stability and control after flight through natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Ide, R. F.; Reehorst, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of airframe icing on the performance and stability and control of a twin-engine commuter-class aircraft were measured by the NASA Lewis Research Center. This work consisted of clear air tests with artificial ice shapes attached to the horizontal tail, and natural icing flight tests in measured icing clouds. The clear air tests employed static longitudinal flight test methods to determine degradation in stability margins for four simulated ice shapes. The natural icing flight tests employed a data acquisition system, which was provided under contract to NASA by Kohlman Systems Research Incorporated. This system used a performance modeling method and modified maximum likelihood estimation (MMLE) technique to determine aircraft performance degradation and stability and control. Flight test results with artificial ice shapes showed that longitudinal, stick-fixed, static margins are reduced on the order of 5 percent with flaps up. Natural icing tests with the KSR system corroborated these results and showed degradation in the elevator control derivatives on the order of 8 to 16 percent depending on wing flap configuration. Performance analyses showed the individual contributions of major airframe components to the overall degradation in lift and drag.

  18. Design and piloted simulation evaluation of integrated flight/propulsion controls for STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, James A.; Engelland, Shawn A.

    1991-01-01

    Integrated flight/propulsion control systems have been designed for operation of STOVL aircraft over the low speed powered-lift flight envelope. The control system employs command modes for attitude, flightpath angle and flightpath acceleration during transition, and translational velocity command for hover and vertical landing. The command modes and feedback control are implemented in the form of a state-rate feedback implicit model follower to achieve the desired flying qualities and to suppress the effects of external disturbances and variations in the aircraft characteristics over the low speed envelope. A nonlinear inverse system was used to translate the output from these commands and feedback control into commands for the various aerodynamic and propulsion control effectors that are employed in powered-lift flight. Piloted evaluations of these STOVL integrated control designs have been conducted on Ames Research Center's Vertical Motion Simulator to assess flying qualities over the low-speed flight envelope. Results indicate that Level 1 flying qualities are achieved with this control system concept for each of these low-speed operations over a wide range of wind, atmospheric turbulence, and visibility conditions.

  19. NASA rotor systems research aircraft: Fixed-wing configuration flight-test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, R. E.; Cross, J. L.; Kufeld, R. M.; Acree, C. W.; Nguyen, D.; Hodge, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fixed-wing, airplane configuration flight-test results of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA), NASA 740, at Ames/Dryden Flight Research Center are documented. Fourteen taxi and flight tests were performed from December 1983 to October 1984. This was the first time the RSRA was flown with the main rotor removed; the tail rotor was installed. These tests confirmed that the RSRA is operable as a fixed-wing aircraft. Data were obtained for various takeoff and landing distances, control sensitivity, trim and dynamics stability characteristics, performance rotor-hub drag, and acoustics signature. Stability data were obtained with the rotor hub both installed and removed. The speed envelope was developed to 261 knots true airspeed (KTAS), 226 knots calibrated airspeed (KCAS) at 10,000 ft density altitude. The airplane was configured at 5 deg. wing incidence with 5 deg. wing flaps as a normal configuration. Level-flight data were acquired at 167 KCAS for wing incidence from 0 to 10 deg. Step inputs and doublet inputs of various magnitudes were utilized to acquire dynamic stability and control sensitivity data. Sine-wave inputs of constantly increasing frequency were used to generate parameter identification data. The maximum load factor attained was 2.34 g at 206 KCAS.

  20. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  1. A review of supersonic cruise flight path control experience with the YF-12 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, D. T.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1976-01-01

    Flight research with the YF-12 aircraft indicates that solutions to many handling qualities problems of supersonic cruise are at hand. Airframe/propulsion system interactions in the Dutch roll mode can be alleviated by the use of passive filters or additional feedback loops in the propulsion and flight control systems. Mach and altitude excursions due to atmospheric temperature fluctuations can be minimized by the use of a cruise autothrottle. Autopilot instabilities in the altitude hold mode have been traced to angle of attack-sensitive static ports on the compensated nose boom. For the YF-12, the feedback of high-passed pitch rate to the autopilot resolves this problem. Manual flight path control is significantly improved by the use of an inertial rate of climb display in the cockpit.

