Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft depot-level overhauls

  1. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... following jobs: Job titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3 Fleet Service Worker 5 Aircraft Mechanic 10 Industrial Electronic Controls Repairer 10 Aircraft Instrument Mechanic 11 Electronic Test Equipment Repairer 11 Electronics Mechanic 11 Electronic Computer Mechanic 11 Television Station Mechanic 11 (d)...

  2. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... titles Job grades Aircraft Cleaner 3 Fleet Service Worker 5 Aircraft Mechanic 10 Industrial Electronic Controls Repairer 10 Aircraft Instrument Mechanic 11 Electronic Test Equipment Repairer 11 Electronics Mechanic 11 Electronic Computer Mechanic 11 Television Station Mechanic 11 (d) The data collected in...

  3. Transmission overhaul estimates for partial and full replacement at repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Timely transmission overhauls increase in-flight service reliability greater than the calculated design reliabilities of the individual aircraft transmission components. Although necessary for aircraft safety, transmission overhauls contribute significantly to aircraft expense. Predictions of a transmission's maintenance needs at the design stage should enable the development of more cost effective and reliable transmissions in the future. The frequency is estimated of overhaul along with the number of transmissions or components needed to support the overhaul schedule. Two methods based on the two parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life are used to estimate the time between transmission overhauls. These methods predict transmission lives for maintenance schedules which repair the transmission with a complete system replacement or repair only failed components of the transmission. An example illustrates the methods.

  4. 14 CFR 43.2 - Records of overhaul and rebuilding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Records of overhaul and rebuilding. 43.2 Section 43.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.2 Records of overhaul and...

  5. 14 CFR 43.2 - Records of overhaul and rebuilding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records of overhaul and rebuilding. 43.2 Section 43.2 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.2 Records of overhaul and...

  6. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    PubMed

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. PMID:22401880

  7. States Strive to Overhaul Teacher Tenure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on how states strive to overhaul their teacher tenure policies. Over the past year, a handful of states have begun to overhaul their tenure-granting processes by increasing the number of years it takes teachers to win due process rights, and by trying to improve the evaluations that are supposed to guide determinations of…

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  9. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  10. Transmission overhaul and replacement predictions using Weibull and renewal theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    A method to estimate the frequency of transmission overhauls is presented. This method is based on the two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life. A second method is presented to estimate the number of replacement components needed to support the transmission overhaul pattern. The second method is based on renewal theory. Confidence statistics are applied with both methods to improve the statistical estimate of sample behavior. A transmission example is also presented to illustrate the use of the methods. Transmission overhaul frequency and component replacement calculations are included in the example.

  11. Transmission overhaul and replacement predictions using Weibull and renewel theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, M.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1989-01-01

    A method to estimate the frequency of transmission overhauls is presented. This method is based on the two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution for component life. A second method is presented to estimate the number of replacement components needed to support the transmission overhaul pattern. The second method is based on renewal theory. Confidence statistics are applied with both methods to improve the statistical estimate of sample behavior. A transmission example is also presented to illustrate the use of the methods. Transmission overhaul frequency and component replacement calculations are included in the example.

  12. 14 CFR 21.337 - Performance of inspections and overhauls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... domestic repair station. (c) An appropriately certificated foreign repair station having adequate overhaul... the use of such foreign repair station. (d) The holder of an inspection authorization as provided in... manual as provided in Part 121 of this chapter....

  13. 18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING EAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  14. 17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MAINTENANCE SHOP, FIRST FLOOR, INTERIOR, ENGINE AND AIRPLANE OVERHAUL AREAS; LOOKING WEST. - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. Preparation and Execution of the GIS First Overhaul for Qinshan NPP Phase One

    SciTech Connect

    Kaihong Lou; Jiapeng Yan

    2006-07-01

    This paper addresses the necessity and feasibility of the first major overhaul on the GIS based on the analysis of the special conditions and the issues we confronted; After the comparison of various schemes, the optimized scheme is put forward; the paper also expounds the proper preparation and cautious practice which led to the hard but final accomplishment of the initial overhaul on the GIS; this article further explains the necessity of the major overhaul on the GIS through the disposal of abnormalities during the execution of this major overhaul. (authors)

  16. Overhauling, updating and augmenting NASA spacelink electronic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Jean A.

    1991-01-01

    NASA/Spacelink is a collection of NASA information and educational materials stored on a computer at the MSFC. It is provided by the NASA Educational Affairs Division and is operated by the Education Branch of the Marshall Center Public Affairs Office. It is designed to communicate with a wide variety of computers and modems, especially those most commonly found in classrooms and homes. It was made available to the public in February, 1988. The system may be accessed by educators and the public over regular telephone lines. NASA/Spacelink is free except for the cost of long distance calls. Overhauling and updating Spacelink was done to refurbish NASA/Spacelink, a very valuable resource medium. Several new classroom activities and miscellaneous topics were edited and entered into Spacelink. One of the areas that received a major overhaul (under the guidance of Amos Crisp) was the SPINOFFS BENEFITS, the great benefits resulting from America's space explorations. The Spinoff Benefits include information on a variety of topics including agriculture, communication, the computer, consumer, energy, equipment and materials, food, health, home, industry, medicine, natural resources, public services, recreation, safety, sports, and transportation. In addition to the Space Program Spinoff Benefits, the following is a partial list of some of the material updated and introduced: Astronaut Biographies, Miscellaneous Aeronautics Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Astronomy Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Rocketry Classroom Activities, Miscellaneous Classroom Activities, NASA and Its Center, NASA Areas of Research, NASA Patents, Licensing, NASA Technology Transfer, Pictures from Space Classroom Activities, Status of Current NASA Projects, Using Art to Teach Science, and Word Puzzles for Use in the Classroom.

  17. 18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463A1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Yards & Docks Drawing 112,447 (463-A-1) (1931), 'Battery Overhaul Bldg., Acid Mixing Plant & Misc. Details' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Acid Mixing Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. Building Political Will to Overhaul California's School Finance System. Forum Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Calls for changes in California's complex state-run school funding system, provided the backdrop for "Overhauling School Funding in California: The Push for Greater Adequacy, Equity, and Accountability," the EdSource 27th Annual Forum in March 2004. Participants discussed approaches for determining what would constitute adequate funding, reforms…

  19. 77 FR 29953 - Application of Buy America Waivers to Rolling Stock Overhauls and Rebuilds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 661 Application of Buy America Waivers to Rolling Stock... the application of the Federal Transit Administration's Buy America rules to procurements for the... America requirements to procurements for the overhaul and rebuilding of rolling stock. Until now,...

  20. Reflections on the Teacher Education System Overhaul (TESO) Program in Ethiopia: Promises, Pitfalls, and Propositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mekonnen, Dawit M.

    2008-01-01

    In 2003 the Ethiopian education system experienced wide-ranging reform that touches every aspect of the system. This reform is called TESO (Teacher Education System Overhaul). Designed to address educational problems in Ethiopia, TESO introduced significant structural changes and promised to bring a "paradigm shift" in the Ethiopian educational…

  1. Vietnamese Leaders Discuss Overhaul of Higher Education During U.S. Visit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasley, Paula

    2007-01-01

    At a June 2007 forum, Vietnam's president and minister of education outlined an ambitious plan to overhaul their country's troubled educational system, while a panel of American academics and scientists highlighted the importance of higher education to Vietnam's rapidly growing economy and suggested potential models for reform. Two decades after…

  2. Respiratory protection for firefighters--evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leaton; Lutz, Eric A; Duncan, Michael; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, there are approximately 366,600 structural fires each year. After visible flames are extinguished, firefighters begin the overhaul stage of firefighting to smother remaining hot spots and initiate investigations. Typically during overhaul significant ambient concentrations of chemical contaminants remain. However, previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators (APR) fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational respiratory exposures. This pilot study used large-scale prescribed burns of representative structural materials to perform simultaneous, side-by-side, filtering and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters. Three types of CBRN canisters and one cartridge were challenged in repetitive post live-fire overhaul exposure tests using a sampling manifold apparatus. At a flow rate of 80 L/min, nine tests were conducted in the breathing zone for three different exposure durations (0-15 min, 0-30 min, and 0-60 min). Fifty different chemicals were identified for evaluation and results indicate that 21 of the 50 chemicals tested were in the air of the overhaul environment. Respirable particles and formaldehyde were consistently present above the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) recommended exposure level (REL) and threshold limit ceiling value (TLVc), respectively. Each filter effectively reduced concentrations for respirable particulates below the maximum recommended level. Formaldehyde was reduced, but not consistently filtered below the TLVc. These results were consistent across all exposure durations. This study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters provide protection from the vast majority of particle and gas-phase contaminants. However, due to formaldehyde breakthrough, CBRN filters do not provide complete protection during firefighter overhaul. PMID:25738516

  3. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  4. BCS theory has to be overhauled: Reassurance from numerical survival rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, X. H.; Walmsley, D. G.

    2016-07-01

    The BCS theory has conceptual and numerical difficulties. We have previously overhauled it with a new scheme of phonon-mediated electron pairing that can be expressed analytically in terms of an empirical pairing survival rate factor, S(q) = 0 or 1/2, depending on phonon momentum, q. Now we evaluate S(q) numerically entirely from experimental data on normal state electrical resistivity and on superconducting tunnelling conductance. The empirical and numerical S(q) are reassuringly close in aluminium and lead and particularly so in two other cases, niobium and tantalum.

  5. Innovation Overhaul

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiss, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Traditional community college CEOs who are experiencing an increased demand for services, as well as reduced funding, have a choice to make: They can worry and complain, or they can change their operating model. In this article, the author calls for CEOs to have a clear focus on how they operate their organizations. The author argues that it is…

  6. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  7. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a minimum, include the air transportation and electronics industries in the following North American... 11 Electronics Mechanic 11 Electronic Computer Mechanic 11 Television Station Mechanic 11 (d)...

  8. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... a minimum, include the air transportation and electronics industries in the following North American... 11 Electronics Mechanic 11 Electronic Computer Mechanic 11 Television Station Mechanic 11 (d)...

  9. 5 CFR 532.267 - Special wage schedules for aircraft, electronic, and optical instrument overhaul and repair...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a minimum, include the air transportation and electronics industries in the following North American... 11 Electronics Mechanic 11 Electronic Computer Mechanic 11 Television Station Mechanic 11 (d)...

  10. Overhaul, Inspection and Repair of Reciprocating Engines 1 (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9055.01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outline has been prepared as a guide to help the trainee acquire the knowledge and skills associated with the overhaul, inspection, and repair of reciprocating engines. This course is the first of two and must be completed first. Successful completion of these courses and others will provide the trainee with the knowledge and skills…

  11. Overhaul, Inspection and Repair of Reciprocating Engines 2 (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9055.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outlined is the second of two designed to help a trainee acquire the knowledge and become proficient in the skills associated with the overhaul, inspection, and repair of reciprocating engines. The knowledge and skills are necessary to pass the Powerplant Theory and Maintenence section of the Federal Aviation Administration examination…

  12. Scheduling challenges. With overhauled Form 990, hospitals are being asked for more specifics on governance, pay, perks, subsidized care.

    PubMed

    Evans, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    With an expanded and overhauled Form 990, hospitals will find themselves digging up and reporting lots more details about executive pay and perks, governance policies, and how much subsidized care they provide. "We look at this as the first step," says the IRS' Theresa Pattara, left, who was project manager for the form's retooling. PMID:18271193

  13. Partial Overhaul and Initial Parallel Optimization of KINETICS, a Coupled Dynamics and Chemistry Atmosphere Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Howard; Willacy, Karen; Allen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    KINETICS is a coupled dynamics and chemistry atmosphere model that is data intensive and computationally demanding. The potential performance gain from using a supercomputer motivates the adaptation from a serial version to a parallelized one. Although the initial parallelization had been done, bottlenecks caused by an abundance of communication calls between processors led to an unfavorable drop in performance. Before starting on the parallel optimization process, a partial overhaul was required because a large emphasis was placed on streamlining the code for user convenience and revising the program to accommodate the new supercomputers at Caltech and JPL. After the first round of optimizations, the partial runtime was reduced by a factor of 23; however, performance gains are dependent on the size of the data, the number of processors requested, and the computer used.

  14. Ten years of the Three Gorges Dam: a call for policy overhaul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiankun; Lu, X. X.

    2013-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the world’s largest source of ‘clean’ hydroelectric power (Shen and Xie 2004), has entered its tenth year after the first turbine went into operation in June 2003. The dam, with a generating capacity 20 times that of the United States’ Hoover Dam, has been hailed as a crucial part of a solution to China’s energy crisis. Despite great benefits, however, major concerns have been voiced over the disastrous environmental and social consequences of this massive engineering project (Stone 2011). In this paper, we review the benefits and impacts learned from the controversial megadam over the past decade and discuss perspective quests on policy overhaul for future environmental protection.

  15. Urine vanadium concentrations in workers overhauling an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Hauser, R; Elreedy, S; Ryan, P B; Christiani, D C

    1998-01-01

    Since fuel oil ash contains vanadium (V), the measurement of urinary levels of V may provide a biological marker in workers exposed to fuel oil ash. The usefulness of urine V samples as a biological monitoring tool ultimately depends on determining the appropriate time of sampling relative to when exposure occurs. Twenty boilermakers were studied during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler. A total of 117 urine samples were collected, 65 start-of-shift (S-O-S) and 52 end-of-shift (E-O-S) samples. Air V exposures were estimated with personal sampling devices and work history diaries. Air V concentrations ranged from 0.36 to 32.19 micrograms V/m3, with a mean +/- SD of 19.1 +/- 10.7, and a median of 18.5. On the first day of work on the overhaul, the V urine levels at the E-O-S (mean +/- SD were 1.53 +/- 0.53, median was 1.52 mg V/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those at the S-O-S (0.87 +/- 0.32, median was 0.83), P = 0.004. However, the V concentrations of the S-O-S urine samples on the last Monday of the study were not significantly different from the S-O-S urine levels on the previous Saturday, a time interval of about 38 hr between the end of exposure and sample collection. The Spearman correlation coefficient (r) between the S-O-S urine V and the workplace concentration of V dust during the previous day was r = 0.35. In summary, the results suggest a rapid initial clearance of V (elevating the E-O-S V concentration on the first day of work relative to the S-O-S concentration), followed by a slow clearance that is not complete 38 hr after the end of exposure, as evidenced by the Monday morning urine V concentrations. The Spearman correlations suggest that the S-O-S urine is preferred to the E-O-S urine for across-shift biological monitoring of V exposure. PMID:9408529

  16. Stormy weather. Echoes of Columbia/HCA heard as Tenet overhauls management amid scrutiny of outliner payments and investor protests.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince

    2002-11-11

    What began as a small shower of questions quickly transformed into a storm of investor protest last week as Tenet Healthcare Corp. underwent a management overhaul and analysts asked questions about its fiscal future. Tenet's business strategy came under scrutiny because a large proportion of its Medicare revenue was generated by so-called outlier payments. Chairman and CEO Jeffrey Barbakow (left) says that's not how he wants to do business. PMID:12462882

  17. The impact of new and emerging technologies in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul industry a Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Janet

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify new or emerging technological trends and events that are likely to occur between now and 2017 that will have an impact on the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Further, it was the purpose of this study to examine those technological trends and events believed to provide the greatest impact and, given the experts' analysis, identify the feasibility of implementation. Methodology. This descriptive study utilized the Delphi method with a panel of twenty-four experts comprised of practitioners, theorists, and futurists. A priority matrix was utilized to determine the impact and feasibility of trend and events. Findings. The experts identified fifty-three trends and events that will impact the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Analysis of the priority matrix revealed eighteen trends and events were of high priority and high feasibility. Conclusions. The responses from the expert panel were examined and the findings analyzed. The following are the conclusions constructed from the data provided by the Delphi panel of experts: (1) the need to respond to the demands of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry such as down time, efficiency, cost, and environmental concerns by implementing new technology, (2) the demand to integrate and implement new technology as indicative of the priority matrix scoring high importance/high feasibility, (3) to proactively address the inadequate professional development in new technologies, and (4) the consensus reached by the panel of experts of importance and feasibility of implementation of new technologies encompass eighteen trends and events. Implications and recommendations for action. The implementation of new and emerging technological advances in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry between now and 2017 will be dependent on the technologies' capacity to reduce

  18. Exposure to fuel-oil ash and welding emissions during the overhaul of an oil-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youcheng; Woodin, Mark A; Smith, Thomas J; Herrick, Robert F; Williams, Paige L; Hauser, Russ; Christiani, David C

    2005-09-01

    The health effects of exposure to vanadium in fuel-oil ash are not well described at levels ranging from 10 to 500 microg/m(3). As part of a larger occupational epidemiologic study that assessed these effects during the overhaul of a large oil-fired boiler, this study was designed to quantify boilermakers' exposures to fuel-oil ash particles, metals, and welding gases, and to identify determinants of these exposures. Personal exposure measurements were conducted on 18 boilermakers and 11 utility workers (referents) before and during a 3-week overhaul. Ash particles < 10 microm in diameter (PM(10), mg/m(3)) were sampled over full work shifts using a one-stage personal size selective sampler containing a polytetrafluoroethylene filter. Filters were digested using the Parr bomb method and analyzed for the metals vanadium (V), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), and arsenic (As) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) was measured with an Ogawa passive badge-type sampler and ozone (O(3)) with a personal active pump sampler.Time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for boilermakers than for utility workers for PM(10) (geometric mean: 0.47 vs. 0.13 mg/m(3)), V (8.9 vs. 1.4 microg/m(3)), Ni (7.4 vs. 1.8 microg/m(3)) and Fe (56.2 vs. 11.2 microg/m(3)). Exposures were affected by overhaul time periods, tasks, and work locations. No significant increases were found for O(3) or NO(2) for boilermakers or utility workers regardless of overhaul period or task group. Fuel-oil ash was a major contributor to boilermakers' exposure to PM(10) and metals. Vanadium concentrations sometimes exceeded the 2003 American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value. PMID:16048845

  19. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  20. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  1. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  2. Optimal inventories for overhaul of repairable redundant systems - A Markov decision model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A Markovian decision model was developed to calculate the optimal inventory of repairable spare parts for an avionics control system for commercial aircraft. Total expected shortage costs, repair costs, and holding costs are minimized for a machine containing a single system of redundant parts. Transition probabilities are calculated for each repair state and repair rate, and optimal spare parts inventory and repair strategies are determined through linear programming. The linear programming solutions are given in a table.

