Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft earth station

  1. 78 FR 67309 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... collection associated with the Commission's Earth Station Aboard Aircraft, Report and Order (Order), which adopted licensing and service rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) communicating with...

  2. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  3. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  4. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  5. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  6. 47 CFR 87.51 - Aircraft earth station commissioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aircraft earth station commissioning. 87.51... SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 87.51 Aircraft earth station commissioning. (a) (b) Aircraft earth stations authorized to operate in the Inmarsat space segment must display the...

  7. 78 FR 14920 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating With Fixed-Satellite Service... technical and licensing rules for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA), i.e., earth stations on aircraft...-11.2 GHz, 11.45-11.7 GHz, 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth or downlink) and 14.0-14.5 GHz...

  8. Aircraft earth station for experimental mobile satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmori, S.; Hase, Y.; Kosaka, K.; Tanaka, M.

    A mobile satellite communication system, which can provide high quality service for small ships and aircraft, has been studied in Japan. This system is scheduled to be carried into experimental and evaluation phase in 1987, when a geostationary satellite (ETS-V) is launched by a Japanese rocket. This paper describes an aircraft earth station, which can establish telephone communication links for passengers on board the aircraft. The new technologies, especially an airborne phased array antenna, are developed. This is the first development in the world in mobile satellite communication areas.

  9. 78 FR 14952 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 2 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... of Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAA) in the 14.0-14.5 GHz band from secondary to primary and... stations of the FSS on a primary basis in the 11.7-12.2 GHz band (space-to-Earth), on an unprotected...

  10. 78 FR 19172 - Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service Geostationary-Orbit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 2 and 25 Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft Communicating with Fixed-Satellite Service... proposed rule that appeared in the Federal Register of March 8, 2013. The document proposed rules for...

  11. 47 CFR 25.227 - Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz...

  12. 47 CFR 25.227 - Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blanket licensing provisions for Earth Stations Aboard Aircraft (ESAAs) receiving in the 10.95-11.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 11.45-11.7 GHz (space-to-Earth), and 11.7-12.2 GHz (space-to-Earth) frequency bands and transmitting in the 14.0-14.5 GHz...

  13. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  14. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  15. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  16. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  17. 47 CFR 97.209 - Earth station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Earth station. 97.209 Section 97.209... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.209 Earth station. (a) Any amateur station may be an Earth station. A holder of any class operator license may be the control operator of an Earth station, subject to...

  18. Business earth stations for telecommunications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Walter L.; Rouffet, Denis

    The current status of technology for small commercial satellite-communication earth stations is reviewed on the basis of an application study undertaken in the U.S. and Europe. Chapters are devoted to an overview of satellite communication networks, microterminal design and hardware implementation, microterminal applications, the advantages of microterminals, typical users, services provided, the U.S. market for small earth stations, network operators, and the economics of satellite and terrestrial communication services. Consideration is given to the operation of a microterminal network, standards and regulations, technological factors, space-segment requirements, and insurance aspects. Diagrams, graphs, tables of numerical data, and a glossary of terms are provided.

  19. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  20. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  1. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  2. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section 87... AVIATION SERVICES Aircraft Stations § 87.191 Foreign aircraft stations. (a) Aircraft of member States of... States airspace only if a license has been issued by the State in which the aircraft is registered...

  3. ISS Update: Earth Observations From Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Amiko Kauderer interviews Cynthia Evans, Space Station Associate Program Scientist for Earth Observations, as NASA prepares to celebrate Earth Day. Evans discusses the t...

  4. Earth Views From the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    In celebration of Earth Day, NASA presents images of Earth captured by cameras aboard the International Space Station. Traveling at an approximate speed of 17,500 miles per hour, the space station ...

  5. 47 CFR 87.191 - Foreign aircraft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... where an agreement with a foreign government has been entered into with respect to aircraft registered... foreign government, the aircraft radio station license and aircraft radio operator license may be issued... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Foreign aircraft stations. 87.191 Section...