  2. Flight investigation of a vertical-velocity command system for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. R.; Niessen, F. R.; Yenni, K. R.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A flight investigation was undertaken to assess the potential benefits afforded by a vertical-velocity command system (VVCS) for VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) aircraft. This augmentation system was conceived primarily as a means of lowering pilot workload during decelerating approaches to a hover and/or landing under category III instrument meteorological conditions. The scope of the investigation included a determination of acceptable system parameters, a visual flight evaluation, and an instrument flight evaluation which employed a 10 deg, decelerating, simulated instrument approach task. The results indicated that the VVCS, which decouples the pitch and vertical degrees of freedom, provides more accurate glide-path tracking and a lower pilot workload than does the unaugmented system.

  3. In-Flight Stability Analysis of the X-48B Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, Christopher D.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the system description, methods, and sample results of the in-flight stability analysis for the X-48B, Blended Wing Body Low-Speed Vehicle. The X-48B vehicle is a dynamically scaled, remotely piloted vehicle developed to investigate the low-speed control characteristics of a full-scale blended wing body. Initial envelope clearance was conducted by analyzing the stability margin estimation resulting from the rigid aircraft response during flight and comparing it to simulation data. Short duration multisine signals were commanded onboard to simultaneously excite the primary rigid body axes. In-flight stability analysis has proven to be a critical component of the initial envelope expansion.

  4. Flight investigation of a four-dimensional terminal area guidance system for STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neuman, F.; Hardy, G. H.

    1981-01-01

    A series of flight tests and fast-time simulations were conducted, using the augmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft and the STOLAND 4D-RNAV system to add to the growing data base of 4D-RNAV system performance capabilities. To obtain statistically meaningful data a limited amount of flight data were supplemented by a statistically significant amount of data obtained from fast-time simulation. The results of these tests are reported. Included are comparisons of the 4D-RNAV estimated winds with actual winds encountered in flight, as well as data on along-track navigation and guidance errors, and time-of-arrival errors at the final approach waypoint. In addition, a slight improvement of the STOLAND 4D-RNAV system is proposed and demonstrated, using the fast-time simulation.

  5. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the

  6. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The

  7. Aircraft ground vibration testing at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility performs ground vibration testing to assess the structural characteristics of new and modified research vehicles. This paper updates the research activities, techniques used, and experiences in applying this technology to aircraft since 1987. Test equipment, data analysis methods, and test procedures used for typical test programs are discussed. The data presented illustrate the use of modal test and analysis in flight research programs for a variety of aircraft. This includes a technique to acquire control surface free-play measurements on the X-31 airplane more efficiently, and to assess the effects of structural modifications on the modal characteristics of an F-18 aircraft. In addition, the status and results from current research activities are presented. These data show the effectiveness of the discrete modal filter as a preprocessor to uncouple response measurements into simple single-degree-of-freedom responses, a database for the comparison of different excitation methods on a JetStar airplane, and the effect of heating on modal frequency and damping.

  8. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  9. CID Aircraft in practice flight above target impact site with wing cutters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen making a practice close approach over the prepared impact site. The wing openers, designed to tear open the wings and spill the fuel, are clearly seen on the ground just at the start of the bed of rocks. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1, 1984, more than four years of effort passed trying to set-up final impact conditions considered survivable by the FAA. During those years while 14 flights with crews were flown the following major efforts were underway: NASA Dryden developed the remote piloting techniques necessary for the B-720

  10. Flight test of a propulsion controlled aircraft system on the NASA F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight tests of the propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system on the NASA F-15 airplane evolved as a result of a long series of simulation and flight tests. Initially, the simulation results were very optimistic. Early flight tests showed that manual throttles-only control was much more difficult than the simulation, and a flight investigation was flown to acquire data to resolve this discrepancy. The PCA system designed and developed by MDA evolved as these discrepancies were found and resolved, requiring redesign of the PCA software and modification of the flight test plan. Small throttle step inputs were flown to provide data for analysis, simulation update, and control logic modification. The PCA flight tests quickly revealed less than desired performance, but the extensive flexibility built into the flight PCA software allowed rapid evaluation of alternate gains, filters, and control logic, and within 2 weeks, the PCA system was functioning well. The initial objective of achieving adequate control for up-and-away flying and approaches was satisfied, and the option to continue to actual landings was achieved. After the PCA landings were accomplished, other PCA features were added, and additional maneuvers beyond those originally planned were flown. The PCA system was used to recover from extreme upset conditions, descend, and make approaches to landing. A heading mode was added, and a single engine plus rudder PCA mode was also added and flown. The PCA flight envelope was expanded far beyond that originally designed for. Guest pilots from the USAF, USN, NASA, and the contractor also flew the PCA system and were favorably impressed.