  3. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  4. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  5. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  6. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  7. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  8. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  9. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  10. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  11. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  12. Respiratory protection for firefighters--Evaluation of CBRN canisters for use during overhaul II: In mask analyte sampling with integrated dynamic breathing machine.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leaton; Burgess, Jefferey L; Evans, Heath; Lutz, Eric A

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Fire Protection Association there were 487,500 structural fires in the U.S. in 2013. After visible flames are extinguished firefighters begin the overhaul stage where remaining hot spots are identified and further extinguished. During overhaul, a significant amount of potentially hazardous chemicals can remain in the ambient environment. Previous research suggests that the use of air purifying respirators fitted with chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) canisters may reduce occupational exposure. This study used large scale burns of representative structural materials to perform side-by-side, filtering, and service-life evaluations of commercially available CBRN filters using two head forms fitted with full-face respirators and a dynamic breathing machine. Three types of CBRN canisters and one non-CBRN cartridge were challenged in repetitive post-fire environments. Tests were conducted with two different breathing volumes and rates for two sampling durations (0-15 min and 0-60 min). Fifty-five different chemicals were selected for evaluation and results indicate that 10 of the 55 chemicals were present in the post-fire overhaul ambient environment. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde were found to be the only two chemicals detected post filter but were effectively filtered to below ACGIH TLVs. Counter to our prior published work using continuous flow filter evaluation, this study indicates that, regardless of brand, CBRN filters were effective at reducing concentrations of post-fire ambient chemicals to below occupational exposure limits. However, caution should be applied when using CBRN filters as the ambient formaldehyde level in the current study was 8.9 times lower than during the previous work. PMID:26554925

  13. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  14. NASA overhauls grant process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    A university recently received a NASA grant so quickly that the recipients, used to a long wait for money even after a grant had been approved, assumed a mistake had been made. Such a story has been making the rounds since NASA began to refurbish the procedure by which it issues grants, speeding up and streamlining the process in response to suggestions from space scientists.One way NASA has measured success so far is how quickly it has cleared the decks of pending grants. The agency reduced the backlog from 572 grants on September 11 to zero by the end of the month, according to Don Bush, NASA's deputy assistant administrator for procurement. But that's just the beginning of changes Bush expects to be completed by March or April next year. The new procedures are first being tested out at headquarters, which issues over half of the agency's space science grants. NASA centers will also adopt the procedures after full approval.

  15. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  16. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  17. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  18. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  19. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  20. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  1. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  2. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  3. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  4. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  5. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  6. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  7. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  8. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  9. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  10. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  11. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  12. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  13. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  14. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  15. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  18. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  19. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  20. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  1. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  2. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  3. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  4. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  5. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  6. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  7. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  8. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  9. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  10. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  11. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  12. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  13. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  14. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  16. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  17. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  18. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  19. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  20. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  1. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  2. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  3. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  4. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  5. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  6. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  7. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  8. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  9. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  10. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  11. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  12. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  13. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  14. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  15. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  16. The variable density aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the variable density aircraft concept the aircraft's density is varied by varying its volume. This is accomplished by combining a variable volume hull, which is called the dynapod, with intrinsic means for the controlled variation of a mass of working fluid or substance within the aircraft. The dynapod is a hinged structure and follows the volumetric variations of the working fluid. The result is a variable density hull, which with the attachment of power plants, etc., becomes a variable density aircraft.

  17. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  18. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  19. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  20. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  1. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  2. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  3. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  4. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  5. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  6. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  7. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  8. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  9. Aircraft Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Successful commercialization of the AirCraft SYNThesis (ACSYNT) tool has resulted in the creation of Phoenix Integration, Inc. ACSYNT has been exclusively licensed to the company, an outcome of a seven year, $3 million effort to provide unique software technology to a focused design engineering market. Ames Research Center formulated ACSYNT and in working with the Virginia Polytechnic Institute CAD Laboratory, began to design and code a computer-aided design for ACSYNT. Using a Joint Sponsored Research Agreement, Ames formed an industry-government-university alliance to improve and foster research and development for the software. As a result of the ACSYNT Institute, the software is becoming a predominant tool for aircraft conceptual design. ACSYNT has been successfully applied to high- speed civil transport configuration, subsonic transports, and supersonic fighters.

  10. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  11. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  12. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  13. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  14. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  15. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  16. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  17. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  18. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  19. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  20. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft...

  1. Aircraft cockpit vision: Math model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bashir, J.; Singh, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the field of vision of a pilot seated in an aircraft. Given the position and orientation of the aircraft, along with the geometrical configuration of its windows, and the location of an object, the model determines whether the object would be within the pilot's external vision envelope provided by the aircraft's windows. The computer program using this model was implemented and is described.

  2. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  3. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  4. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  5. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6... POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of... be met within the specified time without creating a hazard to aircraft safety....

  6. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  7. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other aircraft. Clearance or permission to depart shall be requested by the aircraft commander or agent for aircraft...

  8. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  9. Intelligent aircraft/airspace systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wangermann, John P.

    1995-01-01

    Projections of future air traffic predict at least a doubling of the number of revenue passenger miles flown by the year 2025. To meet this demand, an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) has been proposed. The IAAS operates on the basis of principled negotiation between intelligent agents. The aircraft/airspace system today consists of many agents, such as airlines, control facilities, and aircraft. All the agents are becoming increasingly capable as technology develops. These capabilities should be exploited to create an Intelligent Aircraft/Airspace System (IAAS) that would meet the predicted traffic levels of 2005.

  10. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  11. NASA research in aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beheim, M. A.

    1982-01-01

    A broad overview of the scope of research presently being supported by NASA in aircraft propulsion is presented with emphasis on Lewis Research Center activities related to civil air transports, CTOL and V/STOL systems. Aircraft systems work is performed to identify the requirements for the propulsion system that enhance the mission capabilities of the aircraft. This important source of innovation and creativity drives the direction of propulsion research. In a companion effort, component research of a generic nature is performed to provide a better basis for design and provides an evolutionary process for technological growth that increases the capabilities of all types of aircraft. Both are important.

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  13. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  14. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  15. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  16. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  17. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A series of studies in which films and liquid spray-on materials were evaluated in the laboratory for transport aircraft external surface coatings are summarized. Elastomeric polyurethanes were found to best meet requirements. Two commercially available products, CAAPCO B-274 and Chemglaze M313, were subjected to further laboratory testing, airline service evaluations, and drag-measurement flight tests. It was found that these coatings were compatible with the severe operating environment of airlines and that coatings reduced airplane drag. An economic analysis indicated significant dollar benefits to airlines from application of the coatings.

  18. Aircraft Speed Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beij, K Hilding

    1933-01-01

    This report presents a concise survey of the measurement of air speed and ground speed on board aircraft. Special attention is paid to the pitot-static air-speed meter which is the standard in the United States for airplanes. Air-speed meters of the rotating vane type are also discussed in considerable detail on account of their value as flight test instruments and as service instruments for airships. Methods of ground-speed measurement are treated briefly, with reference to the more important instruments. A bibliography on air-speed measurement concludes the report.

  19. Structural integrity in aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardrath, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    The paper reviews briefly the current design philosophies for achieving long, efficient, and reliable service in aircraft structures. The strengths and weaknesses of these design philosophies and their demonstrated records of success are discussed. The state of the art has not been developed to the point where designing can be done without major test inspection and maintenance programs. A broad program of research is proposed through which a viable computerized design scheme will be provided during the next decade. The program will organize and correlate existing knowledge on fatigue and fracture behavior, identify gaps in this knowledge, and guide specific research to upgrade design capabilities.

  20. Hydrogen aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation is conducted of the technology development status, economics, commercial feasibility, and infrastructural requirements of LH2-fueled aircraft, with additional consideration of hydrogen production, liquefaction, and cryostorage methods. Attention is given to the effects of LH2 fuel cryotank accommodation on the configurations of prospective commercial transports and military airlifters, SSTs, and HSTs, as well as to the use of the plentiful heatsink capacity of LH2 for innovative propulsion cycles' performance maximization. State-of-the-art materials and structural design principles for integral cryotank implementation are noted, as are airport requirements and safety and environmental considerations.

  1. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vassberg, John C. (Inventor); Gea, Lie-Mine (Inventor); McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witowski, David P. (Inventor); Krist, Steven E. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The slot may either extend spanwise along only a portion of the wingspan, or it may extend spanwise along the entire wingspan. In either case, the slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  2. Aircraft Inspection for the General Aviation Aircraft Owner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Flight Standards Service.

    Presented is useful information for owners, pilots, student mechanics, and others with aviation interests. Part I of this booklet outlines aircraft inspection requirements, owner responsibilities, inspection time intervals, and sources of basic information. Part II is concerned with the general techniques used to inspect an aircraft. (Author/JN)

  3. Dumbo heavy lifter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riester, Peter; Ellis, Colleen; Wagner, Michael; Orren, Scott; Smith, Byron; Skelly, Michael; Zgraggen, Craig; Webber, Matt

    1992-01-01

    The world is rapidly changing from one with two military superpowers, with which most countries were aligned, to one with many smaller military powers. In this environment, the United States cannot depend on the availability of operating bases from which to respond to crises requiring military intervention. Several studies (e.g. the SAB Global Reach, Global Power Study) have indicated an increased need to be able to rapidly transport large numbers of troops and equipment from the continental United States to potential trouble spots throughout the world. To this end, a request for proposals (RFP) for the concept design of a large aircraft capable of 'projecting' a significant military force without reliance on surface transportation was developed. These design requirements are: minimum payload of 400,000 pounds at 2.5 g maneuver load factor; minimum unfueled range of 6,000 nautical miles; and aircraft must operate from existing domestic air bases and use existing airbases or sites of opportunity at the destination.

  4. Aircraft landing using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, David Gary

    The advent of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is revolutionizing the field of navigation. Commercial aviation has been particularly influenced by this worldwide navigation system. From ground vehicle guidance to aircraft landing applications, GPS has the potential to impact many areas of aviation. GPS is already being used for non-precision approach guidance; current research focuses on its application to more critical regimes of flight. To this end, the following contributions were made: (1) Development of algorithms and a flexible software architecture capable of providing real-time position solutions accurate to the centimeter level with high integrity. This architecture was used to demonstrate 110 automatic landings of a Boeing 737. (2) Assessment of the navigation performance provided by two GPS-based landing systems developed at Stanford, the Integrity Beacon Landing System, and the Wide Area Augmentation System. (3) Preliminary evaluation of proposed enhancements to traditional techniques for GPS positioning, specifically, dual antenna positioning and pseudolite augmentation. (4) Introduction of a new concept for positioning using airport pseudolites. The results of this research are promising, showing that GPS-based systems can potentially meet even the stringent requirements of a Category III (zero visibility) landing system. Although technical and logistical hurdles still exist, it is likely that GPS will soon provide aircraft guidance in all phases of flight, including automatic landing, roll-out, and taxi.

  5. Hypersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A hypersonic transport aircraft design project was selected as a result of interactions with NASA Lewis Research Center personnel and fits the Presidential concept of the Orient Express. The Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) and an undergraduate student worked at the NASA Lewis Research Center during the 1986 summer conducting a literature survey, and relevant literature and useful software were collected. The computer software was implemented in the Computer Aided Design Laboratory of the Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department. In addition to the lectures by the three instructors, a series of guest lectures was conducted. The first of these lectures 'Anywhere in the World in Two Hours' was delivered by R. Luidens of NASA Lewis Center. In addition, videotaped copies of relevant seminars obtained from NASA Lewis were also featured. The first assignment was to individually research and develop the mission requirements and to discuss the findings with the class. The class in consultation with the instructors then developed a set of unified mission requirements. Then the class was divided into three design groups (1) Aerodynamics Group, (2) Propulsion Group, and (3) Structures and Thermal Analyses Group. The groups worked on their respective design areas and interacted with each other to finally come up with an integrated conceptual design. The three faculty members and the GTA acted as the resource persons for the three groups and aided in the integration of the individual group designs into the final design of a hypersonic aircraft.

  6. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  7. Steam Power Plants in Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E E

    1926-01-01

    The employment of steam power plants in aircraft has been frequently proposed. Arguments pro and con have appeared in many journals. It is the purpose of this paper to make a brief analysis of the proposal from the broad general viewpoint of aircraft power plants. Any such analysis may be general or detailed.

  8. The Ultra Light Aircraft Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard W.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for grant NAG1-345 is presented. Recently, the bulk of the work that the grant has supported has been in the areas of ride quality and the structural analysis and testing of ultralight aircraft. The ride quality work ended in May 1989. Hence, the papers presented in this final report are concerned with ultralight aircraft.

  9. Composite Lightning Rods for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Charles F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Composite, lightweight sacrificial tip with graphite designed reduces lightning-strike damage to composite parts of aircraft and dissipates harmful electrical energy. Device consists of slender composite rod fabricated from highly-conductive unidirectional reinforcing fibers in matrix material. Rods strategically installed in trailing edges of aircraft wings, tails, winglets, control surfaces, and rearward-most portion of aft fuselage.

  10. Aircraft wiring program status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Rex

    1995-01-01

    In this Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) Aircraft Division status report, the general and wire and cable component activities, the systems engineering activities, the aircraft wiring lead maintenance activities, the NAVAIR/NASA interface activities, and the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Commission recommendations are presented.

  11. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  12. Model Specification for Rework of Aircraft Engine, Power Transmission, and Accessory/Auxiliary Ball and Roller Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Branzai, Emanuel V.

