Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft deicing fluids

  1. Anaerobic co-digestion of aircraft deicing fluid and municipal wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Zitomer, D; Ferguson, N; McGrady, K; Schilling, J

    2001-01-01

    At many airports, aircraft deicing fluid and precipitation mix, becoming aircraft deicing runoff having a 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) of 10(2) to 10(6) mg/L. Publicly owned treatment works can be used for aerobic biological treatment; however, it may be more economical to use anaerobic digesters to codigest a mixture of aircraft deicing fluid and sludge. The objectives of this investigation were to determine benefits and appropriate propylene glycol aircraft deicing fluid loadings to anaerobic codigesters. Results demonstrate aircraft deicing fluid can be successfully codigested to produce methane; supernatant BOD5 and Kjeldahl nitrogen concentration were not higher in codigesters compared to a conventional digester. Aircraft deicing fluid loadings as high as 1.6 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L x d were sustainable in codigesters, whereas system fed only aircraft deicing fluid with nutrients and alkalinity achieved a loading of 0.65 g COD/L x d. The sludge used increased digester alkalinity and provided nitrogen, iron, nickel, cobalt, and biomass required for methanogenesis. The deicer provides organics for increased methane production.

  2. Degradation of glycol based aircraft deicing fluids under anaerobic methanogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltman, Shawn Herbert

    2000-11-01

    Large quantities of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) comprised mainly of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) are used for aircraft deicing/anti-icing during cold weather operations at airports throughout the world. Several different formulations of ADF have been developed and are used. Type I solutions are commonly employed to remove snow and ice from aircraft surfaces (deicing), and Type IV solutions are commonly applied to prevent ice from reforming (anti-icing). The runoff from aircraft deicing operations is known to have a high oxygen demand. As a consequence, deicing wastes are often collected at airports for treatment. ADF products also contain small amounts of colorants, corrosion inhibitors, and thickeners, and these compounds may pose a greater environmental concern than oxygen depletion. Several studies have been completed to compare the relative toxicity of the pure glycols (EG and PG) vs. ADF using Microtox RTM assays and other aquatic tests, and it has been reported that ADF is significantly more inhibitory than the pure glycols. With growing concern over the environmental consequences of deicing there has been interest in developing anaerobic technology to treat deicing waste. In this dissertation a survey, a deicing waste characterization study, and research efforts employing serum bottles and bench scale laboratory reactors were used to demonstrate that ADF may be degraded effectively and efficiently in an anaerobic methanogenic environment. The factors that may affect this degradation are examined and discussed.

  3. Anaerobic biodegradation of aircraft deicing fluid in UASB reactors.

    PubMed

    Tham, P T Pham thi; Kennedy, K J Kevin J

    2004-05-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions (0.8% 1.6% ADF (6000-12,000mg/L COD), 12-56h HRT, and 18-36gVSS/L) were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e. COD removal efficiency, biomass-specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time, and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass-specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass-specific acetoclastic activity was improved two-fold from 0.23gCOD/gVSS/d for inoculum to a maximum of 0.55gCOD/gVSS/d during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. The predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate is increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5gCOD/gVSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent COD removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73gCOD/gVSS/d).

  4. Cost and Performance Report Enhanced Biological Attenuation of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Runoff Using Constructed Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    During winter months at Department of Defense (DOD) air bases, large amounts of aircraft deicing and anti-icing fluids (ADF) (primarily propylene ... glycol , ethylene glycol, and various additives) are used to ensure flight safety during certain adverse weather conditions. Standard practices at both

  5. Evaluation of activated sludge for biodegradation of propylene glycol as an aircraft deicing fluid.

    PubMed

    Delorit, Justin D; Racz, LeeAnn

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft deicing fluid used at airport facilities is often collected for treatment or disposal in order to prevent serious ecological threats to nearby surface waters. This study investigated lab scale degradation of propylene glycol, the active ingredient in a common aircraft deicing fluid, by way of a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor containing municipal waste water treatment facility activated sludge performing simultaneous organic carbon oxidation and nitrification. The ability of activated sludge to remove propylene glycol was evaluated by studying the biodegradation and sorption characteristics of propylene glycol in an activated sludge medium. The results indicate sorption may play a role in the fate of propylene glycol in AS, and the heterotrophic bacteria readily degrade this compound. Therefore, a field deployable bioreactor may be appropriate for use in flight line applications.

  6. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    viscosity and increase the freezing point at higher fluid concentrations. Given budget and schedule constraints, the project team acknowledged that...product that comes from bio-fuel production. Limitations of EcoFlo and EcoFlo II include higher viscosity , reduced freezing point depression...PG. The EcoFlo II formulation is anticipated to have a LOUT closer to that of PG. Also, the higher surface tension and higher viscosity of EcoFlo did

  7. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  8. 14 CFR 125.123 - Propeller deicing fluid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing fluid. 125.123 Section...,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Special Airworthiness Requirements § 125.123 Propeller deicing fluid. If combustible fluid is used for propeller deicing,...

  9. Fate and toxicity of aircraft deicing fluid additives through anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Gruden, C L; Dow, S M; Hernandez, M T

    2001-01-01

    Benzotriazole derivatives are widely used corrosion inhibitors and their fate during wastewater treatment processes is unknown. The purpose of this research was to study the toxic effects and fate of the two commercially significant benzotriazole isomers used in aircraft deicing fluids (4-, and 5-, methylbenzotriazole [MeBT]) during anaerobic digestion. Experiments were executed in microcosms using mesophilic anaerobic biomass co-digesting wastewater sludge and propylene glycol. Sorption of MeBT to digesting solids could be approximated with a Freundlich model, and no anaerobic breakdown of either MeBT isomer was detected. Digesters fed more than 300 mg/L MeBT responded with a significant decrease in methanogenic microbial activity and volatile solids production and a concomitant increase in accumulation of volatile fatty acids. Direct microscopic measurements using fluorescent phylogenetic probes applied to digesting biomass revealed that members of both Archaea and Bacteria domains were sensitive to MeBT. Granular activated carbon (GAC) (volatile solids: GAC = 10%) reduced the apparent toxic effects of MeBT; GAC addition nearly restored the baseline activity of digesters fed MeBT (500 to 1000 mg/L).

  10. Anaerobic digestion of aircraft deicing fluid wastes: interactions and toxicity of corrosion inhibitors and surfactants.

    PubMed

    Gruden, Cyndee L; Hernandez, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Corrosion inhibitors and surfactants are present in aircraft deicing fluids (ADFs) at significant concentrations (> 1% w/w). The purpose of this research was to study the interactions of a common nonionic surfactant with the commercially significant corrosion inhibitors used in modern ADF (4- and 5-methylbenzotriazole [MeBT]), and to determine the effects of their mixture on the conventional anaerobic digestion process. In mesophilic anaerobic microcosms codigesting wastewater solids, propylene glycol, and MeBT, increasing surfactant levels resulted in enhanced MeBT sorption on digester solids. As judged by anaerobic toxicity assays, responses from digesters containing surfactant concentrations below their critical micelle concentration (CMC) suggested that low nonionic surfactant concentrations could facilitate a reduction in the apparent toxicity of MeBT. In microcosms exposed to surfactant concentrations above their CMC, no increase in MeBT solubility was observed, and the anaerobic toxicity response corresponded to control systems not containing surfactant. Direct microscopic measurements of digesting biomass using fluorescent phylogenetic probes (fluorescent in situ hybridization) revealed that members of the domain Bacteria were more sensitive to MeBT in the presence of surfactant than were members of the domain Archaea.

  11. Enhanced Biological Attenuation of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Runoff Using Constructed Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    Colorado have demonstrated the ability of a constructed subsurface flow (SSF) treatment wetland to reduce the negative environmental effects of aircraft...constructed treatment wetlands can provide a cost- effective alternative to conventional treatment in a mechanical wastewater treatment facility. The use of...2004 will reflect the effect of that increased coverage. Due to the increased deicing activity during the demonstration period and the associated

  12. Ice Detector and Deicing Fluid Effectiveness Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seegmiller, H. Lee B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ice detector and deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring system for an aircraft is disclosed. The ice detection portion is particularly suited for use in flight to notify the flight crew of an accumulation of ice on an aircraft lifting and control surfaces, or helicopter rotors, whereas the deicing fluid effectiveness monitoring portion is particularly suited for use on the ground to notify the flight crew of the possible loss of the effectiveness of the deicing fluid. The ice detection portion comprises a temperature sensor and a parallel arrangement of electrodes whose coefficient of coupling is indicative of the formation of the ice, as well as the thickness of the formed ice. The fluid effectiveness monitoring portion comprises a temperature sensor and an ionic-conduction cell array that measures the conductivity of the deicing fluid which is indicative of its concentration and, thus, its freezing point. By measuring the temperature and having knowledge of the freezing point of the deicing fluid, the fluid effectiveness monitoring portion predicts when the deicing fluid may lose its effectiveness because its freezing point may correspond to the temperature of the ambient.

  13. Laboratory-scale evaluation of a combined soil amendment for the enhanced biodegradation of propylene glycol-based aircraft de-icing fluids.

    PubMed

    Libisch, Balázs; French, Helen K; Hartnik, Thomas; Anton, Attila; Biró, Borbála

    2012-01-01

    A combined soil amendment was tested in microcosm experiments with an aim to enhance the aerobic biodegradation of propylene glycol (PG)-based aircraft de-icing fluids during and following the infiltration of contaminated snowmelt. A key objective under field conditions is to increase degradation of organic pollutants in the surface soil where higher microbial activity and plant rhizosphere effects may contribute to a more efficient biodegradation of PG, compared to subsoil ground layers, where electron acceptors and nutrients are often depleted. Microcosm experiments were set up in Petri dishes using 50 g of soil mixed with appropriate additives. The samples contained an initial de-icing fluid concentration of 10,000 mg/kg soil. A combined amendment using calcium peroxide, activated carbon and 1 x Hoagland solution resulted in significantly higher degradation rates for PG both at 4 and 22 degrees C. Most probable numbers of bacteria capable of utilizing 10,000 mg/kg de-icing fluid as a sole carbon source were about two orders of magnitude higher in the amended soil samples compared to unamended controls at both temperatures. The elevated numbers of such bacteria in surface soil may be a source of cells transported to the subsoil by snowmelt infiltration. The near-surface application of amendments tested here may enhance the growth of plants and plant roots in the contaminated area, as well as microbes to be found at greater depth, and hence increase the degradation of a contaminant plume present in the ground.

  14. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  15. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  16. Anaerobic degradation of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors and the fate of ADF additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Thi Tham

    2002-11-01

    A central composite design was employed to methodically investigate anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing fluid (ADF) in bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors. A total of 23 runs at 17 different operating conditions were conducted in continuous mode. The development of four empirical models describing process responses (i.e., chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, methane production rate, and methane production potential) as functions of ADF concentration, hydraulic retention time (HRT), and biomass concentration is presented. Model verification indicated that predicted responses (COD removal efficiencies, biomass specific acetoclastic activity, and methane production rates and potential) were in good agreement with experimental results. Biomass specific acetoclastic activity was improved by almost two-fold during ADF treatment in UASB reactors. For the design window, COD removal efficiencies were higher than 90%. Predicted methane production potentials were close to theoretical values, and methane production rates increased as the organic loading rate (OLR) was increased. ADF toxicity effects were evident for 1.6% ADF at medium specific organic loadings (SOLR above 0.5 g COD/g VSS/d). In contrast, good reactor stability and excellent removal efficiencies were achieved at 1.2% ADF for reactor loadings approaching that of highly loaded systems (0.73 g COD/g VSS/d). Acclimation to ADF resulted in an initial reduction in the biomass settling velocity. The fate of ADF additives was also investigated. There was minimal sorption of benzotriazole (BT), 5-methyl-1 H-benzotriazole (MeBT), and 5,6-dimethyl-1 H-benzotriazole (DiMeBT) to anaerobic granules. A higher sorption capacity was measured for NP. Active transport may be one of the mechanisms for NP sorption. Ethylene glycol degradation experiments indicated that BT, MeBT, DiMeBT, and the nonionic surfactant Tergitol NP-4 had no significant

  17. Studies of the environmental fate and effect of aircraft deicing fluids: Detection of 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole in the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cancilla, Devon A.; Baird, J.C.; Geis, S.W.; Corsi, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a number of field and laboratory studies to evaluate the environmental impact of aircraft deicing and anti-icing fluids (ADAFs) on aquatic systems. Both 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (5-MeBt) and 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole (4-MeBt), known additives to ADAFs, were found in whole-tissue extracts from minnows placed downstream of an effluent outfall that receives ADAF contaminated runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (Milwaukee, WI, USA). Neither of these compounds was detected in tissues from minnows placed upstream from the airport. A toxicity assessment of water collected during the minnow exposure studies utilizing Hyalella azteca, Pimephales promelas, and Ceriodaphnia dubia showed greater toxicity in a secondary airport outfall containing ADAFs when compared to upstream non-ADAF-contaminated samples. In two 28-d static renewal tests using 5-MeBt laboratory-fortified waters, 5-MeBt was detected in whole-tissue extracts of minnows at all concentrations tested. In studies using laboratory water fortified with 5-MeBt, the median lethal concentration (LC50) of 5-MeBt for P. promelas was found to be 22.0 mg/L. The LC50 for C. dubia to 5-MeBt laboratory-fortified water was found to be 81.3 mg/L. The 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of 5-MeBt for the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum was 23.2 mg/L, and the average median effective concentration (EC50) for Microtox was 4.25 mg/L. The results of these field and lab studies indicate that additives, other than glycols, used in aircraft deicing fluids can be found in aquatic systems and may be of greater risk than previously believed.

  18. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  19. 14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. 23.1095... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is used, it must be able to simultaneously supply each engine with a rate of fluid flow, expressed...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1095 - Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Induction System § 23.1095 Carburetor deicing fluid flow rate. (a) If a carburetor deicing fluid system is.... (b) The fluid must be introduced into the air induction system— (1) Close to, and upstream of, the carburetor; and (2) So that it is equally distributed over the entire cross section of the induction...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1097 - Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity... Powerplant Induction System § 23.1097 Carburetor deicing fluid system capacity. (a) The capacity of each... operation. (b) If the available preheat exceeds 50 °F. but is less than 100 °F., the capacity of the...

  6. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered.

  7. WHIPICE. [Computer Program for Analysis of Aircraft Deicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This video documents efforts by NASA Lewis Research Center researchers to improve ice protection for aircraft. A new system of deicing aircraft by allowing a thin sheet of ice to develop, then breaking it into particles, is being examined, particularly to determine the extent of shed ice ingestion by jet engines that results. The process is documented by a high speed imaging system that scans the breakup and flow of the ice particles at 1000 frames per second. This data is then digitized and analyzed using a computer program called WHIPICE, which analyzes grey scale images of the ice particles. Detailed description of the operation of this computer program is provided.

  8. Anaerobic treatment of aircraft deicing wastes: A technology assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The work contained in the study documents the fact that deicing wastes containing ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG) may be effectively treated using an anaerobic biological process. In the report, the treatment of aircraft deicing wastes under anaerobic methanogenic conditions is examined in detail. The major project tasks were: airport sampling to define the characteristics of waste from deicing operations; testing of EG and PG degradation using laboratory-scale reactors and then by means of serum bottle tests; operation of an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR); and analysis of the energy aspects of anaerobic processes with cost comparisons to traditional aerobic processes.

  9. Evaluation and Analysis of Environmental Performance and Benefit of Environmentally-Advantaged Aircraft Deicing Fluids: Development of the Decision Support Methodology and Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-18

    concentration reported for your purchased product, if available. Line 11 – 48-hour aquatic toxicity (LC50) for daphnia (mg/L). Enter the concentration...organism other than fathead minnows or daphnia , enter the name of the organism here. Evaluation Worksheet Instructions Alternative Aircraft...minnows (mg/L). Enter the concentration reported for the alternative deicer named in Line 34. Line 40 – 48-hour aquatic toxicity (LC50) for daphnia

  10. Efficient on-site degradation of high concentration of spent deicing fluids: A laboratory study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, J.M.; Waltz, M.

    1997-10-01

    The on-site treatment of antifreeze compounds and aircraft deicing fluids (ethylene glycol and propylene glycol) will reduce disposal costs, decrease environmental impact, minimize the potential for additional spills/contamination and meet the goals of pollution prevention by reducing the amount of hazardous materials generated. The authors have identified bacteria that can degrade 1-10% glycol waste at room temperatures of ca. 23C. A second subculture was isolated that could degrade glycol waste at ca. 4C.

  11. Anaerobic treatment of aircraft de-icing agent using the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mulligan, C.; Chebib, J.; Safi, B.

    1997-12-31

    A system for the anaerobic treatment of aircraft de-icing agent has been developed by SNC Research Corp., a subsidiary of the SNC-LAVALIN Group (Montreal, Canada). The de-icing agent used in the evaluation contains 54% ethylene glycol, 46% water and trace additives such as surfactants and colorants. The process is comprised of a buffer tank and the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor and is as follows. The effluent containing the aircraft de-icing agent with ethylene glycol as the major component enters the buffer tank where the temperature and pH adjustment and the addition of nutrients takes place. The water is then sent to the SNC-LAVALIN Multiplate Reactor. Here, the de-icing agent is converted to biogas which contains 80% methane and the liquid effluent which is essentially ethylene glycol free is discharged. The biogas can be either burned in a flare or used for heating purposes. The following results are typical for the aircraft de-icing agent: Greater than 90% total COD and 99% ethylene glycol removal at an organic load of 15 kg COD/m{sup 3}-day. The de-icing agent can be collected and subsequently treated on-site using the SNC-LAVALIN system. The advantages of the SNC-LAVALIN system are low capital and operating costs, possibility of treating a wide range of de-icing agent concentrations and other liquid effluents unlike evaporation processes, potential recuperation of the biogas and a gentle technology for the environment without generation of VOCs.

  12. A novel actuator phasing method for ultrasonic de-icing of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borigo, Cody J.

    Aircraft icing is a critical concern for commercial and military rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. In-flight icing can lead to dramatic decreases in lift and increases in drag that have caused more than a thousand deaths and hundreds of accidents over the past three decades alone. Current ice protection technologies have substantial drawbacks due to weight, power consumption, environmental concerns, or incompatibility with certain structures. In this research, an actuator phasing method for ultrasonic de-icing of aircraft structures was developed and tested using a series of finite element models, 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements, and experimental de-icing tests on metallic and composite structures including plates and airfoils. An independent actuator analysis method was developed to allow for practical evaluation of many actuator phasing scenarios using a limited number of finite element models by properly calculating the phased stress fields and electromechanical impedance curves using a complex coupled impedance model. A genetic algorithm was utilized in conjunction with a series of finite element models to demonstrate that phase inversion, in which only in-phase and anti-phase signal components are applied to actuators, can be utilized with a small number of phasing combinations to achieve substantial improvements in de-icing system coverage. Finite element models of a 48"-long airfoil predicted that phase inversion with frequency sweeping can provide an improvement in the shear stress coverage levels of up to 90% compared to frequency sweeping alone. Experimental evaluation of the phasing approach on an icing grid showed a 189% improvement in de-icing coverage compared to frequency sweeping alone at comparable power levels. 3D scanning laser Doppler vibrometer measurements confirmed the increased variation in the surface vibration field induced by actuator phasing compared to unphased frequency sweeping. Additional contributions were made

  13. De-Icing of an Aircraft-Engine Induction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1943-08-01

    standard Holley alcohol vent ring (Holley part Ho. 2383), a modified Holley vent ring (Holley part No. 3O89), a Bet of four standard Army nozzles (part HOB ...of poll shod brnss, copper, and 17&-T aluninun alloy wore suBpondod in the do-icing fluids which vero contained in tost tubes» Tho various

  14. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer in composite bodies with application to de-icing of aircraft components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, D. F. K.

    1983-11-01

    Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

  15. Demonstrate a Low Biochemical Oxygen Demand Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-04

    mg and placed in separate beakers containing at least 30 millimeters of 70% nitric acid . Constant heat was applied with a hot plate up to 40°C...digested in nitric acid to remove the laminate material Type/Number of Specimens Samples (4) from density measurement (Section 4.2.2.1...panels performed the same. No corrosion was observed after 168 hours. Because no corrosion was formed at the 1.0% deicer concentration , the 0.25

  16. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robert A.; Schrag, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    A method of modelling a system consisting of a cylindrical coil with its axis perpendicular to a metal plate of finite thickness, and a simple electrical circuit for producing a transient current in the coil, is discussed in the context of using such a system for de-icing aircraft surfaces. A transmission line model of the coil and metal plate is developed as the heart of the system model. It is shown that this transmission model is central to calculation of the coil impedance, the coil current, the magnetic fields established on the surfaces of the metal plate, and the resultant total force between the coil and the plate. FORTRAN algorithms were developed for numerical calculation of each of these quantities, and the algorithms were applied to an experimental prototype system in which these quantities had been measured. Good agreement is seen to exist between the predicted and measured results.

  17. Numerical simulation of two-dimensional heat transfer in composite bodies with application to de-icing of aircraft components. Ph.D. Thesis. Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, D. F. K.

    1983-01-01

    Transient, numerical simulations of the de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating were performed for a two dimensional rectangular geometry. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation was used to insure stability of the finite-difference heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer was simulated using the Enthalpy method. The Gauss-Seidel point iterative method was used to solve the system of difference equations. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft structures and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies. The simulation can also be used to solve a variety of other heat conduction problems involving composite bodies.

  18. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For...

  19. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For...

  20. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For...

  1. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For...

  2. 14 CFR 25.929 - Propeller deicing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Propeller deicing. 25.929 Section 25.929 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 25.929 Propeller deicing. (a) For...

  3. Experimental study of fluid deicing system in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of the icing of horizontal control surfaces at the VFW in 1970 led them to select the NASA Icing Research Tunnel at LRC for their tests. Tests were performed for the VFW 614 aircraft. The TKS ice warning system, the Rosemont ice warning system and the liquid water content indicator were investigated and found to be appropriate for the aircraft.

  4. Theoretical analysis of the electrical aspects of the basic electro-impulse problem in aircraft de-icing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, R. A.; Schrag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A summary of modeling the electrical system aspects of a coil and metal target configuration resembling a practical electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) installation, and a simple circuit for providing energy to the coil, was presented. The model was developed in sufficient theoretical detail to allow the generation of computer algorithms for the current in the coil, the magnetic induction on both surfaces of the target, the force between the coil and target, and the impulse delivered to the target. These algorithms were applied to a specific prototype EIDI test system for which the current, magnetic fields near the target surfaces, and impulse were previously measured.

  5. Aircraft and Pavement Deicer and Anti-Icer Forensics: Which Formulations Reach the Receiving Water and What are Their Potential Impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize the effects from runoff of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) and pavement deicer formulations (PDF) on receiving water, multiple deicing and anti-icing formulations must be considered. ADAF formulations used on aircraft include Type I fluids (deicers) and Type IV fluids (an...

  6. Hot Surface Ignition Tests of Aircraft Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-01

    commionly f~und in aircraft engine components, JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H-5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic fluids and Mil-L-7808 lubricating oil , were tested in...4 and JP-8 fuels and Nil-L-7808 lubricating oil ) using an air- heated bleed-air du:t in a high realism test article. First, tests were conducted on a...JP-4 and JP-8 fuels, Mil-H.- 5606 and Mil-H-83282 hydraulic "J.,tids and Mil-L-7806 lubricating oil were injected as spray or streuins clto various

  7. Designing an electro-impulse de-icing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    Basic principles and parameters for a system to deice aircraft with electromagnetic impulses are described. The physical basis for deicing by such impulses is explained, and the requirements involved in the electrodynamic design, structural dynamic design, and system design are discussed. Some manufacturing and testing problems and techniques are described.

  8. Ultrasonic Measurement of Aircraft Strut Hydraulic Fluid Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G.

    2002-01-01

    An ultrasonic method is presented for non-intrusively measuring hydraulic fluid level in aircraft struts in the field quickly and easily without modifying the strut or aircraft. The technique interrogates the strut with ultrasonic waves generated and received by a removable ultrasonic transducer hand-held on the outside of the strut in a fashion that is in the presence or absence of hydraulic fluid inside the strut. This technique was successfully demonstrated on an A-6 aircraft strut on the carriage at the Aircraft Landing Dynamics Research Facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Conventional practice upon detection of strut problem symptoms is to remove aircraft from service for extensive maintenance to determine fluid level. No practical technique like the method presented herein for locating strut hydraulic fluid level is currently known to be used.

  9. Modeling of Aircraft Deicing Fluid Induced Biochemical Oxygen Demand in Subsurface-Flow Constructed Treatment Wetlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    meters. The input and output control structures are modeled as sharp crested , rectangular weirs one meter in width. The elevation of the input weir is...manipulated by adjusting the width of both the input and output weirs and the crest height of the output weir . All of these adjustments were found to be...reduction of the weir crest height had an effect on the amount of storm water retained during low precipitation conditions, but not on the crest

  10. PLANT-ENHANCED REMEDIATION OF GLYCOL-BASED AIRCRAFT DEICING FLUIDS. (R825549C062)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. Assessment of the Flammability of Aircraft Hydraulic Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    plates of different compositions (e.g., Hastelloy Alloy X, stainless steels, titanium, aluminum alloys , and others) to determine the effect of metal...propagation properties , and heats of combustion of a number of aircraft fluids. These included currently used (cont’d) FtORM DD I JAN 7 1473 EDITION...and other apparatus for the determi- nation of ignitability anc flame propagation properties and heats of combustion of a number of aircraft fluids

  12. Alternative aircraft anti-icing formulations with reduced aquatic toxicity and biochemical oxygen demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, Harris; Joback, Kevin; Geis, Steven; Bowman, George; Mericas, Dean; Corsi, Steven R.; Ferguson, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The current research was conducted to identify alternative aircraft and pavement deicer and anti-icer formulations with improved environmental characteristics compared to currently used commercial products (2007). The environmental characteristics of primary concern are the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and aquatic toxicity of the fully formulated products. Except when the distinction among products is necessary for clarity, “deicer” will refer to aircraft-deicing fluids (ADFs), aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAFs), and pavementdeicing materials (PDMs).