  6. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  7. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  8. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  9. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  10. 47 CFR 97.11 - Stations aboard ships or aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stations aboard ships or aircraft. 97.11... SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE General Provisions § 97.11 Stations aboard ships or aircraft. (a) The installation and operation of an amateur station on a ship or aircraft must be approved by the master of...

  11. Space Station Live: EarthKAM

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan interviews Brion Au, EarthKAM Payload Developer. The NASA education program enables middle school students to take pictures of the Earth from the Internation...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  13. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for earth station authorizations....115 Application for earth station authorizations. (a)(1) Transmitting earth stations. Commission authorization must be obtained for authority to operate a transmitting earth station. Applications shall...

  14. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  15. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1189 - Portable ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Portable ship earth stations. 80.1189 Section....1189 Portable ship earth stations. (a) Portable ship earth stations are authorized to operate on board more than one ship. Portable ship earth stations are also authorized to be operated on board...

  18. Digital modulation techniques for new earth stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, K.

    1983-02-01

    A new digital modulation technique that holds promise for reducing the satellite earth station antenna diameter by as much as 50% is described. The significant improvement in system efficiency over conventional QPSK systems comes from low-cost modems known as IJF-OQPSK, denoting intersymbol-interference and jitter-free (IJF)-offset QPSK. These modems can operate through fully saturated high-power amplifiers without the need for postmodulation filtering. The principles, design, applications, and field test results over the 14/12 GHz transmit/receive earth station of the University of Ottawa and Telesat's ANIK-B satellite are discussed.

  19. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  20. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  1. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations...

  2. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  3. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  4. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  5. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  6. 47 CFR 80.51 - Ship earth station licensing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ship earth station licensing. 80.51 Section 80... STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 80.51 Ship earth station licensing. A ship earth station must display the Commission license....

  7. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication operations...

  8. 47 CFR 80.377 - Frequencies for ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Frequencies for ship earth stations. 80.377... SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Frequencies Ship Earth Stations § 80.377 Frequencies for ship earth stations. The frequency band 1626.5-1645.5 MHz is assignable for communication,...

  9. 47 CFR 25.209 - Earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Earth station antenna performance standards. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.209 Earth station antenna performance standards. (a) The gain of any antenna to be employed in transmission from an earth station in the...

  10. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  11. 75 FR 1285 - Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-11

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES) AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Rules and Procedures to Govern the Use of Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations in Certain Frequency Bands... Rules for Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMES). Form Number: Not Applicable. Type of Review:...

  12. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  13. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  14. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  15. 47 CFR 25.204 - Power limits for earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power limits for earth stations. 25.204 Section... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.204 Power limits for earth stations. (a) In bands shared... transmitted in any direction towards the horizon by an earth station, other than an ESV, operating...

  16. 47 CFR 25.277 - Temporary fixed earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Temporary fixed earth station operations. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Operations § 25.277 Temporary fixed earth station operations. (a) When an earth station in the Fixed-Satellite Service is to remain at a single location for...

  17. International Space Station Earth Observations Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.; Oikawa, Koki

    2015-01-01

    The multilateral Earth Observations Working Group (EOWG) was chartered in May 2012 in order to improve coordination and collaboration of Earth observing payloads, research, and applications on the International Space Station (ISS). The EOWG derives its authority from the ISS Program Science Forum, and a NASA representative serves as a permanent co-chair. A rotating co-chair position can be occupied by any of the international partners, following concurrence by the other partners; a JAXA representative is the current co-chair. Primary functions of the EOWG include, 1) the exchange of information on plans for payloads, from science and application objectives to instrument development, data collection, distribution and research; 2) recognition and facilitation of opportunities for international collaboration in order to optimize benefits from different instruments; and 3) provide a formal ISS Program interface for collection and application of remotely sensed data collected in response to natural disasters through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters. Recent examples of EOWG activities include coordination of bilateral data sharing protocols between NASA and TsNIIMash for use of crew time and instruments in support of ATV5 reentry imaging activities; discussion of continued use and support of the Nightpod camera mount system by NASA and ESA; and review and revision of international partner contributions on Earth observations to the ISS Program Benefits to Humanity publication.