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a model specification for the rework and/or repair of bearings used in aircraft engines, helicopter main power train transmissions, and auxiliary bearings determined to be critical by virtue of performance, function, or availability. The rolling-element bearings to be processed under the provisions of this model specification may be used bearings removed after service, unused bearings returned from the field, or certain rejected bearings returned for reinspection and salvage. In commercial and military aircraft application, it has been a practice that rolling-element bearings removed at maintenance or overhaul be reworked and returned to service. Depending on the extent of rework and based upon theoretical analysis, representative life factors (LF) for bearings subject to rework ranged from 0.87 to 0.99 the lives of new bearings. Based on bearing endurance data, 92 percent of the bearing sets that would be subject to rework would result in L(sub 10) lives equaling and/or exceeding that predicted for new bearings. The remaining 8 percent of the bearings have the potential to achieve the analytically predicted life of new bearings when one of the rings is replaced at rework. The potential savings from bearing rework varies from 53 to 82 percent of that of new bearings depending on the cost, size, and complexity of the bearing

  13. Tilt Rotor Aircraft Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Albert R.

    1996-01-01

    A fleet of civil tilt rotor transports offers a means of reducing airport congestion and point-to-point travel time. The speed, range, and fuel economy of these aircraft, along with their efficient use of vertiport area, make them good candidates for short-to-medium range civil transport. However, to be successfully integrated into the civilian community, the tilt rotor must be perceived as a quiet, safe, and economical mode of transportation that does not harm the environment. In particular, noise impact has been identified as a possible barrier to the civil tilt rotor. Along with rotor conversion-mode flight, and blade-vortex interaction noise during descent, hover mode is a noise problem for tilt rotor operations. In the present research, tilt rotor hover aeroacoustics have been studied analytically, experimentally, and computationally. Various papers on the subject were published as noted in the list of publications. More recently, experimental measurements were made on a 1/12.5 scale model of the XV-15 in hover and analyses of this data and extrapolations to full scale were also carried out. A dimensional analysis showed that the model was a good aeroacoustic approximation to the full-scale aircraft, and scale factors were derived to extrapolate the model measurements to the full-scale XV-15. The experimental measurements included helium bubble flow visualization, silk tuft flow visualization, 2-component hot wire anemometry, 7-hole pressure probe measurements, vorticity measurements, and outdoor far field acoustic measurements. The hot wire measurements were used to estimate the turbulence statistics of the flow field into the rotors, such as length scales, velocity scales, dissipation, and turbulence intermittency. Several different configurations of the model were tested: (1) standard configurations (single isolated rotor, two rotors without the aircraft, standard tilt rotor configuration); (2) flow control devices (the 'plate', the 'diagonal fences'); (3

  14. Aircraft agility maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, Eugene M.; Thompson, Brian G.

    1992-01-01

    A new dynamic model for aircraft motions is presented. This model can be viewed as intermediate between a point-mass model, in which the body attitude angles are control-like, and a rigid-body model, in which the body-attitude angles evolve according to Newton's Laws. Specifically, consideration is given to the case of symmetric flight, and a model is constructed in which the body roll-rate and the body pitch-rate are the controls. In terms of this body-rate model a minimum-time heading change maneuver is formulated. When the bounds on the body-rates are large the results are similar to the point-mass model in that the model can very quickly change the applied forces and produce an acceleration to turn the vehicle. With finite bounds on these rates, the forces change in a smooth way. This leads to a measurable effect of agility.

  15. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the anticipated impossibility to provide on a long-term basis liquid fuels derived from petroleum, an investigation has been conducted with the objective to assess the suitability of jet fuels made from oil shale and coal and to develop a data base which will allow optimization of future fuel characteristics, taking energy efficiency of manufacture and the tradeoffs in aircraft and engine design into account. The properties of future aviation fuels are examined and proposed solutions to problems of alternative fuels are discussed. Attention is given to the refining of jet fuel to current specifications, the control of fuel thermal stability, and combustor technology for use of broad specification fuels. The first solution is to continue to develop the necessary technology at the refinery to produce specification jet fuels regardless of the crude source.

  16. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  17. Aircraft control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lisoski, Derek L. (Inventor); Kendall, Greg T. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A solar rechargeable, long-duration, span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn, pitch and yaw. The wing is configured to deform under flight loads to position the propellers such that the control can be achieved. Each of five segments of the wing has one or more motors and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other segments, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface.

  18. Aircraft vortex marking program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    A simple, reliable device for identifying atmospheric vortices, principally as generated by in-flight aircraft and with emphasis on the use of nonpolluting aerosols for marking by injection into such vortex (-ices) is presented. The refractive index and droplet size were determined from an analysis of aerosol optical and transport properties as the most significant parameters in effecting vortex optimum light scattering (for visual sighting) and visual persistency of at least 300 sec. The analysis also showed that a steam-ejected tetraethylene glycol aerosol with droplet size near 1 micron and refractive index of approximately 1.45 could be a promising candidate for vortex marking. A marking aerosol was successfully generated with the steam-tetraethylene glycol mixture from breadboard system hardware. A compact 25 lb/f thrust (nominal) H2O2 rocket chamber was the key component of the system which produced the required steam by catalytic decomposition of the supplied H2O2.

  19. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  20. Multibody aircraft study, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. G.

    1981-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  1. Aircraft Cabin Environmental Quality Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Gundel, Lara; Kirchstetter, Thomas; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas

    2010-05-06

    The Indoor Environment Department at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) teamed with seven universities to participate in a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Center of Excellence (COE) for research on environmental quality in aircraft. This report describes research performed at LBNL on selecting and evaluating sensors for monitoring environmental quality in aircraft cabins, as part of Project 7 of the FAA's COE for Airliner Cabin Environmental Research (ACER)1 effort. This part of Project 7 links to the ozone, pesticide, and incident projects for data collection and monitoring and is a component of a broader research effort on sensors by ACER. Results from UCB and LBNL's concurrent research on ozone (ACER Project 1) are found in Weschler et al., 2007; Bhangar et al. 2008; Coleman et al., 2008 and Strom-Tejsen et al., 2008. LBNL's research on pesticides (ACER Project 2) in airliner cabins is described in Maddalena and McKone (2008). This report focused on the sensors needed for normal contaminants and conditions in aircraft. The results are intended to complement and coordinate with results from other ACER members who concentrated primarily on (a) sensors for chemical and biological pollutants that might be released intentionally in aircraft; (b) integration of sensor systems; and (c) optimal location of sensors within aircraft. The parameters and sensors were selected primarily to satisfy routine monitoring needs for contaminants and conditions that commonly occur in aircraft. However, such sensor systems can also be incorporated into research programs on environmental quality in aircraft cabins.

  2. Aircraft recognition and pose estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2000-05-01

    This work presents a geometry based vision system for aircraft recognition and pose estimation using single images. Pose estimation improves the tracking performance of guided weapons with imaging seekers, and is useful in estimating target manoeuvres and aim-point selection required in the terminal phase of missile engagements. After edge detection and straight-line extraction, a hierarchy of geometric reasoning algorithms is applied to form line clusters (or groupings) for image interpretation. Assuming a scaled orthographic projection and coplanar wings, lateral symmetry inherent in the airframe provides additional constraints to further reject spurious line clusters. Clusters that accidentally pass all previous tests are checked against the original image and are discarded. Valid line clusters are then used to deduce aircraft viewing angles. By observing that the leading edges of wings of a number of aircraft of interest are within 45 to 65 degrees from the symmetry axis, a bounded range of aircraft viewing angles can be found. This generic property offers the advantage of not requiring the storage of complete aircraft models viewed from all aspects, and can handle aircraft with flexible wings (e.g. F111). Several aircraft images associated with various spectral bands (i.e. visible and infra-red) are finally used to evaluate the system's performance.

  3. Multibody aircraft study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. W.; Craven, E. P.; Farmer, B. T.; Honrath, J. F.; Stephens, R. E.; Bronson, C. E., Jr.; Meyer, R. T.; Hogue, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    The potential benefits of a multibody aircraft when compared to a single body aircraft are presented. The analyses consist principally of a detailed point design analysis of three multibody and one single body aircraft, based on a selected payload of 350,000 kg (771,618 lb), for final aircraft definitions; sensitivity studies to evaluate the effects of variations in payload, wing semispan body locations, and fuel price; recommendations as to the research and technology requirements needed to validate the multibody concept. Two, two body, one, three body, and one single body aircraft were finalized for the selected payload, with DOC being the prime figure of merit. When compared to the single body, the multibody aircraft showed a reduction in DOC by as much as 11.3 percent. Operating weight was reduced up to 14 percent, and fly away cost reductions ranged from 8.6 to 13.4 percent. Weight reduction, hence cost, of the multibody aircraft resulted primarily from the wing bending relief afforded by the bodies being located outboard on the wing.

  4. NASA Aircraft Controls Research, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beasley, G. P. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The workshop consisted of 24 technical presentations on various aspects of aircraft controls, ranging from the theoretical development of control laws to the evaluation of new controls technology in flight test vehicles. A special report on the status of foreign aircraft technology and a panel session with seven representatives from organizations which use aircraft controls technology were also included. The controls research needs and opportunities for the future as well as the role envisioned for NASA in that research were addressed. Input from the panel and response to the workshop presentations will be used by NASA in developing future programs.

  5. Designing for aircraft structural crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, R. G.; Caiafa, C.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes structural aviation crash dynamics research activities being conducted on general aviation aircraft and transport aircraft. The report includes experimental and analytical correlations of load-limiting subfloor and seat configurations tested dynamically in vertical drop tests and in a horizontal sled deceleration facility. Computer predictions using a finite-element nonlinear computer program, DYCAST, of the acceleration time-histories of these innovative seat and subfloor structures are presented. Proposed application of these computer techniques, and the nonlinear lumped mass computer program KRASH, to transport aircraft crash dynamics is discussed. A proposed FAA full-scale crash test of a fully instrumented radio controlled transport airplane is also described.

  6. Characteristics of future aircraft impacting aircraft and airport compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Results are reported of an opinion survey of selected individuals at the decision-making level within the five major manufacturers of transport aircraft in the United States and Europe. Opinions were obtained concerning both possible and probable existence of over 50 compatibility-related characteristics of transport aircraft in use in the years 1990, 2000, and 2010. The maximum size of aircraft is expected to increase, at a roughly uniform rate, to the year 2010 by 85 percent in passengers, 55 percent in airfreighter payload, and 35 percent in gross weight weight. Companion to the expected growth in payloads and gross weight was the identification of probable increases in aircraft geometrical dimensions and component capability, and use of fully double-decked passenger compartments. Wing span will increase considerably more than normally expected to provide wings of higher aspect ratio. New aircraft features coming into probable use include large turboprops, synthetic jet-A fuel, winglets, wake-vortex-reducing devices and laminar flow control. New operational concepts considered probable include steep approaches, high-speed turnoffs, and taxiway towing for the aircraft, plus passenger bypass of the terminal building, expedited handling of belly cargo and an intermodal cargo container for the payloads.

  7. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  8. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  9. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  10. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  11. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  12. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  13. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  14. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  15. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  16. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  17. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  18. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  19. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  20. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices or... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section...

  1. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72 Stat... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft....

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  3. Aircraft Mechanics Series. Duty Task List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This task list is intended for use in planning and/or evaluating a competency-based course in aircraft mechanics. The guide outlines the tasks entailed in 24 different duties typically required of employees in the following occupations: airframe mechanic, power plant mechanic, aircraft mechanic, aircraft sheet metal worker, aircraft electrician,…

  4. Progress in aircraft design since 1903

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Significant developments in aviation history are documented to show the advancements in aircraft design which have taken place since 1903. Each aircraft is identified according to the manufacturer, powerplant, dimensions, normal weight, and typical performance. A narrative summary of the major accomplishments of the aircraft is provided. Photographs of each aircraft are included.

  5. Wet runways. [aircraft landing and directional control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horne, W. B.

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft stopping and directional control performance on wet runways is discussed. The major elements affecting tire/ground traction developed by jet transport aircraft are identified and described in terms of atmospheric, pavement, tire, aircraft system and pilot performance factors or parameters. Research results are summarized, and means for improving or restoring tire traction/aircraft performance on wet runways are discussed.

  6. 48 CFR 246.408-71 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 246.408-71... Aircraft. (a) The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has certain responsibilities and prerogatives in connection with some commercial aircraft and of aircraft equipment and accessories (Pub. L. 85-726 (72...

  7. 14 CFR 137.31 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 137.31 Section 137... AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS Operating Rules § 137.31 Aircraft requirements. No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft— (a) Meets the requirements of § 137.19(d); and (b) Is equipped with a suitable...

  8. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33... CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Flight Engineers § 63.33 Aircraft ratings. (a) The aircraft...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class...

  9. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics... CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft. (a... certificate or provisional pilot school certificate must show that each aircraft used by the school for...

  10. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... Aircraft. (a) This section pertains to all aircraft including, but not limited to, airplanes, seaplanes, helicopters, ultra-light aircraft, motorized hang gliders, hot air balloons, any non-powered flight devices...

  11. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES General Provisions § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions...

  12. Turboprop Cargo Aircraft Systems study, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, F. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of advanced propellers (propfan) on aircraft direct operating costs, fuel consumption, and noiseprints were determined. A comparison of three aircraft selected from the results with competitive turbofan aircraft shows that advanced turboprop aircraft offer these potential benefits, relative to advanced turbofan aircraft: 21 percent fuel saving, 26 percent higher fuel efficiency, 15 percent lower DOCs, and 25 percent shorter field lengths. Fuel consumption for the turboprop is nearly 40 percent less than for current commercial turbofan aircraft. Aircraft with both types of propulsion satisfy current federal noise regulations. Advanced turboprop aircraft have smaller noiseprints at 90 EPNdB than advanced turbofan aircraft, but large noiseprints at 70 and 80 EPNdB levels, which are usually suggested as quietness goals. Accelerated development of advanced turboprops is strongly recommended to permit early attainment of the potential fuel saving. Several areas of work are identified which may produce quieter turboprop aircraft.

  13. Aircraft icing research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinmann, J. J.; Shaw, R. J.; Olsen, W. A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Research activity is described for: ice protection systems, icing instrumentation, experimental methods, analytical modeling for the above, and in flight research. The renewed interest in aircraft icing has come about because of the new need for All-Weather Helicopters and General Aviation aircraft. Because of increased fuel costs, tomorrow's Commercial Transport aircraft will also require new types of ice protection systems and better estimates of the aeropenalties caused by ice on unprotected surfaces. The physics of aircraft icing is very similar to the icing that occurs on ground structures and structures at sea; all involve droplets that freeze on the surfaces because of the cold air. Therefore all icing research groups will benefit greatly by sharing their research information.

  14. Future Civil Aircraft and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albers, J.; Zuk, J.

    1989-01-01

    New aircraft technologies are presented that have the potential to expand the air transportation system and reduce congestion through new operating capabilities while also providing greater levels of safety and environmental compatibility. These new capabilities will result from current and planned civil aeronautics technology at the NASA Ames, Lewis, and Langley Research Centers and will cover the complete spectrum of current aircraft and new vehicle concepts including rotorcraft (helicopters and tilt rotors), vertical and short takeoff and landing (V/STOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) aircraft, subsonic transports, high-speed transports, and hypersonic/transatmospheric vehicles. New technologies will improve efficiency, affordability, safety, and environmental compatibility of current aircraft and will enable the development of new transportation system. The new capabilities of vehicles could lead to substantial market opportunities and economic growth and could improve the competitive position of the U.S. aerospace industry.

  15. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  16. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  17. Electromagnetic Interference In New Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, William E.

    1991-01-01

    Report reviews plans to develop tests and standards to ensure that digital avionics systems in new civil aircraft immune to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Updated standards reflect more severe environment and vulnerabilities of modern avionics.

  18. Aircraft accidents : method of analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    This report on a method of analysis of aircraft accidents has been prepared by a special committee on the nomenclature, subdivision, and classification of aircraft accidents organized by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics in response to a request dated February 18, 1928, from the Air Coordination Committee consisting of the Assistant Secretaries for Aeronautics in the Departments of War, Navy, and Commerce. The work was undertaken in recognition of the difficulty of drawing correct conclusions from efforts to analyze and compare reports of aircraft accidents prepared by different organizations using different classifications and definitions. The air coordination committee's request was made "in order that practices used may henceforth conform to a standard and be universally comparable." the purpose of the special committee therefore was to prepare a basis for the classification and comparison of aircraft accidents, both civil and military. (author)

  19. Propulsion integration for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, William P.

    1989-01-01

    The transonic aerodynamic characteristics for high-performance aircraft are significantly affected by shock-induced flow interactions as well as other local flow interference effects which usually occur at transonic speeds. These adverse interactions can not only cause high drag, but can cause unusual aerodynamic loadings and/or severe stability and control problems. Many new programs are underway to develop methods for reducing the adverse effects, as well as to develop an understanding of the basic flow conditions which are the primary contributors. It is anticipated that these new programs will result in technologies which can reduce the aircraft cruise drag through improved integration as well as increased aircraft maneuverability throughh the application of thrust vectoring. This paper will identify some of the primary propulsion integration problems for high performance aircraft at transonic speeds, and demonstrate several methods for reducing or eliminating the undesirable characteristics, while enhancing configuration effectiveness.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft: A Pilot's Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pestana, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews some of the challenges of "piloting" a unmanned aircraft. The topic include the pilot-vehicle interact design, the concept of pilot/operator, and role of NASA's Ikhana UAS in the western states fire mission.