  13. Environmentally Benign Deicing/Anti-Icing Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-01

    based on glucose, lactates, and their salts. Models developed by METSS to identify potential replacement materials for the current glycol -based...DESCRIPTION: The use of glycols as aircraft deicers has come under scrutiny due to the Clean Water Act. Ethylene glycol is toxic and is no longer purchased by...the Airforce for the purpose of deicing, while propylene glycol based deicers have a significant adverse environmental impact in surface and

  14. High-order computational fluid dynamics tools for aircraft design

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Z. J.

    2014-01-01

    Most forecasts predict an annual airline traffic growth rate between 4.5 and 5% in the foreseeable future. To sustain that growth, the environmental impact of aircraft cannot be ignored. Future aircraft must have much better fuel economy, dramatically less greenhouse gas emissions and noise, in addition to better performance. Many technical breakthroughs must take place to achieve the aggressive environmental goals set up by governments in North America and Europe. One of these breakthroughs will be physics-based, highly accurate and efficient computational fluid dynamics and aeroacoustics tools capable of predicting complex flows over the entire flight envelope and through an aircraft engine, and computing aircraft noise. Some of these flows are dominated by unsteady vortices of disparate scales, often highly turbulent, and they call for higher-order methods. As these tools will be integral components of a multi-disciplinary optimization environment, they must be efficient to impact design. Ultimately, the accuracy, efficiency, robustness, scalability and geometric flexibility will determine which methods will be adopted in the design process. This article explores these aspects and identifies pacing items. PMID:25024419

  15. Environmentally Benign Aircraft Anti-icing and Deicing Fluids Based on Cost Effective, Bio-based Ingredients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    basis. This calibration is carried out according to a calibration plan based upon approved International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) 9001 ...Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202-4302, and to the Office of Management and Budget, Paperwork Reduction Project...support. The Project Manager and Principal Investigator was Dr. Satya P. Chauhan of Battelle. The members of the project team and their

  16. Comparison of LBOD, DE-1006A, & Conventional Propylene Glycol-Based Aircraft Deicing Fluids in Terms of Potential Environmental Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    results in mortality to fifty percent of the test organisms (LC50) was reported for invertebrate (water flea, Daphnia magna ) and vertebrate (fathead...and Octaflo EF. Organism LBOD LC50 (mg/L) D3 1006A LC50 (mg/L) Octaflo EF LC50 (mg/L) D. magna (48 hr.) 4,275 15,500 14,000 P promelas (96...hr) 9,725 16,150 10,800 D3 1006A has the highest reported LC50 values, and therefore the lowest acute toxicity, to both D. magna and P. promelas

  17. Evaluation of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Activated Sludge for Biodegradation of Propylene Glycol as an Aircraft Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    unit for use. 31 Explore other treatment and disposal options for used ADF. While anaerobic digestion of used ADF has been widely...scale sequencing batch reactor containing municipal waste water treatment facility activated sludge (AS) performing simultaneous organic carbon...all used ADF in an approved manner. Available options include recycling, disposal under a waste contract, or onsite pretreatment (United States EPA

  18. Evaluation of Aircraft Platforms for SOFIA by Computational Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotz, S. P.; Srinivasan, G. R.; VanDalsem, William (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The selection of an airborne platform for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is based not only on economic cost, but technical criteria, as well. Technical issues include aircraft fatigue, resonant characteristics of the cavity-port shear layer, aircraft stability, the drag penalty of the open telescope bay, and telescope performance. Recently, two versions of the Boeing 747 aircraft, viz., the -SP and -200 configurations, were evaluated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for their suitability as SOFIA platforms. In each configuration the telescope was mounted behind the wings in an open bay with nearly circular aperture. The geometry of the cavity, cavity aperture, and telescope was identical in both platforms. The aperture was located on the port side of the aircraft and the elevation angle of the telescope, measured with respect to the vertical axis, was 500. The unsteady, viscous, three-dimensional, aerodynamic and acoustic flow fields in the vicinity of SOFIA were simulated by an implicit, finite-difference Navier-Stokes flow solver (OVERFLOW) on a Chimera, overset grid system. The computational domain was discretized by structured grids. Computations were performed at wind-tunnel and flight Reynolds numbers corresponding to one free-stream flow condition (M = 0.85, angle of attack alpha = 2.50, and sideslip angle beta = 0 degrees). The computational domains consisted of twenty-nine(29) overset grids in the wind-tunnel simulations and forty-five(45) grids in the simulations run at cruise flight conditions. The maximum number of grid points in the simulations was approximately 4 x 10(exp 6). Issues considered in the evaluation study included analysis of the unsteady flow field in the cavity, the influence of the cavity on the flow across empennage surfaces, the drag penalty caused by the open telescope bay, and the noise radiating from cavity surfaces and the cavity-port shear layer. Wind-tunnel data were also available to compare

  19. Generating Inviscid and Viscous Fluid-Flow Simulations over an Aircraft Surface Using a Fluid-Flow Mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using inviscid and viscous simulations. A fluid-flow mesh of fluid cells is obtained. At least one inviscid fluid property for the fluid cells is determined using an inviscid fluid simulation that does not simulate fluid viscous effects. A set of intersecting fluid cells that intersects the aircraft surface are identified. One surface mesh polygon of the surface mesh is identified for each intersecting fluid cell. A boundary-layer prediction point for each identified surface mesh polygon is determined. At least one boundary-layer fluid property for each boundary-layer prediction point is determined using the at least one inviscid fluid property of the corresponding intersecting fluid cell and a boundary-layer simulation that simulates fluid viscous effects. At least one updated fluid property for at least one fluid cell is determined using the at least one boundary-layer fluid property and the inviscid fluid simulation.

  20. The Effects of Temperature, Humidity and Aircraft Fluid Exposure on T800H/3900-2 Composites Bonded with AF-555M Adhesive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Gilda A.; Hou, Tan-Hung; Lowther, Sharon E.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Connell, John W.; Blasini, Sheila Roman

    2010-01-01

    Fiber reinforced resin matrix composites and structural adhesives have found increased usage on commercial and military aircraft in recent years. Due to the lack of service history of these relatively new material systems, their long-term aging performance has not been well established. In this study, single lap shear specimens (SLS) were fabricated by secondary bonding of Scotch-Weld(TradeMark) AF-555M between pre-cured adherends comprised of T800H/3900-2 uni-directional laminates. The adherends were co-cured with wet peel-ply for surface preparation. Each bond-line of the SLS specimen was measured to determine thickness and inspected visually using an optical microscope for voids. A three-year environmental aging plan for the SLS specimens at 82 C (180 F) and 85% relative humidity was initiated. SLS strengths were measured for both controls and aged specimens at room temperature and 82 C. The effect of this exposure on lap shear strength and failure modes to date is reported. In addition, the effects of water, saline water, deicing fluid, JP-5 jet fuel and hydraulic fluid on both the composite material and the adhesive bonds were investigated. The up to date results on the effects of these exposures will be discussed.

  1. Electro-impulse de-icing of a turbofan engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    The application of electromagnetic impulse deicing (EIDI) systems to turbofan engine inlets on business aircraft has been investigated experimentally. The tests were performed in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA's Lewis Research Center. The deicing system testbed was a Falcon Fanjet 20 engine nacelle. The effectiveness of various deicing coil configurations and mount designs were compared, and design parameters were developed specifically for EIDI systems in turbofan engines. Flight tests were also carried out at altitudes in the range 3000-6000 ft corresponding to a temperature range of -3 to -8 C. It is shown that the ice particles removed from the engine inlet by the deicing system were small enough for the engine to ingest. Tentative design specifications are given with respect to the optimum coil configuration, and operating power of a EIDI production candidate.

  2. Flight and wind tunnel tests of an electro-impulse de-icing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Mueller, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A joint University-Industry project has been sponsored by NASA Lewis Research Center to develop the Electro-Impulse method for de-icing aircraft. The program has consisted of basic analyses, laboratory testing, icing tunnel tests, and flight tests. During the past two years, the EIDI system has been tested and refined, and has been shown to be a low-energy, highly reliable de-icing system for a wide range of conditions. This paper gives a brief review of conditions. This paper gives a brief review of the basic principles, the development history, and results of recent flight tests by NASA and by Cessna Aircraft Company.

  3. Numerical simulation of electrothermal de-icing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Witt, K. J.; Keith, T. G.; Chao, D. F.; Masiulaniec, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Transient simulations of de-icing of composite aircraft components by electrothermal heating have been computed for both one and two-dimensional rectangular geometries. The implicit Crank-Nicolson formulation is used to insure stability of the finite-differenced heat conduction equations and the phase change in the ice layer is simulated using the Enthalpy method. Numerical solutions illustrating de-icer performance for various composite aircraft blades and environmental conditions are presented. Comparisons are made with previous studies and with available experimental data. Initial results using a coordinate mapping technique to describe the actual blade geometry are discussed.

  4. Electro-impulse de-icing testing analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Electro-Impulse De-Icing (EIDI) is a method of ice removal by sharp blows delivered by a transient electromagnetic field. Detailed results are given for studies of the electrodynamic phenomena. Structural dynamic tests and computations are described. Also reported are ten sets of tests at NASA's Icing Research Tunnel and flight tests by NASA and Cessna Aircraft Company. Fabrication of system components are described and illustrated. Fatigue and electromagnetic interference tests are reported. Here, the necessary information for the design of an EIDI system for aircraft is provided.

  5. Determination of tailless aircraft tumbling and stability characteristics through computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saephan, Syta

    Tailless aircraft configurations such as flying wings are susceptible to tumbling. Tumbling involves an autorotative pitching motion primarily about an axis parallel to the aircraft's lateral axis combined with planar translation. Tumbling is the suspected cause of a tailless aircraft (Northrop YB-49) crash in the late 1940s and is a potential problem for future flying wing and blended wing body aircraft. It may be difficult if not impossible for a tailless aircraft to escape the tumbling motion once it begins. It is therefore important for aircraft designers to know the causes of tumbling in order to prevent its onset. Tumbling has been demonstrated in qualitative free-flight wind tunnel experiments, but few have attempted to quantify the motion using computational fluid dynamics. The purpose of this research is to use computational fluid dynamics to study the tumbling characteristics of a tailless aircraft and then determine dynamic stability information from the simulations. Specifically, the effects of initial conditions, degrees-of-freedom, Reynolds number, and aircraft static margin will be investigated. Lumped pitch damping derivatives will be determined from the simulations.

  6. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  7. Shape-Memory-Alloy-Based Deicing System Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Ice buildup on aircraft leading edge surfaces has historically been a problem. Most conventional deicing systems rely either on surface heating to melt the accreted ice or pneumatic surface inflation to mechanically debond the ice. Deicers that rely solely on surface heating require large amounts of power. Pneumatic deicers usually cannot remove thin layers of ice and lack durability. Thus, there is a need for an advanced, low-power ice protection system. As part of the NASA Small Business and Innovation Research (SBIR) program, Innovative Dynamics, Inc., developed an aircraft deicing system that utilizes the properties of Shape Memory Alloys (SMA). The SMA-based system has achieved promising improvements in energy efficiency and durability over more conventional deicers. When they are thermally activated, SMA materials change shape; this is analogous to a conventional thermal expansion. The thermal input is currently applied via conventional technology, but there are plans to implement a passive thermal input that is supplied from the energy transfer due to the formation of the ice itself. The actively powered deicer was tested in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel on a powered rotating rig in early 1995. The system showed promise, deicing both rime and glaze ice shapes as thin as 1/8 in. The first prototype SMA deicer reduced power usage by 45 percent over existing electrothermal systems. This prototype system was targeted for rotorcraft system development. However, there are current plans underway to develop a fixed-wing version of the deicer.

  8. Analyses and tests for design of an electro-impulse de-icing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Schrag, R. L.; Bernhart, W. D.; Friedberg, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    De-icing of aircraft by using the electro-magnetic impulse phenomenon was proposed and demonstrated in several European countries. However, it is not available as a developed system due to lack of research on the basic physical mechanisms and necessary design parameters. The de-icing is accomplished by rapidly discharging high voltage capacitors into a wire coil rigidly supported just inside the aircraft skin. Induced eddy currents in the skin create a repulsive force resulting in a hammer-like force which cracks, de-bonds, and expels ice on the skin surface. The promised advantages are very low energy, high reliability of de-icing, and low maintenance. Three years of Electo-Impulse De-icing (EIDI) research is summarized and the analytical studies and results of testing done in the laboratory, in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel, and in flight are presented. If properly designed, EIDI was demonstrated to be an effective and practical ice protection system for small aircraft, turbojet engine inlets, elements of transport aircraft, and shows promise for use on helicopter rotor blades. Included are practical techniques of fabrication of impulse coils and their mountings. The use of EIDI with nonmetallic surface materials is also described.

  9. Generating a Simulated Fluid Flow Over an Aircraft Surface Using Anisotropic Diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, David L. (Inventor); Sturdza, Peter (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A fluid-flow simulation over a computer-generated aircraft surface is generated using a diffusion technique. The surface is comprised of a surface mesh of polygons. A boundary-layer fluid property is obtained for a subset of the polygons of the surface mesh. A pressure-gradient vector is determined for a selected polygon, the selected polygon belonging to the surface mesh but not one of the subset of polygons. A maximum and minimum diffusion rate is determined along directions determined using a pressure gradient vector corresponding to the selected polygon. A diffusion-path vector is defined between a point in the selected polygon and a neighboring point in a neighboring polygon. An updated fluid property is determined for the selected polygon using a variable diffusion rate, the variable diffusion rate based on the minimum diffusion rate, maximum diffusion rate, and angular difference between the diffusion-path vector and the pressure-gradient vector.

  10. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  11. Hydraulic fluids and jet engine oil: pyrolysis and aircraft air quality.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2001-01-01

    Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 degrees C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet engine oil and two hydraulic fluids at 525 degrees C. Engine oil was an important source of carbon monoxide. Volatile agents and organophosphate constituents were released from all the agents tested; however, the neurotoxin trimethyl propane phosphate was not found. The authors hypothesized that localized condensation of pyrolysis products in ventilation ducts, followed by mobilization when cabin heat demand was high, accounted for mid-flight incidents. The authors recommended that carbon monoxide data be logged continuously to capture levels during future incidents.

  12. Influence of Superhydrophobic Properties on Deicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazhipkyzy, M.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Amirfazli, A.; Esbosin, A.; Temirgaliyeva, T. S.; Lesbayev, B. T.; Aliyev, E. T.; Prikhodko, N. G.

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays the creation of anti-icing, or deicing, surfaces is one of the most important problems, as such surfaces are widely used in aeronautics, wind turbines, and telecommunication antennas. In this paper, we focus mainly on reducing the ice adhesion forces and easy ice removal, once ice has formed. Removal of a liquid from a surface can be provided by modification of the surface wettability by means of applying superhydrophobic coatings. Such coatings are water-resistant, i.e., are characterized by low water adhesion forces. To study the impact of superhydrophobic coatings, tests were performed on the surface of a wing in a wind tunnel. By spraying Teflon and polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) on the wing, we obtained a superhydrophobic film. This film has a structure that provides superhydrophobic properties, so that the wetting angle is above 140°. A comparison of the resulting surface with a clean Teflon one shows that adhesion of the Teflon + PPS mixture to an aluminum surface is five times higher. We also investigate the degree of ice formation on the surfaces of simple and superhydrophobic aircraft wings at a temperature of -18°C. It was shown that ice was formed on a simple wing within 40 s and on a superhydrophobic wing within 25 s. When the simple wing with a mass of 23 g was inserted into the wind tunnel, its mass reached 50 g, and for a superhydrophobic wing with a mass of 26 g the latter reached 42 g. The sample of the airfoil wing we prepared has a low adhesion, which helps in easy ice removal.

  13. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  15. Electro-impulse de-icing - A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.

    1988-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of the Electro-Impulse De-Icing (EIDI) system are examined. The design and operation of the EIDI are described. The effect of repeated impulsive loads on the structure and skin of the aircraft surface is investigated. It is observed that the wing skin directly over the coil receives the greatest stresses. Data from the testing of metal leading edges reveal that after 11,500 impulses cracks appear in the sheet brackets attaching the ribs to the coil beams. The composite leading edge was evaluated for fatigue, and after 20,000 impulses no cracks were detected. The advantages of the band-aid coil mount are discussed.

  16. The Development of an Advanced Anti-Icing/Deicing Capability for U.S. Army Helicopters. Volume 1. Design Criteria and Technology Considerations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    system is installed using a 20/30 kva generator . This system also has the capability of providing a variable voltage in accordance with icing...Deicing System, Electrotherms.1 (includes generator ) Cost Summary - Aircraft Type and Production Quantities .. . . ... .. .. .. 189 30 Maintenance Man...overall aircraft performance with unnecessary penalties due to the ice protection system. Future- generation Army aircraft must possess adequate capa- * I

  17. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  18. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin.

    PubMed

    Isukapalli, Sastry S; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P

    2013-04-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin's lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides.

  19. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of transport and deposition of pesticides in an aircraft cabin

    PubMed Central

    Isukapalli, Sastry S.; Mazumdar, Sagnik; George, Pradeep; Wei, Binnian; Jones, Byron; Weisel, Clifford P.

    2015-01-01

    Spraying of pesticides in aircraft cabins is required by some countries as part of a disinsection process to kill insects that pose a public health threat. However, public health concerns remain regarding exposures of cabin crew and passengers to pesticides in aircraft cabins. While large scale field measurements of pesticide residues and air concentrations in aircraft cabins scenarios are expensive and time consuming, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models provide an effective alternative for characterizing concentration distributions and exposures. This study involved CFD modeling of a twin-aisle 11 row cabin mockup with heated manikins, mimicking a part of a fully occupied Boeing 767 cabin. The model was applied to study the flow and deposition of pesticides under representative scenarios with different spraying patterns (sideways and overhead) and cabin air exchange rates (low and high). Corresponding spraying experiments were conducted in the cabin mockup, and pesticide deposition samples were collected at the manikin’s lap and seat top for a limited set of five seats. The CFD model performed well for scenarios corresponding to high air exchange rates, captured the concentration profiles for middle seats under low air exchange rates, and underestimated the concentrations at window seats under low air exchange rates. Additionally, both the CFD and experimental measurements showed no major variation in deposition characteristics between sideways and overhead spraying. The CFD model can estimate concentration fields and deposition profiles at very high resolutions, which can be used for characterizing the overall variability in air concentrations and surface loadings. Additionally, these model results can also provide a realistic range of surface and air concentrations of pesticides in the cabin that can be used to estimate potential exposures of cabin crew and passengers to these pesticides. PMID:25642134

  20. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  1. Artificial feel system using magneto-rheological fluid on aircraft control stick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoharan, Vignesh; Kim, Daewon

    2016-04-01

    The conventional feel system in aircraft occupies large space in the cockpit and has complicated designs. The primary objective of this research is to develop an artificial feel force system that can overcome some drawbacks of the current system. A novel feel system using magneto-rheological (MR) fluid is constructed to precisely control the shear stress under the magnetic field. To validate the functionality of the MR artificial feel system, the final system is fabricated and multiple tests are performed to acquire force-velocity characteristics that are compared to the mathematical model derived. In addition, the PID closed loop control algorithm is developed to simulate the dynamic system model. Both experimental and simulation results are compared to validate the derived system model. The system response time and sampling rates are evaluated and compared to the conventional system at the end. It is concluded that the developed artificial feel system can precisely control and acts as a fail proof system when incorporated with a modern fly-by-wire aircraft system.

  2. Exposure of aircraft maintenance technicians to organophosphates from hydraulic fluids and turbine oils: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Koslitz, Stephan; Weiss, Tobias; Broding, Horst Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fluids and turbine oils contain organophosphates like tricresyl phosphate isomers, triphenyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate from very small up to high percentages. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if aircraft maintenance technicians are exposed to relevant amounts of organophosphates. Dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of seven organophosphates were quantified in pre- and post-shift spot urine samples of technicians (N=5) by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction and derivatization. Pre- and post shift values of tributyl phosphate metabolites (dibutyl phosphate (DBP): median pre-shift: 12.5 μg/L, post-shift: 23.5 μg/L) and triphenyl phosphate metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPP): median pre-shift: 2.9 μg/L, post-shift: 3.5 μg/L) were statistically higher than in a control group from the general population (median DBP: <0.25 μg/L, median DPP: 0.5 μg/L). No tricresyl phosphate metabolites were detected. The aircraft maintenance technicians were occupationally exposed to tributyl and triphenyl phosphate but not to tricresyl phosphate, tri-(2-chloroethyl)- and tri-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate. Further studies are necessary to collect information on sources, routes of uptake and varying exposures during different work tasks, evaluate possible health effects and to set up appropriate protective measures.

  3. De-icing of the altitude wind tunnel turning vanes by electro-magnetic impulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Ross, R.

    1986-01-01

    The Altitude Wind Tunnel at the NASA-Lewis facility is being proposed for a refurbishment and moderization. Two major changes are: (1) the increasing of the test section Mach number to 0.90, and (2) the addition of spray nozzles to provide simulation of flight in icing clouds. Features to be retained are the simulation of atmospheric temperature and pressure to 50,000 foot altitude and provision for full-scale aircraft engine operation by the exhausting of the aircraft combustion gases and ingestion of air to replace that used in combustion. The first change required a re-design of the turning vanes in the two corners downstream of the test section due to the higher Mach number at the corners. The second change threatens the operation of the turning vanes by the expected ice build-up, particulary on the first-corner vanes. De-icing by heat has two drawbacks: (1) an extremely large amount of heat is required, and (2) the melted ice would tend to collect as ice on some other surfaces in the tunnel, namely, the tunnel propellers and the cooling coils. An alternate de-icing method had been under development for three years under NASA-Lewis grants to the Wichita State University. This report describes the electro-impulse de-icing (EIDI) method and the testing work done to assess its applicability to wind tunnel turning vane de-icing. Tests were conducted in the structural dynamics laboratory and in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel. Good ice protection was achieved at lower power consumption and at a wide range of tunnel operations conditions. Recommendations for design and construction of the system for this application of the EIDI method are given.

  4. De-Icing Salts and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Audubon Society, Lincoln.

    Reported is an examination of the use and effects of chlorides as de-icing products for removal of snow and ice from roads immediately following storms. Increasing evidence of detrimental side effects led to a closer look and more careful evaluation of the overall significance of the so-called "bare pavement maintenance." The side…

  5. Acute lung injury following refrigeration coil deicing.

    PubMed

    McKeown, Nathanael J; Burton, Brent T

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a worker who developed ALI requiring mechanical ventilatory support after attempting to melt ice condensate by applying the flame of an oxy-acetylene torch to refrigeration coils charged with a halocarbon refrigerant in a closed environment. A discussion of possible etiologies are discussed, including phosgene, carbonyl fluoride, and nitrogen oxides. Primary prevention with adequate respiratory protection is recommended whenever deicing is performed in a closed space environment.

  6. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C

    1999-05-07

    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations of a Humvee Airdropped from Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Phillip M.

    Military airdrop is a means of transporting and delivering cargo to inaccessible locales faster and more efficiently. The Humvee, an all-terrain truck, is one such payload that the U.S. Army drops routinely. Here, interesting physics occurs both structurally and aerodynamically. From a fluid dynamics and trajectory standpoint, determining the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the parachute and payload is crucial particularly for trajectory prediction. This study primarily used Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to simulate the aerodynamics of an airdrop Humvee model in two regimes of fall, namely, right after clearing the aircraft ramp, and during descent under parachute. This study was performed at a Reynolds number of 3.07x10. 6 and at an airspeedof 9.144m/s (30ft/s). The first humvee part of the study analyzed the aerodynamic coefficients drag, lift, and pitching moment over a 360 degree range of pitch angles for the Humvee configured for extraction. The second set of humvee simulations focused on the aerodynamic coefficients at pitch angles of -40 degrees to +40 degrees with the platform and vehicle configured for descent under parachute. The Humvee after ramp tip-off has a parachute pack on its hood, but lacks one during the descent phase. The numerical data was compared with the results of geometries from previous studies. These geometries include: the flat plate, Type-V LVADS and 10K-JPADS containers, and a cargo-carrying platform outfitted with a bumper. Our results clearly show the effects of the many angular features that characterize the shape of a Humvee in comparison to those of a simple cuboid, particularly with regards to the loss of lift in a sub-range of pitch angle (-45 degrees to -180 degrees). First, the aerodynamic coefficients were calculated over one full-revolution of the humvee (-180 degrees to +180 degrees static pitch angles with respect to the humvee's platform) best matched in lift, drag, and moment those of the type V LVADS

  8. Deicing chemicals as source of constituents of highway runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    The dissolved major and trace constituents of deicing chemicals as a source of constituents in highway runoff must be quantified for interpretive studies of highway runoff and its effects on surface water and groundwater. Dissolved constituents of the deicing chemicals-sodium chloride, calcium chloride, and premix (a mixture of sodium and calcium chloride)-were determined by analysis of salt solutions created in the laboratory and are presented as mass ratios to chloride. Deicing chemical samples studied are about 98 and 97 percent pure sodium chloride and calcium chloride, respectively: however, each has a distinct major and trace ion constituent signature. The greatest impurity in sodium chloride road sail samples was sulfate, followed by calcium, potassium, bromide, vanadium, magnesium, fluoride, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. The greatest impurity in the calcium chloride road salt samples was sodium, followed by potassium, sulfate, bromide, silica, fluoride. strontium, magnesium, and other constituents with a ratio to chloride of less than 0.0001 by mass. Major constituents of deicing chemicals in highway runoff may account for a substantial source of annual chemical loads. Comparison of estimated annual loads and first flush concentrations of deicing chemical constituents in highway runoff with those reported in the literature indicate that although deicing chemicals are not a primary source of trace constituents, they are not a trivial source, either. Therefore, deicing chemicals should be considered as a source of many major and trace constituents in highway and urban runoff.