  11. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1976-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihooa estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5deg to 15.7deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and a transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  12. Flight Test Evaluation of Situation Awareness Benefits of Integrated Synthetic Vision System Technology f or Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Kramer, Lynda J.; Arthur, Jarvis J., III

    2005-01-01

    Research was conducted onboard a Gulfstream G-V aircraft to evaluate integrated Synthetic Vision System concepts during flight tests over a 6-week period at the Wallops Flight Facility and Reno/Tahoe International Airport. The NASA Synthetic Vision System incorporates database integrity monitoring, runway incursion prevention alerting, surface maps, enhanced vision sensors, and advanced pathway guidance and synthetic terrain presentation. The paper details the goals and objectives of the flight test with a focus on the situation awareness benefits of integrating synthetic vision system enabling technologies for commercial aircraft.

  13. A Correlation Between Flight-Determined Derivatives and Wind-Tunnel Data for the X-24B Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sim, Alex G.

    1997-01-01

    Longitudinal and lateral-directional estimates of the aerodynamic derivatives of the X-24B research aircraft were obtained from flight data by using a modified maximum likelihood estimation method. Data were obtained over a Mach number range from 0.35 to 1.72 and over an angle of attack range from 3.5 deg. to 15.7 deg. Data are presented for a subsonic and transonic configuration. The flight derivatives were generally consistent and documented the aircraft well. The correlation between the flight data and wind-tunnel predictions is presented and discussed.

  14. Flight Evaluation of an Aircraft with Side and Center Stick Controllers and Rate-Limited Ailerons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deppe, P. R.; Chalk, C. R.; Shafer, M. F.

    1996-01-01

    As part of an ongoing government and industry effort to study the flying qualities of aircraft with rate-limited control surface actuators, two studies were previously flown to examine an algorithm developed to reduce the tendency for pilot-induced oscillation when rate limiting occurs. This algorithm, when working properly, greatly improved the performance of the aircraft in the first study. In the second study, however, the algorithm did not initially offer as much improvement. The differences between the two studies caused concern. The study detailed in this paper was performed to determine whether the performance of the algorithm was affected by the characteristics of the cockpit controllers. Time delay and flight control system noise were also briefly evaluated. An in-flight simulator, the Calspan Learjet 25, was programmed with a low roll actuator rate limit, and the algorithm was programmed into the flight control system. Side- and center-stick controllers, force and position command signals, a rate-limited feel system, a low-frequency feel system, and a feel system damper were evaluated. The flight program consisted of four flights and 38 evaluations of test configurations. Performance of the algorithm was determined to be unaffected by using side- or center-stick controllers or force or position command signals. The rate-limited feel system performed as well as the rate-limiting algorithm but was disliked by the pilots. The low-frequency feel system and the feel system damper were ineffective. Time delay and noise were determined to degrade the performance of the algorithm.

  15. Flight Test of an Adaptive Configuration Optimization System for Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Georgie, Jennifer; Barnicki, Joseph S.

    1999-01-01

    A NASA Dryden Flight Research Center program explores the practical application of real-time adaptive configuration optimization for enhanced transport performance on an L-1011 aircraft. This approach is based on calculation of incremental drag from forced-response, symmetric, outboard aileron maneuvers. In real-time operation, the symmetric outboard aileron deflection is directly optimized, and the horizontal stabilator and angle of attack are indirectly optimized. A flight experiment has been conducted from an onboard research engineering test station, and flight research results are presented herein. The optimization system has demonstrated the capability of determining the minimum drag configuration of the aircraft in real time. The drag-minimization algorithm is capable of identifying drag to approximately a one-drag-count level. Optimizing the symmetric outboard aileron position realizes a drag reduction of 2-3 drag counts (approximately 1 percent). Algorithm analysis of maneuvers indicate that two-sided raised-cosine maneuvers improve definition of the symmetric outboard aileron drag effect, thereby improving analysis results and consistency. Ramp maneuvers provide a more even distribution of data collection as a function of excitation deflection than raised-cosine maneuvers provide. A commercial operational system would require airdata calculations and normal output of current inertial navigation systems; engine pressure ratio measurements would be optional.