  1. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  2. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Commercial aircraft manufacturers are making production commitments to composite structure for future aircraft and modifications to current production aircraft. Flight service programs with advanced composites sponsored by NASA during the past 10 years are described. Approximately 2.5 million total composite component flight hours have been accumulated since 1970 on both commercial transports and helicopters. Design concepts with significant mass savings were developed, appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures were established, and satisfactory service was achieved for the various composite components. A major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites was undertaken. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs supplement the flight service evaluation.

  3. Powered-lift aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Franklin, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    Powered lift aircraft have the ability to vary the magnitude and direction of the force produced by the propulsion system so as to control the overall lift and streamwise force components of the aircraft, with the objective of enabling the aircraft to operate from minimum sized terminal sites. Power lift technology has contributed to the development of the jet lift Harrier and to the forth coming operational V-22 Tilt Rotor and the C-17 military transport. This technology will soon be expanded to include supersonic fighters with short takeoff and vertical landing capability, and will continue to be used for the development of short- and vertical-takeoff and landing transport. An overview of this field of aeronautical technology is provided for several types of powered lift aircraft. It focuses on the description of various powered lift concepts and their operational capability. Aspects of aerodynamics and flight controls pertinent to powered lift are also discussed.

  4. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heitman, K.; Bernhard, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The plausibility of using the two microphone sound intensity technique to study noise transmission into light aircraft was investigated. In addition, a simple model to predict the interior sound pressure level of the cabin was constructed.

  5. Turbulence modeling in aircraft icing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potapczuk, Mark G.

    1993-01-01

    The Icing and Cryogenic Technology Branch develops computational tools which predict ice growth on aircraft surfaces and uses existing CFD technology to evaluate the aerodynamic changes associated with such accretions. Surface roughness, transition location, and laminar, transition, or turbulent convective heat transfer all influence the ice growth process on aircraft surfaces. Turbulence modeling is a critical element within the computational tools used for both ice shape prediction and for performance degradation evaluation.

  6. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  7. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  8. Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Pamela A.; Stubbs, Sandy M.; Tanner, John A.

    1987-01-01

    The Langley Research Center has recently upgraded the Landing Loads Track (LLT) to improve the capability of low-cost testing of conventional and advanced landing gear systems. The unique feature of the Langley Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF) is the ability to test aircraft landing gear systems on actual runway surfaces at operational ground speeds and loading conditions. A historical overview of the original LLT is given, followed by a detailed description of the new ALDF systems and operational capabilities.

  9. Advanced technology composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilcewicz, Larry B.; Walker, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Work performed during the 25th month on NAS1-18889, Advanced Technology Composite Aircraft Structures, is summarized. The main objective of this program is to develop an integrated technology and demonstrate a confidence level that permits the cost- and weight-effective use of advanced composite materials in primary structures of future aircraft with the emphasis on pressurized fuselages. The period from 1-31 May 1991 is covered.

  10. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  11. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    Flight experience gained with numerous composite aircraft structures is discussed. Both commercial transports and helicopters are included. Design concepts with significant mass savings and appropriate inspection and maintenance procedures are among the factors considered. Also, a major NASA/U.S. industry technology program to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites is described, including preliminary results. Ground and flight environmental effects on the composite materials used in the flight service programs are also discussed.

  12. Qualification needs for advanced integrated aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackall, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    In an effort to achieve maximum aircraft performance, designers are integrating aircraft systems. The characteristics of aerodynamics, vehicle structure, and propulsion systems are being integrated and controlled through embedded, often flight critical, electronic systems. The qualification needs for such highly integrated aircraft systems are addressed. Based on flight experience with research aircraft, a set of test capabilities is described which allows for complete and efficient qualification of advanced integrated aircraft.

  13. Sun powered aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccready, P. B.; Lissaman, P. B. S.; Morgan, W. R.; Burke, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Two piloted aircraft have been developed and flown powered solely by photovoltaic cells in a program sponsored by the DuPont Company. The 30.8-kg (68-lb), 21.6-m (71-ft) span, Gossamer Penguin was used as a solar test bed, making a 2.6-km (1.6-mile) flight in August 1980. The 88.1-kg (194-lb), 14.3-m (47-ft) span Solar Challenger was developed for long flights in normal turbulence. Stressed to +9 G, it utilizes Kevlar, Nomex honeycomb-graphite sandwich wall tubes, expanded polystyrene foam ribs, and Mylar skin. With a 54.9-kg (121-lb) airframe, 33.1-kg (73-lb) propulsion system, and a 45.4-kg (100-lb) pilot, it flies on 1400 watts. In summer, the projected maximum climb is 1.0 m/s (200 ft/min) at 9,150 m (30,000 ft). Sixty purely solar-powered flights were made during winter 1980-1981. Using thermals, 1,070 m (3,500 ft) was reached with 115-minute duration.

  14. Innovations in Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Boeing 777 carries with it basic and applied research, technology, and aerodynamic knowledge honed at several NASA field centers. Several Langley Research Center innovations instrumental to the development of the aircraft include knowledge of how to reduce engine and other noise for passengers and terminal residents, increased use of lightweight aerospace composite structures for increased fuel efficiency and range, and wind tunnel tests confirming the structural integrity of 777 wing-airframe integration. Test results from Marshall Space Flight Center aimed at improving the performance of the Space Shuttle engines led to improvements in the airplane's new, more efficient jet engines. Finally, fostered by Ames Research Center, the Boeing 777 blankets that protect areas of the plane from high temperatures and fire have a lineage to Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation used on certain areas of the Space Shuttle. According to Boeing Company estimates, the 777 has captured three-quarters of new orders for airplanes in its class since the program was launched.

  15. Parabolic aircraft solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L. (Principal Investigator); Smith, Guy A.; OBrien, Susan

    1996-01-01

    A number of solidification experiments have been utilized throughout the Materials Processing in Space Program to provide an experimental environment which minimizes variables in solidification experiments. Two techniques of interest are directional solidification and isothermal casting. Because of the wide-spread use of these experimental techniques in space-based research, several MSAD experiments have been manifested for space flight. In addition to the microstructural analysis for interpretation of the experimental results from previous work with parabolic flights, it has become apparent that a better understanding of the phenomena occurring during solidification can be better understood if direct visualization of the solidification interface were possible. Our university has performed in several experimental studies such as this in recent years. The most recent was in visualizing the effect of convective flow phenomena on the KC-135 and prior to that were several successive contracts to perform directional solidification and isothermal casting experiments on the KC-135. Included in this work was the modification and utilization of the Convective Flow Analyzer (CFA), the Aircraft Isothermal Casting Furnace (ICF), and the Three-Zone Directional Solidification Furnace. These studies have contributed heavily to the mission of the Microgravity Science and Applications' Materials Science Program.

  16. Pilotless Aircraft Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1950-01-01

    Technician D.A. Dereng examines power plug in 1/10-scale model of Northrop Snark missile with Deacon booster at Wallops, November 1950. Joseph Shortal described the missile as follows: 'The Snark was to be the Nation's first intercontinental strategic missile and it was to serve as an interim weapon while ballistic missiles were under development. The Snark first attained its design range of 5,000 miles on October 31, 1957, and became operational in April 1959.' The NACA research program based on Northrup's 'need for rocket-model tests of the Snark....' 'Although the Snark was essentially a subsonic missile, one flight plan called for the missile to attain transonic speeds in a final dive on its target from high altitude. The Air Force requested a free-flight program by the rocket-model technique on March 23, 1950 and the NACA issued RA 1564 on April 17, 1950, to cover the investigation.' 'The purpose of the investigation was 'to determine the drag, roll, and pitch characteristics at transonic and low supersonic velocities.' From four to six 1/12-scale models, to be built by Northrop Aircraft Inc., were authorized. Actually the models were 1/10-scale and eight models were tested....' 'The first model was launched on November 15, 1950 and the last on June 4, 1954. All flights were successful and were reported.' Excerpts from Joseph Shortal's history of Wallops Station.

  17. Laser aircraft. [using kerosene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hertzberg, A.; Sun, K.; Jones, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The concept of a laser-powered aircraft is discussed. Laser flight would be completely compatible with existing airports and air-traffic control, with the airplane using kerosene only power, up to a cruising altitude of 9 km where the laser satellite would lock on and beam laser energy to it. Two major components make up the laser turbofan, a heat exchanger for converting laser radiation into thermal energy, and conventional turbomachinery. The laser power satellite would put out 42 Mw using a solar-powered thermal engine to generate electrical power for the closed-cycle supersonic electric discharge CO laser, whose radiators, heat exchangers, supersonic diffuser, and ducting will amount to 85% of the total subsystem mass. Relay satellites will be used to intercept the beam from the laser satellite, correct outgoing beam aberrations, and direct the beam to the next target. A 300-airplane fleet with transcontinental range is projected to save enough kerosene to equal the energy content of the entire system, including power and relay satellites, in one year.

  18. High-altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdi, Renee Anna

    1991-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000+ ft, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high-altitude reconnaissance aircraft. This project is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer. The aircraft must be able to satisfy four mission profiles. The first is a polar mission that ranges from Chile to the South Pole and back to Chile, a total range of 6000 n.m. at 100,000 ft with a 2500-lb payload. The second mission is also a polar mission with a decreased altitude and an increased payload. For the third mission, the aircraft will take off at NASA Ames, cruise at 100,000 ft, and land in Chile. The final mission requires the aircraft to make an excursion to 120,000 ft. All four missions require that a subsonic Mach number be maintained because of constraints imposed by the air sampling equipment. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable for meeting the requirements. The performance of each is analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the mission requirements.

  19. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  20. Fiber optics for advanced aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1989-01-01

    The increased use of composites makes the digital control more susceptible to electromagnetic effects. In order to provide the protection to the digital control additional shielding will be required as well as protective circuitry for the electronics. This results in increased weight and reduced reliability. The advantages that fiber optic technology provides for advanced aircraft applications is recognized. The use of optical signals to carry information between the aircraft and the control module provides immunity from contamination by electromagnetic sources as well as other important benefits such as reduced weight and volume resulting from the elimination of the shielding and the replacement of metal conductors with low weight glass fibers. In 1975 NASA began work to develop passive optical sensors for use with fiber optics in aircraft control systems. The problem now is to choose the best optical sensor concepts and evaluate them for use. In 1985 NASA and DOD entered into a joint program, Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI), to look at optical technology specifically for use in advanced aircraft systems. The results of this program are discussed. The conclusion of the study indicated that the use of fiber optic technology in advanced aircraft systems is feasible and desirable. The study pointed to a lack of available sensors from vendors capable of operating in the adverse environments of advanced aircraft.

  1. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  2. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  3. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  4. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  5. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  6. Aircraft flight characteristics in icing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yihua; Wu, Zhenlong; Su, Yuan; Xu, Zhongda

    2015-04-01

    Aircraft flight dynamic characteristics can be greatly changed by ice accretion, which has been considered a considerable threat to aircraft flight safety for a long time. An overview of the studies on several ice accretion effects on aircraft flight dynamics is presented here. Special attention is paid to the following areas: ways to obtain the aerodynamic data of iced aircraft, flight dynamic modeling and simulation for iced aircraft, effects of ice accretion on aircraft stability and control as well as on flight performance and aircraft icing envelope protection and control adaption. Finally based on the progress of existing research in these areas, some key issues which deserve more attention for researchers to resolve are addressed, including obtaining aerodynamic data of iced aircraft through numerical simulation method, consummating the existing calculation models about effects of ice accretion on aircraft aerodynamic derivatives and enhancing the investigation on problems of tailplane ice accretion.

  7. A study of aircraft cruise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.

    1986-01-01

    The long range aircraft cruise problem is analyzed using a model intermediate in complexity between energy model and point mass model. It is shown that this formulation imbeds the classical steady state cruise as the central member along with several other oscillatory extremals. The oscillatory cruise trajectories are shown to exist if the Hessian of the function QD/VT with respect to altitude and airspeed is positive definite. An expression for predicting the frequency of oscillation is developed. Qualitative effects of increasing the vehicle thrust and improving the L/D are discussed. Numerical results for two fighter aircraft and a transport aircraft are given. While oscillatory cruise mode exists for the two fighter aircraft, steady state cruise at full throttle is found to be optimal for the transport aircraft. A second variation analysis to bring out the reason for fuel savings is developed. It is shown that whenever the Hessian of the function QD/VT is positive definite, the second variation will be zero along the classical steady state cruise arc, indicating that a neighboring extremal is competitive. Comparisons with the previous point mass and energy modeled results are given.

  8. Flight directors for STOl aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, U. H.

    1983-01-01

    Flight director logic for flight path and airspeed control of a powered-lift STOL aircraft in the approach, transition, and landing configurations are developed. The methods for flight director design are investigated. The first method is based on the Optimal Control Model (OCM) of the pilot. The second method, proposed here, uses a fixed dynamic model of the pilot in a state space formulation similar to that of the OCM, and includes a pilot work-load metric. Several design examples are presented with various aircraft, sensor, and control configurations. These examples show the strong impact of throttle effectiveness on the performance and pilot work-load associated with manual control of powered-lift aircraft during approach. Improved performed and reduced pilot work-load can be achieved by using direct-lift-control to increase throttle effectiveness.

  9. Durability of aircraft composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dextern, H. B.

    1982-01-01

    Confidence in the long term durability of advanced composites is developed through a series of flight service programs. Service experience is obtained by installing secondary and primary composite components on commercial and military transport aircraft and helicopters. Included are spoilers, rudders, elevators, ailerons, fairings and wing boxes on transport aircraft and doors, fairings, tail rotors, vertical fins, and horizontal stabilizers on helicopters. Materials included in the evaluation are boron/epoxy, Kevlar/epoxy, graphite/epoxy and boron/aluminum. Inspection, maintenance, and repair results for the components in service are reported. The effects of long term exposure to laboratory, flight, and outdoor environmental conditions are reported for various composite materials. Included are effects of moisture absorption, ultraviolet radiation, and aircraft fuels and fluids.

  10. Improvement of aircraft maintenance methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, N. I.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of recent theoretical and experimental research aimed at improving the maintenance of aircraft, developing advanced diagnostic techniques, and increasing the efficiency and safety of flight operations. Topics discussed include design characteristics of the functional systems of aircraft and prediction of their technical condition, a probability analysis of a method for diagnosing gas turbine engines on the basis of thermogasdynamic parameters, characteristics of fatigue crack growth under the service-spectrum loading of the tail boom, and the accuracy of nonparametric reliability estimates under varying operation conditions. Papers are also presented on ways of reducing the aeration of hydraulic fluids in aircraft, evaluation of the efficiency of the pilot's control activity in a flight simulator, and using control charts for the analysis of the performance of aviation specialists. (For individual items see A93-18327 to A93-18351)

  11. Vision assisted aircraft lateral navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohideen, Mohamed Ibrahim; Ramegowda, Dinesh; Seiler, Peter

    2013-05-01

    Surface operation is currently one of the least technologically equipped phases of aircraft operation. The increased air traffic congestion necessitates more aircraft operations in degraded weather and at night. The traditional surface procedures worked well in most cases as airport surfaces have not been congested and airport layouts were less complex. Despite the best efforts of FAA and other safety agencies, runway incursions continue to occur frequently due to incorrect surface operation. Several studies conducted by FAA suggest that pilot induced error contributes significantly to runway incursions. Further, the report attributes pilot's lack of situational awareness - local (e.g., minimizing lateral deviation), global (e.g., traffic in the vicinity) and route (e.g., distance to next turn) - to the problem. An Enhanced Vision System (EVS) is one concept that is being considered to resolve these issues. These systems use on-board sensors to provide situational awareness under poor visibility conditions. In this paper, we propose the use of an Image processing based system to estimate the aircraft position and orientation relative to taxiway markings to use as lateral guidance aid. We estimate aircraft yaw angle and lateral offset from slope of the taxiway centerline and horizontal position of vanishing line. Unlike automotive applications, several cues such as aircraft maneuvers along assigned route with minimal deviations, clear ground markings, even taxiway surface, limited aircraft speed are available and enable us to implement significant algorithm optimizations. We present experimental results to show high precision navigation accuracy with sensitivity analysis with respect to camera mount, optics, and image processing error.