  18. X-38 research aircraft launch from Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, CA, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some problems

  19. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations... Earth Stations § 25.137 Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition...

  20. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations... Earth Stations § 25.137 Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition...

  1. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations... Earth Stations § 25.137 Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition...

  2. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations... Earth Stations § 25.137 Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition...

  3. 47 CFR 25.137 - Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application requirements for earth stations... Earth Stations § 25.137 Application requirements for earth stations operating with non-U.S. licensed space stations. (a) Earth station applicants or entities filing a “letter of intent” or “Petition...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a... for coast stations.) (b) Coast earth stations in receipt of distress alerts must ensure that they...

  5. Cosmic Ray Abundance at Aircraft Altitudes in the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D.

    1999-08-01

    Recent investigations of cosmic ray primaries and secondaries at aviation altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere include the study of Z≥2 particles along the London-New York flight routes on supersonic aircraft. Preliminary charge spectra will be presented for these nuclei and comparisons will be made with the predictions of cosmic ray transport models in the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. 47 CFR 25.209 - Earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Earth station antenna performance standards. 25... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.209 Earth station antenna performance standards. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, the gain of any antenna to be employed...

  7. LBR-2 Earth stations for the ACTS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oreilly, Michael; Jirberg, Russell; Spisz, Ernie

    1990-01-01

    The Low Burst Rate-2 (LBR-2) earth station being developed for NASA's Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) is described. The LBR-2 is one of two earth station types that operate through the satellite's baseband processor. The LBR-2 is a small earth terminal (VSAT)-like earth station that is easily sited on a user's premises, and provides up to 1.792 megabits per second (MBPS) of voice, video, and data communications. Addressed here is the design of the antenna, the rf subsystems, the digital processing equipment, and the user interface equipment.

  8. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  9. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  10. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  11. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  12. 47 CFR 80.1121 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by ship stations and ship earth stations. 80.1121 Section 80.1121 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1121 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by ship stations and ship earth stations. (a) Ship or ship earth stations that receive a distress alert must, as soon as possible, inform the...

  13. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station... earth station operations. (a) This section applies to all applications for FSS earth stations operating...) Analog video earth station applications, and (3) Applications for feeder-link earth stations in the...

  14. Parametric Study for Increasing On-Station Duration via Unconventional Aircraft Launch Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Moses, Robert W.; Croom, Mark A.; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2004-01-01

    The need for better atmospheric predictions is causing the atmospheric science community to look for new ways to obtain longer, higher-resolution measurements over several diurnal cycles. The high resolution, in-situ measurements required to study many atmospheric phenomena can be achieved by an Autonomous Aerial Observation System (AAOS); however, meeting the long on-station time requirements with an aerial platform poses many challenges. Inspired by the half-scale drop test of the deployable Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mars airplane, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine the possibility of increasing on-station time by launching an airplane directly at the desired altitude. The ARES Mars airplane concept was used as a baseline for Earth atmospheric flight, and parametric analyses of fundamental configuration elements were performed to study their impact on achieving desired on-station time with this class of airplane. The concept involved lifting the aircraft from the ground to the target altitude by means of an air balloon, thereby unburdening the airplane of ascent requirements. The parameters varied in the study were aircraft wingspan, payload, fuel quantity, and propulsion system. The results show promising trends for further research into aircraft-payload design using this unconventional balloon-based launch approach.

  15. Parametric study for increasing on-station duration via unconventional aircraft launch approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhl, Christopher A.; Moses, Robert W.; Croom, Mark A.; Sandford, Stephen P.