  16. Planform, aero-structural, and flight control optimization for tailless morphing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Giulio; Arrieta, Andres F.; Ermanni, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Tailless airplanes with swept wings rely on variations of the spanwise lift distribution to provide controllability in roll, pitch and yaw. Conventionally, this is achieved utilizing multiple control surfaces, such as elevons, on the wing trailing edge. As every flight condition requires different control moments (e.g. to provide pitching moment equilibrium), these surfaces are practically permanently displaced. Due to their nature, causing discontinuities, corners and gaps, they bear aerodynamic penalties, mostly in terms of shape drag. Shape adaptation, by means of chordwise morphing, has the potential of varying the lift of a wing section by deforming its profile in a way that minimizes the resulting drag. Furthermore, as the shape can be varied differently along the wingspan, the lift distribution can be tailored to each specific flight condition. For this reason, tailless aircraft appear as a prime choice to apply morphing techniques, as the attainable benefits are potentially significant. In this work, we present a methodology to determine the optimal planform, profile shape, and morphing structure for a tailless aircraft. The employed morphing concept is based on a distributed compliance structure, actuated by Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric elements. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed considering the static and dynamic aeroelastic behavior of the resulting structure. The goal is the maximization of the aerodynamic efficiency while guaranteeing the controllability of the plane, by means of morphing, in a set of flight conditions.

  17. In-flight adaptive performance optimization (APO) control using redundant control effectors of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Practical application of real-time (or near real-time) Adaptive Performance Optimization (APO) is provided for a transport aircraft in steady climb, cruise, turn descent or other flight conditions based on measurements and calculations of incremental drag from a forced response maneuver of one or more redundant control effectors defined as those in excess of the minimum set of control effectors required to maintain the steady flight condition in progress. The method comprises the steps of applying excitation in a raised-cosine form over an interval of from 100 to 500 sec. at the rate of 1 to 10 sets/sec of excitation, and data for analysis is gathered in sets of measurements made during the excitation to calculate lift and drag coefficients C.sub.L and C.sub.D from two equations, one for each coefficient. A third equation is an expansion of C.sub.D as a function of parasitic drag, induced drag, Mach and altitude drag effects, and control effector drag, and assumes a quadratic variation of drag with positions .delta..sub.i of redundant control effectors i=1 to n. The third equation is then solved for .delta..sub.iopt the optimal position of redundant control effector i, which is then used to set the control effector i for optimum performance during the remainder of said steady flight or until monitored flight conditions change by some predetermined amount as determined automatically or a predetermined minimum flight time has elapsed.

  18. Ground Vibration and Flight Flutter Tests of the Single-seat F-16XL Aircraft with a Modified Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA single-seat F-16XL aircraft was modified by the addition of a glove to the left wing. Vibration tests were conducted on the ground to assess the changes to the aircraft caused by the glove. Flight Luther testing was conducted on the aircraft with the glove installed to ensure that the flight envelope was free of aeroelastic or aeroservoelastic instabilities. The ground vibration tests showed that above 20 Hz, several modes that involved the control surfaces were significantly changed. Flight test data showed that modal damping levels and trends were satisfactory where obtainable. The data presented in this report include estimated modal parameters from the ground vibration and flight flutter test.

  19. Estimation of longitudinal stability and control derivatives for an icing research aircraft from flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Omara, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    The results of applying a modified stepwise regression algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm to flight data from a twin-engine commuter-class icing research aircraft are presented. The results are in the form of body-axis stability and control derivatives related to the short-period, longitudinal motion of the aircraft. Data were analyzed for the baseline (uniced) and for the airplane with an artificial glaze ice shape attached to the leading edge of the horizontal tail. The results are discussed as to the accuracy of the derivative estimates and the difference between the derivative values found for the baseline and the iced airplane. Additional comparisons were made between the maximum likelihood results and the modified stepwise regression results with causes for any discrepancies postulated.

  20. A Heading and Flight-Path Angle Control of Aircraft Based on Required Acceleration Vector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshitani, Naoharu

    This paper describes a control of heading and flight-path angles of aircraft to time-varying command angles. The controller first calculates an acceleration command vector (acV), which is vertical to the velocity vector. acV consists of two components; the one is feedforward acceleration obtained from the rates of command angles, and the other is feedback acceleration obtained from angle deviations by using PID control law. A bank angle command around the velocity vector and commands of pitch and yaw rates are then obtained to generate the required acceleration. A roll rate command is calculated from bank angle deviation. Roll, pitch and yaw rate commands are put into the attitude controller, which can be composed of any suitable control laws such as PID control. The control requires neither aerodynamic coefficients nor online calculation of the inverse dynamics of the aircraft. A numerical simulation illustrates the effects of the control.