  12. Future aircraft networks and schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yan

    2011-07-01

    Because of the importance of air transportation scheduling, the emergence of small aircraft and the vision of future fuel-efficient aircraft, this thesis has focused on the study of aircraft scheduling and network design involving multiple types of aircraft and flight services. It develops models and solution algorithms for the schedule design problem and analyzes the computational results. First, based on the current development of small aircraft and on-demand flight services, this thesis expands a business model for integrating on-demand flight services with the traditional scheduled flight services. This thesis proposes a three-step approach to the design of aircraft schedules and networks from scratch under the model. In the first step, both a frequency assignment model for scheduled flights that incorporates a passenger path choice model and a frequency assignment model for on-demand flights that incorporates a passenger mode choice model are created. In the second step, a rough fleet assignment model that determines a set of flight legs, each of which is assigned an aircraft type and a rough departure time is constructed. In the third step, a timetable model that determines an exact departure time for each flight leg is developed. Based on the models proposed in the three steps, this thesis creates schedule design instances that involve almost all the major airports and markets in the United States. The instances of the frequency assignment model created in this thesis are large-scale non-convex mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops an overall network structure and proposes iterative algorithms for solving these instances. The instances of both the rough fleet assignment model and the timetable model created in this thesis are large-scale mixed-integer programming problems, and this dissertation develops subproblem schemes for solving these instances. Based on these solution algorithms, this dissertation also presents

  13. Aircraft Dynamic Modeling in Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.; Cunninham, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A method for accurately identifying aircraft dynamic models in turbulence was developed and demonstrated. The method uses orthogonal optimized multisine excitation inputs and an analytic method for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio for dynamic modeling in turbulence. A turbulence metric was developed to accurately characterize the turbulence level using flight measurements. The modeling technique was demonstrated in simulation, then applied to a subscale twin-engine jet transport aircraft in flight. Comparisons of modeling results obtained in turbulent air to results obtained in smooth air were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.

  14. Aircraft anti-insect system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiro, Clifford Lawrence (Inventor); Fric, Thomas Frank (Inventor); Leon, Ross Michael (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Insect debris is removed from or prevented from adhering to insect impingement areas of an aircraft, particularly on an inlet cowl of an engine, by heating the area to 180.degree.-500.degree. C. An apparatus comprising a means to bring hot air from the aircraft engine to a plenum contiguous to the insect impingement area provides for the heating of the insect impingement areas to the required temperatures. The plenum can include at least one tube with a plurality of holes contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl. It can also include an envelope with a plurality of holes on its surface contained in a cavity within the inlet cowl.

  15. Human response to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Fields, James M.

    1991-01-01

    The human auditory system and the perception of sound are discussed. The major concentration is on the annnoyance response and methods for relating the physical characteristics of sound to those psychosociological attributes associated with human response. Results selected from the extensive laboratory and field research conducted on human response to aircraft noise over the past several decades are presented along with discussions of the methodology commonly used in conducting that research. Finally, some of the more common criteria, regulations, and recommended practices for the control or limitation of aircraft noise are examined in light of the research findings on human response.

  16. Minimum noise impact aircraft trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Melton, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    Numerical optimization is used to compute the optimum flight paths, based upon a parametric form that implicitly includes some of the problem restrictions. The other constraints are formulated as penalties in the cost function. Various aircraft on multiple trajectores (landing and takeoff) can be considered. The modular design employed allows for the substitution of alternate models of the population distribution, aircraft noise, flight paths, and annoyance, or for the addition of other features (e.g., fuel consumption) in the cost function. A reduction in the required amount of searching over local minima was achieved through use of the presence of statistical lateral dispersion in the flight paths.

  17. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  18. Model of aircraft noise adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Coates, G. D.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Development of an aircraft noise adaptation model, which would account for much of the variability in the responses of subjects participating in human response to noise experiments, was studied. A description of the model development is presented. The principal concept of the model, was the determination of an aircraft adaptation level which represents an annoyance calibration for each individual. Results showed a direct correlation between noise level of the stimuli and annoyance reactions. Attitude-personality variables were found to account for varying annoyance judgements.

  19. Composite components on commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, H. B.

    1980-01-01

    The paper considers the use of composite components in commercial aircraft. NASA has been active in sponsoring flight service programs with advanced composites for the last 10 years, with 2.5 million total composite component hours accumulated since 1970 on commercial transports and helicopters with no significant degradation in residual strength of composite components. Design, inspection, and maintenance procedures have been developed; a major NASA/US industry technology program has been developed to reduce fuel consumption of commercial transport aircraft through the use of advanced composites.

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems at NASA Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Dryden has a heritage of developmental and operational experience with unmanned aircraft systems. Work on Boeing's sub-scale X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft, X-48 Blended Wing ...

  1. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  2. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  3. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  4. 32 CFR 855.6 - Aircraft exempt from the requirement for a civil aircraft landing permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT USE OF UNITED STATES AIR FORCE AIRFIELDS Civil Aircraft... aircraft owned by: (1) Any other US Government agency. (2) US Air Force aero clubs established as prescribed in AFI 34-117, Air Force Aero Club Program, and AFMAN 3-132, Air Force Aero Club Operations 1 ....

  5. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, Larry M.; Haynes, Howard D.; Ayers, Curtis W.

    1996-01-01

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components.

  6. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is provided of the goals, objectives, and recent progress in each of six aircraft energy efficiency programs aimed at improved propulsive, aerodynamic and structural efficiency for future transport aircraft. Attention is given to engine component improvement, an energy efficient turbofan engine, advanced turboprops, revolutionary gains in aerodynamic efficiency for aircraft of the late 1990s, laminar flow control, and composite primary aircraft structures.

  7. Method and apparatus for monitoring aircraft components

    DOEpatents

    Dickens, L.M.; Haynes, H.D.; Ayers, C.W.

    1996-01-16

    Operability of aircraft mechanical components is monitored by analyzing the voltage output of an electrical generator of the aircraft. Alternative generators, for a turbine-driven rotor aircraft, include the gas producer turbine tachometer generator, the power turbine tachometer generator, and the aircraft systems power producing starter/generator. Changes in the peak amplitudes of the fundamental frequency and its harmonics are correlated to changes in condition of the mechanical components. 14 figs.

  8. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  10. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  11. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each...

  12. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  13. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  14. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  15. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  16. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  17. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  18. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  19. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  20. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  1. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  2. 40 CFR 87.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 87.6 Section 87.6.... § 87.6 Aircraft safety. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 36381, June 18, 2012. The provisions of... revised text is set forth as follows: § 87.6 Aircraft safety. The provisions of this part will be...

  3. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  4. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  5. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  6. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  7. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  8. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  9. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  11. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  12. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  13. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  14. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  15. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  16. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  17. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  18. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations, and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on... insure the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  19. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  20. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with 41 CFR 102-33, subpart B and DOE Order 440.2B latest revision. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  2. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  3. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  5. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  6. 14 CFR 141.39 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft. 141.39 Section 141.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Personnel, Aircraft, and Facilities Requirements § 141.39 Aircraft....

  7. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Aviation if— (1) The aircraft carries an appropriate airworthiness certificate issued by the country of... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section...

  8. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  10. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  12. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  13. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  14. 19 CFR 122.42 - Aircraft entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for Passengers, Crew Members, and Non-Crew Members Onboard Commercial Aircraft Arriving In, Continuing Within... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft entry. 122.42 Section 122.42...

  15. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has been... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37...

  16. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a)...

  17. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  18. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  19. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  20. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  1. Impact analysis of composite aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pifko, Allan B.; Kushner, Alan S.

    1993-01-01

    The impact analysis of composite aircraft structures is discussed. Topics discussed include: background remarks on aircraft crashworthiness; comments on modeling strategies for crashworthiness simulation; initial study of simulation of progressive failure of an aircraft component constructed of composite material; and research direction in composite characterization for impact analysis.

  2. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  3. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  4. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  5. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  6. 14 CFR 252.13 - Small aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small aircraft. 252.13 Section 252.13 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.13 Small aircraft. Air carriers shall prohibit smoking on...

  7. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  8. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft under a type certificate must establish an approved production flight test procedure...

  9. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    Fiber Optic Technology is being developed for aircraft and offers benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. Thr fiber optic systems have high bandwidths that exceeds all of the new aircraft design requirements and exceptional electromagnetic interference (EMI) immunity. Additionally, fiber optic systems have been installed in production aircraft proving design feasiblity.

  10. Fiber optic hardware for transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, John A.

    1994-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are developing fiber optic technology to exploit the benefits in system performance and manufacturing cost reduction. The fiber optic systems have high bandwidths and exceptional Electromagnetic Interference immunity that exceeds all new aircraft design requirements. Additionally, aircraft manufacturers have shown production readiness of fiber optic systems and design feasibility.

  11. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  12. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  13. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  14. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings...

  16. 19 CFR 122.37 - Precleared aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Precleared aircraft. 122.37 Section 122.37 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.37 Precleared aircraft. (a) Application. This section applies when aircraft carrying crew, passengers and baggage, or merchandise which has...

  17. 31 CFR 560.528 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft safety. 560.528 Section 560..., Authorizations and Statements of Licensing Policy § 560.528 Aircraft safety. Specific licenses may be issued on a... the safety of civil aviation and safe operation of U.S.-origin commercial passenger aircraft....

  18. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements. The following items must be carried on each aircraft used for flight training and solo flights: (a) A...

  19. 14 CFR 93.83 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.83 Section 93.83... Aircraft operations. (a) North-South Corridor. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC (including the Eglin Radar Control Facility), no person may operate an aircraft in flight within the North-South...

  20. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  1. 48 CFR 908.7102 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND SERVICES Acquisition of Special Items 908.7102 Aircraft. Acquisition of aircraft shall be in accordance with DOE-PMR 41 CFR 109-38.5205. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 908.7102...

  2. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center certificate must ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights meets the...

  3. 36 CFR 13.1004 - Aircraft use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft use. 13.1004 Section... § 13.1004 Aircraft use. In extraordinary cases where no reasonable alternative exists, local rural residents who permanently reside in the following exempted community(ies) may use aircraft for access...

  4. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground...

  5. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public... Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any applicable Federal, State, and local laws, and with any additional... this part 423, with respect to aircraft landings, takeoffs, and operation on or in the proximity...

  6. 50 CFR 27.34 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 27.34 Section 27.34 Wildlife and... WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM PROHIBITED ACTS Disturbing Violations: With Vehicles § 27.34 Aircraft. The unauthorized operation of aircraft, including sail planes, and hang gliders, at altitudes resulting...

  7. 14 CFR 21.182 - Aircraft identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft identification. 21.182 Section 21.182 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates § 21.182 Aircraft identification....

  8. 14 CFR 135.25 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements of this chapter (14 CFR chapter I) that would be applicable to that aircraft were it registered in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 135.25 Section 135... REQUIREMENTS: COMMUTER AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT...

  9. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  10. 14 CFR 91.117 - Aircraft speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft speed. 91.117 Section 91.117... speed. (a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Administrator, no person may operate an aircraft below 10... than the maximum speed prescribed in this section, the aircraft may be operated at that minimum speed....

  11. 14 CFR 91.209 - Aircraft lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft lights. 91.209 Section 91.209... Requirements § 91.209 Aircraft lights. No person may: (a) During the period from sunset to sunrise (or, in... position lights; (2) Park or move an aircraft in, or in dangerous proximity to, a night flight...

  12. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  13. Aircraft Simulators and Pilot Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro, Paul W.

    Flight simulators are built as realistically as possible, presumably to enhance their training value. Yet, their training value is determined by the way they are used. Traditionally, simulators have been less important for training than have aircraft, but they are currently emerging as primary pilot training vehicles. This new emphasis is an…

  14. Promising Electric Aircraft Drive Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An overview of electric aircraft propulsion technology performance thresholds for key power system components is presented. A weight comparison of electric drive systems with equivalent total delivered energy is made to help identify component performance requirements, and promising research and development opportunities.

  15. Carbon fiber counting. [aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    A method was developed for characterizing the number and lengths of carbon fibers accidentally released by the burning of composite portions of civil aircraft structure in a jet fuel fire after an accident. Representative samplings of carbon fibers collected on transparent sticky film were counted from photographic enlargements with a computer aided technique which also provided fiber lengths.

  16. Composite structural materials. [aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1981-01-01

    The development of composite materials for aircraft applications is addressed with specific consideration of physical properties, structural concepts and analysis, manufacturing, reliability, and life prediction. The design and flight testing of composite ultralight gliders is documented. Advances in computer aided design and methods for nondestructive testing are also discussed.

  17. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  18. Disturbance caused by aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Josse, R.

    1980-01-01

    Noise pollution caused by the presence of airfields adjacent to residential areas is studied. Noise effects on the sleep of residents near airports and the degree of the residents noise tolerance are evaluated. What aircraft noises are annoying and to what extent the annoyance varies with sound level are discussed.

  19. Ryan Flexwing aircraft under test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    A flexible wing aircraft built by Ryan, was flown in the Full Scale Tunnel. The researcher posing as the pilot is John W. Paulson, Assistant Head of the Full Scale Tunnel. Photograph published in Sixty Years of Aeronautical Research 1917-1977, by David A. Anderton - NASA publication (page 60).

  20. Subsonic Aircraft Safety Icing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Sharon Monica; Reveley, Mary S.; Evans, Joni K.; Barrientos, Francesca A.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project is one of four projects within the agency s Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe) in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The IRAC Project, which was redesigned in the first half of 2007, conducts research to advance the state of the art in aircraft control design tools and techniques. A "Key Decision Point" was established for fiscal year 2007 with the following expected outcomes: document the most currently available statistical/prognostic data associated with icing for subsonic transport, summarize reports by subject matter experts in icing research on current knowledge of icing effects on control parameters and establish future requirements for icing research for subsonic transports including the appropriate alignment. This study contains: (1) statistical analyses of accident and incident data conducted by NASA researchers for this "Key Decision Point", (2) an examination of icing in other recent statistically based studies, (3) a summary of aviation safety priority lists that have been developed by various subject-matter experts, including the significance of aircraft icing research in these lists and (4) suggested future requirements for NASA icing research. The review of several studies by subject-matter experts was summarized into four high-priority icing research areas. Based on the Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) Project goals and objectives, the IRAC project was encouraged to conduct work in all of the high-priority icing research areas that were identified, with the exception of the developing of methods to sense and document actual icing conditions.

  1. Aircraft Mechanics: Scope and Sequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for an aircraft mechanics vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and…

  2. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  3. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two design techniques for linear flight test trajectory controllers (FTTCs) are described: Eigenstructure assignment and the minimum error excitation technique. The two techniques are used to design FTTCs for an F-15 aircraft model for eight different maneuvers at thirty different flight conditions. An evaluation of the FTTCs is presented.

  4. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  5. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  6. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  7. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  8. 14 CFR 47.61 - Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Dealers' Aircraft Registration Certificate § 47.61 Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificates. (a) The FAA issues a Dealer's Aircraft Registration Certificate,...

  9. 14 CFR 47.51 - Triennial aircraft registration report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Triennial aircraft registration report. 47... AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.51 Triennial aircraft... occurred within the preceding 36 calendar months, the holder of each Certificate of Aircraft...

  10. 14 CFR 47.33 - Aircraft not previously registered anywhere.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft not previously registered anywhere... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.33 Aircraft not previously registered anywhere. (a) A person who is the owner of an aircraft that has not been...