  9. De-Icing of Aircraft Turbine Engine Inlets

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    this report. Technical Rope"t Documentation Pal* 2.Roag e Govemmassf Acesesion Me. 3 . Rkeump....,g C0141011 M.. DOT/FAA/C T-87/37 I________ 4.~~~S Tifs...5 2- 3 Combination of Hot Air, Oil and Electrical Ice Protection in L Turbojet Installation...19 ICE ACCRETION AND DR-ICING EVALUATION 3 -1 Four-Point Bend Loading ......................................... 20 3 -2 Rheological Model for Dynamic

  10. Pretreated Starch Solutions for Low Environmental Impact Aircraft Deicing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    radical are electrophilic substitution to aromatic compounds and addition to alkenes. Another class of hydroxyl radical reactions is hydrogen...abstraction from saturated compounds such as alkanes, a pathway that proceeds at a slower rate relative to electrophilic substitution and addition. Chemicals...radical. In contrast, alkanes exhibit relatively low reactivity with hydroxyl radical; in particular, chlorinated and fluorinated alkanes such as

  11. Assessment of Lightning Transients on a De-Iced Rotor Blade with Predictive Tools and Coaxial Return Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillet, S.; Gosmain, A.; Ducoux, W.; Ponçon, M.; Fontaine, G.; Desseix, P.; Perraud, P.

    2012-05-01

    The increasing use of composite materials in aircrafts primary structures has led to different problematics in the field of safety of flight in lightning conditions. The consequences of this technological mutation, which occurs in a parallel context of extension of electrified critical functions, are addressed by aircraft manufacturers through the enhancement of their available assessment means of lightning transient. On the one hand, simulation tools, provided an accurate description of aircraft design, are today valuable assessment tools, in both predictive and operative terms. On the other hand, in-house test means allow confirmation and consolidation of design office hardening solutions. The combined use of predictive simulation tools and in- house test means offers an efficient and reliable support for all aircraft developments in their various life-time stages. The present paper provides PREFACE research project results that illustrate the above introduced strategy on the de-icing system of the NH90 composite main rotor blade.

  12. Alternative highway deicing chemicals, executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, S. A.; Schenk, R. U.

    1980-03-01

    A search was made for road deicing chemicals to replace sodium chloride (NaC1). Two candidate deicers were found to be as effective as sodium chloride. One, methanol, reacts almost immediately upon contact with snow and ice but is less persistent than NaCl. The other calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), acts at about the same rate as NaCl in the temperature range of common activity and shows about the same persistence. It gives rise to about the same decreases in coefficients of braking traction and skidding friction as NaCl. CMA is a corrosion inhibitor, is beneficial to most soils and has no potential for harming drinking supplies. The unpurified CMA derived from solid wastes, primarily cellulose, gives improved traction and reduces production costs.

  13. Electromagnetic emissions from a modular Low Voltage Electro-Impulse De-icing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zieve, Peter; Huffer, Brent; Ng, James

    1989-03-01

    An important consideration in the certification of electro-impulse deicing (EIDI) systems for aircraft ice protection is electromagnetic interference (EMI). When the capacitor bank in an EIDI system discharges, a large pulse of current travels down a transmission line to the coil. Subsequent radiation by the transmission line and the coil produces EMI. The low voltage electro-impulse deicing system (LVEIDI) is unique in that the capacitor bank is mounted adjacent to the coil thereby eliminating most of the cables. Electromagnetic emissions from this system would then be primarily from the coil. The performed tests investigate the EMI environment inside and outside of both a composite and an aluminum wing. Due to the absence of the shielding effect of aluminum, the problem of electromagnetic emissions is particularly severe when the wing is constructed of composite materials. Measurements of the radiated electric field indicate that emissions from the aluminum wing were well within the standards. Some tests with the composite wing were within standards while others were not. It was found that the composite wing could be brought back into compliance through the addition of thin metallic shielding. Conducted emissions on the LVEIDI power feed cable were brought within standards with the addition of a line filter. An unshielded connection cable for a compass flux valve was run through the wing just behind the LVEIDI module. Discharge of the capacitor bank had no discernible effect on operation of the compass flux valve. No problems were observed in other tests of the wing internal environment.

  14. User's guide for ENSAERO: A multidisciplinary program for fluid/structural/control interaction studies of aircraft (release 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1994-01-01

    Strong interactions can occur between the flow about an aerospace vehicle and its structural components resulting in several important aeroelastic phenomena. These aeroelastic phenomena can significantly influence the performance of the vehicle. At present, closed-form solutions are available for aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for aeroelasticity involving complex nonlinear flows with shock waves, vortices, flow separations, and aerodynamic heating, computational methods are still under development. These complex aeroelastic interactions can be dangerous and limit the performance of aircraft. Examples of these detrimental effects are aircraft with highly swept wings experiencing vortex-induced aeroelastic oscillations, transonic regime at which the flutter speed is low, aerothermoelastic loads that play a critical role in the design of high-speed vehicles, and flow separations that often lead to buffeting with undesirable structural oscillations. The simulation of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires an integrated analysis of fluids and structures. This report presents a summary of the development, applications, and procedures to use the multidisciplinary computer code ENSAERO. This code is based on the Euler/Navier-Stokes flow equations and modal/finite-element structural equations.

  15. Reliability-based aeroelastic optimization of a composite aircraft wing via fluid-structure interaction of high fidelity solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikbay, M.; Fakkusoglu, N.; Kuru, M. N.

    2010-06-01

    We consider reliability based aeroelastic optimization of a AGARD 445.6 composite aircraft wing with stochastic parameters. Both commercial engineering software and an in-house reliability analysis code are employed in this high-fidelity computational framework. Finite volume based flow solver Fluent is used to solve 3D Euler equations, while Gambit is the fluid domain mesh generator and Catia-V5-R16 is used as a parametric 3D solid modeler. Abaqus, a structural finite element solver, is used to compute the structural response of the aeroelastic system. Mesh based parallel code coupling interface MPCCI-3.0.6 is used to exchange the pressure and displacement information between Fluent and Abaqus to perform a loosely coupled fluid-structure interaction by employing a staggered algorithm. To compute the probability of failure for the probabilistic constraints, one of the well known MPP (Most Probable Point) based reliability analysis methods, FORM (First Order Reliability Method) is implemented in Matlab. This in-house developed Matlab code is embedded in the multidisciplinary optimization workflow which is driven by Modefrontier. Modefrontier 4.1, is used for its gradient based optimization algorithm called NBI-NLPQLP which is based on sequential quadratic programming method. A pareto optimal solution for the stochastic aeroelastic optimization is obtained for a specified reliability index and results are compared with the results of deterministic aeroelastic optimization.

  16. Nanoscale deicing by molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Senbo; He, Jianying; Zhang, Zhiliang

    2016-07-01

    Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice adhesion strength by an aqueous water layer, and provide atomistic details that support previous experimental studies. Our results contribute quantitative comparison of nanoscale adhesion strength of ice on hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces, and supply for the first time theoretical references for understanding the mechanics at the atomistic origins of macroscale ice adhesion.Deicing is important to human activities in low-temperature circumstances, and is critical for combating the damage caused by excessive accumulation of ice. The aim of creating anti-icing materials, surfaces and applications relies on the understanding of fundamental nanoscale ice adhesion mechanics. Here in this study, we employ all-atom modeling and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate ice adhesion. We apply force to detach and shear nano-sized ice cubes for probing the determinants of atomistic adhesion mechanics, and at the same time investigate the mechanical effect of a sandwiched aqueous water layer between ice and substrates. We observe that high interfacial energy restricts ice mobility and increases both ice detaching and shearing stresses. We quantify up to a 60% decrease in ice

  17. The effects of aircraft fuel and fluids on the strength properties of Resin Transfer Molded (RTM) composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falcone, Anthony; Dow, Marvin B.

    1993-01-01

    The resin transfer molding (RTM) process offers important advantages for cost-effective composites manufacturing, and consequently has become the subject of intense research and development efforts. Several new matrix resins have been formulated specifically for RTM applications in aircraft and aerospace vehicles. For successful use on aircraft, composite materials must withstand exposure to the fluids in common use. The present study was conducted to obtain comparative screening data on several state-ofthe-art RTM resins after environmental exposures were performed on RTM composite specimens. Four graphite/epoxy composites and one graphite/bismaleimide composite were tested; testing of two additional graphite epoxy composites is in progress. Zero-deg tension tests were conducted on specimens machined from eight-ply (+45-deg, -45-deg) laminates, and interlaminar shear tests were conducted on 32-ply 0-deg laminate specimens. In these tests, the various RTM resins demonstrated widely different strengths, with 3501-6 epoxy being the strongest. As expected, all of the matrix resins suffered severe strength degradation from exposure to methylene chloride (paint stripper). The 3501-6 epoxy composites exhibited about a 30 percent drop in tensile strength in hot, wet tests. The E905-L epoxy exhibited little loss of tensile strength (less than 8 percent) after exposure to water. The CET-2 and 862 epoxies as well as the bismaleimide exhibited reduced strengths at elevated temperature after exposure to oils and fuel. In terms of the percentage strength reductions, all of the RTM matrix resins compared favorably with 3501-6 epoxy.

  18. Development of Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    galvanized steel . More recently, two additional serious material compatibility problems, not addressed by the AMS 1435 standards, have emerged. First...2009. Cycling Cadmium Corrosion Test. The AMS 1435 cadmium (Cd) corrosion test follows ASTM F 1111. Coupons of 4130 steel , 1- x 2-in. by 0.048-in...and Alclad) (b) Total immersion corrosion of Al, Mg, Ti alloys, and carbon steel (c) Low-embrittling Cd plate and Hydrogen embrittlement (d) Stress

  19. Investigation of Respiratory and Dermal Symptoms Associated with Metal Working Fluids at an Aircraft Engine Manufacturing Facility

    PubMed Central

    Meza, Francisco; Chen, Lilia; Hudson, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Background Each year, 1.2 million metalworkers are exposed to metalworking fluids (MWFs), which can cause dermal and respiratory disease. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a health hazard evaluation of MWF exposures at an aircraft engine manufacturing facility. The objectives were to determine employee exposures to endotoxin and MWFs in the air, characterize symptoms experienced by employees working with MWFs, compare them to symptoms of employees unexposed to MWFs, and make recommendations for reducing exposures based on results. Methods 407 workers were categorized as MWF exposed or MWF unexposed and completed questionnaires. Estimated prevalence ratios (PR) of dermatitis, asthma, and work-related asthma (WRA) symptoms were calculated. Airborne concentrations of MWF and endotoxin were measured, and work practices observed. Results MWF exposed workers had a significantly higher prevalence of dermatitis on wrists/forearms (PR 2.59; 95% CI 1.22, 5.46), asthma symptoms (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.05, 2.13) and WRA symptoms (PR 2.10; 95% CI 1.22, 3.30) than unexposed workers. Airborne concentrations of MWF were below the NIOSH recommended exposure limit (REL) for MWF aerosols (thoracic particulate mass). Conclusions Despite MWF exposures below the NIOSH REL, exposed workers had a higher prevalence of asthma, WRA, and dermatitis symptoms than unexposed workers. Recommendations to reduce exposure included configuring mist collectors to automatically turn on when the machine is in use, and enforcing enclosure use. PMID:24122918

  20. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-15

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

  1. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  2. A heater made from graphite composite material for potential deicing application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, C. C.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, M.

    1986-01-01

    A surface heater was developed using a graphite fiber-epoxy composite as the heating element. This heater can be thin, highly electrically and thermally conductive, and can conform to an irregular surface. Therefore it may be used in an aircraft's thermal deicing system to quickly and uniformly heat the aircraft surface. One-ply of unidirectional graphite fiber-epoxy composite was laminated between two plies of fiber glass-epoxy composite, with nickel foil contacting the end portions of the composite and partly exposed beyond the composites for electrical contact. The model heater used brominated P-100 fibers from Amoco. The fiber's electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and density were 50 micro ohms per centimeter, 270 W/m-K and 2.30 gm/cubic cm, respectively. The electricity was found to penetrate through the composite in the transverse direction to make an acceptably low foil-composite contact resistance. When conducting current, the heater temperature increase reached 50 percent of the steady state value within 20 sec. There was no overheating at the ends of the heater provided there was no water corrosion. If the foil-composite bonding failed during storage, liquid water exposure was found to oxidize the foil. Such bonding failure may be avoided if perforated nickel foil is used, so that the composite plies can bond to each other through the perforated holes and therefore lock the foil in place.

  3. Design and Testing of an Erosion Resistant Ultrasonic De-Icing System for Rotorcraft Blades

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    water pressure sent to the nozzles controls the MVD. Figure 73: AERTS photograph with de-icing blades SO 4.3.2. Ultrasonic Driving There are...Applied Research Laboratory Technical Report Design and Testing of an Erosion Resistant Ultrasonic De-Icing System for Rotorcraft Blades by...University The Applied Research Laboratory P.O. Box 30 State College, PA 16804 Design and Testing of an Erosion Resistant Ultrasonic De-Icing System

  4. A Cool Tool for Deicing Planes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Nicknamed the "ice zapper," the Electro Expulsive Separation System (EESS) is an aircraft ice removal system that "pulverizes ice and removes layers of ice as thin as frost or as thick as an inch of glaze," according to the principle inventor of the technology. Patented by NASA's Ames Research Center, the EESS consists of layers of conductors encased in materials that are bonded directly to the airframe structure. When ice accumulates on the aircraft, an electric current is sent through the conductors, causing them to pulse. Even though the conductors move less than a twenty-thousandth of an inch in just a millisecond, the movement is sufficient to pulverize the ice. It is this highly accelerated motion that shatters the ice into particles the size of table salt; too small to be harmful to the aircraft. When compared with other systems in use, such as thermal deicers and pneumatic boots, the ice zapper does very well. Thermal deicers are fairly common, although they use an enormous amount of energy and present the possibility of ice refreezing. Pneumatic boots are not always effective because they require an inflation device that is unable to work until a quarter inch of ice has accumulated. With both systems, the ice that is loosened may still be large enough to cause problems for the plane once dislodged.

  5. A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-heat De-icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Alun R; Rodert, Lewis A

    1940-01-01

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests in flight to provide data needed in the application of this method. The capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing removed 30 to 35 percent of the heat from exhaust gas entering the wing. Data are given from which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made on the basis of existing engine power/wing area ratios to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transportation airplanes, provided that uniform distribution of the heat can be secured.

  6. Road deicing salt irreversibly disrupts osmoregulation of salamander egg clutches.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Gibbs, James P

    2011-03-01

    It has been postulated that road deicing salts are sufficiently diluted by spring rains to ameliorate any physiological impacts to amphibians breeding in wetlands near roads. We tested this conjecture by exposing clutches of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) to three chloride concentrations (1 mg/L, 145 mg/L, 945 mg/L) for nine days, then transferred clutches to control water for nine days, and measured change in mass at three-day intervals. We measured mass change because water uptake by clutches reduces risks to embryos associated with freezing, predation, and disease. Clutches in controls sequestered water asymptotically. Those in the moderate concentrations lost 18% mass initially and regained 14% after transfer to control water. Clutches in high concentration lost 33% mass and then lost an additional 8% after transfer. Our results suggest that spring rains do not ameliorate the effects of deicing salts in wetlands with extremely high chloride concentrations.

  7. 77 FR 29167 - Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Airport Deicing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the nation's waters.'' (33 U.S.C. 1251(a)). The... use of urea and glycol-containing deicing chemicals; minimizing contamination of deicing contaminated... chemicals occurs; and consider use of various listed source control measures. For airports using more...

  8. New Fluid Prevents Railway Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through a licensing agreement between NASA's Ames Research Center and Midwest Industrial Supply, Inc. (MIS), two MIS products have been enhanced with NASA's anti-icing fluid technology. MIS offers the new fluid in two commercial products, the Zero Gravity(TM) Third Rail Anti-Icer/Deicer and the Ice Free Switch(R). Using NASA's fluid technology, these products form a protective-coating barrier that prevents the buildup of ice and snow. Applying the fluid to the railway components prior to ice or snowstorm works as an anti-icing fluid, remaining in place to melt precipitation as it hits the surface. It also functions as a deicing fluid. If applied to an already frozen switch or rail, it will quickly melt the ice, free the frozen parts, and then remain in place to prevent refreezing. Additional benefits include the ability to cling to vertical rail surfaces and resist the effects of rain and wind. With the Ice Free Switch, it takes only five minutes to treat the switch by spraying, brushing, or pouring on the product. Ice Free Switch requires as little as one gallon per switch whereas other deicing fluids require five to ten gallons of liquid to effectively melt ice. Zero Gravity serves the same anti-icing/deicing purposes but applies fluid to the third rail through a system that is easily installed onto mass transit cars. A tank of fluid and a dispensing system are placed underneath the train car and the fluid is applied as the train runs its route.

  9. Numerical analysis on thermal characteristics and ice melting efficiency for microwave deicing vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Can; Yang, Bo; Tan, Gangfeng; Guo, Xuexun; Zhou, Li; Xiong, Shengguang

    2016-05-01

    In the high latitudes, the icy patches on the road are frequently generated and have a wide distribution, which are difficult to remove and obviously affect the normal usage of the highways, bridges and airport runways. Physical deicing, such as microwave (MW) deicing, help the ice melt completely through heating mode and then the ice layer can be swept away. Though it is no pollution and no damage to the ground, the low efficiency hinders the development of MW deicing vehicle equipped without sufficient speed. In this work, the standard evaluation of deicing is put forward firstly. The intensive MW deicing is simplified to ice melting process characterized by one-dimensional slab with uniform volumetric energy generation, which results in phase transformation and interface motion between ice and water. The heating process is split into the superposition of three parts — non-heterogeneous heating for ground without phase change, heat transfer with phase change and the heat convection between top surface of ice layer and flow air. Based on the transient heat conduction theory, a mathematical model, combining electromagnetic and two-phase thermal conduction, is proposed in this work, which is able to reveal the relationship between the deicing efficiency and ambient conditions, as well as energy generation and material parameters. Using finite difference time-domain, this comprehensive model is developed to solve the moving boundary heat transfer problem in a one-dimensional structured gird. As a result, the stimulation shows the longitudinal temperature distributions in all circumstances and quantitative validation is obtained by comparing simulated temperature distributions under different conditions. In view of the best economy and fast deicing, these analytic solutions referring to the complex influence factors of deicing efficiency demonstrate the optimal matching for the new deicing design.

  10. Comparison of Several Methods of Cyclic De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Vernon H.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1953-01-01

    Several methods of cyclic de-icing of a gas-heated airfoil were investigated to determine ice-removal characteristics and heating requirements. The cyclic de-icing system with a spanwise ice-free parting strip in the stagnation region and a constant-temperature gas-supply duct gave the quickest and most reliable ice removal. Heating requirements for the several methods of cyclic de-icing are compared, and the savings over continuous ice prevention are shown. Data are presented to show the relation of surface temperature, rate of surface heating, and heating time to the removal of ice.

  11. Surface roughness due to residual ice in the use of low power deicing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon; Bond, Thomas H.

    1993-01-01

    Thicknesses of residual ice are presented to provide information on surface contamination and associated roughness during deicing events. Data was obtained from low power ice protection systems tests conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) with nine different deicing systems. Results show that roughness associated with residual ice is not characterized by uniformly distributed roughness. Results also show that deicing systems require a critical mass of ice to generate a sufficient expelling force to remove the ice.

  12. Aircraft Ground Operation, Servicing, Fluid Lines and Fittings, Mechanics Privileges and Limitations, and Maintenance Publications, Forms and Records (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 1 (Power and Frame): 9073.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline consists of five instructional blocks of several units each: (1) Aircraft Ground Operation and Servicing; (2) Fluid Lines and Fittings; (3) Mechanics Requirements, Privileges and Limitations; (4) Maintenance Publications; and, (5) Maintenance forms and Records. It is a basic course of knowledge and skills necessary to any…

  13. Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM): A Winter Weather Nowcasting System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Roy; Dixon, Mike; Hage, Frank; Cole, Jeff; Wade, Chuck; Tuttle, John; McGettigan, Starr; Carty, Thomas; Stevenson, Lloyd; Fellner, Warren; Knight, Shelly; Karplus, Eli; Rehak, Nancy

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes a winter weather nowcasting system called Weather Support to Deicing Decision Making (WSDDM), designed to provide airline, airport, and air traffic users with winter weather information relevant to their operations. The information is provided on an easy to use graphical display and characterizes airport icing conditions for nonmeteorologists. The system has been developed and refined over a series of winter-long airport demonstrations at Denver's Stapleton International Airport, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport, and New York's LaGuardia Airport. The WSDDM system utilizes commercially available weather information in the form of Next Generation Weather Radar WSR-88D radar reflectivity data depicted as color coded images on a window of the display and Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) surface weather reports from Automated Surface Observating System stations and observers. METAR information includes wind speed and direction, air temperature, and precipitation type/rate, which are routinely updated on an hourly basis or more frequently if conditions are changing. Recent studies have shown that the liquid equivalent snowfall rate is the most important factor in determining the holdover time of a deicing fluid. However, the current operational snowfall intensity reported in METARs is based on visibility, which has been shown to give misleading information on liquid equivalent rates in many cases due to the wide variation in density and shape of snow. The particular hazard has been identified as high visibility-high snowfall conditions. The WSDDM system addresses this potentially hazardous condition through the deployment of snow gauges at an airport. These snow gauges report real-time estimates of the liquid equivalent snowfall rate once every minute to WSDDM users. The WSDDM system also provides 30-min nowcasts of liquid equivalent snowfall rate through the use of a real-time calibration of radar reflectivity and snow gauge snowfall

  14. Digital analysis of wind tunnel imagery to measure fluid thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Enge, James

    1992-01-01

    Documented here are the procedure and results obtained from the application of digital image processing techniques to the problem of measuring the thickness of a deicing fluid on a model airfoil during simulated takeoffs. The fluid contained a fluorescent dye and the images were recorded under flash illumination on photographic film. The films were digitized and analyzed on a personal computer to obtain maps of the fluid thickness.

  15. Aircraft and Ground Vehicle Winter Runway Friction Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.

    1999-01-01

    Some background information is given together with the scope and objectives of a 5-year, Joint Winter Runway Friction Measurement Program between the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA), Transport Canada (TC), and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The primary objective of this effort is to perform instrumented aircraft and ground vehicle tests aimed at identifying a common number that all the different ground vehicle devices would report. This number, denoted the International Runway Friction Index (IRFI), will be related to all types of aircraft stopping performance. The range of test equipment, the test sites, test results and accomplishments, the extent of the substantial friction database compiled, and future test plans will be described. Several related studies have also been implemented including the effects of contaminant type on aircraft impingement drag, and the effectiveness of various runway and aircraft de-icing chemical types, and application rates.

  16. Oxidized starch solutions for environmentally friendly aircraft deicers.

    PubMed

    Plahuta, Joseph M; Teel, Amy L; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Beutel, Mark W; Rentz, Jeremy A; Watts, Richard J

    2011-09-01

    Deicers currently used for aircraft deicing, including ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, pose significant threats to surface waters, as a result of high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and toxicity to aquatic organisms. Oxidized starch may provide a less toxic deicer with lower BOD. The freezing point depression of starch formulations oxidized using hydrogen peroxide and catalysts (i.e., catalyzed hydrogen peroxide [H2O2] propagations-CHP) was 28 degrees C, and viscosities similar to those of commercial deicers were achieved after post-treatment with granular activated carbon. The most effective oxidized starch formulation exerted a 5-day BOD up to 6 times lower than glycol deicers (103 versus 400 to 800 g O2/L). Toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia for this formulation (48-hour lethal concentration, 50% [LC50] of 2.73 g/L) was greater than pure propylene glycol (13.1 g/ L), but lower than propylene glycol deicer formulations (1.02 g/L). Organic acids were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as the primary constituents in the oxidized starch solution. The proposed deicing system would provide effective deicing while exerting minimal environmental effects (e.g., lower toxicity to aquatic organisms and lower BOD). Furthermore, these deicers could be made from waste starch, promoting sustainability.

  17. Icing tunnel tests of Electro-Impulse De-Icing of an engine inlet and high-speed wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is given of four earlier tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel and of flight tests in NASA's Icing Research Aircraft and in a Cessna 206 airplane. Details are given of recent icing tunnel tests of thicker-skinned wings, a Gates Learjet, a composite leading edge, and a Boeing 767, and of a Falcon Fanjet engine inlet. These were tested at speeds from 87 to 220 knots, air temperatures from -2 to -15 C, LWC values of 0.6 to 2.4 grams/cu meter, and median droplet diameters from 12 to 20 microns. Energy requirements are reported, as well as conclusions from comparisons of several Electro-Impulse De-Icing coil system designs. Fundamental studies of the structural dynamics and ice shedding of a 12.7 cm (5 inch) diameter semicylinder are described. Some potential problem areas are discussed: fatigue of skin and coil mountings, system weight and cost, electro-magnetic interference and noise.

  18. A Flight Investigation of Exhaust-Heat De-Icing, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodert, Lewis A.; Jones, Alun R.

    1940-01-01

    The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics has conducted exhaust-heat de-icing tests inflight t o provide data needed in the application of this method of ice prevention. Thc capacity to extract heat from the exhaust gas for de-icing purposes, the quantity of heat required, and other factors were examined. The results indicate that a wing-heating system employing a spanwise exhaust tube within the leading edge of the wing will make available for de-icing purposes between 30 and 35 percent of the exhaust-gas heat. Data are given by which the heat required for ice prevention can be calculated. Sample calculations have been made, on a basis of existing engine power over wing area ratios, to show that sufficient heating can be obtained for ice protection on modern transport airplanes,

  19. Occurrence of Highly-Substituted Ethoxy-Carboxylates in Runoff Waters Near an Aircraft Deicing Facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reports documenting the occurrence of the metabolites of alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are common. However, few data show the occurrence of the oxidative metabolite of the APEs, the carboxylates, and especially those with substitution greater than the 5 ethoxymer. An important reason for this has...