    2004-12-01

    The need for better atmospheric predictions is causing the atmospheric science community to look for new ways to obtain longer, higher-resolution measurements over several diurnal cycles. The high resolution, in-situ measurements required to study many atmospheric phenomena can be achieved by an Autonomous Aerial Observation System (AAOS); however, meeting the long on-station time requirements with an aerial platform poses many challenges. Inspired by the half-scale drop test of the deployable Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) Mars airplane, a study was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center to examine the possibility of increasing on-station time by launching an airplane directly at the desired altitude. The ARES Mars airplane concept was used as a baseline for Earth atmospheric flight, and parametric analyses of fundamental configuration elements were performed to study their impact on achieving desired on-station time with this class of airplane. The concept involved lifting the aircraft from the ground to the target altitude by means of an air balloon, thereby unburdening the airplane of ascent requirements. The parameters varied in the study were aircraft wingspan, payload, fuel quantity, and propulsion system. The results show promising trends for further research into aircraft-payload design using this unconventional balloon-based launch approach.

  16. Polarization Tracking Study of Earth Station in Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lihua; Hu, Chao; Pei, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Satellite communications, in telecommunications, the use of satellite can provide communications links between various points on the earth. Typical satellite communication is composed of a communication satellite, a signal transmitter and a signal receiver. As the signal transmitter or the signal receiver, an earth station plays a vital role in the satellite communications. Accurately adjustment of antenna azimuth, elevation and polarization angles on the earth station is the key to satellite communications. In the present paper, a study of polarization tracking of earth station is presented, and a detailed adjustment procession of the polarization angle is given. Combing with observation series of MEASAT-2 satellite in geostationary orbit, the polarization tracking accuracy is verified. The method can be embeded into computer program of antenna polarization adjustment in earth station.

  17. Human Systems Integration: Unmanned Aircraft Control Station Certification Plan Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document provides guidance to the FAA on important human factors considerations that can be used to support the certification of a UAS Aircraft Control Station (ACS). This document provides a synopsis of the human factors analysis, design and test activities to be performed to provide a basis for FAA certification. The data from these analyses, design activities, and tests, along with data from certification/qualification tests of other key components should be used to establish the ACS certification basis. It is expected that this information will be useful to manufacturers in developing the ACS Certification Plan,, and in supporting the design of their ACS.

  18. Space Station Live: Astronaut Don Pettit on Earth Photography

    NASA Video Gallery

    In observance of Earth Day, Space Station Live commentator Pat Ryan talks with NASA astronaut Don Pettit, who along with his fellow Expedition 30/31 crew members captured more than a half a million...

  19. A new model for rain scatter interference for coordination between Earth stations and terrestrial stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbins, Chris J.

    2005-08-01

    Scattering from rain is known to be a source of possible interference between communications systems sharing the same frequency bands. A new model has been developed for estimating the transmission loss due to bistatic rain scatter between an Earth station and a terrestrial station. This model has particular application in the process of coordination of Earth stations with terrestrial stations operating in the same frequency bands, whereby detailed interference studies are carried out only for stations within an area beyond which harmful interference may be considered negligible. The new model includes the Earth station elevation angle as an input parameter, together with the most recent information on rainfall rates and surface water vapor densities included in the recommendations of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and is more flexible yet neutral in its overall impact when applied to the process of coordination as defined in Appendix 7 of the ITU Radio Regulations.

  20. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...

  3. 47 CFR 80.1119 - Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... by coast stations and coast earth stations. 80.1119 Section 80.1119 Telecommunication FEDERAL... § 80.1119 Receipt and acknowledgement of distress alerts by coast stations and coast earth stations. (a) Coast stations that receive a distress alert should defer acknowledgement for a short interval so...

  4. 33 CFR 5.43 - Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... radio stations. 5.43 Section 5.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.43 Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations. While assigned... U.S.C. 1301). (c) Any radio station shall be deemed to be a radio station of the United States...