  11. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  12. Survival analysis of aging aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides, Samuel

    This study pushes systems engineering of aging aircraft beyond the boundaries of empirical and deterministic modeling by making a sharp break with the traditional laboratory-derived corrosion prediction algorithms that have shrouded real-world failures of aircraft structure. At the heart of this problem is the aeronautical industry's inability to be forthcoming in an accurate model that predicts corrosion failures in aircraft in spite of advances in corrosion algorithms or improvements in simulation and modeling. The struggle to develop accurate corrosion probabilistic models stems from a multitude of real-world interacting variables that synergistically influence corrosion in convoluted and complex ways. This dissertation, in essence, offers a statistical framework for the analysis of structural airframe corrosion failure by utilizing real-world data while considering the effects of interacting corrosion variables. This study injects realism into corrosion failures of aging aircraft systems by accomplishing four major goals related to the conceptual and methodological framework of corrosion modeling. First, this work connects corrosion modeling from the traditional, laboratory derived algorithms to corrosion failures in actual operating aircraft. This work augments physics-based modeling by examining the many confounding and interacting variables, such as environmental, geographical and operational, that impact failure of airframe structure. Examined through the lens of censored failure data from aircraft flying in a maritime environment, this study enhances the understanding between the triad of the theoretical, laboratory and real-world corrosion. Secondly, this study explores the importation and successful application of an advanced biomedical statistical tool---survival analysis---to model censored corrosion failure data. This well-grounded statistical methodology is inverted from a methodology that analyzes survival to one that examines failures. Third, this

  13. Laser Powered Aircraft Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    A team of NASA researchers from Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Dryden Flight Research center have proven that beamed light can be used to power an aircraft, a first-in-the-world accomplishment to the best of their knowledge. Using an experimental custom built radio-controlled model aircraft, the team has demonstrated a system that beams enough light energy from the ground to power the propeller of an aircraft and sustain it in flight. Special photovoltaic arrays on the plane, similar to solar cells, receive the light energy and convert it to electric current to drive the propeller motor. In a series of indoor flights this week at MSFC, a lightweight custom built laser beam was aimed at the airplane `s solar panels. The laser tracks the plane, maintaining power on its cells until the end of the flight when the laser is turned off and the airplane glides to a landing. The laser source demonstration represents the capability to beam more power to a plane so that it can reach higher altitudes and have a greater flight range without having to carry fuel or batteries, enabling an indefinite flight time. The demonstration was a collaborative effort between the Dryden Center at Edward's, California, where the aircraft was designed and built, and MSFC, where integration and testing of the laser and photovoltaic cells was done. Laser power beaming is a promising technology for consideration in new aircraft design and operation, and supports NASA's goals in the development of revolutionary aerospace technologies. Photographed with their invention are (from left to right): David Bushman and Tony Frackowiak, both of Dryden; and MSFC's Robert Burdine.

  14. Hydrogen Storage for Aircraft Applications Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Kohout, Lisa (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advances in fuel cell technology have brought about their consideration as sources of power for aircraft. This power can be utilized to run aircraft systems or even provide propulsion power. One of the key obstacles to utilizing fuel cells on aircraft is the storage of hydrogen. An overview of the potential methods of hydrogen storage was compiled. This overview identifies various methods of hydrogen storage and points out their advantages and disadvantages relative to aircraft applications. Minimizing weight and volume are the key aspects to storing hydrogen within an aircraft. An analysis was performed to show how changes in certain parameters of a given storage system affect its mass and volume.

  15. Factors influencing aircraft ground handling performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    Problems associated with aircraft ground handling operations on wet runways are discussed and major factors which influence tire/runway braking and cornering traction capability are identified including runway characteristics, tire hydroplaning, brake system anomalies, and pilot inputs. Research results from tests with instrumented ground vehicles and aircraft, and aircraft wet runway accident investigation are summarized to indicate the effects of different aircraft, tire, and runway parameters. Several promising means are described for improving tire/runway water drainage capability, brake system efficiency, and pilot training to help optimize aircraft traction performance on wet runways.

  16. Perspectives on Highly Adaptive or Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Vicroy, Dan D.; Busan, Ronald C.; Hahn, Andrew S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt to different flight conditions has been fundamental to aircraft design since the Wright Brothers first flight. Over a hundred years later, unconventional aircraft adaptability, often called aircraft morphing has become a topic of considerable renewed interest. In the past two decades, this interest has been largely fuelled by advancements in multi-functional or smart materials and structures. However, highly adaptive or morphing aircraft is certainly a cross-discipline challenge that stimulates a wide range of design possibilities. This paper will review some of the history of morphing aircraft including recent research programs and discuss some perspectives on this work.

  17. Structural analysis of light aircraft using NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. T.; Bruce, A. C.

    1973-01-01

    An application of NASTRAN to the structural analysis of light aircraft was conducted to determine the cost effectiveness. A model of the Baby Ace D model homebuilt aircraft was used. The NASTRAN model of the aircraft consists of 193 grid points connected by 352 structural members. All members are either rod or beam elements, including bending of unsymmetrical cross sections and torsion of noncircular cross sections. The aerodynamic loads applied to the aircraft were in accordance with FAA regulations governing the utility category aircraft.

  18. Refurbishment of NASA aircraft with fire-retardant materials. [aircraft compartments of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supkis, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Selected fire-retardant materials for possible application to commercial aircraft are described. The results of flammability screening tests and information on the physical and chemical properties of both original and newly installed materials after extended use are presented in tabular form, with emphasis on wear properties, strength, puncture and tear resistances, and cleanability.

  19. Stability-Augmentation Devices for Miniature Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, RIchard M.

    2005-01-01

    Non-aerodynamic mechanical devices are under consideration as means to augment the stability of miniature autonomous and remotely controlled aircraft. Such aircraft can be used for diverse purposes, including military reconnaissance, radio communications, and safety-related monitoring of wide areas. The need for stability-augmentation devices arises because adverse meteorological conditions generally affect smaller aircraft more strongly than they affect larger aircraft: Miniature aircraft often become uncontrollable under conditions that would not be considered severe enough to warrant grounding of larger aircraft. The need for the stability-augmentation devices to be non-aerodynamic arises because there is no known way to create controlled aerodynamic forces sufficient to counteract the uncontrollable meteorological forces on miniature aircraft. A stability-augmentation device of the type under consideration includes a mass pod (a counterweight) at the outer end of a telescoping shaft, plus associated equipment to support the operation of the aircraft. The telescoping shaft and mass pod are stowed in the rear of the aircraft. When deployed, they extend below the aircraft. Optionally, an antenna for radio communication can be integrated into the shaft. At the time of writing this article, the deployment of the telescoping shaft and mass pod was characterized as passive and automatic, but information about the deployment mechanism(s) was not available. The feasibility of this stability-augmentation concept was demonstrated in flights of hand-launched prototype aircraft.

  20. Ignition characteristics of some aircraft interior fabrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Brandt, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Six samples of aircraft interior fabrics were evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by radiant heat. Five samples were aircraft seat upholstery fabrics and one sample was an aircraft curtain fabric. The aircraft seat fabrics were 100% wool (2 samples), 83% wool/17% nylon, 49% wool/51% polyvinyl chloride, and 100% rayon. The aircraft curtain fabric was 92% modacrylic/8% polyester. The five samples of aircraft seat upholstery fabrics were also evaluated with regard to resistance to ignition by a smoldering cigarette. The four samples of wool-containing aircraft seat fabrics appeared to be superior to the sample of rayon seat fabric in resistance to ignition, both by radiant heat and by a smoldering cigarette.

  1. Instrument for Aircraft-Icing and Cloud-Physics Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilie, Lyle; Bouley, Dan; Sivo, Chris

    2006-01-01

    The figure shows a compact, rugged, simple sensor head that is part of an instrumentation system for making measurements to characterize the severity of aircraft-icing conditions and/or to perform research on cloud physics. The quantities that are calculated from measurement data acquired by this system and that are used to quantify the severity of icing conditions include sizes of cloud water drops, cloud liquid water content (LWC), cloud ice water content (IWC), and cloud total water content (TWC). The sensor head is mounted on the outside of an aircraft, positioned and oriented to intercept the ambient airflow. The sensor head consists of an open housing that is heated in a controlled manner to keep it free of ice and that contains four hot-wire elements. The hot-wire sensing elements have different shapes and sizes and, therefore, exhibit different measurement efficiencies with respect to droplet size and water phase (liquid, frozen, or mixed). Three of the hot-wire sensing elements are oriented across the airflow so as to intercept incoming cloud water. For each of these elements, the LWC or TWC affects the power required to maintain a constant temperature in the presence of cloud water.

  2. Aircraft digital control design methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.; Parsons, E.; Tashker, M. G.

    1976-01-01

    Variations in design methods for aircraft digital flight control are evaluated and compared. The methods fall into two categories; those where the design is done in the continuous domain (or s plane) and those where the design is done in the discrete domain (or z plane). Design method fidelity is evaluated by examining closed loop root movement and the frequency response of the discretely controlled continuous aircraft. It was found that all methods provided acceptable performance for sample rates greater than 10 cps except the uncompensated s plane design method which was acceptable above 20 cps. A design procedure based on optimal control methods was proposed that provided the best fidelity at very slow sample rates and required no design iterations for changing sample rates.

  3. Dynamic response of aircraft structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The physical and mathematical problems associated with the response of elastic structures to random excitations such as occurs during buffeting and other transonic phenomena were discussed. The following subjects were covered: (1) general dynamic system consisting of the aircraft structure, the aerodynamic driving forces due to separated flow, and the aerodynamic forces due to aircraft structural motion, (2) structural and aerodynamic quantities of the dynamic system with special emphasis given to the description of the aerodynamic forces, and including a treatment of similarity laws, scaling effects, and wind tunnel testing, and (3) methods for data processing of fluctuating pressure recordings and techniques for response analysis for random excitation. A general buffeting flutter model, which takes into account the interactions between the separated and motion induced flows was presented. Relaxations of this model leading to the forced vibration model were explained.

  4. Safe structures for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccomb, H. G., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The failure mechanisms, design lessons, and test equipment employed by NASA in establishing the airworthiness and crashworthiness of aircraft components for commercial applications are described. The composites test programs have progressed to medium primary structures such as stabilizers and a vertical fin. The failures encountered to date have been due to the nonyielding nature of composites, which do not diffuse loads like metals, and the presence of eccentricities, irregular shapes, stiffness changes, and discontinuities that cause tension and shear. Testing to failure, which always occurred in first tests before the design loads were reached, helped identify design changes and reinforcements that produced successful products. New materials and NDE techniques are identified, together with aircraft structural design changes that offer greater protection to the passengers, fuel antimisting agents, and landing gear systems.

  5. CID Aircraft slap-down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In this photograph the B-720 is seen during the moments of initial impact. The left wing is digging into the lakebed while the aircraft continues sliding towards wing openers. In 1984 NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID). The test involved crashing a Boeing 720 aircraft with four JT3C-7 engines burning a mixture of standard fuel with an additive, Anti-misting Kerosene (AMK), designed to supress fire. In a typical aircraft crash, fuel spilled from ruptured fuel tanks forms a fine mist that can be ignited by a number of sources at the crash site. In 1984 the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (after 1994 a full-fledged Center again) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) teamed-up in a unique flight experiment called the Controlled Impact Demonstration (CID), to test crash a Boeing 720 aircraft using standard fuel with an additive designed to supress fire. The additive, FM-9, a high-molecular-weight long-chain polymer, when blended with Jet-A fuel had demonstrated the capability to inhibit ignition and flame propagation of the released fuel in simulated crash tests. This anti-misting kerosene (AMK) cannot be introduced directly into a gas turbine engine due to several possible problems such as clogging of filters. The AMK must be restored to almost Jet-A before being introduced into the engine for burning. This restoration is called 'degradation' and was accomplished on the B-720 using a device called a 'degrader.' Each of the four Pratt & Whitney JT3C-7 engines had a 'degrader' built and installed by General Electric (GE) to break down and return the AMK to near Jet-A quality. In addition to the AMK research the NASA Langley Research Center was involved in a structural loads measurement experiment, which included having instrumented dummies filling the seats in the passenger compartment. Before the final flight on December 1

  6. Perception of aircraft Deviation Cues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne; Azuma, Ronald; Fox, Jason; Verma, Savita; Lozito, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    To begin to address the need for new displays, required by a future airspace concept to support new roles that will be assigned to flight crews, a study of potentially informative display cues was undertaken. Two cues were tested on a simple plan display - aircraft trajectory and flight corridor. Of particular interest was the speed and accuracy with which participants could detect an aircraft deviating outside its flight corridor. Presence of the trajectory cue significantly reduced participant reaction time to a deviation while the flight corridor cue did not. Although non-significant, the flight corridor cue seemed to have a relationship with the accuracy of participants judgments rather than their speed. As this is the second of a series of studies, these issues will be addressed further in future studies.

  7. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-03-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  8. The microburst - Hazard to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Serafin, R.

    1984-01-01

    In encounters with microbursts, low altitude aircraft first encounter a strong headwind which increases their wing lift and altitude; this phenomenon is followed in short succession by a decreasing headwind component, a downdraft, and finally a strong tailwind that catastrophically reduces wing lift and precipitates a crash dive. It is noted that the potentially lethal low altitude wind shear of a microburst may lie in apparently harmless, rain-free air beneath a cloud base. Occasionally, such tell-tale signs as localized blowing of ground dust may be sighted in time. Microbursts may, however, occur in the heavy rain of a thunderstorm, where they will be totally obscured from view. Wind shear may be detected by an array of six anemometers and vanes situated in the vicinity of an airport, and by Doppler radar equipment at the airport or aboard aircraft.

  9. Handbook of aircraft noise metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, R. L.; Pearsons, K. S.

    1981-01-01

    Information is presented on 22 noise metrics that are associated with the measurement and prediction of the effects of aircraft noise. Some of the instantaneous frequency weighted sound level measures, such as A-weighted sound level, are used to provide multiple assessment of the aircraft noise level. Other multiple event metrics, such as day-night average sound level, were designed to relate sound levels measured over a period of time to subjective responses in an effort to determine compatible land uses and aid in community planning. The various measures are divided into: (1) instantaneous sound level metrics; (2) duration corrected single event metrics; (3) multiple event metrics; and (4) speech communication metrics. The scope of each measure is examined in terms of its: definition, purpose, background, relationship to other measures, calculation method, example, equipment, references, and standards.

  10. Trends in transport aircraft avionics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1973-01-01

    A survey of avionics onboard present commercial transport aircraft was conducted to identify trends in avionics systems characteristics and to determine the impact of technology advances on equipment weight, cost, reliability, and maintainability. Transport aircraft avionics systems are described under the headings of communication, navigation, flight control, and instrumentation. The equipment included in each section is described functionally. However, since more detailed descriptions of the equipment can be found in other sources, the description is limited and emphasis is put on configuration requirements. Since airborne avionics systems must interface with ground facilities, certain ground facilities are described as they relate to the airborne systems, with special emphasis on air traffic control and all-weather landing capability.

  11. Aircraft Cabin Turbulence Warning Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogue, Rodney K.; Larcher, Kenneth

    2006-01-01

    New turbulence prediction technology offers the potential for advance warning of impending turbulence encounters, thereby allowing necessary cabin preparation time prior to the encounter. The amount of time required for passengers and flight attendants to be securely seated (that is, seated with seat belts fastened) currently is not known. To determine secured seating-based warning times, a consortium of aircraft safety organizations have conducted an experiment involving a series of timed secured seating trials. This demonstrative experiment, conducted on October 1, 2, and 3, 2002, used a full-scale B-747 wide-body aircraft simulator, human passenger subjects, and supporting staff from six airlines. Active line-qualified flight attendants from three airlines participated in the trials. Definitive results have been obtained to provide secured seating-based warning times for the developers of turbulence warning technology

  12. Fourth Aircraft Interior Noise Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, David G. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    The fourth in a series of NASA/SAE Interior Noise Workshops was held on May 19 and 20, 1992. The theme of the workshop was new technology and applications for aircraft noise with emphasis on source noise prediction; cabin noise prediction; cabin noise control, including active and passive methods; and cabin interior noise procedures. This report is a compilation of the presentations made at the meeting which addressed the above issues.

  13. Process modeling KC-135 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    Instrumentation will be provided for KC-135 aircraft which will provide a quantitative measure of g-level variation during parabolic flights and its effect on experiments which demonstrate differences in results obtained with differences in convective flow. The flight apparatus will provide video recording of the effects of the g-level variations on varying fluid samples. The apparatus will be constructed to be available to fly on the KC-135 during most missions.

  14. Torsional vibration of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurenbaum, Karl

    1932-01-01

    Exhaustive torsional-vibration investigations are required to determine the reliability of aircraft engines. A general outline of the methods used for such investigations and of the theoretical and mechanical means now available for this purpose is given, illustrated by example. True vibration diagrams are usually obtained from vibration measurements on the completed engine. Two devices for this purpose and supplementing each other, the D.V.L. torsiograph and the D.V.L. torsion recorder, are described in this report.

  15. Oblique-wing supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An aircraft including a single fuselage having a main wing and a horizontal stabilizer airfoil pivotally attached at their centers to the fuselage is described. The pivotal attachments allow the airfoils to be yawed relative to the fuselage for high speed flight, and to be positioned at right angles with respect to the fuselage during takeoff, landing, and low speed flight. The main wing and the horizontal stabilizer are upwardly curved from their center pivotal connections towards their ends to form curvilinear dihedrals.