  20. New Ionic Liquids from Natural Products for Environmentally Benign Aircraft Deicing and Anti-Icing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    The resulting ILs, choline saccharinate and sulfamate, exhibited low ecotoxicity (EC50 ~1300 mg/L) in a bioassay with the invertebrate Daphnia magna ...effective concentration to immobilize 50% microorganism GRAS ‘generally regarded as safe’, Food & Drug Administration ILs ionic liquids J·mol-1·K...mixture of propylene glycol/water just before takeoff. Although propylene glycol is ‘generally regarded as safe’ (GRAS) by the US Food & Drug

  1. Increase of urban lake salinity by road deicing salt.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Eric V; Murphy, Dan; Stefan, Heinz G

    2008-11-15

    Over 317,000 tonnes of road salt (NaCl) are applied annually for road deicing in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area (TCMA) of Minnesota. Although road salt is applied to increase driving safety, this practice influences environmental water quality. Thirteen lakes in the TCMA were studied over 46 months to determine if and how they respond to the seasonal applications of road salt. Sodium and chloride concentrations in these lakes were 10 and 25 times higher, respectively, than in other non-urban lakes in the region. Seasonal salinity/chloride cycles in the lakes were correlated with road salt applications: High concentrations in the winter and spring, especially near the bottom of the lakes, were followed by lower concentrations in the summer and fall due to flushing of the lakes by rainfall runoff. The seasonal salt storage/flushing rates for individual lakes were derived from volume-weighted average chloride concentration time series. The rate ranged from 9 to 55% of a lake's minimum salt content. In some of the lakes studied salt concentrations were high enough to stop spring turnover preventing oxygen from reaching the benthic sediments. Concentrations above the sediments were also high enough to induce convective mixing of the saline water into the sediment pore water. A regional analysis of historical water quality records of 38 lakes in the TCMA showed increases in lake salinity from 1984 to 2005 that were highly correlated with the amount of rock salt purchased by the State of Minnesota. Chloride concentrations in individual lakes were positively correlated with the percent of impervious surfaces in the watershed and inversely with lake volume. Taken together, the results show a continuing degradation of the water quality of urban lakes due to application of NaCl in their watersheds.

  2. Rain and deicing experiments in a wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasso, G.

    1983-01-01

    Comments on films of tests simulating rain and ice conditions in a wind tunnel are presented, with the aim of studying efficient methods of overcoming the adverse effects of rain and ice on aircraft. In the experiments, lifesize models and models of the Mirave 4 aircraft were used. The equipment used to simulate rain and ice is described. Different configurations of landing and takeoff under conditions of moderate or heavy rain at variable angles of incidence and of skipping and at velocities varying from 30 to 130 m/sec are reproduced in the wind tunnel. The risks of erosion of supersonic aircraft by the rain during the loitering and approach phases are discussed.

  3. Water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films during icing/deicing cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lazauskas, A.; Guobienė, A.; Prosyčevas, I.; Baltrušaitis, V.; Grigaliūnas, V.; Narmontas, P.; Baltrusaitis, J.

    2013-08-15

    This work investigates water droplet behavior on superhydrophobic (water contact angle value of 162 ± 1°) SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments, changes in SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface morphology and their non-wetting characteristics. During the experiment, water droplets on SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface are subjected to a series of icing and deicing cycles in a humid (∼ 70% relative humidity) atmosphere and the resulting morphological changes are monitored and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurements. Our data show that the formation of the frozen or thawed water droplet, with no further shape change, on superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film, is obtained faster within each cycle as the number of the icing/deicing cycles increases. After 10 icing and deicing cycles, the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film had a water contact angle value of 146 ± 2° which is effectively non-superhydrophobic. AFM analysis showed that the superhydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite film surface area under the water droplet undergoes gradual mechanical damage during the repetitive icing/deicing cycles. We propose a possible mechanism of the morphological changes to the film surface that take place during the consecutive icing/deicing experiments. - Highlights: • Superhydrophobic film is subjected to repetitive icing/deicing treatments. • Water droplet shape transition is recorded and characterized thereafter. • Atomic force microscopy and contact angle measurements are performed. • The surface undergoes gradual mechanical damage during repetitive icing/deicing. • Mechanism for the observed surface morphological changes is suggested.

  4. Tests of Thermal-electric De-icing Equipment for Propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scherrer, Richard; Rodert, Lewis A

    1944-01-01

    Flights were made in natural icing conditions at the NACA Ice Research Project, Minneapolis, Minn. to test several designs of thermal-electric propeller de-icing blade shoes and a hub-generator design. It was found that a minimum average unit power of 2.5 watts per square inch of blade-shoe area would protect the propeller blades at the test conditions. The most satisfactory blade shoe of the three designs tested extended to the 20-percent-chord point and to 90 percent of the blade radius. A concentration of heat in the leading-edge region of this shoe was found to reduce the power input necessary for satisfactory de-icing. A satisfactory thermal design of blade shoe and a hub generator of sufficient capacity were developed.

  5. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio, interim report, 1988-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, A.L.; Sroka, B.N.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of the application of highway deicing chemicals during winter months on ground- water quality are being studied by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Eight sites throughout the State were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. At these sites, records of deicer application rates are being kept and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers is being monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific con ductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The counties and corre sponding sections of state routes being monitored are the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in January 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine ground-water sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991. A relatively new type of multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored con tinuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation, chloride concentration in soil samples, ground conductivity, and deicing chemical application times and rates. For the interim reporting period, water samples were collected from January 1991 through September 1993. Evidence from water analysis, specific conductance measurements, and surface geophysical measurements indicates that four of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, Portage County, and Richland

  6. Effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow unconsolidated aquifers in Ohio--final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunze, Allison E.; Sroka, Bernard N.

    2004-01-01

    As a result of concerns about salt intrusion into drinking water aquifers, the effects of highway deicing chemicals on shallow aquifers were studied at eight locations in Ohio from 1988 through 2002. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the Federal Highway Administration. Sites were selected along major undivided highways where drainage is by open ditches and ground-water flow is approximately perpendicular to the highway. Records of deicer application rates were kept, and apparent movement of deicing chemicals through shallow, unconsolidated aquifers was monitored by means of periodic measurements of specific conductance and concentrations of dissolved sodium, calcium, and chloride. The State routes monitored were the following: State Route (SR) 3 in Ashland County, SR 84 in Ashtabula County, SR 29 in Champaign County, SR 4 in Clark County, SR 2 in Lucas County, SR 104 in Pickaway County, SR 14 in Portage County, and SR 97 in Richland County. The study began in 1988 with background data collection, extensive literature review, and site selection. This process, including drilling of wells at numerous test sites and the eight selected sites, lasted 3 years. Routine groundwater sampling at 4- to 6-week intervals began in January 1991 and continued through September 1999. A multilevel, passive flow ground-water sampling device was constructed and used. Other conditions monitored on a regular basis included ground-water level (monitored continuously), specific conductance, air and soil temperature, precipitation,chloride concentration in soil samples, and deicing-chemical application times and rates. Evidence from water analysis, specific-conductance measurements, and surface-geophysical measurements indicates that three of the eight sites (Ashtabula County, Lucas County, and Portage County sites) were affected by direct application of deicing chemicals. Climatic data collected during the study

  7. Effects of ion exchange on stream solute fluxes in a basin receiving highway deicing salts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    At Fever Brook, a 1260-ha forested basin in central Massachusetts, highway deicing salt application increased the solute flux in streamflow by 120% above background flux (equivalent basis) during a 2-yr period. Attempts to isolate the nonsalt component of stream solute fluxes have commonly subtracted salt contributions based on the net Cl flux (Cl output in streamflow minus Cl input in precipitation). In these studies, any net Na flux in excess of the amount needed to balance the net Cl flux has been attributed to weathering. At Fever Brook, however, the net output of Na was less than the net output of Cl, suggesting a loss of Na within the basin. The Na sink was inferred to be cation exchange of Na for Ca and Mg in the soil. A method was developed to quantify the exchange based on a Na budget, which included an independent estimate of the Na flux from weathering. The amount of exchange was apportioned to Ca and Mg based on their relative concentrations in the stream. The background fluxes of Ca and Mg (i.e., those that would occur in the absence of deicing salts) were calculated by subtracting the amounts from ion exchange plus the much smaller direct contributions in deicing salts from the observed fluxes. Ion exchange and direct salt contributions increased the net output fluxes of Ca and Mg, each by 44% above background. In basins that receive deicing salts, failure to account for cation exchange thus may result in an underestimate of the flux of Na from weathering and overestimates of the fluxes of Ca and Mg from weathering.

  8. The Fate of De-icing Salts in Stormwater Management Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballestero, T. P.; Roseen, R. M.; Houle, J. J.

    2005-05-01

    The traditional paradigm behind the design of stormwater management systems is to minimize the water quantity and water quality impacts resulting from land modification. The intent is to yield post-development hydrology similar to pre-development hydrology. The water quality aspect has been primarily focused on sediment removal, however, rarely are stormwater management systems designed for removal of de-icing salt. Chloride toxicity effects upon aquatic organisms resulting from snowmelt runoff are pronounced, routine, and problematic in northern climates. The capacity of current management strategies to treat chloride is in question. This paper explores the fate of de-icing salt through 13 different stormwater management systems. The systems include swales, retention pond, infiltration systems, bioretention systems, wetlands, manufactured devices, and porous asphalt. All systems exist at a field site and are delivered the same runoff (quantity and quality). The devices were designed and installed in accordance with existing drainage manual recommendations. None were designed for salt removal. As expected, devices with minimal water storage do not remove salt. Devices that do have significant amounts of storage do not remove salt, however the effluent concentrations are not as high as the influent concentrations: the peak influent salt concentration is attenuated similar to how the peak inflow discharge is attenuated by storage routing. The porous asphalt has displayed some remarkable characteristics. This surface has remained permeable throughout the winter, even though in addition to the de-icing chemicals, sand is applied. It appears that very little de-icing salt is needed on the surface, which has enormous economic and environmental implications.

  9. Radio-frequency-transparent, electrically conductive graphene nanoribbon thin films as deicing heating layers.

    PubMed

    Volman, Vladimir; Zhu, Yu; Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Genorio, Bostjan; Lu, Wei; Xiang, Changsheng; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2014-01-08

    Deicing heating layers are frequently used in covers of large radio-frequency (RF) equipment, such as radar, to remove ice that could damage the structures or make them unstable. Typically, the deicers are made using a metal framework and inorganic insulator; commercial resistive heating materials are often nontransparent to RF waves. The preparation of a sub-skin-depth thin film, whose thickness is very small relative to the RF skin (or penetration) depth, is the key to minimizing the RF absorption. The skin depth of typical metals is on the order of a micrometer at the gigahertz frequency range. As a result, it is very difficult for conventional conductive materials (such as metals) to form large-area sub-skin-depth films. In this report, we disclose a new deicing heating layer composite made using graphene nanoribbons (GNRs). We demonstrate that the GNR film is thin enough to permit RF transmission. This metal-free, ultralight, robust, and scalable graphene-based RF-transparent conductive coating could significantly reduce the size and cost of deicing coatings for RF equipment covers. This is important in many aviation and marine applications. This is a demonstration of the efficacy and applicability of GNRs to afford performances unattainable by conventional materials.

  10. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    formic acid Proprietary Adsorbent Final Cost &Performance Report: Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion...Certification Program FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAME Fatty Acid Methyl Ester FFA Free fatty acids FPD Freezing point depressant Gpy...proprietary process (covered by U.S. Patent 7,048,871) is based on altering the tail-end of the process for making fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by

  11. Demonstration of an Environmentally Benign and Reduced Corrosion Runway Deicing Fluid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    effluent at which the test organisms exhibit a 25% reduction in a biological function such as reproduction (as in the case of daphnids) or growth (as in...reduction in a biological function such as reproduction (as in the case of daphnids) or growth (as in the case of fish). The Wisconsin State Laboratory...promelas, 96 hr) LC50 higher than KAc RDF (>1,000 mg/L) Success Safeguard waterways by lowering chronic toxicity IC25, mg/L, Ceriodaphnia magna

  12. The influence of supraglacial debris cover variability on de-icing processes - examples from Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukas, Sven; Benn, Douglas I.; Boston, Clare M.; Hawkins, Jack; Lehane, Niall E.; Lovell, Harold; Rooke, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Extensive supraglacial debris covers are widespread near the margins of many cold-based and polythermal surging and non-surging glaciers in Svalbard. Despite their importance for current glacier dynamics and a detailed understanding of how they will affect the de-icing of ice-marginal areas, little work has been carried out to shed light on the sedimentary processes operating in these debris covers. We here present data from five different forelands in Svalbard. In all five cases, surfaces within the debris cover can be regarded as stable where debris cover thickness exceeds that of the active layer; vegetation development and absence of buried ice exposures at the surface support this conclusion, although test pits and geophysical investigations have revealed the presence of buried ice at greater depths (> 1-3 m). These findings imply that even seemingly stable surfaces at present will be subject to change by de-icing in the future. Factors and processes that contribute towards a switch from temporarily stable to unstable conditions have been identified as: 1. The proximity to englacial or supraglacial meltwater channels. These channels enlarge due to thermo-erosion, which can lead to the eventual collapse of tunnel roofs and the sudden generation of linear instabilities in the system. Along such channels, ablation is enhanced compared to adjacent debris-covered ice, and continued thermo-erosion continuously exposes new areas of buried ice at the surface. This works in conjunction with 2. Debris flows that occur on all sloping ground and transfer material from stable to less stable (sloping) locations within the debris cover and eventually into supraglacial channels, from where material is then removed from the system. Several generations of debris flows have been identified in all five debris covers, strongly suggesting that these processes are episodic and that the loci of these processes switch. This in turn indicates that transfer of material by debris flows

  13. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  14. Mobilization of major and trace constituents of highway runoff in groundwater potentially caused by deicing chemical migration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granato, Gregory E.; Church, Peter E.; Stone, Victoria J.

    1995-01-01

    The quality of water in unsaturated zones and groundwater is affected by the major ions in deicing chemicals applied to roads and highways. The assessment of the environmental effects of highway runoff requires investigations to determine whether other major and trace constituents are mobilized during deicing chemical migration through the unsaturated zone and groundwater. In this regard, groundwater samples were analyzed in February and August 1991, and March, August, and November 1993 at a test site along Route 25 in southeastern Massachusetts. Analyses indicated that concentrations of major and trace chemical constituents of highway runoff in groundwater are substantially higher downgradient than upgradient from the highway.

  15. Chemical hazards in aeromedical aircraft.

    PubMed

    Tupper, C R

    1989-01-01

    Several potentially hazardous chemicals are required to make modern military aircraft fly. With each airevac mission, the possibility exists for structural failure of a fluid system, resulting in contamination to flight/medical crews, patients, and passengers. Aeromedical Evacuation Crewmembers (AECMs) need to be aware of the hazardous chemicals used in aircraft and areas where there is an increased risk to those in and around the aircraft. This study identified potential areas for chemical leakage, such as refuel receptacles, hydraulic reservoirs, hydraulic motors, doors, ramps, engines, and more. Further, it identified the basic first aid procedures to perform on people contaminated with jet fuel, hydraulic fluid, engine oil, fire extinguisher agents, LOX and other fluids. First aid procedures are basic and can be performed with supplies and equipment on a routine aeromedical evacuation mission, AECMs trained in a basic awareness of hazardous aircraft chemicals will result in crews better prepared to cope with the unique risks of transporting patients in a complicated military aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems Dynamic Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-10-01

    technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. Project Engineer 0 Acting Technical Area Manager FOR THE COMMANDER STEPHEN P...by the McDonnell Aircraft Company, Design Engineering Power and Fluid Subsystem Department, McDonnell Douglas Corporation under contract F33615-74-C...34 (Pennsylvania State University Graduate School of Mechanical Engineering , June 1970), gave predicted variation in the fluid velocity at three different

  17. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  18. Preliminary Investigation of Cyclic De-Icing of an Airfoil Using an External Electric Heater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, James P.; Bowden, Dean T.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NACA Lewis icing research tunnel to determine the characteristics and requirements of cyclic deicing of a 65,2-216 airfoil by use of an external electric heater. The present investigation was limited to an airspeed of 175 miles per hour. Data are presented to show the effects of variations in heat-on and heat-off periods, ambient air temperature, liquid-water content, angle of attack, and. heating distribution on the requirements for cyclic deicing. The external heat flow at various icing and heating conditions is also presented. A continuously heated parting strip at the airfoil leading edge was found necessary for quick, complete, and consistent ice removal. The cyclic power requirements were found to be primarily a function of the datum temperature and heat-on time, with the other operating and meteorological variables having a second-order effect. Short heat-on periods and high power densities resulted in the most efficient ice removal, the minimum energy input, and the minimum runback ice formations. The optimum chordwise heating distribution pattern was found to consist of a uniform distribution of cycled power density in the impingement region. Downstream of the impingement region the power density decreased to the limits of heating which, for the conditions investigated, extended from 5.7 percent chord on the upper surface of the airfoil to 8.9 percent chord on the lower surface. Ice removal did not take place at a heater surface temperature of 32 F; surface temperatures of approximately 50 to 100 F were required to effect removal. Better de-icing performance and greater energy savings would be possible with a heater having a higher thermal efficiency.

  19. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 2. Toxicity of aircraft and runway deicer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven; Hall, David W.; Geis, Steven W.

    2001-01-01

    Streams receiving runoff from General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, were studied to assess toxic impacts of aircraft and runway deicers. Elevated levels of constituents related to deicing (propylene glycol, ethylene glycol, and ammonia) were observed in stream samples. The LC50s of type I deicer for Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephelas promelas, Hyalela azteca, and Chironimus tentans and the EC50 for Microtox® were less than 5,000 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 39,000 mg/L were observed at airport outfall sites in samples collected during deicing events. The IC25s of type I deicer for C. dubia and P. promelas were less than 1,500 mg/L of propylene glycol. Concentrations up to 960 mg/L were observed in low-flow samples at an airport outfall site. Measured toxicity of stream water was greatest during winter storms when deicers were applied. Chronic toxicity was observed at airport outfall samples from low-flow periods in the winter and the summer, with the greater toxic impacts from the winter sample. All forms of toxicity in stream-water samples decreased as downstream flows increased.

  20. Runoff of deicing salt: effect on irondequoit bay, Rochester, new york.

    PubMed

    Bubeck, R C; Diment, W H; Deck, B L; Baldwin, A L; Lipton, S D

    1971-06-11

    Salt used for deicing the streets near Rochester, New York, has increased the chloride concentration in Irondequoit Bay at least fivefold during the past two decades. During the winter of 1969-70 the quantity and salinity of the dense runoff that accumulated on the bottom of the bay was sufficient to prevent complete vertical mixing of the bay during the spring. Comparison with 1939 conditions indicates that the period of summer stratification has been prolonged a month by the density gradient imposed by the salt runoff.

  1. An investigation on the deicing of helicopter blades using shear horizontal guided waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, Srinivasan

    Despite all the advances that have made air travel safer than ever, the accumulation of ice on airplane and rotorcraft wings continues to be one of aviation's most challenging problems. Hence the presence of a reliable and efficient deicing or anti-icing system is imperative for their safe operation. The current method used to deice helicopter blades is similar to that available in automobile rear windows. These electro-thermal systems consist of heating coils that run along the span or chord of the rotor-blade. A current source connected via a slip ring configuration heats the coils, which in turn melt the ice on the surface. Due to their enormous power consumption, electro-thermal systems are generally configured to deice one foot of one blade at a time. This makes it hazardous to fly the helicopters under severe icing conditions. Even with the energy saving deicing procedure the electrical power required substantially exceeds the normal helicopter electrical system capacity, necessitating a large secondary electrical system with redundant, dual alternator features. The electro-thermal system for the Bell 412 helicopter weighed 162 lbs and required 26 kW of power for 2 blades! Various types of deicing systems were compared in chapter 1 and electromechanical systems were found to be the most energy efficient and practical for in-flight conditions. A novel approach of breaking the ice-substrate bonds by exceeding their adhesive strength using guided shear horizontal waves was chosen as the deicing mechanism. A comparison of the different electro-mechanical actuation systems pointed towards monolithic shear mode piezoelectric actuators as the choice that would satisfy the energy and dimensional requirements. A survey of literature on the mechanics of ice adhesion, in chapter 2, led to the selection of 1.42MPa as the target adhesive bond strength for the refrigerated icealuminum interface. The static adhesive strength of naturally occurring forms of ice such as rime

  2. Transport and transformation of de-icing urea from airport runways in a constructed wetland system.

    PubMed

    Thorén, A K; Legrand, C; Herrmann, J

    2003-01-01

    Urea, NH2-CO-NH2, is used as a de-icing agent at Kalmar Airport, southeast Sweden. During 1998-2001, urea contributed on average 30% of the yearly nitrogen (N) transport of 41,000 kg via Törnebybäcken stream to the coastal zone of the Baltic Sea. In order to reduce stream transport of N from airport, agricultural and other diffuse sources, a wetland was constructed in 1996. Annual wetland retention of total-N varied in the range of 2,500-8,100 kg (6-36% of influent) during 1998-2001, according to mass balances calculated from monthly sampling. During airport de-icing, January-March 2001,660 kg urea-N out of 2,600 kg applied urea-N reached the wetland according to daily sampling. This indicated that 75% of the urea was transformed before entering the wetland. Urea was found to be only a minor part (8%) of total-N in the wetland influent. Calculations of cumulative urea-N loads at the wetland inlet and outlet respectively, showed a significant urea transformation during February 2001 with approximately 40% of the incoming urea-N being transformed in the wetland system. These results show that significant amounts of urea can be transformed in a wetland system at air temperatures around 0 degree C.

  3. Synthesis and Properties of a Clean and Sustainable Deicing Additive for Asphalt Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Yu, Jianying; Zhao, Zhijie; Dai, Jing; Fu, Jingyi; Zhao, Meiling; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac-) by magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH) had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac– anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP) of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably. PMID:25625279

  4. Preliminary Results of Cyclical De-Icing of a Gas-Heated Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, V. H.; Bowden, D. T.; VonGlahn, U.

    1952-01-01

    An NACA 65(sub 1)-212 airfoil of 8-foot chord was provided with a gas-heated leading edge for investigations of cyclical de-icing. De-icing was accomplished with intermittent heating of airfoil segments that supplied hot gas to chordwise passages in a double-skin construction. Ice removal was facilitated by a spanwise leading-edge parting strip which was continuously heated from the gas-supply duct. Preliminary results demonstrate that satisfactory cyclical ice removal occurs with ratios of cycle time to heat-on period (cycle ratio) from 10 to 26. For minimum runback, efficient ice removal, and minimum total heat input, short heat-on periods of about 15 seconds with heat-off periods of 260 seconds gave the best results. In the range of conditions investigated, the prime variables in the determination of the required heat input for cyclical ice removal were the air temperature and the cycle ratio; heat-off period, liquid water content, airspeed, and angle of attack had only secondary effects on heat input rate.

  5. Synthesis and properties of a clean and sustainable deicing additive for asphalt mixture.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Yu, Jianying; Zhao, Zhijie; Dai, Jing; Fu, Jingyi; Zhao, Meiling; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A clean and sustainable deicing additive was prepared via the adsorption of acetate anions (Ac-) by magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) calcined layered double hydroxide (Mg/Al-CLDH). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrums proved that Ac- had intercalated into LDH structure. X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that the intercalation spacing and platelet thickness of Mg and Al layered double hydroxide containing Ac- anions (Mg/Al-Ac- LDH) had been enlarged due to substitution of divalent CO32- anions by a larger quantity of monovalent Ac- anions. Differential scanning calorimetry tests testified that the insoluble Mg2/Al-Ac- LDH evidently decreased the freeze point (FP) of water to -10.68°C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses confirmed that the Ac- were strongly confined by the metal layers of LDHs. FP test of asphalt mixtures confirmed that Mg/Al-Ac- LDHs reduced FP to -5.5°C. Immersion test results indicated that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH had a good deicing durability and Ac- did not released from asphalt mixture. Snow melting observation was conducted further testified that Mg/Al-Ac- LDH melted snow or ice sustainably.

  6. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  7. NASA's Aircraft Icing Analysis Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    An overview of the NASA ongoing efforts to develop an aircraft icing analysis capability is presented. Discussions are included of the overall and long term objectives of the program as well as current capabilities and limitations of the various computer codes being developed. Descriptions are given of codes being developed to analyze two and three dimensional trajectories of water droplets, airfoil ice accretion, aerodynamic performance degradation of components and complete aircraft configurations, electrothermal deicer, fluid freezing point depressant antideicer and electro-impulse deicer. The need for bench mark and verification data to support the code development is also discussed, and selected results of experimental programs are presented.

  8. Abating corrosion in highway structures due to sea or deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kessler, Rick J.; Powers, Rodney G.

    1995-05-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcing bars in concrete bridge structures due to the intrusion of chloride ions from seawater or de-icing salts affects many structures in the nation's highway system. Over the past decade cathodic protection has evolved as a promising technology for arresting corrosion. The development of materials, equipment, and methods for applying cathodic protection is in a dynamic state. Through cooperative efforts with academia, industry, and the engineering community, the Florida Deparment of Transportation has developed several innovative corrosion protection systems which incorporate technologies from a wide variety of specialty areas including telemetry, photovoltaics, polymers, and specialty components developed as part of the national defense program. This paper provides an overview of corrosion and cathodic protection technology and focuses on the potential for adaptation of existing technologies into preservation of highway bridge structures.

  9. A finite element study of the EIDI system. [Electro-Impulse De-Icing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatkhate, A. A.; Scavuzzo, R. J.; Chu, M. L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a method for modeling the structural dynamics of an Electro-Impulse De-Icing System, using finite element analyses procedures. A guideline for building a representative finite element model is discussed. Modeling was done initially using four noded cubic elements, four noded isoparametric plate elements and eight noded isoparametric shell elements. Due to the size of the problem and due to the underestimation of shear stress results when compared to previous analytical work an approximate model was created to predict possible areas of shedding of ice. There appears to be good agreement with the test data provided by The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company. Thus these initial results of this method were found to be encouraging. Additional analytical work and comparison with experiment is needed in order to completely evaluate this approach.

  10. Composites of Graphene Nanoribbon Stacks and Epoxy for Joule Heating and Deicing of Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Raji, Abdul-Rahman O; Varadhachary, Tanvi; Nan, Kewang; Wang, Tuo; Lin, Jian; Ji, Yongsung; Genorio, Bostjan; Zhu, Yu; Kittrell, Carter; Tour, James M

    2016-02-10

    A conductive composite of graphene nanoribbon (GNR) stacks and epoxy is fabricated. The epoxy is filled with the GNR stacks, which serve as a conductive additive. The GNR stacks are on average 30 nm thick, 250 nm wide, and 30 μm long. The GNR-filled epoxy composite exhibits a conductivity >100 S/m at 5 wt % GNR content. This permits application of the GNR-epoxy composite for deicing of surfaces through Joule (voltage-induced) heating generated by the voltage across the composite. A power density of 0.5 W/cm(2) was delivered to remove ∼1 cm-thick (14 g) monolith of ice from a static helicopter rotor blade surface in a -20 °C environment.