  1. Calibration of strain-gage installations in aircraft structures for the measurement of flight loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skopinski, T H; Aiken, William S , Jr; Huston, Wilber B

    1954-01-01

    A general method has been developed for calibrating strain-gage installations in aircraft structures, which permits the measurement in flight of the shear or lift, the bending moment, and the torque or pitching moment on the principal lifting or control surfaces. Although the stress in structural members may not be a simple function of the three loads of interest, a straightforward procedure is given for numerically combining the outputs of several bridges in such a way that the loads may be obtained. Extensions of the basic procedure by means of electrical combination of the strain-gage bridges are described which permit compromises between strain-gage installation time, availability of recording instruments, and data reduction time. The basic principles of strain-gage calibration procedures are illustrated by reference to the data for two aircraft structures of typical construction, one a straight and the other a swept horizontal stabilizer.

  2. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1999-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares and mixed estimation methods. At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  3. Aerodynamic Parameters of High Performance Aircraft Estimated from Wind Tunnel and Flight Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Vladislav; Murphy, Patrick C.

    1998-01-01

    A concept of system identification applied to high performance aircraft is introduced followed by a discussion on the identification methodology. Special emphasis is given to model postulation using time invariant and time dependent aerodynamic parameters, model structure determination and parameter estimation using ordinary least squares an mixed estimation methods, At the same time problems of data collinearity detection and its assessment are discussed. These parts of methodology are demonstrated in examples using flight data of the X-29A and X-31A aircraft. In the third example wind tunnel oscillatory data of the F-16XL model are used. A strong dependence of these data on frequency led to the development of models with unsteady aerodynamic terms in the form of indicial functions. The paper is completed by concluding remarks.

  4. Partitioning of flight data for aerodynamic modeling of aircraft at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterson, James G.; Klein, Vladislav

    1987-01-01

    It is sometimes necessary to determine aerodynamic model structure and estimate associated stability and control derivatives for airplanes from flight data that cover a large range of angle of attack or sideslip. One method of dealing with that problem is through data partitioning. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation of a data partitioning procedure and its application and to discuss both the power and limitations of that procedure for the analysis of large maneuvers of aircraft. The partitioning methodology is shown to provide estimates for coefficients of those regressors that are well excited in the aircraft motion. In particular, primary lateral stability and damping derivatives are identified throughout the maneuver ranges.

  5. Flight study of on-board enhanced vision system for all-weather aircraft landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopdjanan, Yuri A.; Machikhin, Alexander S.; Bilanchuk, Vyacheslav V.; Drynkin, Vladimir N.; Falkov, Eduard Y.; Tsareva, Tatiana I.; Fomenko, Anatoly I.

    2014-11-01

    On-board enhanced vision system for all-weather aircraft navigation and landing which is currently under development in State research institute of aviation systems is described. The system is based on combination of three imagers sensitive in visible, short wave infrared (SWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) spectral ranges and demonstrating to the pilot only the most informative images from the time-aligned multi-sensor data. The results of flight tests at glissade trajectories of the light aircraft OR-5 MO obtained at various weather conditions are presented. It is shown that each spectral range may be informative under certain conditions of observation. In adverse and poor-visibility conditions, such as fog, high humidity and low clouds, SWIR range has the biggest information content.

  6. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e

  7. Program for establishing long-time flight service performance of composite materials in the center wing structure of C-130 aircraft. Phase 5: Flight service and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kizer, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Inspections of the C-130 composite-reinforced center wings were conducted over the flight service monitoring period of more than six years. Twelve inspections were conducted on each of the two C-130H airplanes having composite reinforced center wing boxes. Each inspection consisted of visual and ultrasonic inspection of the selective boron-epoxy reinforced center wings which included the inspection of the boron-epoxy laminates and the boron-epoxy reinforcement/aluminum structure adhesive bondlines. During the flight service monitoring period, the two C-130H aircraft accumulated more than 10,000 flight hours and no defects were detected in the inspections over this period. The successful performance of the C-130H aircraft with composite-reinforced center wings allowed the transfer of the responsibilities of inspecting and maintaining these two aircraft to the U. S. Air Force.