  16. Properties of aircraft tire materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Richard N.; Clark, Samuel K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary is presented of measured elastomeric composite response suitable for linear structural and thermoelastic analysis in aircraft tires. Both real and loss properties are presented for a variety of operating conditions including the effects of temperature and frequency. Suitable micro-mechanics models are used for predictions of these properties for other material combinations and the applicability of laminate theory is discussed relative to measured values.

  17. Aircraft flight test trajectory control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K. A.; Walker, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Two control law design techniques are compared and the performance of the resulting controllers evaluated. The design requirement is for a flight test trajectory controller (FTTC) capable of closed-loop, outer-loop control of an F-15 aircraft performing high-quality research flight test maneuvers. The maneuver modeling, linearization, and design methodologies utilized in this research, are detailed. The results of applying these FTTCs to a nonlinear F-15 simulation are presented.

  18. Small Aircraft Data Distribution System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chazanoff, Seth L.; Dinardo, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    The CARVE Small Aircraft Data Distribution System acquires the aircraft location and attitude data that is required by the various programs running on a distributed network. This system distributes the data it acquires to the data acquisition programs for inclusion in their data files. It uses UDP (User Datagram Protocol) to broadcast data over a LAN (Local Area Network) to any programs that might have a use for the data. The program is easily adaptable to acquire additional data and log that data to disk. The current version also drives displays using precision pitch and roll information to aid the pilot in maintaining a level-level attitude for radar/radiometer mapping beyond the degree available by flying visually or using a standard gyro-driven attitude indicator. The software is designed to acquire an array of data to help the mission manager make real-time decisions as to the effectiveness of the flight. This data is displayed for the mission manager and broadcast to the other experiments on the aircraft for inclusion in their data files. The program also drives real-time precision pitch and roll displays for the pilot and copilot to aid them in maintaining the desired attitude, when required, during data acquisition on mapping lines.

  19. NASA aircraft trailing vortex research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgowan, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    A brief description is given of NASA's comprehensive program to study the aircraft trailing vortex problem. Wind tunnel experiments are used to develop the detailed processes of wing tip vortex formation and explore different means to either prevent trailing vortices from forming or induce early break-up. Flight tests provide information on trailing vortex system behavior behind large transport aircraft, both near the ground, as in the vicinity of the airport, and at cruise/holding pattern altitudes. Results from some flight tests are used to show how pilots might avoid the dangerous areas when flying in the vicinity of large transport aircraft. Other flight tests will be made to verify and evaluate trailing vortex elimination schemes developed in the model tests. Laser Doppler velocimeters being developed for use in the research program and to locate and measure vortex winds in the airport area are discussed. Field tests have shown that the laser Doppler velocimeter measurements compare well with those from cup anemometers.

  20. Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara

    1998-01-01

    The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.

  1. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  2. PREDICTION OF AIRCRAFT NOISE LEVELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    Methods developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting the noise contributions from various aircraft noise sources have been incorporated into a computer program for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground test. The noise sources accounted for include fan inlet and exhaust, jet, flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine, and airframe. Noise propagation corrections are available in the program for atmospheric attenuation, ground reflections, extra ground attenuation, and shielding. The capacity to solve the geometrical relationships between an aircraft in flight and an observer on the ground has been included in the program to make it useful in evaluating noise estimates and footprints for various proposed engine installations. The program contains two main routines for employing the noise prediction routines. The first main routine consists of a procedure to calculate at various observer stations the time history of the noise from an aircraft flying at a specified set of speeds, orientations, and space coordinates. The various components of the noise are computed by the program. For each individual source, the noise levels are free field with no corrections for propagation losses other than spherical divergence. The total spectra may then be corrected for the usual effects of atmospheric attenuation, extra ground attenuation, ground reflection, and aircraft shielding. Next, the corresponding values of overall sound pressure level, perceived noise level, and tone-weighted perceived noise level are calculated. From the time history at each point, true effective perceived noise levels are calculated. Thus, values of effective perceived noise levels, maximum perceived noise levels, and tone-weighted perceived noise levels are found for a grid of specified points on the ground. The second main routine is designed to give the usual format of one-third octave sound pressure level values at a fixed radius for a number of user

  3. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  4. The outlook for advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavens, J. M., Jr.; Schaufele, R. D.; Jones, R. T.; Steiner, J. E.; Beteille, R.; Titcomb, G. A.; Coplin, J. F.; Rowe, B. H.; Lloyd-Jones, D. J.; Overend, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The technological advances most likely to contribute to advanced aircraft designs and the efficiency, performance, and financial considerations driving the development directions for new aircraft are reviewed. Fuel-efficiency is perceived as the most critical factor for any new aircraft or component design, with most gains expected to come in areas of propulsion, aerodynamics, configurations, structural designs and materials, active controls, digital avionics, laminar flow control, and air-traffic control improvements. Any component area offers an efficiency improvement of 3-12%, with a maximum of 50% possible with a 4000 m range aircraft. Advanced turboprops have potential applications in short and medium haul subsonic aircraft, while a fuel efficient SST may be possible by the year 2000. Further discussion is devoted to the pivoted oblique wing aircraft, lightweight structures, and the necessity for short payback times.

  5. Aircraft Photovoltaic Power-Generating System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doellner, Oscar Leonard

    Photovoltaic cells, appropriately cooled and operating in the combustion-created high radiant-intensity environment of gas-turbine and jet engines, may replace the conventional (gearbox-driven) electrical power generators aboard jet aircraft. This study projects significant improvements not only in aircraft electrical power-generating-system performance, but also in overall aircraft performance. Jet -engine design modifications incorporating this concept not only save weight (and thus fuel), but are--in themselves --favorable to jet-engine performance. The dissertation concentrates on operational, constructional, structural, thermal, optical, radiometrical, thin-film, and solid-state theoretical aspects of the overall project. This new electrical power-generating system offers solid-state reliability with electrical power-output capability comparable to that of existing aircraft electromechanical power-generating systems (alternators and generators). In addition to improvements in aircraft performance, significant aircraft fuel- and weight-saving advantages are projected.

  6. Advanced technology for future regional transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1982-01-01

    In connection with a request for a report coming from a U.S. Senate committee, NASA formed a Small Transport Aircraft Technology (STAT) team in 1978. STAT was to obtain information concerning the technical improvements in commuter aircraft that would likely increase their public acceptance. Another area of study was related to questions regarding the help which could be provided by NASA's aeronautical research and development program to commuter aircraft manufacturers with respect to the solution of technical problems. Attention is given to commuter airline growth, current commuter/region aircraft and new aircraft in development, prospects for advanced technology commuter/regional transports, and potential benefits of advanced technology. A list is provided of a number of particular advances appropriate to small transport aircraft, taking into account small gas turbine engine component technology, propeller technology, three-dimensional wing-design technology, airframe aerodynamics/propulsion integration, and composite structure materials.

  7. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  8. Design Methods and Optimization for Morphing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crossley, William A.

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a summary of accomplishments made during this research effort. The major accomplishments are in three areas. The first is the use of a multiobjective optimization strategy to help identify potential morphing features that uses an existing aircraft sizing code to predict the weight, size and performance of several fixed-geometry aircraft that are Pareto-optimal based upon on two competing aircraft performance objectives. The second area has been titled morphing as an independent variable and formulates the sizing of a morphing aircraft as an optimization problem in which the amount of geometric morphing for various aircraft parameters are included as design variables. This second effort consumed most of the overall effort on the project. The third area involved a more detailed sizing study of a commercial transport aircraft that would incorporate a morphing wing to possibly enable transatlantic point-to-point passenger service.

  9. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  10. Maintenance cost study of rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility was studied of predicting rotary wing operation maintenance costs by using several aircraft design factors for the aircraft dynamic systems. The dynamic systems considered were engines, drives and transmissions, rotors, and flight controls. Multiple regression analysis was used to correlate aircraft design and operational factors with manhours per flight hour, and equations for each dynamic system were developed. Results of labor predictions using the equations compare favorably with actual values.

  11. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    Airlines have been continuously upgrading their wide-body, long-haul aircraft with IFE (in-flight entertainment) systems that can support from 12 to 24 channels of video entertainment as well as provide the infrastructure to enable in-seat delivery of email and internet services. This is a direct consequence of increased passenger demands for improved in-flight services along with the expectations that broadband delivery systems capable of providing live entertainment (news, sports, financial information, etc.) and high speed data delivery will soon be available. The recent events of Sept. 11 have slowed the airline's upgrade of their IFE systems, but have also highlighted the compelling need for broadband aeronautical delivery systems to include operational and safety information. Despite the impact of these events, it is estimated that by 2005 more than 3000 long haul aircraft (servicing approximately 1 billion passengers annually) will be fully equipped with modern IFE systems. Current aircraft data delivery systems, which use either Inmarsat or NATS, are lacking in bandwidth and consequently are unsuitable to satisfy passenger demands for broadband email/internet services or the airlines' burgeoning data requirements. Present live video delivery services are limited to regional coverage and are not readily expandable to global or multiregional service. Faced with a compelling market demand for high data transport to aircraft, AirTV has been developing a broadband delivery system that will meet both passengers' and airlines' needs. AirTV is a global content delivery system designed to provide a range of video programming and data services to commercial airlines. When AirTV is operational in 2004, it will provide a broadband connection directly to the aircraft, delivering live video entertainment, internet/email service and essential operational and safety data. The system has been designed to provide seamless global service to all airline routes except for those

  12. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  13. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  14. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  15. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  16. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  17. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  18. 19 CFR 122.32 - Aircraft required to land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aircraft required to land. 122.32 Section 122.32... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.32 Aircraft required to land. (a) Any aircraft... where aircraft entering the U.S. from a foreign area may land. As such, aircraft must land at...

  19. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  20. 19 CFR 122.32 - Aircraft required to land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aircraft required to land. 122.32 Section 122.32... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.32 Aircraft required to land. (a) Any aircraft... where aircraft entering the U.S. from a foreign area may land. As such, aircraft must land at...

  1. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  2. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  3. 19 CFR 122.32 - Aircraft required to land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aircraft required to land. 122.32 Section 122.32... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.32 Aircraft required to land. (a) Any aircraft... where aircraft entering the U.S. from a foreign area may land. As such, aircraft must land at...

  4. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  5. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  6. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  7. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  8. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  9. 19 CFR 122.61 - Aircraft required to clear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.61 Aircraft required... area. (b) Any aircraft used by members of air travel clubs are required to clear, and foreign aircraft... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aircraft required to clear. 122.61 Section...

  10. 19 CFR 122.32 - Aircraft required to land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aircraft required to land. 122.32 Section 122.32... TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Landing Requirements § 122.32 Aircraft required to land. (a) Any aircraft... where aircraft entering the U.S. from a foreign area may land. As such, aircraft must land at...

  11. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  12. 14 CFR 91.7 - Civil aircraft airworthiness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil aircraft airworthiness. 91.7 Section... aircraft airworthiness. (a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition. (b) The pilot in command of a civil aircraft is responsible for determining whether that aircraft...

  13. 14 CFR 91.111 - Operating near other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Operating near other aircraft. 91.111... § 91.111 Operating near other aircraft. (a) No person may operate an aircraft so close to another aircraft as to create a collision hazard. (b) No person may operate an aircraft in formation flight...

  14. Aircraft acoustics. I - Exterior noise of subsonic passenger aircraft and helicopters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munin, Anatolii Grigor'evich

    Problems related to the effect of the exterior noise produced by subsonic aircraft and helicopters on the environment and man are examined. The principal sources of noise produced by aircraft and helicopters are identified, and the physical pattern of noise generation is examined. Various method of reducing the noise of aircraft and helicopters are discussed, and methods are presented for predicting the acoustic environment at airports with allowance for the size of the aircraft park and the dynamics of flight operations.

  15. A parametric determination of transport aircraft price

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Cost per unit weight and other airframe and engine cost relations are given. Power equations representing these relations are presented for six airplane groups: general aircraft, turboprop transports, small jet transports, conventional jet transports, wide-body transports, supersonic transports, and for reciprocating, turboshaft, and turbothrust engines. Market prices calculated for a number of aircraft by use of the equations together with the aircraft characteristics are in reasonably good agreement with actual prices. Such price analyses are of value in the assessment of new aircraft devices and designs and potential research and development programs.

  16. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  17. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  18. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  19. Challenges for the aircraft structural integrity program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty-six years ago the United States Air Force established the USAF Aircraft Structural Integrity Program (ASIP) because flight safety had been degraded by fatigue failures of operational aircraft. This initial program evolved, but has been stable since the issuance of MIL-STD-1530A in 1975. Today, the program faces new challenges because of a need to maintain aircraft longer in an environment of reduced funding levels. Also, there is increased pressure to reduce cost of the acquisition of new aircraft. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the challenges for the ASIP and identify the changes in the program that will meet these challenges in the future.

  20. The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    The objective of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program is to accelerate the development of advanced technology for more energy-efficient subsonic transport aircraft. This program will have application to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s. Six major technology projects were defined that could result in fuel savings in commercial aircraft: (1) Engine Component Improvement, (2) Energy Efficient Engine, (3) Advanced Turboprops, (4) Energy Efficiency Transport (aerodynamically speaking), (5) Laminar Flow Control, and (6) Composite Primary Structures.

  1. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  2. An Assessment of Commuter Aircraft Noise Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl S.; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    1996-01-01

    This report examines several approaches to understanding 'the commuter aircraft noise problem.' The commuter aircraft noise problem in the sense addressed in this report is the belief that some aspect(s) of community response to noise produced by commuter aircraft operations may not be fully assessed by conventional environmental noise metrics and methods. The report offers alternate perspectives and approaches for understanding this issue. The report also develops a set of diagnostic screening questions; describes commuter aircraft noise situations at several airports; and makes recommendations for increasing understanding of the practical consequences of greater heterogeneity in the air transport fleet serving larger airports.

  3. An aircraft sensor fault tolerant system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caglayan, A. K.; Lancraft, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The design of a sensor fault tolerant system which uses analytical redundancy for the Terminal Configured Vehicle (TCV) research aircraft in a Microwave Landing System (MLS) environment was studied. The fault tolerant system provides reliable estimates for aircraft position, velocity, and attitude in the presence of possible failures in navigation aid instruments and onboard sensors. The estimates, provided by the fault tolerant system, are used by the automated guidance and control system to land the aircraft along a prescribed path. Sensor failures are identified by utilizing the analytic relationship between the various sensor outputs arising from the aircraft equations of motion.

  4. Electromagnetic Propagation Prediction Inside Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, Genevieve; Vahala, Linda; Beggs, John H.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic propagation models for signal strength prediction within aircraft cabins are essential for evaluating and designing a wireless communication system to be implemented onboard aircraft. A model was developed using Wireless Valley's SitePlanner; which is commercial grade software intended for predictions within office buildings. The performance of the model was evaluated through a comparison with test data measurements taken on several aircraft. The comparison concluded that the model can accurately predict power propagation within the cabin. This model can enhance researchers understanding of power propagation within aircraft cabins and will aid in future research.

  5. Commercial aircraft fuel efficiency potential through 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Aircraft are second only to motor vehicles in the use of motor fuels, and air travel is growing twice as fast. Since 1970 air travel has more than tripled, but the growth of fuel use has been restrained by a near doubling of efficiency, from 26.2 seat miles per gallon (SMPG) in 1970 to about 49 SMPG in 1989. This paper explores the potential for future efficiency improvements via the replacement of existing aircraft with 1990's generation'' and post 2000'' aircraft incorporating advances in engine and airframe technology. Today, new commercial passenger aircraft deliver 50--70 SMPG. New aircraft types scheduled for delivery in the early 1990's are expected to achieve 65--80 SMPG. Industry and government researchers have identified technologies capable of boosting aircraft efficiencies to the 100--150 SMPG range. Under current industry plans, which do not include a post-2000 generation of new aircraft, the total aircraft fleet should reach the vicinity of 65 SMPG by 2010. A new generation of 100--150 SMPG aircraft introduced in 2005 could raise the fleet average efficiency to 75--80 SMPG in 2010. In any case, fuel use will likely continue to grow at from 1--2%/yr. through 2010. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Technical Seminar: "Progress in Aircraft Noise Research"""

    NASA Video Gallery

    Advances in aircraft noise research can be attributed to the development of new technologies and sustained collaboration with industry, universities and government organizations. Emphasis has been ...