  11. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont...IATA member airlines at $100 million based on 1976 operations. Thus the numbers are large, but detailed analyses on specific aircraft types, in known...demonstrate this in any quantitative way with accurate figures. Better information is required on the cost of corrosion, together with analyses of the

  12. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  13. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  14. Kinetics of microbial degradation of deicing chemicals in percolated porous media - the modeling perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrer, Markus; Lissner, Heidi; Totsche, Kai

    2013-04-01

    A quantitative knowledge of the fate of deicing chemicals in the subsurface can be provided by analysis of laboratory and field experiments with numerical simulation models. In the present study, experimental data of microbial degradation of the deicing chemical propylene glycol (PG) under flow conditions in soil columns and field lysimeters were simulated to analyze the process conditions of degradation and to obtain the according parameters. Results from the column experiment were evaluated applying different scenarios of an advection-dispersion model using HYDRUS-1D. To reconstruct the data, different competing degradation models were included, i.e., zero order, first order and inclusion of a growing and decaying biomass. The general breakthrough behavior of propylene glycol in soil columns can be simulated well using a coupled model of solute transport and degradation with growth and decay of biomass. The susceptibility of the model to non-unique solutions was investigated using systematical forward and inverse simulations. We found that the model tends to equifinal solutions under certain conditions. Complex experimental boundary conditions can help to avoid this. Under field conditions, the situation is far more complex than in the laboratory. Studying the fate of PG with undisturbed lysimeters we found that aerobic and anaerobic degradation occurs simultaneously. We attribute this to the physical structure and the aggregated nature of the undisturbed soil material . This results in the presence of spatially disjoint oxidative and reductive regions of microbial activity and requires, but is not fully reflected by a dual porosity model. Currently, the numerical simulation of this system is in progress, considering several flow and transport models. A stochastic global search algorithm (DREAM-ZS) is used in conjuction with HYDRUS-1D to avoid local minima in the inverse simulations. The study shows the current limitations and potentials of modeling degradation

  15. Fluid imbalance

    MedlinePlus

    ... up in the body. This is called fluid overload (volume overload). This can lead to edema (excess fluid in ... Water imbalance; Fluid imbalance - dehydration; Fluid buildup; Fluid overload; Volume overload; Loss of fluids; Edema - fluid imbalance; ...

  16. Infrared thermographic diagnostic aid to aircraft maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delo, Michael; Delo, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Thermographic data can be used as a supplement to aircraft maintenance operations in both back shop and flight line situations. Aircraft systems such as electrical, propulsion, environmental, pitot static and hydraulic/pneumatic fluid, can be inspected using a thermal infrared (IR) imager. Aircraft systems utilize electro-hydraulic, electro-mechanical, and electro-pneumatic mechanisms, which, if accessible, can be diagnosed for faults using infrared technology. Since thermographs are images of heat, rather than light, the measurement principle is based on the fact that any physical object (radiating energy at infrared wavelengths within the IR portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum), can be imaged with infrared imaging equipment. All aircraft systems being tested with infrared are required to be energized for troubleshooting, so that valuable baseline data from fully operational aircraft can be collected, archived and referenced for future comparisons.

  17. An Investigation Utilizing an Electrical Analogue of Cyclic Deicing of Hollow Steel Propellers with Internal Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, Carr B., Jr.

    1953-01-01

    A study has been made of the heating requirements for the cyclic de?icing of hollow steel propellers fitted with two types of internal electric heaters. Solutions to the transient?teat?flow equations depicting the cyclic de?icing of propellers were obtained by use of an electrical analogy. The study showed the impracticability of using an internal tubular heater and illustrated the advantages of employing an internal shoe?type heater, which distributes the heat more evenly to the blade surface. The importance of minimizing the thermal inertia of the system was demonstrated, and the magnitude of reductions in the total energy requirement made possible through reductions in the heating period was indicated.

  18. Process modeling KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation will be provided for KC-135 aircraft which will provide a quantitative measure of g-level variation during parabolic flights and its effect on experiments which demonstrate differences in results obtained with differences in convective flow. The flight apparatus will provide video recording of the effects of the g-level variations on varying fluid samples. The apparatus will be constructed to be available to fly on the KC-135 during most missions.

  19. Active Aircraft Pylon Noise Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J (Inventor); Elmiligui, Alaa A. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An active pylon noise control system for an aircraft includes a pylon structure connecting an engine system with an airframe surface of the aircraft and having at least one aperture to supply a gas or fluid therethrough, an intake portion attached to the pylon structure to intake a gas or fluid, a regulator connected with the intake portion via a plurality of pipes, to regulate a pressure of the gas or fluid, a plenum chamber formed within the pylon structure and connected with the regulator, and configured to receive the gas or fluid as regulated by the regulator, and a plurality of injectors in communication with the plenum chamber to actively inject the gas or fluid through the plurality of apertures of the pylon structure.

  20. Phytodesalinization potential of Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris for removal of de-icing salts from runoff water.

    PubMed

    Guesdon, Gaëlle; de Santiago-Martín, Ana; Galvez-Cloutier, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Typha angustifolia, Juncus maritimus, and Eleocharis palustris were evaluated for de-icing salt removal from runoff water. Plants were exposed to a range of de-icing salt levels (0.2, 0.7, 4, 8, and 13 dS m(-1)) in laboratory-scale subsurface constructed wetlands (CWs) for 2 months under greenhouse conditions. Effluent characteristics, plant height, biomass, and Cl and Na removal rates and uptake were monitored. More water volume was retained in CWs of T. angustifolia (∼60 %) than of J. maritimus and E. palustris (∼37.5 %), which accounted for the electrical conductivity increase in effluents (1.3-1.9-fold). Based on the NaCl removal rate, T. angustifolia showed the greatest phytodesalinization ability (31-60 %) with the highest removal at the lowest salt levels (0.2-0.7 dS m(-1)), followed by J. maritimus (22-36 %) without differences in removal among levels, and E. palustris (3-26 %) presenting a removal rate highly decreased with increasing salt levels. Plant height and biomass were stimulated at low de-icing salt levels, but, at higher levels, T. angustifolia and E. palustris growth was inhibited (tolerance index ∼67 and 10 %, respectively, in the worst cases). Salt amounts in aboveground biomass in g m(-2) differed among levels and ranged as follows: 13.6-29.1 (Cl), 4.2-9.3 (Na; T. angustifolia); 7.0-12.0 (Cl), 2.7-6.4 (Na; J. maritimus); and 0.9-7.6 (Cl), 0.3-1.6 (Na; E. palustris). Chloride and Na translocation decreased with de-icing salt increase in T. angustifolia, while no significant differences were found in J. maritimus, which is interesting for harvesting purposes.

  1. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  2. Monitoring the impact of de-icing salt on roadside soils with time-lapse resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olofsson, Bo; Lundmark, Annika

    2009-03-01

    Monitoring systems along roads are needed to facilitate decisions on improving protection of water resources and decreasing the impact of road-related pollutants on the roadside environment. This paper presents a monitoring system using permanently installed electrodes and monthly measurements of resistivity at a motorway in Sweden with heavy loads of de-icing salt. A significant increase in resistivity in the vadose zone with increasing distance from the road was shown in both sand and glacial till areas during the whole year. By measuring temporal variations in a less affected environment further from the road, a distinction could be made between more natural variations and variations due to de-icing salt and melting of roadside snowbanks. The highest resistivities occurred in October-November and the lowest in January-March, while the more natural resistivities showed an opposing temporal variation. The difference was up to 35% on a log-scale in the sand area during the latter period. Hence, the time-lapse resistivity measurements clearly showed a strong influence of de-icing salt on roadside soils and groundwater during winter and spring. The measurement system and the analysis methods proved useful for monitoring both the spatial and seasonal variation in resistivity.

  3. Impacts of road deicing salts on the early-life growth and development of a stream salmonid: Salt type matters.

    PubMed

    Hintz, William D; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-04-01

    The use of road deicing salts in regions that experience cold winters is increasing the salinity of freshwater ecosystems, which threatens freshwater resources. Yet, the impacts of environmentally relevant road salt concentrations on freshwater organisms are not well understood, particularly in stream ecosystems where salinization is most severe. We tested the impacts of deicing salts-sodium chloride (NaCl), magnesium chloride (MgCl2), and calcium chloride (CaCl2)-on the growth and development of newly hatched rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed rainbow trout to a wide range of environmentally relevant chloride concentrations (25, 230, 860, 1500, and 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1)) over an ecologically relevant time period (25 d). We found that the deicing salts studied had distinct effects. MgCl2 did not affect rainbow trout growth at any concentration. NaCl had no effects at the lowest three concentrations, but rainbow trout length was reduced by 9% and mass by 27% at 3000 mg Cl(-) L(-1). CaCl2 affected rainbow trout growth at 860 mg Cl(-) L(-1) (5% reduced length; 16% reduced mass) and these effects became larger at higher concentrations (11% reduced length; 31% reduced mass). None of the deicing salts affected rainbow trout development. At sub-lethal and environmentally relevant concentrations, our results do not support the paradigm that MgCl2 is the most toxic deicing salt to fish, perhaps due to hydration effects on the Mg(2+) cation. Our results do suggest different pathways for lethal and sub-lethal effects of road salts. Scaled to the population level, the reduced growth caused by NaCl and CaCl2 at critical early-life stages has the potential to negatively affect salmonid recruitment and population dynamics. Our findings have implications for environmental policy and management strategies that aim to reduce the impacts of salinization on freshwater organisms.

  4. Technical evaluation report, AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel Symposium on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics was to provide an update of the stae-of-the-art with respect to the prediction, simulation, and measurement of the effects of icing, anti-icing fluids, and various precipitation on the aerodynamic characteristics of flight vehicles. Sessions were devoted to introductory and survey papers and icing certification issues, to analytical and experimental simulation of ice frost contamination and its effects of aerodynamics, and to the effects of heavy rain and deicing/anti-icing fluids.

  5. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  6. Computational analysis of hypersonic airbreathing aircraft flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwoyer, Douglas L.; Kumar, Ajay

    1987-01-01

    The general problem of calculating the flow fields associated with hypersonic airbreathing aircraft is presented. Unique aspects of hypersonic aircraft aerodynamics are introduced and their demands on computational fluid dynamics are outlined. Example calculations associated with inlet/forebody integration and hypersonic nozzle design are presented to illustrate the nature of the problems considered.

  7. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  8. CFD for applications to aircraft aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1989-01-01

    Strong interactions of structures and fluids are common in many engineering environments. Such interactions can give rise to physically important phenomena such as those occurring for aircraft due to aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity can significantly influence the safe performance of aircraft. At present exact methods are available for making aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for complex flows containing shock waves, vortices and flow separations, computational methods are still under development. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur due to the interaction of these complex flows with flexible aircraft components such as wings. For example, aircraft with highly swept wings experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations. Correct understanding of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires direct coupling of fluids and structural equations. Here, a summary is presented of the development of such coupled methods and applications to aeroelasticity since about 1978 to present. The successful use of the transonic small perturbation theory (TSP) coupled with structures is discussed. This served as a major stepping stone for the current stage of aeroelasticity using computational fluid dynamics. The need for the use of more exact Euler/Navier-Stokes (ENS) equations for aeroelastic problems is explained. The current development of unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic procedures based on the ENS equations are discussed. Aeroelastic results computed using both TSP and ENS equations are discussed.

  9. Hybrid adaptive optimal control of anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor for the de-icing waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jonghyuk

    2003-04-24

    Hybrid adaptive control strategy was developed and tested for the degradation of propylene glycol, a major component in de-icing waste, in an anaerobic fluidized bed bioreactor (AFBR). A linearized model with time-varying parameters was first employed to describe the dynamic behavior of the AFBR using a recursive off-line system identification method. A hybrid adaptive control strategy was then tested using a recursive off-line system identification routine followed by an on-line adaptive optimal control algorithm. The objective of the controller was to achieve the desired set point value of the propionate concentration (stand-alone control output variable) by manipulating the dilution rate (control input variable). To do so, the optimal control law was developed by minimizing a cost function with constraint equations. This novel idea was successfully applied to the underlying system for 200 h. The set point (700 mg HPrl(-1)) was achieved even in the case where the feed concentration suddenly increased by 50% (9000 mg HPrl(-1) to 13500 mg HPrl(-1)).

  10. Multifunctional SMArt composite material for in situ NDT/SHM and de-icing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fulvio; Ciampa, Francesco; Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto

    2012-10-01

    The past few decades have seen significant growth in the development and application of multifunctional media for the enhancement of material properties, thermo-mechanical and sensing properties. This research work reports a novel approach in which a multifunctional material, herein referred to as SMArt composite, can be employed as a structural health monitoring system for strain sensing and damage detection (SMArt sensing and SMArt thermography), but also as an embedded ice protection tool for structural applications (referred as SMArt de-icing). Such a material, obtained by embedding shape memory alloy (SMA) wires within traditional carbon reinforced plastic composites, relies on the possibility of using the wires both to increase the mechanical properties of composites panels and to exploit their intrinsic electrothermal properties. The electrical resistance variation and the internal power resistive heating source provided by the SMA network, enable a built in and fast assessment of the strain distribution and in situ damage visualization via thermographic imaging. The efficiency of these techniques was experimentally validated on a number of SMArt composite laminates with single and multiple internal defects at various depths. The results showed that strain sensing and damage detection were achieved with high spatial resolution and accuracy, without the need to use large external heaters or complex signal processing techniques.

  11. Alkali-aggregate reaction under the influence of deicing salts in the Hokuriku district, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, Tetsuya . E-mail: katayamat@kge.co.jp; Tagami, Masahiko; Sarai, Yoshinori; Izumi, Satoshi; Hira, Toshikatsu

    2004-11-15

    Concrete cores taken from highway bridges and culverts undergoing alkali-silica reaction (ASR) were investigated petrographically by means of core scanning, point counting, polarizing microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), electron-probe microanalysis with energy-dispersive spectrometry, in conjunction with wet chemical analyses and expansion tests. Field damage was roughly proportional to the content of andesite in the gravel aggregates due to the presence of highly reactive cristobalite and tridymite. Electron-probe microanalyzer analysis of unhydrated cement phases in the concrete revealed that the cement used had contained at least 0.5% to 1.0% alkali (Na{sub 2}Oeq) and that both the aggregates and the deicing salts had supplied part of the water-soluble alkali to concrete toward the threshold of producing ASR (Na{sub 2}O{sub eq} 3.0 kg/m{sup 3}). An accelerated concrete core expansion test (1 M NaOH, 80 deg. C) of the damaged structures mostly gave core expansions of >0.10% at 21 days (or >0.05% at 14 days), nearly comparable to those of a slow expansion test with saturated NaCl solution (50 deg. C, 91 days) which produced Cl-containing ASR gel.

  12. Effect of road deicing salt on the susceptibility of amphibian embryos to infection by water molds.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Ruthig, Gregory R

    2009-01-01

    Some causative agents of amphibian declines act synergistically to impact individual amphibians and their populations. In particular, pathogenic water molds (aquatic oomycetes) interact with environmental stressors and increase mortality in amphibian embryos. We documented colonization of eggs of three amphibian species, the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), the green frog (Rana clamitans), and the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum), by water molds in the field and examined the interactive effects of road deicing salt and water molds, two known sources of mortality for amphibian embryos, on two species, R. clamitans and A. maculatum in the laboratory. We found that exposure to water molds did not affect embryonic survivorship in either A. maculatum or R. clamitans, regardless of the concentration of road salt to which their eggs were exposed. Road salt decreased survivorship of A. maculatum, but not R. clamitans, and frequency of malformations increased significantly in both species at the highest salinity concentration. The lack of an effect of water molds on survival of embryos and no interaction between road salt and water molds indicates that observations of colonization of these eggs by water molds in the field probably represent a secondary invasion of unfertilized eggs or of embryos that had died of other causes. Given increasing salinization of freshwater habitats on several continents and the global distribution of water molds, our results suggest that some amphibian species may not be susceptible to the combined effects of these factors, permitting amphibian decline researchers to devote their attention to other potential causes.

  13. Effects of road de-icing salt (NaCl) on larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica).

    PubMed

    Sanzo, Domenico; Hecnar, Stephen J

    2006-03-01

    Vast networks of roads cover the earth and have numerous environmental effects including pollution. A major component of road runoff in northern countries is salt (mostly NaCl) used as a winter de-icing agent, but few studies of effects of road salts on aquatic organisms exist. Amphibians require aquatic habitats and chemical pollution is implicated as a major factor in global population declines. We exposed wood frog tadpoles to NaCl. Tests revealed 96-h LC50 values of 2,636 and 5,109 mg/l and tadpoles experienced reduced activity, weight, and displayed physical abnormalities. A 90 d chronic experiment revealed significantly lower survivorship, decreased time to metamorphosis, reduced weight and activity, and increased physical abnormalities with increasing salt concentration (0.00, 0.39, 77.50, 1,030.00 mg/l). Road salts had toxic effects on larvae at environmentally realistic concentrations with potentially far-ranging ecological impacts. More studies on the effects of road salts are warranted.

  14. Simulation Packages Expand Aircraft Design Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, NASA released a new approach to computational fluid dynamics that allows users to perform automated analysis on complex vehicle designs. In 2010, Palo Alto, California-based Desktop Aeronautics acquired a license from Ames Research Center to sell the technology. Today, the product assists organizations in the design of subsonic aircraft, space planes, spacecraft, and high speed commercial jets.

  15. Heavy metal removal mechanisms of sorptive filter materials for road runoff treatment and remobilization under de-icing salt applications.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Hilbig, Harald; Badenberg, Sophia C; Fassnacht, Julius; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research study was to elucidate the removal and remobilization behaviors of five heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that had been fixed onto sorptive filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems receiving traffic area runoff. Six filter materials (i.e., granular activated carbon, a mixture of granular activated alumina and porous concrete, granular activated lignite, half-burnt dolomite, and two granular ferric hydroxides) were evaluated in column experiments. First, a simultaneous preloading with the heavy metals was performed for each filter material. Subsequently, the remobilization effect was tested by three de-icing salt experiments in duplicate using pure NaCl, a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2, and a mixture of NaCl and MgCl2. Three layers of each column were separated to specify the attenuation of heavy metals as a function of depth. Cu and Pb were retained best by most of the selected filter materials, and Cu was often released the least of all metals by the three de-icing salts. The mixture of NaCl and CaCl2 resulted in a stronger effect upon remobilization than the other two de-icing salts. For the material with the highest retention, the effect of the preloading level upon remobilization was measured. The removal mechanisms of all filter materials were determined by advanced laboratory methods. For example, the different intrusions of heavy metals into the particles were determined. Findings of this study can result in improved filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems.

  16. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  17. Effects of ice accretions on aircraft aerodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Frank T.; Khodadoust, Abdollah

    2001-11-01

    This article is a systematic and comprehensive review, correlation, and assessment of test results available in the public domain which address the aerodynamic performance and control degradations caused by various types of ice accretions on the lifting surfaces of fixed wing aircraft. To help put the various test results in perspective, overviews are provided first of the important factors and limitations involved in computational and experimental icing simulation techniques, as well as key aerodynamic testing simulation variables and governing flow physics issues. Following these are the actual reviews, assessments, and correlations of a large number of experimental measurements of various forms of mostly simulated in-flight and ground ice accretions, augmented where appropriate by similar measurements for other analogous forms of surface contamination and/or disruptions. In-flight icing categories reviewed include the initial and inter-cycle ice accretions inherent in the use of de-icing systems which are of particular concern because of widespread misconceptions about the thickness of such accretions which can be allowed before any serious consequences occur, and the runback/ridge ice accretions typically associated with larger-than-normal water droplet encounters which are of major concern because of the possible potential for catastrophic reductions in aerodynamic effectiveness. The other in-flight ice accretion category considered includes the more familiar large rime and glaze ice accretions, including ice shapes with rather grotesque features, where the concern is that, in spite of all the research conducted to date, the upper limit of penalties possible has probably not been defined. Lastly, the effects of various possible ground frost/ice accretions are considered. The concern with some of these is that for some types of configurations, all of the normally available operating margins to stall at takeoff may be erased if these accretions are not

  18. Cumulative effects of road de-icing salt on amphibian behavior.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Bichot, Marion; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Delcourt, Johann; Ylieff, Marc; Kestemont, Patrick; Poncin, Pascal

    2010-08-15

    Despite growing evidence of the detrimental effect of chemical substances on organisms, limited research has focused on changes in behavioral patterns, in part due to the difficulties to obtain detailed quantitative data. Recent developments in efficient computer-based video analyses have allowed testing pesticide effects on model species such as the zebrafish. However, these new techniques have not yet been applied to amphibians and directly to conservation issues, i.e., to assess toxicological risks on threatened species. We used video-tracking analyses to test a quantitative effect of an environmental contaminant on the locomotion of amphibian tadpoles (Rana temporaria) by taking into account cumulative effects. Because recent research has demonstrated effects of de-icing salts on survival and community structure, we used sodium chloride in our experimental design (25 replicates, 4 concentrations, 4 times) to test for an effect at the scale of behavior at environmentally relevant concentrations. Analysis of 372 1-h video-tracks (5 samples/s) showed a complex action of salts on behavioral patterns with a dose and cumulative response over time. Although no effects were found on mortality or growth, the highest salt concentrations reduced the speed and movement of tadpoles in comparison with control treatments. The reduced locomotor performance could have detrimental consequences in terms of tadpoles' responses to competition and predation and may be an indicator of the low concentration effect of the contaminant. On one hand, this study demonstrates the usefulness of examining behavior to address conservation issues and understand the complex action of environmental factors and, more particularly, pollutants on organisms. On the other hand, our results highlight the need of new computerized techniques to quantitatively analyze these patterns.

  19. Impacts of road deicing salt on the demography of vernal pool-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Karraker, Nancy E; Gibbs, James P; Vonesh, James R

    2008-04-01

    Deicing agents, primarily road salt, are applied to roads in 26 states in the United States and in a number of European countries, yet the scale of impacts of road salt on aquatic organisms remains largely under-studied. The issue is germane to amphibian conservation because both adult and larval amphibians are known to be particularly sensitive to changes in their osmolar environments. In this study, we combined survey, experimental, and demographic modeling approaches to evaluate the possible effects of road salt on two common vernal-pond-breeding amphibian species, the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and the wood frog (Rana sylvatica). We found that in the Adirondack Mountain Region of New York (USA), road salt traveled up to 172 m from the highway into wetlands. Surveys showed that egg mass densities of spotted salamanders (A. maculatum) and wood frogs (R. sylvatica) were two times higher in forest pools than roadside pools, but this pattern was better explained by road proximity than by increased salinity. Experiments demonstrated that embryonic and larval survival were reduced at moderate (500 muS) and high conductivities (3000 muS) in A. maculatum and at high conductivities in R. sylvatica. Demographic models suggest that such egg and larval stage effects of salt may have important impacts on populations near roads, particularly in the case of A. maculatum, for which salt exposure may lead to local extinction. For both species, the effect of road salt was dependent upon the strength of larval density dependence and declined rapidly with distance from the roadside, with the greatest negative effects being limited to within 50 m. Based on this evidence, we argue that efforts to protect local populations of A. maculatum and R. sylvatica in roadside wetlands should, in part, be aimed at reducing application of road salt near wetlands with high conductivity levels.

  20. Degradation of deicing chemicals affects the natural redox system in airfield soils.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Heidi; Wehrer, Markus; Jartun, Morten; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-01-01

    During winter operations at airports, large amounts of organic deicing chemicals (DIC) accumulate beside the runways and infiltrate into the soil during spring. To study the transport and degradation of DIC in the unsaturated zone, eight undisturbed soil cores were retrieved at Oslo airport, Norway, and installed as lysimeters at a nearby field site. Before snowmelt in 2010 and 2011, snow amended with a mix of the DICs propylene glycol (PG) and formate as well as bromide as conservative tracer was applied. Water samples were collected and analyzed until summer 2012. Water flow and solute transport varied considerably among the lysimeters but also temporally between 2010 and 2011. High infiltration rates during snowmelt resulted in the discharge of up to 51 and 82% PG in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The discharge of formate remained comparatively low, indicating its favored degradation even at freezing temperatures compared with PG. Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) were observed in the drainage in autumn owing to the anaerobic degradation of residual PG during summer. Our findings suggest that upper boundary conditions, i.e., snow cover and infiltration rate, and the extent of preferential flowpaths, control water flow and solute transport of bromide and PG during snowmelt. PG may therefore locally reach deeper soil regions where it may pose a risk for groundwater. In the long term, the use of DIC furthermore causes the depletion of potential electron acceptors and the transport of considerable amounts of Fe and Mn. To avoid an overload of the unsaturated zone with DIC and to maintain the natural redox system, the development of suitable remediation techniques is required.

  1. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  2. An Investigation Utilizing an Electrical Analogue of Cyclic Deicing of a Hollow Steel Propeller with an External Blade Shoe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, Carr B., Jr.

    1952-01-01

    A study has been made of the heat requirement for the cyclic de-icing of hollow steel propellers fitted with external blade heating shoes. Solutions to the equations for the heat flow in cyclic heating of propellers were obtained, using an electrical analogy. The study showed how the energy requirement for propeller de-icing with existing blade shoes could be decreased, and illustrated the effect of blade-shoe design on the energy requirement. It was demonstrated, for example, that by increasing the heating intensity and decreasing the heating period from those currently used the energy requirement could be decreased in the order of 60 percent. ' In addition, ft was shown that heating requirements could be decreased further, by as much as 60 percent, through proper design of the shoes. The' investigation also showed the energy requirement to increase with decreasing liquid-water content and air temperature. Uncertainties as to the exact values of convective heat-transfer coefficient prevailing over the surface of the blade and ice layer resulted in uncertainties of approximately proportional magnitude in the values of required heating intensity.