  8. Status: Crewmember Noise Exposures on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limardo-Rodriguez, Jose G.; Allen, Christopher S.; Danielson, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides a unique environment where crewmembers from the US and our international partners work and live for as long as 6 to 12 consecutive months. During these long-durations ISS missions, noise exposures from onboard equipment are posing concerns for human factors and crewmember health risks, such as possible reductions in hearing sensitivity, disruptions of crew sleep, interference with speech intelligibility and voice communications, interference with crew task performance, and reduced alarm audibility. It is crucial to control acoustical noise aboard ISS to acceptable noise exposure levels during the work-time period, and to also provide a restful sleep environment during the sleep-time period. Acoustic dosimeter measurements, obtained when the crewmember wears the dosimeter for 24-hour periods, are conducted onboard ISS every 60 days and compared to ISS flight rules. NASA personnel then assess the acoustic environment to which the crewmembers are exposed, and provide recommendations for hearing protection device usage. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of ISS noise exposure monitoring and hearing conservation strategies, as well as to summarize assessments of acoustic dosimeter data collected since the Increment 36 mission (April 2013). A description of the updated noise level constraints flight rule, as well as the Noise Exposure Estimation Tool and the Noise Hazard Inventory implementation for predicting crew noise exposures and recommending to ISS crewmembers when hearing protection devices are required, will be described.

  9. Flight service evaluation of kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft: Flight service report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three L-1011s, were inspected after 7 years service. There are six Kevlar-49 panels on each aircraft: a left hand and right hand set of a wing-body sandwich fairing; a slid laminate under-wing fillet panel; and a 422 K service aft engine fairing. The three L-1011s include one each in service with Eastern, Air Canada, and TWA. The fairings have accumulated a total of 52,500 hours, with one ship set having 17.700 hours service. The inspections were conducted at the airlines' major maintenance bases with the participation of Lockheed Engineering. The Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems or any condition requiring corrective action. The only defects noted were minor impact damage and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. These are for the most part comparable to damage noted on fiberglass fairings. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structure.

  10. Applications of the unsteady vortex-lattice method in aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murua, Joseba; Palacios, Rafael; Graham, J. Michael R.

    2012-11-01

    The unsteady vortex-lattice method provides a medium-fidelity tool for the prediction of non-stationary aerodynamic loads in low-speed, but high-Reynolds-number, attached flow conditions. Despite a proven track record in applications where free-wake modelling is critical, other less-computationally expensive potential-flow models, such as the doublet-lattice method and strip theory, have long been favoured in fixed-wing aircraft aeroelasticity and flight dynamics. This paper presents how the unsteady vortex-lattice method can be implemented as an enhanced alternative to those techniques for diverse situations that arise in flexible-aircraft dynamics. A historical review of the methodology is included, with latest developments and practical applications. Different formulations of the aerodynamic equations are outlined, and they are integrated with a nonlinear beam model for the full description of the dynamics of a free-flying flexible vehicle. Nonlinear time-marching solutions capture large wing excursions and wake roll-up, and the linearisation of the equations lends itself to a seamless, monolithic state-space assembly, particularly convenient for stability analysis and flight control system design. The numerical studies emphasise scenarios where the unsteady vortex-lattice method can provide an advantage over other state-of-the-art approaches. Examples of this include unsteady aerodynamics in vehicles with coupled aeroelasticity and flight dynamics, and in lifting surfaces undergoing complex kinematics, large deformations, or in-plane motions. Geometric nonlinearities are shown to play an instrumental, and often counter-intuitive, role in the aircraft dynamics. The unsteady vortex-lattice method is unveiled as a remarkable tool that can successfully incorporate all those effects in the unsteady aerodynamics modelling.

  11. 14 CFR 91.1081 - Crewmember training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations Program Management § 91.1081 Crewmember training requirements. (a) Each program manager must...) Appropriate provisions of this chapter; (iii) Contents of the program manager's management specifications (not required for flight attendants); and (iv) Appropriate portions of the program manager's operating...

  12. STS 51-D crewmembers gather to eat breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    STS 51-D crewmembers gather to eat breakfast prior to leaving for the launch pad. From left to right Rhea Seddon, Donald E. Williams, Charles D. Walker, Karol J. Bobko, Jeffrey A. Hoffman, S. David Griggs and U.S. Senator E.J. (Jake) Garn discuss phases of the upcoming flight. Desert is a cake decorated with the 51-D logo.