  7. Program to compute the positions of the aircraft and of the aircraft sensor footprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paris, J. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The positions of the ground track of the aircraft and of the aircraft sensor footprints, in particular the metric camera and the radar scatterometer on the C-130 aircraft, are estimated by a program called ACTRK. The program uses the altitude, speed, and attitude informaton contained in the radar scatterometer data files to calculate the positions. The ACTRK program is documented.

  8. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  9. Resonance vibrations of aircraft propellers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebers, Fritz

    1932-01-01

    On the basis of the consideration of various possible kinds of propeller vibrations, the resonance vibrations caused by unequal impacts of the propeller blades appear to be the most important. Their theoretical investigation is made by separate analysis of torsional and bending vibrations. This method is justified by the very great difference in the two natural frequencies of aircraft propeller blades. The calculated data are illustrated by practical examples. Thereby the observed vibration phenomenon in the given examples is explained by a bending resonance, for which the bending frequency of the propeller is equal to twice the revolution speed.

  10. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  11. Titanium fasteners. [for aircraft industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Titanium fasteners are used in large quantities throughout the aircraft industry. Most of this usage is in aluminum structure; where titanium structure exists, titanium fasteners are logically used as well. Titanium fasteners offer potential weight savings to the designer at a cost of approximately $30 per pound of weight saved. Proper and least cost usage must take into consideration type of fastener per application, galvanic couples and installation characteristics of protective coatings, cosmetic appearance, paint adhesion, installation forces and methods available and fatigue performance required.

  12. Cyberinfrastructure for Aircraft Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2010-01-01

    Forth last several years NASA's Airborne Science Program has been developing and using infrastructure and applications that enable researchers to interact with each other and with airborne instruments via network communications. Use of these tools has increased near realtime situational awareness during field operations, resulting it productivity improvements, improved decision making, and the collection of better data. Advances in pre-mission planning and post-mission access have also emerged. Integrating these capabilities with other tools to evolve coherent service-oriented enterprise architecture for aircraft flight and test operations is the subject of ongoing efforts.

  13. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  14. Innovative Materials for Aircraft Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. O.; Wise, S. A.; Bryant, R. G.; Cano, R. J.; Gates, T. S.; Hinkley, J. A.; Rogowski, R. S.; Whitley, K. S.

    1997-01-01

    Reported herein is an overview of the research being conducted within the Materials Division at NASA Langley Research Center on the development of smart material technologies for advanced airframe systems. The research is a part of the Aircraft Morphing Program which is a new six-year research program to develop smart components for self-adaptive airframe systems. The fundamental areas of materials research within the program are computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; advanced fiber optic sensing techniques; and fabrication of integrated composite structures. This paper presents a portion of the ongoing research in each of these areas of materials research.

  15. Combustor technology for future aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    The continuing improvement of aircraft gas turbine engine operating efficiencies involves increases in overall engine pressure ratio increases that will result in combustor inlet pressure and temperature increases, greater combustion temperature rises, and higher combustor exit temperatures. These conditions entail the development of fuel injectors generating uniform circumferential and radial temperature patterns, as well as combustor liner configurations and materials capable of withstanding increased thermal radiation even as the amount of cooling air is reduced. Low NO(x)-emitting combustor concepts are required which will employ staged combustion. The development status of component technologies answering these requirements are presently evaluated.

  16. Heat generation in aircraft tires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. K.; Dodge, R. N.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed for calculating the internal temperature distribution in an aircraft tire while free rolling under load. The method uses an approximate stress analysis of each point in the tire as it rolls through the contact patch, and from this stress change the mechanical work done on each volume element may be obtained and converted into a heat release rate through a knowledge of material characteristics. The tire cross-section is then considered as a body with internal heat generation, and the diffusion equation is solved numerically with appropriate boundary conditions of the wheel and runway surface. Comparison with data obtained with buried thermocouples in tires shows good agreement.

  17. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  18. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.415 - When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an aircraft and remove it from our Federal aircraft inventory? 102-33.415 Section 102-33.415 Public... Government Aircraft Federal Inventory Data § 102-33.415 When may we declassify an aircraft and remove it from... and you want to retain it, you may declassify it and remove it from your Federal aircraft...

  20. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  1. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  2. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  3. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-05-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of type A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in-situ instruments on board the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and in addition the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction model CoCiP to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. An aircraft dependence of climate relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with fuel flow rate as confirmed by observations. For higher saturation ratios approximations from theory suggest a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-1)2/3. Summarized our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft dependent contrail parameterization.

  4. Aircraft type influence on contrail properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeßberger, P.; Voigt, C.; Schumann, U.; Sölch, I.; Schlager, H.; Kaufmann, S.; Petzold, A.; Schäuble, D.; Gayet, J.-F.

    2013-12-01

    The investigation of the impact of aircraft parameters on contrail properties helps to better understand the climate impact from aviation. Yet, in observations, it is a challenge to separate aircraft and meteorological influences on contrail formation. During the CONCERT campaign in November 2008, contrails from 3 Airbus passenger aircraft of types A319-111, A340-311 and A380-841 were probed at cruise under similar meteorological conditions with in situ instruments on board DLR research aircraft Falcon. Within the 2 min-old contrails detected near ice saturation, we find similar effective diameters Deff (5.2-5.9 μm), but differences in particle number densities nice (162-235 cm-3) and in vertical contrail extensions (120-290 m), resulting in large differences in contrail optical depths τ at 550 nm (0.25-0.94). Hence larger aircraft produce optically thicker contrails. Based on the observations, we apply the EULAG-LCM model with explicit ice microphysics and, in addition, the Contrail and Cirrus Prediction (CoCiP) model to calculate the aircraft type impact on young contrails under identical meteorological conditions. The observed increase in τ for heavier aircraft is confirmed by the models, yet for generally smaller τ. CoCiP model results suggest that the aircraft dependence of climate-relevant contrail properties persists during contrail lifetime, adding importance to aircraft-dependent model initialization. We finally derive an analytical relationship between contrail, aircraft and meteorological parameters. Near ice saturation, contrail width × τ scales linearly with the fuel flow rate, as confirmed by observations. For higher relative humidity with respect to ice (RHI), the analytical relationship suggests a non-linear increase in the form (RHI-12/3. Summarized, our combined results could help to more accurately assess the climate impact from aviation using an aircraft-dependent contrail parameterization.

  5. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  6. Aircraft Landing Dynamics Facility (ALDF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Original Test Carriage: A carriage catapulted by a hydraulic jet at speeds up to 150 mph for studies of ground loads on high-speed aircraft is in operation at the Langley Research Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A drop test rig is installed on the carriage, which is catapulted 400 feet in 3.5 seconds. The carriage travels along a track and special instruments record loads data as an aircraft landing gear or other test specimen is dropped on a concrete strip. Five cables attached to a battery of 20 Navy Mark IV arresting gears, stretched across the 2,200-foot track, bring the carriage to a halt after the test run. The carriage, when loaded to its capacity of 20,000 pounds, represents a 50-ton load. The hydraulic catapult consists of a single water jet, which roars from a nozzle at the front end of the L-shaped pressure vessel (center) and is forced into a specially-shaped bucket on the carriage. The water jet, traveling at 660 feet per second, undergoes a 180 degree change of direction and floods out of another opening in the bucket below the incoming jet stream. The momentum change produces a thrust on the carriage of 400,00 pounds.

  7. Vision-based aircraft guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, P. K.

    1993-01-01

    Early research on the development of machine vision algorithms to serve as pilot aids in aircraft flight operations is discussed. The research is useful for synthesizing new cockpit instrumentation that can enhance flight safety and efficiency. With the present work as the basis, future research will produce low-cost instrument by integrating a conventional TV camera together with off-the=shelf digitizing hardware for flight test verification. Initial focus of the research will be on developing pilot aids for clear-night operations. Latter part of the research will examine synthetic vision issues for poor visibility flight operations. Both research efforts will contribute towards the high-speed civil transport aircraft program. It is anticipated that the research reported here will also produce pilot aids for conducting helicopter flight operations during emergency search and rescue. The primary emphasis of the present research effort is on near-term, flight demonstrable technologies. This report discusses pilot aids for night landing and takeoff and synthetic vision as an aid to low visibility landing.

  8. NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitfield, Charlotte E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Quiet Aircraft Technology Project is developing physics-based understanding, models and concepts to discover and realize technology that will, when implemented, achieve the goals of a reduction of one-half in perceived community noise (relative to 1997) by 2007 and a further one-half in the far term. Noise sources generated by both the engine and the airframe are considered, and the effects of engine/airframe integration are accounted for through the propulsion airframe aeroacoustics element. Assessments of the contribution of individual source noise reductions to the reduction in community noise are developed to guide the work and the development of new tools for evaluation of unconventional aircraft is underway. Life in the real world is taken into account with the development of more accurate airport noise models and flight guidance methodology, and in addition, technology is being developed that will further reduce interior noise at current weight levels or enable the use of lighter-weight structures at current noise levels.

  9. The Sonic Altimeter for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C S

    1937-01-01

    Discussed here are results already achieved with sonic altimeters in light of the theoretical possibilities of such instruments. From the information gained in this investigation, a procedure is outlined to determine whether or not a further development program is justified by the value of the sonic altimeter as an aircraft instrument. The information available in the literature is reviewed and condensed into a summary of sonic altimeter developments. Various methods of receiving the echo and timing the interval between the signal and the echo are considered. A theoretical discussion is given of sonic altimeter errors due to uncertainties in timing, variations in sound velocity, aircraft speed, location of the sending and receiving units, and inclinations of the flight path with respect to the ground surface. Plots are included which summarize the results in each case. An analysis is given of the effect of an inclined flight path on the frequency of the echo. A brief study of the acoustical phases of the sonic altimeter problem is carried through. The results of this analysis are used to predict approximately the maximum operating altitudes of a reasonably designed sonic altimeter under very good and very bad conditions. A final comparison is made between the estimated and experimental maximum operating altitudes which shows good agreement where quantitative information is available.

  10. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  11. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  12. V/STOL tilt rotor aircraft study. Volume 5: Definition of stowed rotor research aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soule, V. A.

    1973-01-01

    The results of a study of folding tilt rotor (stowed rotor) aircraft are presented. The effects of design cruise speed on the gross weight of a conceptual design stowed rotor aircraft are shown and a comparison is made with a conventional (non-folding) tilt rotor aircraft. A flight research stowed rotor design is presented. The program plans, including costs and schedules, are shown for the research aircraft development and a wind tunnel plan is presented for a full scale test of the aircraft.

  13. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  14. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  15. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section...

  16. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations §...

  17. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  18. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  19. 14 CFR 93.119 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.119 Section 93.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC....119 Aircraft operations. Each person piloting an airplane landing at the Lorain County...

  20. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section 135.125 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS... AND ON DEMAND OPERATIONS AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Flight Operations §...

  1. 14 CFR 141.75 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 141.75 Section 141.75 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS Operating Rules § 141.75 Aircraft requirements....

  2. 14 CFR 142.57 - Aircraft requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft requirements. 142.57 Section 142.57 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Requirements § 142.57 Aircraft requirements. (a) An applicant for, or holder of, a training center...

  3. 14 CFR 63.33 - Aircraft ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Turbopropeller powered; and (3) Turbojet powered. (b) To be eligible for an additional aircraft class rating... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft ratings. 63.33 Section 63.33 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED)...

  4. 14 CFR 121.538 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft security. 121.538 Section 121.538 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS..., FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Flight Operations § 121.538 Aircraft security. Certificate...

  5. Aircraft of Today. Aerospace Education I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savler, D. S.

    This textbook gives a brief idea about the modern aircraft used in defense and for commercial purposes. Aerospace technology in its present form has developed along certain basic principles of aerodynamic forces. Different parts in an airplane have different functions to balance the aircraft in air, provide a thrust, and control the general…

  6. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4... GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.4... is limited to aircraft utilized for water landings and takeoff, in this part called seaplanes, at...

  7. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  8. 36 CFR 327.4 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft. 327.4 Section 327.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY RULES AND REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC USE OF WATER RESOURCE DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS ADMINISTERED BY THE CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.4 Aircraft. (a) This section pertains...

  9. 43 CFR 423.41 - Aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft. 423.41 Section 423.41 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PUBLIC CONDUCT ON BUREAU OF RECLAMATION FACILITIES, LANDS, AND WATERBODIES Rules of Conduct § 423.41 Aircraft. (a) You must comply with any...

  10. Acoustic loads prediction on jet aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1992-07-01

    A nearfield aircraft noise prediction computer program is presented for the F-22 aircraft. The dominant sources of noise are jet turbulent mixing noise, jet broadband shock noise, and fluctuating pressure under the turbulent boundary layer. All results from this investigation are presented in viewgraph format.

  11. Acoustic loads prediction on jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, N. N.

    1992-01-01

    A nearfield aircraft noise prediction computer program is presented for the F-22 aircraft. The dominant sources of noise are jet turbulent mixing noise, jet broadband shock noise, and fluctuating pressure under the turbulent boundary layer. All results from this investigation are presented in viewgraph format.

  12. Emerging NDE Technology for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, D.G.; Perry, R.L.

    1998-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of several emerging nondestructive evaluation technologies that are being employed or considered for use to inspect commercial transport, commuter aircraft and military aircraft. An overview of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) is described and how AANC teams with industry, universities, and other federal entities to assess these technologies.

  13. Laminar flow control for transport aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    The incorporation of laminar flow control into transport aircraft is discussed. Design concepts for the wing surface panel of laminar flow control transport aircraft are described. The development of small amounts of laminar flow on small commercial transports with natural or hybrid flow control is examined. Techniques for eliminating the insect contamination problem in the leading-edge region are proposed.

  14. Pneumatic system structure for circulation control aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, Timothy A. (Inventor); Roman, Stephan (Inventor); Beurer, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A plenum for a circulation control rotor aircraft which surrounds the rotor drive shaft (18) and is so constructed that the top (32), outer (38) and bottom (36) walls through compressed air is admitted are fixed to aircraft structure and the inner wall (34) through which air passes to rotor blades (14) rotates with the drive shaft and rotor blades.

  15. 14 CFR 135.125 - Aircraft security.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....125 Aircraft security. Certificate holders conducting operators conducting operations under this part must comply with the applicable security requirements in 49 CFR chapter XII. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft security. 135.125 Section...

  16. Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

  17. A review of advanced turboprop transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Roy H.

    The application of advanced technologies shows the potential for significant improvement in the fuel efficiency and operating costs of future transport aircraft envisioned for operation in the 1990s time period. One of the more promising advanced technologies is embodied in an advanced turboprop concept originated by Hamilton Standard and NASA and known as the propfan. The propfan concept features a highly loaded multibladed, variable pitch propeller geared to a high pressure ratio gas turbine engine. The blades have high sweepback and advanced airfoil sections to achieve 80 percent propulsive efficiency at M=0.80 cruise speed. Aircraft system studies have shown improvements in fuel efficiency of 15-20 percent for propfan advanced transport aircraft as compared to equivalent turbofan transports. Beginning with the Lockheed C-130 and Electra turboprop aircraft, this paper presents an overview of the evolution of propfan aircraft design concepts and system studies. These system studies include possible civil and military transport applications and data on the performance, community and far-field noise characteristics and operating costs of propfan aircraft design concepts. NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) program propfan projects with industry are reviewed with respect to system studies of propfan aircraft and recommended flight development programs.

  18. Wireless Network Simulation in Aircraft Cabins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beggs, John H.; Youssef, Mennatoallah; Vahala, Linda

    2004-01-01

    An electromagnetic propagation prediction tool was used to predict electromagnetic field strength inside airplane cabins. A commercial software package, Wireless Insite, was used to predict power levels inside aircraft cabins and the data was compared with previously collected experimental data. It was concluded that the software could qualitatively predict electromagnetic propagation inside the aircraft cabin environment.

  19. 19 CFR 122.64 - Other aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Other aircraft. 122.64 Section 122.64 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Clearance of Aircraft and Permission To Depart § 122.64 Other...

  20. 14 CFR 21.127 - Tests: aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft. 21.127 Section 21.127... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.127 Tests: aircraft. (a) Each... test procedure and flight check-off form, and in accordance with that form, flight test each...