  3. The Influence of the De-Icing Salt on the Deterioration of Rock Materials Used in Monumental Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kłopotowska, Agnieszka Katarzyna; Łukaszewski, Paweł

    2013-09-01

    The de-icing salt has been used for decades to increase safety on the roads and sidewalks. In Poland, mainly the sodium chloride is used in order to maintain the roads in good condition during winter. Like other salts used for surface de-icing, it depresses the freezing point to lower temperatures and has an additional thermal effect by an exothermic reaction. However, this salt causes the accumulation of chlorides in the walls and stone buildings contributing to the deterioration of these facilities. The paper addresses the issue of the influence of salt solutions on the structure and geomechanical properties of rocks at negative temperatures. The study was conducted on the basis of cyclic tests which simulate complex action of both the negative temperature and the salty environment. The conditions for the tests were chosen so as to reflect the actual conditions of the winter in Poland. During the tests, the longitudinal wave propagation velocity, changes in weights of the samples as well as visual changes were recorded which allowed continuous tracking of occurring changes. At the end of the tests, the rock samples were subjected to uniaxial compressive tests. For this purpose, four lithological types were chosen, representing the sedimentary rocks: clastic and carbonate, widely used in stone constructions.

  4. Investigation of Power Requirements for Ice Prevention and Cyclical De-Icing of Inlet Guide Vanes with Internal Electric Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VonGlahn, Uwe; Blatz, Robert E.

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the electric power requirements necessary for ice protection of inlet guide vanes by continuous heating and by cyclical de-icing. Data are presented to show the effect of ambient-air temperature, liquid-water content, air velocity, heat-on period, and cycle times on the power requirements for these two methods of ice protection. The results showed that for a hypothetical engine using 28 inlet guide vanes under similar icing conditions, cyclical de-icing can provide a total power saving as high as 79 percent over that required for continuous heating. Heat-on periods in the order of 10 seconds with a cycle ratio of about 1:7 resulted in the best over-all performance with respect to total power requirements and aerodynamic losses during the heat-off period. Power requirements reported herein may be reduced by as much as 25 percent by achieving a more uniform surface-temperature distribution. A parameter in terms of engine mass flow, vane size, vane surface temperature, and the icing conditions ahead of the inlet guide vanes.was developed by which an extension of the experimental data to icing conditions and inlet guide vanes, other than those investigated was possible.

  5. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  6. Aircraft and runway deicers at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. 1. Biochemical oxygen demand and dissolved oxygen in receiving streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Booth, N.L.; Hall, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Aircraft and runway deicers are used during cold weather at many of the world's airports to facilitate safe air travel. Propylene glycol-, ethylene glycol-, and urea-based deicers are known to have very high biochemical oxygen demand. At General Mitchell International Airport (GMIA) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, deicer application, water chemistry, and dissolved oxygen (DO) data were collected for two deicing seasons in order to evaluate and define premanagement water quality parameters prior to the implementation of a glycol management program. Calculations using stream-monitoring data during a controlled release of deicer provided an estimate of 0.8/d for the first-order decay rate constant, substantially higher than published laboratory test results. For eight precipitation events with deicing activities, between 2.4 and 99% of propylene and ethylene glycol applied to aircraft was delivered directly to receiving streams. The percentage of glycol runoff during an event increased with increasing storm-flow volume. Elevated concentrations of glycol and biochemical oxygen demand were measured downstream from the airport. However, the frequency of low DO concentrations in the receiving streams is comparable with that at an upstream reference site. This is possibly due to slowed bacteria metabolism at low water temperatures, short travel times, and dilution from downstream tributaries.

  7. Oxygen demand of aircraft and airfield pavement deicers and alternative freezing point depressants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Mericas, Dean; Bowman, George

    2012-01-01

    Aircraft and pavement deicing formulations and other potential freezing point depressants were tested for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Propylene glycol-based aircraft deicers exhibited greater BOD5 than ethylene glycol-based aircraft deicers, and ethylene glycol-based products had lower degradation rates than propylene glycol-based products. Sodium formate pavement deicers had lower COD than acetate-based pavement deicers. The BOD and COD results for acetate-based pavement deicers (PDMs) were consistently lower than those for aircraft deicers, but degradation rates were greater in the acetate-based PDM than in aircraft deicers. In a 40-day testing of aircraft and pavement deicers, BOD results at 20°C (standard) were consistently greater than the results from 5°C (low) tests. The degree of difference between standard and low temperature BOD results varied among tested products. Freshwater BOD test results were not substantially different from marine water tests at 20°C, but glycols degraded slower in marine water than in fresh water for low temperature tests. Acetate-based products had greater percentage degradation than glycols at both temperatures. An additive component of the sodium formate pavement deicer exhibited toxicity to the microorganisms, so BOD testing did not work properly for this formulation. BOD testing of alternative freezing point depressants worked well for some, there was little response for some, and for others there was a lag in response while microorganisms acclimated to the freezing point depressant as a food source. Where the traditional BOD5 test performed adequately, values ranged from 251 to 1,580 g/kg. Where the modified test performed adequately, values of BOD28 ranged from 242 to 1,540 g/kg.

  8. Self-response multi-functional composite material base on carbon nanotube paper using deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation, and lightning-strike protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Hetao; Zhang, Zhichun; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2015-04-01

    Carbon nanotube paper (CNP) based multi-functional composite material is an attractive candidate for deicing, flame retardancy, thermal insulation and lighting strike protection due to the excellent conductivity, light weight and thin dimensions. In this article, multi-functional carbon nanotube paper was fabricated successfully by using commercial carbon nanotube. As a deicing composite material, carbon nanotube was used directly without pretreatment in fabricating carbon nanotube paper. The conductivities of the carbon nanotube paper and deicing composite were 77.8S/cm and 64.9S/ respectively. Electrical heating and deicing performance were test by infrared camera with deicing time less than 220s and 450s to melt a certain amount of ice under different ambient condition. CNT was grafted by zirconium (IV) butoxide solution and dimethyl dichlorosilicane to form co-oligomers on the tube surface while oligomers decompose under a certain temperature to develop an inorganic layer of silicon zirconium oxide. The oxidizing temperature of carbon nanotube increases more than 20°C and the weight loss rate decreases 20% than the untreated carbon nanotube. Lightning protection material required high electro conductivity, due to the utmost high current in a short time. Therefore, silver nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of carbon nanotube with the diameter around 100nm. The conductivity increased sharply from 84s/cm to1756s/cm with the mount of 5.9wt% Ag of the modified carbon nanotube paper because the silver nanoparticles deposited on the surface. In addition, the silver modified also can be used as thermal insulation material decreasing the infrared radiation.

  9. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  10. An Experimental Investigation on Bio-inspired Icephobic Coatings for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Hui; Li, Haixing; Waldman, Rye

    2016-11-01

    By leveraging the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT), a series of experimental investigations were conducted to elucidate the underlying physics pertinent to aircraft icing phenomena. A suite of advanced flow diagnostic techniques, which include high-speed photographic imaging, digital image projection (DIP), and infrared (IR) imaging thermometry, were developed and applied to quantify the transient behavior of water droplet impingement, wind-driven surface water runback, unsteady heat transfer and dynamic ice accreting process over the surfaces of airfoil/wing models. The icephobic performance of various bio-inspired superhydrophobic coatings were evaluated quantitatively at different icing conditions. The findings derived from the icing physics studies can be used to improve current icing accretion models for more accurate prediction of ice formation and accretion on aircraft wings and to develop effective anti-/deicing strategies for safer and more efficient operation of aircraft in cold weather. The research work is partially supported by NASA with Grant Number NNX12AC21A and National Science Foundation under Award Numbers of CBET-1064196 and CBET-1435590.

  11. Direct Optical Ice Sensing and Closed-Loop Controller Design for Active De-icing of Wind Turbines Using Distributed Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shajiee, Shervin

    Ice accumulation on wind turbines operating in cold regions reduces power generation by degrading aerodynamic efficiency and causes mass imbalance and fatigue loads on the blades. Due to blade rotation and variation of the pitch angle, different locations on the blade experience large variations of Reynolds number, Nusselt number, heat loss, and non-uniform ice distribution. Hence, applying different amounts of heat flux in different blade locations can provide more effective de-icing for the same total power consumption. This large variation of required heat flux motivates using distributed resistive heating, with the capability of locally adjusting thermal power as a function of location on the blade. The main contributions of this research are developing the experimental feasibility of direct ice sensing using an optical sensing technique as well as development of a computational framework for implementation of closed-loop localized active de-icing using distributed sensing. A script-base module was developed in a commercial finite-element software (ANSYS) which provides the capability of (i) Closed-loop de-icing simulations for a distributed network of sensors and actuators, (ii) investigating different closed-loop thermal control schemes and their de-icing efficiency (iii) optimizing thermal actuation for a distributed resistive heating, and (iv) analyzing different faulty scenarios for sensors and thermal actuators under known faults in the network. Different surrogate models were used to enhance the computational efficiency of this approach. The results showed that optimal value of control parameters in a distributed network of heaters depends on convective heat transfer characteristics, layout of heaters and type of closed-loop controller scheme used for thermal actuation. Furthermore, It was shown that closed-loop control provides much faster de-icing than the open-loop constant heat flux thermal actuation. It was observed both experimentally and

  12. Variable Geometry Aircraft Pylon Structure and Related Operation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Parthiv N. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An aircraft control structure can be utilized for purposes of drag management, noise control, or aircraft flight maneuvering. The control structure includes a high pressure engine nozzle, such as a bypass nozzle or a core nozzle of a turbofan engine. The nozzle exhausts a high pressure fluid stream, which can be swirled using a deployable swirl vane architecture. The control structure also includes a variable geometry pylon configured to be coupled between the nozzle and the aircraft. The variable geometry pylon has a moveable pylon section that can be deployed into a deflected state to maintain or alter a swirling fluid stream (when the swirl vane architecture is deployed) for drag management purposes, or to assist in the performance of aircraft flight maneuvers.

  13. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  14. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  15. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  16. Advances in Protective Coatings and Their Application to Ageing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    Materials for the Structure f Aging Aircraft [les Nouveaux Materiaux metalliques pour les structures des aeronefs d’ancienne generation] To order the...corrosion through design, the selection of military and civil aircraft during the last thirty years. Research materials that are resistant to corrosion and...fluid resistance and greater flexibility. New methods of paint stripping and novel processes for the 2.1 Design repair of pre-treatments and metal

  17. Probabilistic evaluation of initiation time in RC bridge beams with load-induced cracks exposed to de-icing salts

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Zhaohui; Zhao Yangang; Yu Zhiwu; Ding Faxing

    2011-03-15

    In this study, a reliability-based method for predicting the initiation time of reinforced concrete bridge beams with load-induced cracks exposed to de-icing salts is presented. A practical model for predicting the diffusion coefficient of chloride ingress into load-induced cracked concrete is proposed. Probabilistic information about uncertainties related to the surface chloride content and the threshold chloride concentration has been estimated from a wide review of previous experimental or statistical studies. Probabilistic analysis to estimate the time to corrosion initiation with/without considering the effect of the load-induced cracks on the chloride ingress into concrete has been carried out. Results of the analysis demonstrate the importance of considering the effect of the load-induced cracks for correct prediction of corrosion initiation in RC bridge beams exposed to chlorides.

  18. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  19. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  20. De-Icing Systems of Flight Vehicles. Bases of Design Methods for Testing. Part 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-07

    prctection of the littini, surfaces of the series/row o PISTOn-e".qtn aircraft. The principi- of device/equipment their toilowl- o; the shielded skin ...retention/preservation/mainri~nya the filtering properties cf porcus skin /sheathing in operation, siace otherwise, naturally, the effectiveness of this...temperature of skin /sUedtnin9 of next section reaches the’ assigned magnitude (somewnat aiger than QOC), signal from the thermosensitive element tarougu the

  1. De-Icing Systems of Flight Vehicles. Bases of Design Methods for Testing. Part 2,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-07

    7.43) From the comparison of two different flight conditions escape/ensues the following general /conon/total equation for the combined effect of...the heat efficiency of system in two different modes/conditions. Generally speaking, this coefficient has different values in flight conditions, but...elimination of possible shortcomings, but in the stage official tests of aircraft or helicopter - a general /common/total evaluation of the

  2. Fiber optical sensors for aircraft applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pechstedt, Ralf D.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper selected fiber optical point sensors that are of potential interest for deployment in aircraft are discussed. The operating principles together with recent measurement results are described. Examples include a high-temperature combined pressure and temperature sensor for engine health, hydraulics and landing gear monitoring, an ultra-high sensitive pressure sensor for oil, pneumatic and fluid aero systems applications and a combined acceleration and temperature sensor for condition monitoring of rotating components.

  3. Aircraft Survivability: Susceptibility Reduction, Summer 2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    established during the Vietnam War. 12 IR Photonic Bandgap Fibers for Missile Defense by Ishwar D . Aggarwal, Lynda E. Busse, Jas S. Sanghera, and L. Brandon...labora- tory (12 years) and at Sikorsky Aircraft (4 years) he was a key contributor and leader in the development and application of survivability...explosive and surrounding air are mod- eled as fluids in an Eulerian domain . The warhead structures, including frag- ments and end caps, are modeled in

  4. Longitudinal dynamics of a perching aircraft concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickenheiser, Adam; Garcia, Ephrahim; Waszak, Martin

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a morphing aircraft concept whose purpose is to demonstrate a new bio-inspired flight capability: perching. Perching is a maneuver that utilizes primarily aerodynamics -- as opposed to thrust generation -- to achieve a vertical or short landing. The flight vehicle that will accomplish this is described herein with particular emphasis on its addition levels of actuation beyond the traditional aircraft control surfaces. A computer model of the aircraft is developed in order to predict the changes in applied aerodynamic loads as it morphs and transitions through different flight regimes. The analysis of this model is outlined, including a lifting-line-based analytical technique and a trim and stability analysis. These analytical methods -- compared to panel or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods -- are considered desirable for the analysis of a large number of vehicle configurations and flight conditions. The longitudinal dynamics of this aircraft are studied, and several interesting results are presented. Of special interest are the changes in vehicle dynamics as the aircraft morphs from a cruise configuration to initiate the perching maneuver. Changes in trim conditions and stability are examined as functions of vehicle geometry. The time response to changes in vehicle configuration is also presented.

  5. Amniotic fluid

    MedlinePlus

    ... carefully. Removing a sample of the fluid through amniocentesis can provide information about the sex, health, and development of the fetus. Images Amniocentesis Amniotic fluid Polyhydramnios Amniotic fluid References Cunningham FG, ...

  6. Transonics and fighter aircraft: Challenges and opportunities for CFD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Luis R.

    1989-01-01

    The application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to fighter aircraft design and development is discussed. Methodology requirements for the aerodynamic design of fighter aircraft are briefly reviewed. The state-of-the-art of computational methods for transonic flows in the light of these requirements is assessed and the techniques found most adequate for the subject application are identified. Highlights from some proof-of-feasibility Euler and Navier-Stokes computations about a complete fighter aircraft configuration are presented. Finally, critical issues and opportunities for design application of CFD are discussed.

  7. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  8. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  9. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  10. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  11. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  12. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.

  13. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  14. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  15. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  16. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian.

  17. Potential for local adaptation in response to an anthropogenic agent of selection: effects of road deicing salts on amphibian embryonic survival and development

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-01-01

    The application of millions of tons of road deicing salts every winter in North America presents significant survival challenges to amphibians inhabiting roadside habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl on anuran tadpoles, less is known of effects on amphibian eggs, or any caudate life stage. In addition, little is known of the effects of MgCl2, which is now the 2nd most commonly used road deicer. Most studies have considered amphibians to be helpless victims of deicing salts, and ignore the possibility of the evolution of local adaptation to this stressor. We attempt to address these knowledge gaps and explore this evolutionary potential by examining the effects of NaCl and MgCl2 on the survival and development of eggs from different female rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) from the same population. We demonstrate that both salts, at environmentally relevant concentrations, severely affect the embryonic survival and development of this amphibian, but that the effects of the salt are dependent on the identity of the mother. This female × treatment interaction results in substantial variation in tolerance to road deicing salts among newt families, providing the raw material necessary for natural selection and the evolution of local adaptation in this amphibian. PMID:23467723

  18. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  19. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  20. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  1. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25... fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3) Possible ignition sources..., fireproof containment, or use of extinguishing agents. (5) Ability of airplane components that are...

  2. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  3. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  4. Automated Tetrahedral Mesh Generation for CFD Analysis of Aircraft in Conceptual Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordaz, Irian; Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces an automation process of generating a tetrahedral mesh for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of aircraft configurations in early conceptual design. The method was developed for CFD-based sonic boom analysis of supersonic configurations, but can be applied to aerodynamic analysis of aircraft configurations in any flight regime.

  5. Introduction to the aerodynamics of flight. [including aircraft stability, and hypersonic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talay, T. A.

    1975-01-01

    General concepts of the aerodynamics of flight are discussed. Topics considered include: the atmosphere; fluid flow; subsonic flow effects; transonic flow; supersonic flow; aircraft performance; and stability and control.

  6. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  7. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  8. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  9. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  10. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  11. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  12. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  13. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  15. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  16. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R. M.

    1985-05-28

    Aircraft engine exhaust is mixed with air and fuel and recombusted. Air is drawn into the secondary combustion chamber from suction surfaces on wings. Exhaust of the secondary combustion chamber is blown over wing and fuselage surfaces.

  17. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  18. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  19. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  20. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  1. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  2. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  3. Overview of high performance aircraft propulsion research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The overall scope of the NASA Lewis High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program is presented. High performance fighter aircraft of interest include supersonic flights with such capabilities as short take off and vertical landing (STOVL) and/or high maneuverability. The NASA Lewis effort involving STOVL propulsion systems is focused primarily on component-level experimental and analytical research. The high-maneuverability portion of this effort, called the High Alpha Technology Program (HATP), is part of a cooperative program among NASA's Lewis, Langley, Ames, and Dryden facilities. The overall objective of the NASA Inlet Experiments portion of the HATP, which NASA Lewis leads, is to develop and enhance inlet technology that will ensure high performance and stability of the propulsion system during aircraft maneuvers at high angles of attack. To accomplish this objective, both wind-tunnel and flight experiments are used to obtain steady-state and dynamic data, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are used for analyses. This overview of the High Performance Aircraft Propulsion Research Program includes a sampling of the results obtained thus far and plans for the future.

  4. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  5. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    advancing and applying technology to predict, evaluate , and improve combat survivability of US flight vehicles. John graduated from the University of...support for most of the aircraft and anti-aircraft programs conducted to date under LFT&E statutory requirements. A number of these test and evaluation ...initiatives to improve the state-of-the-art of LFT&E, to place greater emphasis on the evaluation of human casualties, to integrate Battle Damage

  6. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  7. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  8. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  9. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  10. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  11. CFD validation experiments at McDonnell Aircraft Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, August

    1987-01-01

    Information is given in viewgraph form on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation experiments at McDonnell Aircraft Company. Topics covered include a high speed research model, a supersonic persistence fighter model, a generic fighter wing model, surface grids, force and moment predictions, surface pressure predictions, forebody models with 65 degree clipped delta wings, and the low aspect ratio wing/body experiment.

  12. Fluid Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the contents of Volume II of "Principia" by Sir Isaac Newton. Reviews the contributions of subsequent scientists to the physics of fluid dynamics. Discusses the treatment of fluid mechanics in physics curricula. Highlights a few of the problems of modern research in fluid dynamics. Shows that problems still remain. (CW)

  13. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  14. Experimental aerothermodynamic research of hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, Joseph W.

    1987-01-01

    The 2-D and 3-D advance computer codes being developed for use in the design of such hypersonic aircraft as the National Aero-Space Plane require comparison of the computational results with a broad spectrum of experimental data to fully assess the validity of the codes. This is particularly true for complex flow fields with control surfaces present and for flows with separation, such as leeside flow. Therefore, the objective is to provide a hypersonic experimental data base required for validation of advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes and for development of more thorough understanding of the flow physics necessary for these codes. This is being done by implementing a comprehensive test program for a generic all-body hypersonic aircraft model in the NASA/Ames 3.5 foot Hypersonic Wind Tunnel over a broad range of test conditions to obtain pertinent surface and flowfield data. Results from the flow visualization portion of the investigation are presented.

  15. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Adolf, D.; Anderson, R.; Garino, T.; Halsey, T.C.; Hance, B.; Martin, J.E.; Odinek, J.

    1996-10-01

    An Electrorheological fluid is normally a low-viscosity colloidal suspension, but when an electric field is applied, the fluid undergoes a reversible transition to a solid, being able to support considerable stress without yield. Commercial possibilities for such fluids are enormous, including clutches, brakes, valves,shock absorbers, and stepper motors. However, performance of current fluids is inadequate for many proposed applications. Our goal was to engineer improved fluids by investigating the key technical issues underlying the solid-phase yield stress and the liquid to solid switching time. Our studies focused on field-induced interactions between colloidal particles that lead to solidification, the relation between fluid structure and performance (viscosity, yield stress), and the time evolution of structure in the fluid as the field is switched on or off.

  16. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  17. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  18. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  19. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  20. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  1. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  2. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1185 - Flammable fluids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1185 Flammable fluids... equal to that which would exist if the tank or reservoir were outside such a zone. (b) Each fuel...

  4. PIK-20 Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photo shows NASA's PIK-20E motor-glider sailplane during a research flight from the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1991. The PIK-20E was a sailplane flown at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) beginning in 1981. The vehicle, bearing NASA tail number 803, was used as a research vehicle on projects calling for high lift-over-drag and low-speed performance. Later NASA used the PIK-20E to study the flow of fluids over the aircraft's surface at various speeds and angles of attack as part of a study of airflow efficiency over lifting surfaces. The single-seat aircraft was used to begin developing procedures for collecting sailplane glide performance data in a program carried out by Ames-Dryden. It was also used to study high-lift aerodynamics and laminar flow on high-lift airfoils. Built by Eiri-Avion in Finland, the PIK-20E is a sailplane with a two-cylinder 43-horsepower, retractable engine. It is made of carbon fiber with sandwich construction. In this unique configuration, it takes off and climbs to altitude on its own. After reaching the desired altitude, the engine is shut down and folded back into the fuselage and the aircraft is then operated as a conventional sailplane. Construction of the PIK-20E series was rather unusual. The factory used high-temperature epoxies cured in an autoclave, making the structure resistant to deformation with age. Unlike today's normal practice of laying glass over gelcoat in a mold, the PIK-20E was built without gelcoat. The finish is the result of smooth glass lay-up, a small amount of filler, and an acrylic enamel paint. The sailplane was 21.4 feet long and had a wingspan of 49.2 feet. It featured a wooden, fixed-pitch propeller, a roomy cockpit, wingtip wheels, and a steerable tailwheel.

  5. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  6. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  7. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  8. Aircraft Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The helicopter pictured is the twin-turbine S-76, produced by Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Technologies, Stratford, Connecticut. It is the first transport helicopter ever dey n e d purely as a commercial vehicle rather than an adaptation of a military design. Being built in large numbers for customers in 16 countries, the S-76 is intended for offshore oil rig support, executive transportation and general utility service. The craft carries 12 passengers plus a crew of two and has a range of more than 450 miles-yet it weighs less than 10,000 pounds. Significant weight reduction was achieved by use of composite materials, which are generally lighter but stronger than conventional aircraft materials. NASA composite technology played a part in development of the S-76. Under contract with NASA's Langley Research Center, Sikorsky Aircraft designed and flight-tested a helicopter airframe of advanced composite materials.

  9. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  10. Sizing of an aircraft fuel pump

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, U.S.

    1995-06-01

    A need to pump a mixture of two-phase fluid appears naturally in many situations. One example of this situation is aircraft fuel systems, where the pump inlet may have two-phase mixture due to the desorption of the dissolved gases at low pressures at higher altitudes. A simple procedure of selecting proper design conditions for the inlet inducer and a method of sizing the inducer, impeller and volute to meet all the design requirements has been described. This procedure has also been applied to a typical fighter plane boost pump design.

  11. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  12. Atmospheric Electricity - Aircraft Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    flux may leak inside the aircraft through apertures such as windows , radomes. canopies, seams, and joints. Other fields may arise inside the aircraft...fields of other origins are considered. The third type of c-"pling involves electric fields passing directly through aper- tures, such as windows or...Transistors Microwave Diodes Low Power Transistors 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Damage Constant. K Damage Constant. K Figure 29 - Ranges

  13. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  14. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  15. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  16. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  17. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  18. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  19. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  20. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  1. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  2. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  3. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    number MC2A Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft MC2A-X Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft Experiment MIDS Multifunctional Information and...reconnaissance (ISR) fleet. The MMA is alternately designated as the Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft (MC2A) as indicated in this text. Figure

  4. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  5. Mobilization of arsenic, lead, and mercury under conditions of sea water intrusion and road deicing salt application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hongbing; Alexander, John; Gove, Brita; Koch, Manfred

    2015-09-01

    Water geochemistry data from complexly designed salt-solution injection experiments in the laboratory, coastal aquifers of Bangladesh and Italy, taken from the literature, and two salted watersheds of New Jersey, US were collected and analyzed to study the geochemical mechanisms that mobilize As, Pb, and Hg under varied salting conditions. Overall, increased NaCl-concentrations in aquifers and soil are found to increase the release of Pb and Hg into the water. Reducing environments and possible soil dispersion by hydrated Na+ are found to lead to an increase of As-concentration in water. However, the application of a pure NaCl salt solution in the column injection experiment was found to release less As, Pb, and Hg initially from the soil and delay their concentration increase, when compared to the application of CaCl2 and NaCl mixed salts (at 6:4 weight ratio). The concentration correlation dendrogram statistical analyses of the experimental and field data suggest that the release of As, Hg, and Pb into groundwater and the soil solution depends not only on the salt level and content, but also on the redox condition, dissolved organic matter contents, competitiveness of other ions for exchange sites, and source minerals. With the ongoing over-exploration of coastal aquifers from increased pumping, continued sea-level rise, and increased winter deicing salt applications in salted watersheds of many inland regions, the results of this study will help understand the complex relation between the concentrations of As, Pb, and Hg and increased salt level in a coastal aquifer and in soils of a salted watershed.