  5. 33 CFR 5.43 - Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... radio stations. 5.43 Section 5.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.43 Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations. While assigned... U.S.C. 1301). (c) Any radio station shall be deemed to be a radio station of the United States...

  6. 33 CFR 5.43 - Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... radio stations. 5.43 Section 5.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.43 Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations. While assigned... U.S.C. 1301). (c) Any radio station shall be deemed to be a radio station of the United States...

  7. 33 CFR 5.43 - Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... radio stations. 5.43 Section 5.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.43 Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations. While assigned... U.S.C. 1301). (c) Any radio station shall be deemed to be a radio station of the United States...

  8. 33 CFR 5.43 - Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... radio stations. 5.43 Section 5.43 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.43 Public vessels, aircraft, and radio stations. While assigned... U.S.C. 1301). (c) Any radio station shall be deemed to be a radio station of the United States...

  9. Simulation of interference between Earth stations and Earth-orbiting satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. F.

    1994-01-01

    It is often desirable to determine the potential for radio frequency interference between earth stations and orbiting spacecraft. This information can be used to select frequencies for radio systems to avoid interference or it can be used to determine if coordination between radio systems is necessary. A model is developed that will determine the statistics of interference between earth stations and elliptical orbiting spacecraft. The model uses orbital dynamics, detailed antenna patterns, and spectral characteristics to obtain accurate levels of interference at the victim receiver. The model is programmed into a computer simulation to obtain long-term statistics of interference. Two specific examples are shown to demonstrate the model. The first example is a simulation of interference from a fixed-satellite earth station to an orbiting scatterometer receiver. The second example is a simulation of interference from earth-exploration satellites to a deep-space earth station.

  10. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station... earth station operations. (a) This section applies to all earth station applications, except for: (1) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for...

  11. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... earth station operations. (a)(1) This section applies to earth station applications other than ESV, VMES and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not...

  12. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... earth station operations. (a)(1) This section applies to earth station applications other than ESV, VMES and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not...

  13. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... earth station operations. (a)(1) The requirements in this section apply to earth station applications of... analog video earth stations that are ineligible for routine licensing under § 25.211(d). (2)...

  14. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... earth station operations. (a)(1) This section applies to earth station applications other than ESV, VMES and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do not...

  15. 47 CFR 25.220 - Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Non-conforming transmit/receive earth station... earth station operations. (a)(1) This section applies to earth station applications other than ESV, VMES, ESAA and 17/24 GHz BSS feeder link applications in which the proposed earth station operations do...

  16. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station... earth station operations. (a) This section applies to all earth station applications, except for: (1) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for...

  17. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP envelopes for FSS earth station... earth station operations. (a) This section applies to all earth station applications, except for: (1) ESV and VMES applications, (2) Analog video earth station applications, (3) Applications for...

  18. Screening, cataloging and indexing of earth resource aircraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.

  19. The NASA Earth Research-2 (ER-2) Aircraft: A Flying Laboratory for Earth Science Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Navarro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, has two Lockheed Martin Corporation (Bethesda, Maryland) Earth Research-2 (ER2) aircraft that serve as high-altitude and long-range flying laboratories. The ER-2 aircraft has been successfully utilized to conduct scientific studies of stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, land-use mapping, disaster assessment, preliminary testing and calibration and validation of satellite sensors. The research missions for the ER-2 aircraft are planned, implemented, and managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center Science Mission Directorate. Maintenance and instrument payload integration is conducted by Dryden personnel. The ER-2 aircraft provides experimenters with a wide array of payload accommodations areas with suitable environment control with required electrical and mechanical interfaces. Missions may be flown out of Dryden or from remote bases worldwide, according to research requirements. The NASA ER-2 aircraft is utilized by a variety of customers, including U.S. Government agencies, civilian organizations, universities, and state governments. The combination of the ER-2 aircraft s range, endurance, altitude, payload power, payload volume and payload weight capabilities complemented by a trained maintenance and operations team provides an excellent and unique platform system to the science community and other customers.