  13. 14 CFR 1214.402 - International Space Station crewmember responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true International Space Station crewmember responsibilities. 1214.402 Section 1214.402 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION SPACE FLIGHT International Space Station Crew § 1214.402 International Space Station...

  14. 14 CFR 91.1083 - Crewmember emergency training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Crewmember emergency training. 91.1083 Section 91.1083 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Fractional Ownership Operations Program Management §...

  15. Flight service evaluation of Kevlar-49 epoxy composite panels in wide-bodied commercial transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    Kevlar-49 fairing panels, installed as flight service components on three l-1011's, were inspected after 8 years service. The fairings had accumulated a total of 62,000 hours, with one ship set having 20,850 hours service. Kevlar-49 components were found to be performing satisfactorily in service with no major problems. The only defects noted were minor impact damage, a few minor disbonds and a minor degree of fastener hole fraying and elongation. The service history to date indicates that Kevlar-49 epoxy composite materials have satisfactory service characteristics for use in aircraft secondary structures.

  16. Aircraft motion and passenger comfort data from scheduled commercial airline flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruesbeck, M. G.; Sullivan, D. F.

    1976-01-01

    Data concerning the ride quality of aircraft taken on board commercial airline flights was presented. Five types of data are included: (1) root mean square (RMS) values of linear acceleration, angular acceleration or angular velocities, along with passenger subjective evaluations, (2) power spectra for the motion in each of six degrees of freedom, (3) scattergrams showing the probability density of the rms accelerations in the vertical and transverse directions, (4) probability distributions of the motion, and (5) on board noise levels during takeoff, climb, cruise, and descent.

  17. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  18. Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center d

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scaled Composites' Proteus aircraft and an F/A-18 Hornet from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center during a low-level flyby at Las Cruces Airport in New Mexico. The unique Proteus aircraft served as a test bed for NASA-sponsored flight tests designed to validate collision-avoidance technologies proposed for uninhabited aircraft. The tests, flown over southern New Mexico in March, 2002, used the Proteus as a surrogate uninhabited aerial vehicle (UAV) while three other aircraft flew toward the Proteus from various angles on simulated collision courses. Radio-based 'detect, see and avoid' equipment on the Proteus successfully detected the other aircraft and relayed that information to a remote pilot on the ground at Las Cruces Airport. The pilot then transmitted commands to the Proteus to maneuver it away from the potential collisions. The flight demonstration, sponsored by NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, New Mexico State University, Scaled Composites, the U.S. Navy and Modern Technology Solutions, Inc., were intended to demonstrate that UAVs can be flown safely and compatibly in the same skies as piloted aircraft.

  19. Advanced composite aileron for L-1011 transport aircraft: Ground tests and flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, C. F.

    1981-01-01

    A composite aileron and a metal aileron were subjected to a series of comparative stiffness and vibration tests. These tests showed that the stiffness and vibration characteristics of the composite aileron are similar to the metal aileron. The first composite ground test article was statically tested to failure which occurred at 139 percent of design ultimate load. The second composite ground test article was tested to verify damage tolerance and fail-safe characteristics. Visible damage was inflicted to the aileron and the aileron was subjected to one lifetime of spectrum fatigue loading. After conducting limit load tests on the aileron, major damage was inflicted to the cover and the aileron was loaded to failure which occurred at 130 percent of design ultimate load. A shipset of composite ailerons were installed on Lockheed's L-1011 flight test aircraft and flown. The composite aileron was flutter-free throughout the flight envelope.

  20. Flight test validation of a frequency-based system identification method on an F-15 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Orme, John S.; Hreha, Mark A.

    1995-01-01

    A frequency-based performance identification approach was evaluated using flight data from the NASA F-15 Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control aircraft. The approach used frequency separation to identify the effectiveness of multiple controls simultaneously as an alternative to independent control identification methods. Fourier transformations converted measured control and response data into frequency domain representations. Performance gradients were formed using multiterm frequency matching of control and response frequency domain models. An objective function was generated using these performance gradients. This function was formally optimized to produce a coordinated control trim set. This algorithm was applied to longitudinal acceleration and evaluated using two control effectors: nozzle throat area and inlet first ramp. Three criteria were investigated to validate the approach: simultaneous gradient identification, gradient frequency dependency, and repeatability. This report describes the flight test results. These data demonstrate that the approach can accurately identify performance gradients during simultaneous control excitation independent of excitation frequency.