  6. The effects of calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) deicing material on the water quality of Bear Creek, Clackamas County, Oregon, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT), to evaluate the effects of the highway deicing material, calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), on the water quality of Bear Creek, in the Cascade Range of Oregon. ODOT began using CMA (an alternative deicer that has fewer adverse environmental effects than road salt) in the mid-1990s and began this study with the USGS to ensure that there were no unexpected effects on the water quality of Bear Creek. Streamflow, precipitation, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and water temperature were measured continuously through the 1998?99 winter. There was no measurable effect of the application of CMA to Highway 26 on the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), calcium concentration, or magnesium concentration of Bear Creek and its tributaries. BOD was small in all of the water samples, some of which were collected before CMA application, and some of which were collected after application. Five-day BOD values ranged from 0.1 milligrams per liter to 1.5 milligrams per liter, and 20-day BOD values ranged from 0.2 milligrams per liter to 2.0 milligrams per liter. Dissolved copper concentrations in a small tributary ditch on the north side of Highway 26 exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life criteria on three occasions. These exceedances were probably not caused by the application of CMA because (1) one of the samples was a background sample (no recent CMA application), and (2) dissolved copper was not detected in Bear Creek water samples to which CMA was added during laboratory experiments.

  7. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  8. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  9. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  10. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  11. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  12. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  13. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  14. Aircraft Wheel Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    responsible for a significant amount of aircraft dam - age. Many such wheel failures have been catastrophic, resulting in a sudden loss of tire inflation...Fatigue Crack Growth," Fatigue and Fracture in Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 10, 419-428, 1987. Cox, B. N., Pardee , W., and Morris, W. L

  15. Global Flowfield About the V-22 Tiltrotor Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meakin, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    This final report includes five publications that resulted from the studies of the global flowfield about the V-22 Tiltrotor Aircraft. The first of the five is 'The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow', as presented in 'Computational Fluid Dynamics Review 1995.' The remaining papers, all presented at AIAA conferences, are 'Unsteady Simulation of the Viscous Flow About a V-22 Rotor and Wing in Hover', 'An Efficient Means of Adaptive Refinement Within Systems of Overset Grids', 'On the Spatial and Temporal Accuracy of Overset Grid Methods for MOving Body Problems', and 'Moving Body Overset Grid Methods for Complete Aircraft Tiltrotor Simulations.'

  16. Integrated numerical methods for hypersonic aircraft cooling systems analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petley, Dennis H.; Jones, Stuart C.; Dziedzic, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Numerical methods have been developed for the analysis of hypersonic aircraft cooling systems. A general purpose finite difference thermal analysis code is used to determine areas which must be cooled. Complex cooling networks of series and parallel flow can be analyzed using a finite difference computer program. Both internal fluid flow and heat transfer are analyzed, because increased heat flow causes a decrease in the flow of the coolant. The steady state solution is a successive point iterative method. The transient analysis uses implicit forward-backward differencing. Several examples of the use of the program in studies of hypersonic aircraft and rockets are provided.

  17. Grid generation for a complex aircraft configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruns, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The procedure used to create a grid around the F/A-18 fighter aircraft is presented. This work was done for the NASA High Alpha Technology Program. As part of this program, LeRC is numerically and experimentally investigating the flow in the F/A-18 inlet duct at high angles of attack. A grid was needed which could be used to calculate both the external and internal flow around the F/A-18. The grid had to be compatible with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes PARC3D and CFL3D. The programs used to create this grid were I3GVIRGO and GRIDGEN. A surface definition used to create the grid was obtained from McDonnell Aircraft Company (MCAIR) and was composed of numerous files each containing a point definition of a portion of the aircraft. These files were read into the geometry manipulation program I3GVIRGO, where they were modified and grouped into smaller GRIDGEN database files. Next, the block outlines and boundary conditions were specified in the GRIDBLOCK program. The GRIDGEN2D program was used to create the surface grid on the block faces, and GRIDGEN3D was used to create the full 3-D grid.

  18. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  19. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  20. Retention of heavy metals and poly-aromatic hydrocarbons from road water in a constructed wetland and the effect of de-icing.

    PubMed

    Tromp, Karin; Lima, Ana T; Barendregt, Arjan; Verhoeven, Jos T A

    2012-02-15

    A full-scale remediation facility including a detention basin and a wetland was tested for retention of heavy metals and Poly-Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water drained from a motorway in The Netherlands. The facility consisted of a detention basin, a vertical-flow reed bed and a final groundwater infiltration bed. Water samples were taken of road water, detention basin influent and wetland effluent. By using automated sampling, we were able to obtain reliable concentration averages per 4-week period during 18 months. The system retained the PAHs very well, with retention efficiencies of 90-95%. While environmental standards for these substances were surpassed in the road water, this was never the case after passage through the system. For the metals the situation was more complicated. All metals studied (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Ni) had concentrations frequently surpassing environmental standards in the road water. After passage through the system, most metal concentrations were lower than the standards, except for Cu and Zn. There was a dramatic effect of de-icing salts on the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni, in the effluent leaving the system. For Cu, the concentrations even became higher than they had ever been in the road water. It is advised to let the road water bypass the facility during de-icing periods.

  1. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/6-Scale Model of Republic XF-12 Vertical Tail Incorporating a De-Icing Air Duct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLachlan, Robert; Miller, Sadie M.

    1945-01-01

    A 1/6-scale model of the Republic XF-12 vertical tail with stub fuselage, stub horizontal tail, and a de-icing air duct was tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The investigation consisted of a study of the effects of the duct, with and without air flow, on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The model tested was a revision of a model previously tested in the Langley stability tunnel. The revised model differed from the original model in that it incorporated a de-icing air duct, included a dorsal fin, and had a larger stub fuselage. A comparison of data obtained form tests of the original and revised models was made. The results of the investigation indicated that the air duct had very little effect on the aerodynamic characteristics of the model. A small change occurred in the variation of rudder hinge-moment coefficient with angle of attack but it is believed that this change can be corrected by a properly applied spring tab.

  2. Thermal design and de-icing system for the Antarctic Telescope ICE-T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Kärcher, Hans J.; Kühn, Jürgen; Divarano, Igor

    2010-07-01

    ICE-T, the International Concordia Explorer Telescope, is under final design by an international consortium led by the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam AIP, Germany, and is intended to be placed at the French-Italian Concordia Station on Dome C in Antarctica. Experience with smaller telescopes at Concordia has shown that under the weather conditions at this site - with mean outside temperatures of -60° to -80° C and temperature changes of 20° in short time intervals - the ice-accumulation on the optical components during observation is a major problem. Also, energy consumption at this site should be minimized because fuel transport to the site is very costly. The paper describes the thermal concept for the telescope where the waste energy of the instrument electronics is used for heating the front surfaces of the Schmidt optics. All other parts of the telescope are protected by an insulated smooth cladding against the harsh outside environment. The effectiveness of the thermal concept is verified by CFD (Computer Fluid Dynamics) calculations.

  3. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials

    PubMed Central

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-01-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C). PMID:26692655

  4. The Influence of Calcium Chloride Deicing Salt on Phase Changes and Damage Development in Cementitious Materials.

    PubMed

    Farnam, Yaghoob; Dick, Sarah; Wiese, Andrew; Davis, Jeffrey; Bentz, Dale; Weiss, Jason

    2015-11-01

    The conventional CaCl2-H2O phase diagram is often used to describe how calcium chloride behaves when it is used on a concrete pavement undergoing freeze-thaw damage. However, the chemistry of the concrete can alter the appropriateness of using the CaCl2-H2O phase diagram. This study shows that the Ca(OH)2 present in a hydrated portland cement can interact with CaCl2 solution creating a behavior that is similar to that observed in isoplethal sections of a ternary phase diagram for a Ca(OH)2-CaCl2-H2O system. As such, it is suggested that such isoplethal sections provide a reasonable model that can be used to describe the behavior of concrete exposed to CaCl2 solution as the temperature changes. Specifically, the Ca(OH)2 can react with CaCl2 and H2O resulting in the formation of calcium oxychloride. The formation of the calcium oxychloride is expansive and can produce damage in concrete at temperatures above freezing. Its formation can also cause a significant decrease in fluid ingress into concrete. For solutions with CaCl2 concentrations greater than about 11.3 % (by mass), it is found that calcium oxychloride forms rapidly and is stable at room temperature (23 °C).

  5. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  6. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  7. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  8. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  9. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  10. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  11. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Lauriie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Ribeiro, L.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Johnston, S.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 50% of ISS astronauts experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's preflight conditions and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. METHODS: We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by

  12. Wellbore fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Dorsey, D.L.; Corley, W.T.

    1983-12-27

    A clay-based or clay-free aqueous thixotropic wellbore fluid having improved fluid loss control, desirable flow characteristics and low shale sensitivity for use in drilling a well comprising water or a brine base including an effective amount of an additive comprising a crosslinked potato starch, a heteropolysaccharide derived from a carbohydrate by bacteria of the genus Xanthomonas, and hydroxyethylcellulose or carboxymethylcellulose, is disclosed. This drilling fluid has been found to be nondamaging to the formations through which the well is drilled.

  13. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  14. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  15. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  16. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Aircraft Survivability. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) Short Course was held 17-20 May at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. 52 students attended the...Postgraduate School where he earned his MBA in Financial Management. Jimmy earned his BS in General Science from the United States Naval Academy...Answering these questions requires credible threat models supported by high -fidelity test characterizations of the MANPADS missile threat. Based on

  19. X-29: Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary look at the Ames Dryden Flight Research Center in the context of the X-29 aircraft is provided. The uses of the X-29's 30 deg forward swept wing are examined. The video highlights the historical development of the forward swept wing, and its unique blend of speed, agility, and slow flight potential. The central optimization of the wing, the forward canard, and the rear flaps by an onboard flight computer is also described.

  20. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Survivability Program Office SUMMER 2011 craShworthineSS & personnel casualties Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint...and stroking seats. The knowledge gained from studying Vietnam crash data was consolidated into the Crash Survival Design Guide (CSDG), which

  1. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  2. Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    also influence the formation of streamers. If electrons are swept away from the electrode surface , additional electrons must leave the surface , if...presented. The dielectric materials to be used in the proposed solutions are discussed. In order to simulate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a nuclear...structure. Therefore, the flashover to ground of the aircraft structure (at the point of the sharp projection) depends on the amplitude and pulse shape of the

  3. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  4. Calculations of hot gas ingestion for a STOVL aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricker, David M.; Holdeman, James D.; Vanka, Surya P.

    1992-01-01

    Hot gas ingestion problems for Short Take-Off, Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft are typically approached with empirical methods and experience. In this study, the hot gas environment around a STOVL aircraft was modeled as multiple jets in crossflow with inlet suction. The flow field was calculated with a Navier-Stokes, Reynolds-averaged, turbulent, 3D computational fluid dynamics code using a multigrid technique. A simple model of a STOVL aircraft with four choked jets at 1000 K was studied at various heights, headwind speeds, and thrust splay angles in a modest parametric study. Scientific visualization of the computed flow field shows a pair of vortices in front of the inlet. This and other qualitative aspects of the flow field agree well with experimental data.

  5. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Laurie, S.; Garcia, K.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R.; Chang, D.; Gunga, H.; Johnston, S.; Westby, C.; Ribeiro, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Mechanisms responsible for the ocular structural and functional changes that characterize the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (ICP) syndrome (VIIP) are unclear, but hypothesized to be secondary to the cephalad fluid shift experienced in spaceflight. This study will relate the fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight with VIIP symptoms. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, can be predicted preflight with acute hemodynamic manipulations, and also if lower body negative pressure (LBNP) can reverse the VIIP effects. METHODS: Physiologic variables will be examined pre-, in- and post-flight in 10 International Space Station crewmembers including: fluid compartmentalization (D2O and NaBr dilution); interstitial tissue thickness (ultrasound); vascular dimensions and dynamics (ultrasound and MRI (including cerebrospinal fluid pulsatility)); ocular measures (optical coherence tomography, intraocular pressure, ultrasound); and ICP measures (tympanic membrane displacement, otoacoustic emissions). Pre- and post-flight measures will be assessed while upright, supine and during 15 deg head-down tilt (HDT). In-flight measures will occur early and late during 6 or 12 month missions. LBNP will be evaluated as a countermeasure during HDT and during spaceflight. RESULTS: The first two crewmembers are in the preflight testing phase. Preliminary results characterize the acute fluid shifts experienced from upright, to supine and HDT postures (increased stroke volume, jugular dimensions and measures of ICP) which are reversed with 25 millimeters Hg LBNP. DISCUSSION: Initial results indicate that acute cephalad fluid shifts may be related to VIIP symptoms, but also may be reversible by LBNP. The effect of a chronic fluid shift has yet to be evaluated. Learning Objectives: Current spaceflight VIIP research is described

  6. Electrorheological fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Halsey, T.C.; Martin, J.E.

    1993-10-01

    An electrorheological fluid is a substance whose form changes in the presence of electric fields. Depending on the strength of the field to which it is subjected, an electrorheological fluid can run freely like water, ooze like honey or solidify like gelatin. Indeed, the substance can switch from ne state to another within a few milliseconds. Electrorheological fluids are easy to make; they consist of microscopic particles suspended in an insulating liquid. Yet they are not ready for most commercial applications. They tend to suffer from a number of problems, including structural weakness as solids, abrasiveness as liquids and chemical breakdown, especially at high temperatures. Automotive engineers could imagine, for instance, constructing an electrorheological clutch. It was also hoped that electrorheological fluids would lead to valveless hydraulic systems, in which solidifying fluid would shut off flow through a thin section of pipe. Electrorheological fluids also offer the possibility of a shock absorber that provides response times of milliseconds and does not require mechanical adjustments. 3 refs.

  7. Fate of the Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Components of ADAF in Airport Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aircraft deicing and anti-icing fluids (ADAF) contain toxic compounds that are often released without treatment and in relatively high concentrations to water bodies. The main components in ADAF, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol, are toxic; but in some instances, other constituents, such as alk...

  8. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  9. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  10. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  11. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  12. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  13. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  14. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  15. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  16. Fluid Management System (FMS) fluid systems overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on fluid management system (FMS) fluid systems overview are presented. Topics addressed include: fluid management system description including system requirements (integrated nitrogen system, integrated water system, and integrated waste gas system) and physical description; and fluid management system evolution.

  17. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  18. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  19. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  20. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    the aircraft is mounted on a structure that enables the viewing angle (aspect) presented to the radar to be varied. For each aircraft type, the RCS...environment; there are no spurious reflections from the ground or from the supporting structure ; and the effects of propeller rotation, small aircraft...motions due to c-ntrol action or atmospheric turbulence, and structural deflections due to inertial and aerodynamic loading, are properly represented

  1. Merging of aircraft vortex trails - Similarities to magnetic field merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the phenomenological and formal similarities between the merging of aircraft vortex trails and the merging of magnetic field lines in a plasma. High-resolution photographs are shown of smoke trails from the wing tips of an airplane. These photographs show that the two vortex trails merge together downstream of the aircraft in a way similar to the merging of oppositely directed magnetic field lines in a plasma. Although there are some differences, this correspondence is apparently related to the fact that the vorticity equation in a fluid has the same mathematical form as the magnetic field equation in an MHD plasma. In both cases the merging proceeds at a rate considerably faster than would be predicted from classical estimates of the viscosity and resistivity. The enhanced merging rate in the fluid case appears to result from turbulence that increases the diffusion rate in the merging region.

  2. Transonic propulsion system integration analysis at McDonnell Aircraft Company

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cosner, Raymond R.

    1989-01-01

    The technology of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is becoming an important tool in the development of aircraft propulsion systems. Two of the most valuable features of CFD are: (1) quick acquisition of flow field data; and (2) complete description of flow fields, allowing detailed investigation of interactions. Current analysis methods complement wind tunnel testing in several ways. Herein, the discussion is focused on CFD methods. However, aircraft design studies need data from both CFD and wind tunnel testing. Each approach complements the other.

  3. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  4. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  5. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  6. An Investigation of the Icing and Heated-air De-icing Characteristics of the R-2600-13 Induction System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Gilbert E.

    1946-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made on a Holley 1685-HB carburetor mounted on an R-2600-13 supercharger assembly to determine the icing characteristics and the heated-air de-icing requirements of this portion of the B-25D airplane induction system. Icing has been found to be most prevalent at relatively small throttle openings and, consequently, all runs were made at simulated 60-percent normal rated power condition. Icing characteristics were determined during a series of 15-minute runs over a range of inlet-air conditions. For the de-icing investigation severe impact ice was allowed to form in the induction system and the time required for the recovery of 95 percent of the maximum possible air flow at the original throttle setting was then determined for a range of wet-bulb temperatures. Results of these runs showed that ice on the walls of the carburetor adapter and on the rim of the impeller-shroud portion of the supercharger diffuser plate did not affect engine operation at 60-percent normal rated power. Ice that adversely affected the air flow and the fuel-air ratio was formed only on the central web of the carburetor and then only when the inlet air was saturated or contained free moisture in excess of saturation. No serious ice formations were observed at inlet-air temperatures above 66 0 F or with an inlet-air enthalpy greater than 34 Btu per pound. The maximum temperature at. which any trace of icing could be detected was 1110 F with a relative humidity of approximately 28 percent, The air-flow recovery time for emergency de-icing was 0.3 minute for.an enthalpy of 35 Btu per pound or wet-bulb temperature of 68 0 F. Further increase in enthalpy and wet-bulb temperature above these values resulted in very slight improvement in recovery time. The fuel-air ratio restored by a 5-Minute application of heated air was approximately 7 percent less than the initial value for cold-air conditions.

  7. A-2000: Close air support aircraft design team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrannanto, Paul; Lim, Don; Lucas, Evangeline; Risse, Alan; Weaver, Dave; Wikse, Steve

    1991-01-01

    The US Air Force is currently faced with the problem of providing adequate close air support for ground forces. Air response to troops engaged in combat must be rapid and devastating due to the highly fluid battle lines of the future. The A-2000 is the result of a study to design an aircraft to deliver massive fire power accurately. The low cost A-2000 incorporates: large weapons payload; excellent maneuverability; all weather and terrain following capacity; redundant systems; and high survivability.

  8. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, A.; Dulchavsky, S.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S.; Sargsyan, A.; Martin, D.; Lui, J.; Macias, B.; Arbeille, P.; Platts, S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is focusing on long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but more than 30% of ISS astronauts experience more profound, chronic changes with objective structural and functional findings such as papilledema and choroidal folds. Globe flattening, optic nerve sheath dilation, and optic nerve tortuosity also are apparent. This pattern is referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. VIIP signs and symptoms, as well as postflight lumbar puncture data, suggest that elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) may be associated with the space flight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration space flight, and to correlate these findings with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during space flight, as well as the VIIP-related effects of those shifts, is predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight condition and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations (such as head-down tilt). Lastly, we will evaluate the patterns of fluid distribution in ISS astronauts during acute reversal of fluid shifts through application of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) interventions to characterize and explain general and individual responses. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the Figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound

  9. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  10. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  11. Aircraft Electromagnetic Compatibility.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    subsystems (fig ire 1. 1-4). If uncontrolled, it appears as radio tones, static, or 400-Hz hum on the passenger entertainment systems. It can show up as...lavatories; galleys; and video entertainment : These are the well-known hallmarks of a commercial transport aircraft (figure 2.1-1). The necessary control of...19 ligh nt o Maagm ete CRuotrotl Reore rv Engines ComputeSystemo IRU EICAS -9 ~Contro R~ Airplane Fiur 2.t 1-1 ElcroiiEgne C nto Om~uLOW _W IndRANGEn

  12. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  13. Aircraft propeller control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Stanley G. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In the invention, the speeds of both propellers in a counterrotating aircraft propeller pair are measured. Each speed is compared, using a feedback loop, with a demanded speed and, if actual speed does not equal demanded speed for either propeller, pitch of the proper propeller is changed in order to attain the demanded speed. A proportional/integral controller is used in the feedback loop. Further, phase of the propellers is measured and, if the phase does not equal a demanded phase, the speed of one propeller is changed, by changing pitch, until the proper phase is attained.

  14. Commercial Aircraft Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ehst, David A.

    2016-10-26

    This report summarizes the results of theoretical research performed during 3 years of P371 Project implementation. In results of such research a new scientific conceptual technology of quasi-passive individual infrared protection of heat-generating objects – Spatial Displacement of Thermal Image (SDTI technology) was developed. Theoretical substantiation and description of working processes of civil aircraft individual IR-protection system were conducted. The mathematical models and methodology were presented, there were obtained the analytical dependencies which allow performing theoretical research of the affect of intentionally arranged dynamic field of the artificial thermal interferences with variable contrast onto main parameters of optic-electronic tracking and homing systems.

  15. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  16. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  17. Automated Inspection of Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Phase/Quadrature Versus Time Display 52 55 Alarm Region on an Impedance-Plane Display 53 56 Video Subsystem 55 57 Video-Processing Computer 56 58...The robot was demonstrated on a DC-9 nose section during the 1994 Air Transport Association (ATA) NDT Forum hosted by the FAA’s Aging Aircraft NDI...The stabilizer bridge can travel a maximum distance of 15 inches (38 cm) along the spine assembly, and the stroke of the bridge’s lead screw assembly

  18. Optics in aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  19. X-29 aircraft takeoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. This movie clip runs 26 seconds and begins with a rear view of the X-29 in full afterburner at brake release, then a chase plane shot as it rotates off the runway beginning a rapid climb and finally an air-to-air view of the tail as the chase plane with the camera moves from right to left.

  20. Fluid mechanics of microscale flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennighausen, Konstantinos

    2001-12-01

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology, materials, manufacturing, and electronic sensors have raised interest in building increasingly small micro air vehicles (MAVs). These aircraft are presently built and flown with wingspans on the order of ten centimeters. Future MAVs, with wingspans below one centimeter, have wide ranging applications in remote sensing. The aerodynamics of present and future MAVs cannot be analysed using the classical techniques developed for conventional aircraft. Their flight, like that of insects, involves strong viscous and unsteady effects. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has become an integral tool in the design of modern aircraft. In this dissertation, CFD tools are created to facilitate the analysis and design of MAVs. After examining the relevant physics and mechanism of microscale flight, a palette of tools is developed. First, two approaches to generating grids around a moving, deforming body are explored. These techniques, utilizing three dimensional Bézier hyperpatches and non-uniform rational B-splines, are applied to prototype MAV shapes. A numerical method is developed to integrate the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on a deforming grid, utilizing upwinded differences and a finite volume approach. These tools are then utilized to design and simulate the flow about a prototype MAV. The resulting flow patterns are examined, and suggest that these tools are appropriate means by which to study microscale flight.

  1. Fluid Shifts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Hargens, A. R.; Dulchavsky, S. A.; Arbeille, P.; Danielson, R. W.; Ebert, D. J.; Garcia, K. M.; Johnston, S. L.; Laurie, S. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Liu, J.; Macias, B.; Martin, D. S.; Minkoff, L.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ribeiro, L. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Smith, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. NASA's Human Research Program is focused on addressing health risks associated with long-duration missions on the International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions beyond low Earth orbit. Visual acuity changes observed after short-duration missions were largely transient, but now more than 50 percent of ISS astronauts have experienced more profound, chronic changes with objective structural findings such as optic disc edema, globe flattening and choroidal folds. These structural and functional changes are referred to as the visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Development of VIIP symptoms may be related to elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) secondary to spaceflight-induced cephalad fluid shifts, but this hypothesis has not been tested. The purpose of this study is to characterize fluid distribution and compartmentalization associated with long-duration spaceflight and to determine if a relation exists with vision changes and other elements of the VIIP syndrome. We also seek to determine whether the magnitude of fluid shifts during spaceflight, as well as any VIIP-related effects of those shifts, are predicted by the crewmember's pre-flight status and responses to acute hemodynamic manipulations, specifically posture changes and lower body negative pressure. Methods. We will examine a variety of physiologic variables in 10 long-duration ISS crewmembers using the test conditions and timeline presented in the figure below. Measures include: (1) fluid compartmentalization (total body water by D2O, extracellular fluid by NaBr, intracellular fluid by calculation, plasma volume by CO rebreathe, interstitial fluid by calculation); (2) forehead/eyelids, tibia, and calcaneus tissue thickness (by ultrasound); (3) vascular dimensions by ultrasound (jugular veins, cerebral and carotid arteries, vertebral arteries and veins, portal vein); (4) vascular dynamics by MRI (head/neck blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid

  2. Fluid Contamination of Aircraft-Cabin Air and Breathing Oxygen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    NOT1MES. This fuel -report was submitted by, UlFtSMUv, Imc. 24W9~MWW lrtYw; IaImtns Cailflarla; 92715, under contract F3F36M-78*6C-Mn2 Job odW- 7930- 11...the round-bottom flask were weighed and subjected to gas chromatography, mass spectral analysis, infrared spectral analysis, and in certain instances...78-295, the mists collected in the round-bottom flask , in the glass-wool-filled column, and in the cooled traps were found by gas chromatography and

  3. Dynamic, Hot Surface Ignition of Aircraft Fuels and Hydraulic Fluids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    alloys involved the formation of surface catalysts in the form of oxides of the parent metal, iron, nickel, and chromium , on the heated surfaces. Some...stainless steels and inconel X, the formed oxides or spinels (e.g. (FeO) 0 . 2 5 (Cr 2 03 ) 1 . 7 5 ) were quite stable and while protecting the heated

  4. Environmental Degradation of Fuels, Fluids and Related Materials for Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-03-01

    yields are quite low, in the range of 10-3. The fluorescence of many aromatic vapors is not quenched by nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or air. The...only very low levels of hydro- carbons . The small C-H stretch band which was observed was probably due to traces of fuel or to a contaminant extracted...observations point to the conclusion that the residue was carbon , likely soot. c. Deposit on Metal Fracture Surface A black deposit which was contained on the

  5. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  6. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  7. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  8. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-11-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  9. Aircraft roll steering command system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft roll command signals are generated as a function of the Microwave Landing System based azimuth, groundtrack, groundspeed and azimuth rate or range distance input parameters. On initial approach, roll command signals are inhibited until a minimum roll command requirement is met. As the aircraft approaches the centerline of the runway, the system reverts to a linear track control.

  10. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  11. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  12. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  13. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  14. Lattice Boltzmann Algorithms for Fluid Turbulence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    ships Pitaevskii equations ) which are ideal for parallel and aircraft) as well as intermittent turbulence induced in supercomputers because they...accurately determine turbulent flows over non-trivial Navier-Stokes, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Gross - boundaries (e.g., instabilities and wakes from naval...the nonlocal nonlinear convective thus purely local. Unlike standard computational fluid derivatives in the Navier-Stokes equations . However, by

  15. Report of the FAA International Conference on Airplane Ground Deicing Held in Reston, Virginia on May 28-29, 1992

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-29

    DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED FLUIDS 2. FLUID SPECIFICATION AND QUALITY CONTROL 3. MEASUREMEN f AND PREDICTION OF HOLDOVER TIMES 4. AERODYNAMIC ACCEPTANCE STANDARDS 5...technical and opera- INTERNATIONAL CO-OPERATION IN AWARENESS CAPT. JORMA T. ELORANTA tional reliability of the system by visual and other TRAINING...Major international efforts were undertaken to quan- tify predictable holdover times under actual weather With the completion of these specifications

  16. Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnueli, David; Gutfinger, Chaim

    1997-01-01

    This text is intended for the study of fluid mechanics at an intermediate level. The presentation starts with basic concepts, in order to form a sound conceptual structure that can support engineering applications and encourage further learning. The presentation is exact, incorporating both the mathematics involved and the physics needed to understand the various phenomena in fluid mechanics. Where a didactical choice must be made between the two, the physics prevails. Throughout the book the authors have tried to reach a balance between exact presentation, intuitive grasp of new ideas, and creative applications of concepts. This approach is reflected in the examples presented in the text and in the exercises given at the end of each chapter. Subjects treated are hydrostatics, viscous flow, similitude and order of magnitude, creeping flow, potential flow, boundary layer flow, turbulent flow, compressible flow, and non-Newtonian flows. This book is ideal for advanced undergraduate students in mechanical, chemical, aerospace, and civil engineering. Solutions manual available.

  17. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  18. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  19. Optimum Aircraft Rescue Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    10 x 106 17 - 4PH -1075 Ftu = 165,000 F = 150,000ty Fsy 90,000 Fbry = 150,000 E = 29 x 106 K 52F.,:: . * .:.:., . . .,.:. .°F2 . 2 3 3.2.5 3 X{ Body...lbs/in2 s A 2 x (.52-.252) 7 M.S. =100,000 (.5 _ 1 =+2.0 (high) 17 - 4PH ; F = 100,000 lbs/in 2 25,000s Bearing Stress -- Both Pieces fb *7363~ 19,634... SHEET Test 8 Date: 16 November 1983 Start Time: 10: 17 End Time: Test Engineer: Ed LeMaster Test Description Aircraft: Router Testing on Canopy Material

  20. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  1. Tilt rotor aircraft aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.; Smith, Charles A.; Maisel, Martin D.; Brieger, John T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper studies the state of knowledge and the needed improvement in noise methodology and measurements for tilt rotor aircraft. Similarities and differences between tilt rotor aeroacoustic conditions and helicopter and propeller experience are identified. A discussion of the possible principal noise mechanisms throughout the flight envelope shows a need for further experimental and analytical investigations to develop an adequate understanding of the important sources and influencing factors. Existing experimental data from flight tests suggest terminal area noise reduction by operating within certain portions of the conversion flight envelope. Prediction methods are found to provide approximate indications only for low frequency harmonic and broadband noise for several of the tilt rotor's operating conditions. The acoustic effects of the hover case 'fountain' flow are pronounced and need further research. Impulsive noise and high frequency harmonic noise remain problems, as on helicopters, pending major improvements in wake, unsteady aerodynamics, and acoustics methodology.

  2. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  3. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  4. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  5. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  6. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  7. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  8. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  9. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  10. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  11. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  12. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  13. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  14. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  15. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  16. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  17. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  18. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  19. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  20. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  1. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  2. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  3. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  4. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  5. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  6. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  7. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  8. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  9. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  10. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  11. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  12. 36 CFR 331.14 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 331.14 Section 331..., KENTUCKY AND INDIANA § 331.14 Aircraft. (a) The operation of aircraft on WCA lands and waters is prohibited... prohibited. (c) The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to aircraft engaged on...

  13. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  14. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engaged on official business of Federal, state or local governments or law enforcement agencies, aircraft... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes,...

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  17. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  18. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  19. Can advanced technology improve future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.; Snow, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The short-haul service abandoned by the trunk and local airlines is being picked up by the commuter airlines using small turboprop-powered aircraft. Most of the existing small transport aircraft currently available represent a relatively old technology level. However, several manufacturers have initiated the development of new or improved commuter transport aircraft. These aircraft are relatively conservative in terms of technology. An examination is conducted of advanced technology to identify those technologies that, if developed, would provide the largest improvements for future generations of these aircraft. Attention is given to commuter aircraft operating cost, aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion, aircraft systems, and technology integration. It is found that advanced technology can improve future commuter aircraft and that the largest of these improvements will come from the synergistic combination of technological advances in all of the aircraft disciplines. The most important goals are related to improved fuel efficiency and increased aircraft productivity.

  20. Potential toxic effects of aircraft de-icers and wastewater samples containing these compounds.

    PubMed

    Mohiley, A; Franzaring, J; Calvo, O C; Fangmeier, A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major problems of airport operation is the impact of pollution caused by runoff waters. Runoff waters at an airport may contain high concentrations of different contaminants resulting from various activities of its operation. High quantities of aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids are used annually at airports worldwide. Aircraft de-icers and anti-icers may have negative environmental impacts, but their effects on aquatic organisms are virtually unknown. In order to address this issue, aircraft de-icers, pavement de-icers and wastewater samples were obtained from a regional airport. To evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples and aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs), two bio-tests were performed: the Lemna growth inhibition test according to OECD guideline 221 and the luminescent bacteria test according to ISO guideline 11348-2. In the Lemna growth inhibition test, phytotoxicity was assessed using the endpoints frond number and frond area. The luminescent bacteria test involved the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. The estimates of effective concentrations (EC50) values were determined using the free software R and the "drc" library. Aquatic plants and marine bacteria showed a higher sensitivity towards ADAFs than to wastewater samples. Experiments showed that aircraft de-icing/anti-icing fluids and wastewater samples were relatively more toxic towards Lemna gibba L. in comparison to V. fischeri.

  1. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  2. Aircraft recognition and tracking device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filis, Dimitrios P.; Renios, Christos I.

    2011-11-01

    The technology of aircraft recognition and tracking has various applications in all areas of air navigation, be they civil or military, spanning from air traffic control and regulation at civilian airports to anti-aircraft weapon handling and guidance for military purposes.1, 18 The system presented in this thesis is an alternative implementation of identifying and tracking flying objects, which benefits from the optical spectrum by using an optical camera built into a servo motor (pan-tilt unit). More specifically, through the purpose-developed software, when a target (aircraft) enters the field of view of the camera18, it is both detected and identified.5, 22 Then the servo motor, being provided with data on target position and velocity, tracks the aircraft while it is in constant communication with the camera (Fig. 1). All the features are so designed as to operate under real time conditions.

  3. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  4. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  5. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  6. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  7. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  8. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  9. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  10. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  11. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  12. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  13. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  14. Aircraft hydraulic systems. Third edition

    SciTech Connect

    Neese, W.A.

    1991-12-31

    The first nine chapters concern hydraulic components including: tubing, hoses, fittings, seals, pumps, valves, cylinders, and motors. General hydraulic system considerations are included in chapters five and nine, while pneumatic systems are covered in chapter ten. Chapters eleven through fifteen are devoted to aircraft-specific systems such as: landing gear, flight controls, brakes, etc. The material is rounded out with excerpts from the Canadair Challenger 601 training guide to illustrate the use of hydraulic systems in a specific aircraft application.

  15. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  16. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  17. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  18. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  19. Advanced supersonic cruise aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baber, H. T., Jr.; Driver, C.

    1977-01-01

    A multidiscipline approach is taken to the application of the latest technology to supersonic cruise aircraft concept definition, and current problem areas are identified. Particular attention is given to the performance of the AST-100 advanced supersonic cruise vehicle with emphasis on aerodynamic characteristics, noise and chemical emission, and mission analysis. A recently developed aircraft sizing and performance computer program was used to determine allowable wing loading and takeoff gross weight sensitivity to structural weight reduction.

  20. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  1. X-29 - views of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two X-29 aircraft, featuring one of the most unusual designs in aviation history, were flown at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., as technology demonstrators to investigate a host of advanced concepts and technologies. In this 29-second film clip the camera pans along the aircraft from nose to tail and then air-to-air as the shot sweeps from beside the X-29 around to the front.

  2. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  3. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  4. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  5. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  6. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and...) Flammability characteristics of fluids, including effects of any combustible or absorbing materials. (3... airplane components that are critical to safety of flight to withstand fire and heat. (c) If action by...

  7. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  8. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  9. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  10. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  11. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  12. 75 FR 35329 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD 49 CFR Part 830 Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records AGENCY: National...

  13. Airbag system and method for facilitating emergency egress from an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawdon, Blaine K. (Inventor); Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An airbag system for elevating the fuselage of an aircraft off a landing surface a sufficient degree to allow for emergency egress of passengers and crew through ventral emergency exit doors. An airbag assembly made up of a plurality of independent airbags is disposed within the aircraft. When activated, the airbag system deploys the airbags external of the aircraft that elevate the fuselage of the aircraft a sufficient degree to allow for utilizing the ventral emergency exit doors on the fuselage to enable evacuating the passengers and crew. An activation mechanism is connected to the inflation.devices associated with each of the airbags. The activation mechanism generates an electrical signal which activates the inflation devices, which in turn fill the airbags with a compressed fluid, thus expanding the airbags and lifting the fuselage. A crew member initiates the activation of the airbag system through one or more switches.

  14. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  15. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R.

    1980-07-29

    An aircraft pollution reducing propulsion airfoil system comprising a wing having upper and lower surfaces comprising wing skin plates extending longitudinally on the wing and being spaced one from another in chordwise directions, spars extending into the wing between the surfaces, stringer ducts extending along internal sides of the wing surfaces, the stringers having relatively rigid surface-supporting structure and having outward directed openings extending across the wing surfaces, interrupting the wing surfaces between edges of the wing skin plates, the ducts thereby forming stringer structural elements supporting the wing skin plates, the outward directed openings of the stringer ducts being arranged perpendicularly to the wing surfaces in a leading portion of the wing and tangential to the wing surfaces in a trailing portion of the wing surfaces, suction means connected to the stringer ducts with perpendicular opening for drawing gas into the ducts through those openings and blowing means connected to the ducts with tangential openings for flowing gas out of the tangential openings, combustion means connected to the suction means and to the blowing meanas for accelerating gas through the means.

  16. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  17. Optimization of fluid line sizes with pumping power penalty IBM-360 computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jelinek, D.

    1972-01-01

    Computer program has been developed to calculate and total weights for tubing, fluid in tubing, and weight of fuel cell power source necessary to power pump based on flow rate and pressure drop. Program can be used for fluid systems used in any type of aircraft, spacecraft, trucks, ships, refineries, and chemical processing plants.

  18. A fundamental approach to the sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiss, N. S., Jr.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The sticking of insect residues to aircraft wings is investigated. The major topics of this review are: Experimentally tested methods, testing techniques, the effect of surface roughness height on aerodynamic drag, materials tested and, the adhesive properties of insect body fluids are reviewed.

  19. Aircraft Pneudraulic Repairman, 2-4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    These military-developed curriculum materials consist of four volumes of individualized, self-paced texts and workbooks for use by those studying to become aircraft pneudraulic repairmen. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: pneudraulic functions and career program (housekeeping and safety practices, hydraulic fluids and…

  20. A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axilrod, Benjamin M.; Kline, Gordon M.

    1937-01-01

    Various transparent organic plastics, including both commercially available and experimental materials, have been examined to determine their suitability for use as flexible windshields on aircraft, The properties which have been studied include light transmission, haziness, distortion, resistance to weathering, scratch and indentation hardness, impact strength, dimensional stability, resistance to water and various cleaning fluids, bursting strength at normal and low temperatures, and flammability.

  1. Investigating a persistent odor at an aircraft seat manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; de Perio, Marie A; Roberts, Jennifer; Burton, Nancy C; Lemons, Angela R; Green, Brett J; Brueck, Scott E

    2016-10-01

    An aircraft seat manufacturing company requested a NIOSH health hazard evaluation to help identify a strong odor that had persisted throughout the facility for over a year. Employees reported experiencing health effects thought to be related to the odor. We collected and analyzed area air samples for volatile organic compounds, endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and metalworking fluid aerosol. Bulk metalworking fluid samples were analyzed for endotoxin, bacterial and fungal metagenome, and viable bacteria and fungus. We also evaluated the building ventilation systems and water diversion systems. Employees underwent confidential medical interviews about work practices, medical history, and health concerns. Based on our analyses, the odor was likely 2-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyrazine. This pyrazine was found in air samples across the facility and originated from bacteria in the metalworking fluid. We did not identify bacteria known to produce the compound but bacteria from the same Proteobacteria order were found as well as bacteria from orders known to produce other pyrazines. Chemical and biological contaminants and odors could have contributed to health symptoms reported by employees, but it is likely that the symptoms were caused by several factors. We provided several recommendations to eliminate the odor including washing and disinfecting the metalworking machines and metalworking fluid recycling equipment, discarding all used metalworking fluid, instituting a metalworking fluid maintenance program at the site, and physically isolating the metalworking department from other departments.

  2. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  3. Sonic Boom Mitigation Through Aircraft Design and Adjoint Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rallabhandi, Siriam K.; Diskin, Boris; Nielsen, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to design of the supersonic aircraft outer mold line (OML) by optimizing the A-weighted loudness of sonic boom signature predicted on the ground. The optimization process uses the sensitivity information obtained by coupling the discrete adjoint formulations for the augmented Burgers Equation and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) equations. This coupled formulation links the loudness of the ground boom signature to the aircraft geometry thus allowing efficient shape optimization for the purpose of minimizing the impact of loudness. The accuracy of the adjoint-based sensitivities is verified against sensitivities obtained using an independent complex-variable approach. The adjoint based optimization methodology is applied to a configuration previously optimized using alternative state of the art optimization methods and produces additional loudness reduction. The results of the optimizations are reported and discussed.

  4. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  5. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  6. Thermophysical Properties of Fluids and Fluid Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sengers, Jan V.; Anisimov, Mikhail A.

    2004-05-03

    The major goal of the project was to study the effect of critical fluctuations on the thermophysical properties and phase behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures. Long-range fluctuations appear because of the presence of critical phase transitions. A global theory of critical fluctuations was developed and applied to represent thermodynamic properties and transport properties of molecular fluids and fluid mixtures. In the second phase of the project, the theory was extended to deal with critical fluctuations in complex fluids such as polymer solutions and electrolyte solutions. The theoretical predictions have been confirmed by computer simulations and by light-scattering experiments. Fluctuations in fluids in nonequilibrium states have also been investigated.

  7. Toxicity of road deicing salt (NaCl) and copper (Cu) to fertilization and early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Mahrosh, Urma; Kleiven, Merethe; Meland, Sondre; Rosseland, Bjørn Olav; Salbu, Brit; Teien, Hans-Christian

    2014-09-15

    In many countries, salting of ice or snow covered roads may affect aquatic organisms in the catchment directly or indirectly by mobilization of toxic metals. We studied the toxicity of road deicing salt and copper (Cu) on the vulnerable early life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), from fertilization till hatching. Controlled episodic exposure to road salt (≥ 5,000 mg/L) during fertilization resulted in reduced swelling and less percent egg survival. Exposure to Cu both during and post fertilization caused delayed hatching. Larval deformities were, however found as an additional effect, when eggs were exposed to high salt concentration (≥ 5,000 mg/L) mixed with Cu (10 μg Cu/L) during fertilization. Thus, it appears that the sensitivity of early developmental stages of Atlantic salmon increased when exposed to these stressors, and road salt application during spawning can pose threat to Atlantic salmon in water bodies receiving road runoff. The study gives insight on assessment and management of risks on Atlantic salmon population posed by road related hazardous chemicals.

  8. Increased frequency and severity of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt (Taricha granulosa) embryos exposed to road deicing salts (NaCl & MgCl2).

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Gareth R; French, Susannah S; Brodie, Edmund D

    2013-02-01

    Road-side aquatic ecosystems in North America are annually polluted with millions of tons of road deicing salts, which threaten the survival of amphibians which live and breed in these habitats. While much is known of the effects of NaCl, little is known of the second most-commonly used deicer, MgCl(2), which is now used exclusively in parts of the continent. Here we report that environmentally relevant concentrations of both NaCl and MgCl(2) cause increased incidence of developmental deformities in rough-skinned newt hatchlings that developed embryonically in these salts. In addition, we provide some of the first quantification of severity of different deformities, and reveal that increased salt concentrations increase both deformity frequency and severity. Our work contributes to the growing body of literature that suggests salamanders and newts are particularly vulnerable to salt, and that the emerging pollutant, MgCl(2) is comparable in its effects to the more traditionally-used NaCl.

  9. Long-term dynamics of anthropogenic solonetzicity in soils of the Eastern okrug of Moscow under the impact of deicing salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikiforova, E. M.; Kasimov, N. S.; Kosheleva, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term dynamics of the anthropogenic soil solonetzicity under the impact of applied deicing salts were studied in the Eastern administrative okrug (EAO) of Moscow. The composition and amount of the applied agents and distribution patterns of sodium in snowmelt water and in soils of different land-use zones were analyzed. The maps of soil solonetzization in the EAO in 1989, 2005, and 2010 were compiled, and the degree of degradation of the soil cover was evaluated. It was shown that the contrast of the technogenic anomalies in the content of exchangeable sodium and the size of these anomalies in soils of the okrug increase with time. In 21 years, the mean content of exchangeable sodium in the surface soil layer increased from 0.38 to 0.80 cmol(equiv.)/kg, and the degree of solonetzicity (as judged from the exchangeable sodium percentage) increased from 3.1 to 7.2%. In 2005-2010, the rates of sodium accumulation in the soil adsorption complex were twice as high as those in 1989-2005.

  10. Magnetized drive fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Rosensweig, R.E.; Zahn, M.

    1986-04-01

    A process is described for recovering a first fluid from a porous subterranean formation which comprises injecting a displacement fluid in an effective amount to displace the first fluid, injecting a ferrofluid, applying a magnetic field containing a gradient of field intensity within the formation, driving the displacement fluid through the formation with the ferrofluid and recovering first fluid.

  11. Fluid sampling tool

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Anthony R.; Johnston, Roger G.; Martinez, Ronald K.

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  12. Simulation of Hydrodynamic RAM of Aircraft Fuel Tank by Ballistic Penetration and Detonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jong H.; Jun, Seung M.

    Airframe survivability and hydrodynamic ram effect of aircraft are investigated. Penetration and internal detonation of a simple tank and ICW(Intermediate Complexity Wing) are simulated by nonlinear explicit calculation. Structural rupture and fluid burst are analytically realized using general coupling of FSI(Fluid-Structure Interaction) and adaptive master-slave contact. Besides, multi-material Eulerian solver and porosity algorithm are employed to model explosive inside fuel and tank bays which are defined in multi-coupling surfaces. Structure and fluid results are animated on the same viewport for enhanced visualization.

  13. Aircraft Skin Restoration and Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yandouzi, M.; Gaydos, S.; Guo, D.; Ghelichi, R.; Jodoin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The recent development of the cold spray technology has made possible the deposition of low porosity and oxide-free coatings with good adhesion and with almost no change in the microstructure of the coated parts. This focuses on the use of low-pressure cold spray process to repair damaged Al-based aircraft skin, aiming at obtaining dense coatings with strong adhesion to the Al2024-T3 alloy. In order to prove the feasibility of using of the cold spray process as a repair process for aircraft skin, series of characterisation/tests including microstructures, microhardness, adhesion strength, three-point bending, surface finish, fatigue test, and corrosion resistance were performed. The obtained results revealed that the low-pressure cold spray process is a suitable for the repair of aircraft skin.

  14. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  15. NASA's aircraft icing technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, John J.

    1991-01-01

    NASA' Aircraft Icing Technology program is aimed at developing innovative technologies for safe and efficient flight into forecasted icing. The program addresses the needs of all aircraft classes and supports both commercial and military applications. The program is guided by three key strategic objectives: (1) numerically simulate an aircraft's response to an in-flight icing encounter, (2) provide improved experimental icing simulation facilities and testing techniques, and (3) offer innovative approaches to ice protection. Our research focuses on topics that directly support stated industry needs, and we work closely with industry to assure a rapid and smooth transfer of technology. This paper presents selected results that illustrate progress towards the three strategic objectives, and it provides a comprehensive list of references on the NASA icing program.

  16. A modular system for computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. R.; Foutch, D. W.; Shurtleff, G. E.

    This paper describes the Modular System for Compuational Fluid Dynamics (MOSYS), a software facility for the construction and execution of arbitrary solution procedures on multizone, structured body-fitted grids. It focuses on the structure and capabilities of MOSYS and the philosophy underlying its design. The system offers different levels of capability depending on the objectives of the user. It enables the applications engineer to quickly apply a variety of methods to geometrically complex problems. The methods developer can implement new algorithms in a simple form, and immediately apply them to problems of both theoretical and practical interest. And for the code builder it consitutes a toolkit for fast construction of CFD codes tailored to various purposes. These capabilities are illustrated through applications to a particularly complex problem encountered in aircraft propulsion systems, namely, the analysis of a landing aircraft in reverse thrust.

  17. Investigation of surface tension phenomena using the KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alter, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    The microgravity environment of the KC-135 aircraft was utilized in three experiments designed to determine the following: (1) the feasibility of measuring critical wetting temperatures; (2) the effectiveness of surface tension as a means of keeping the cushioning heat transfer liquid in the furnace during ampoule translation; and (3) whether a non-wetting fluid would separate from the ampoule wall under low gravity conditions. This trio of investigations concerning surface phenomena demonstrates the effectiveness of the KC-135 as a microgravity research environment for small-scale, hand-held experiments.

  18. Integrating Cloud-Computing-Specific Model into Aircraft Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhimin, Tian; Qi, Lin; Guangwen, Yang

    Cloud Computing is becoming increasingly relevant, as it will enable companies involved in spreading this technology to open the door to Web 3.0. In the paper, the new categories of services introduced will slowly replace many types of computational resources currently used. In this perspective, grid computing, the basic element for the large scale supply of cloud services, will play a fundamental role in defining how those services will be provided. The paper tries to integrate cloud computing specific model into aircraft design. This work has acquired good results in sharing licenses of large scale and expensive software, such as CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), UG, CATIA, and so on.

  19. Applying Theory of Constraints to an Aircraft Remanufacturing Line

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    disappears when the arrival rate is much 25 In queme A•) , ~DqMt Phane2 PhaneS Ph3ae4 Time (t) FiSure 7: CumuLative diagram illustrating the four phases of...changes in waiting time. A 25 percent 31 Dqq ((noral SR) a Time (t) Figure 9: Cumutative arrival and departure curves for a deterministic fluid modet...from Theory of Constraints (ToC) that apply to aircraft remanufacturing. Familiarity with reference four, GLolI, and reference five, TheRace , or Just

  20. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  1. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes..., material or equipment by parachute, balloon, helicopter or other means onto or from project lands or...

  2. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  3. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  4. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  5. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  6. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  7. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  8. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  9. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    The revised report includes the chart for the analysis of aircraft accidents, combining consideration of the immediate causes, underlying causes, and results of accidents, as prepared by the special committee, with a number of the definitions clarified. A brief statement of the organization and work of the special committee and of the Committee on Aircraft Accidents; and statistical tables giving a comparison of the types of accidents and causes of accidents in the military services on the one hand and in civil aviation on the other, together with explanations of some of the important differences noted in these tables.

  10. Physical Bases of Aircraft Icing,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-31

    conditions, it is changed the sensitivity of aircraft to icing, appear now ta6Ks as, for example, about the icing of helicopters or internal icing in jet ... jet aviation led to the need to specially examine qua~tioas of aircraft icing at high flight speeds. This is made in V cndptwir of present monograph...A. M. Yaglom were reported by it at seminax in tut Geophysical institute of the AS USSR, but they were not puisa in press/ printing . ENOFOOTNOTE. The

  11. The commercial aircraft noise problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J. T.

    1989-01-01

    The history and future developments of commercial aircraft noise are discussed. The use of the turbofan engine to replace the louder turbojet engine is identified as a step forward in reducing noise. The increasing use of two engine planes for medium and even long hauls is seen as a positive trend. An increase in the number of aircraft movements is predicted. An upturn in noise exposure around the end of the century is predicted. The development goals of Rolls Royce in meeting the noise reduction challenges of the next decades are discussed.

  12. Aircraft maneuver envelope warning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bivens, Courtland C. (Inventor); Rosado, Joel M. (Inventor); Lee, Burnett (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A maneuver envelope warning system for an aircraft having operating limits, operating condition sensors and an indicator driver. The indicator driver has a plurality of visual indicators. The indicator driver determines a relationship between sensed operating conditions and the operating limits; such as, a ratio therebetween. The indicator driver illuminates a number of the indicators in proportion to the determined relationship. The position of the indicators illuminated represents to a pilot in an easily ascertainable manner whether the operational conditions are approaching operational limits of the aircraft, and the degree to which operational conditions lie within or exceed operational limits.

  13. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  15. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  16. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  17. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  18. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  19. 76 FR 76686 - Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft... reporting requirements with regard to aircraft accidents or incidents, found at paragraph (a)(10) of section...: 1. Government-wide rulemaking Web site: Go to http://www.regulations.gov and follow the...

  20. Quiet aircraft design and operational characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Charles G.

    1991-01-01

    The application of aircraft noise technology to the design and operation of aircraft is discussed. Areas of discussion include the setting of target airplane noise levels, operational considerations and their effect on noise, and the sequencing and timing of the design and development process. Primary emphasis is placed on commercial transport aircraft of the type operated by major airlines. Additionally, noise control engineering of other types of aircraft is briefly discussed.