  20. The Earth Based Ground Stations Element of the Lunar Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan; Fatig, Curtis; Schier, James; Lee, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The Lunar Architecture Team (LAT) is responsible for developing a concept for building and supporting a lunar outpost with several exploration capabilities such as rovers, colonization, and observatories. The lunar outpost is planned to be located at the Moon's South Pole. The LAT Communications and Navigation Team (C&N) is responsible for defining the network infrastructure to support the lunar outpost. The following elements are needed to support lunar outpost activities: A Lunar surface network based on industry standard wireless 802.xx protocols, relay satellites positioned 180 degrees apart to provide South Pole coverage for the half of the lunar 28-day orbit that is obscured from Earth view, earth-based ground stations deployed at geographical locations 120 degrees apart. This paper will focus on the Earth ground stations of the lunar architecture. Two types of ground station networks are discussed. One provides Direct to Earth (DTE) support to lunar users using Kaband 23/26Giga-Hertz (GHz) communication frequencies. The second supports the Lunar Relay Satellite (LRS) that will be using Ka-band 40/37GHz (Q-band). This paper will discuss strategies to provide a robust operational network in support of various lunar missions and trades of building new antennas at non-NASA facilities, to improve coverage and provide site diversification for handling rain attenuation.

  1. Autonomous earth feature classification - Shuttle and aircraft flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Wilson, R. G.; Bullock, G. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on the Shuttle STS-2 mission November 12-14, 1981, tested a technique for autonomous real-time classification of selected earth features, i.e., water; bare land; vegetation; and clouds, snow, and ice. A second instrument, designed for aircraft flights, flew over regions of the west and east coasts of the United States and across the country. In each instrument, two bore-sighted CCD cameras image earth scenes in two spectral bands. Each camera includes a 100-element by 100-element detector array, and classification circuits. A simple algorithm and logic circuit provides classification decisions within a few microseconds. The experiment records the number of picture elements (pixels) representing each feature and the reflected solar radiation for each band. After flight, pixel-by-pixel classification images are constructed and compared with 70-mm color photographs taken simultaneously with the CCD-camera data.

  2. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such...

  3. 47 CFR 25.131 - Filing requirements and registration for receive-only earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... receive-only earth stations. 25.131 Section 25.131 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.131 Filing requirements and registration for receive-only earth stations. (a) Except as provided...

  4. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such...

  5. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such...

  6. 47 CFR 25.104 - Preemption of local zoning of earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preemption of local zoning of earth stations... SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS General § 25.104 Preemption of local zoning of earth stations. (a) Any... reception by satellite earth station antennas, or imposes more than minimal costs on users of such...

  7. Earth Remote Sensing Potential of INTERNATIONAL SPACE STATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lulla Kamlesh, P.

    opportunity to geography, remote sensing and GIS community to build and expand the capabilities of geospatial sciences. The ISS includes a nadir-viewing, optical quality window located in the United States Laboratory of ISS.Through this window earth observations image data will be collected with various sensors. An overview of the ISS remote sensing capabilities and integration of this data with the existing databases, and spatial technologies of GIS are the objectives of this paper. The opportunities to participate in the International Space Station Earth observations and imaging activities are highlighted. Earth observations from human observers in space have increased in scope and complexity resulting in enhances science contributions and public awareness of global dynamics.With the addition of new sensors, enhanced optical quality, and a nadir-viewing onboard the ISS, future opportunities for developing new database with global coverage will be available. Further linkages with developed GIS databases will provide additional opportunities for remote sensing/GIS studies.

  8. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Filing requirements for transmitting earth... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations. (a) Applications for a new or modified transmitting earth...

  9. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing requirements for transmitting earth... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations. (a) Applications for a new or modified transmitting earth...

  10. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing requirements for transmitting earth... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations. (a) Applications for a new or modified transmitting earth...

  11. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing requirements for transmitting earth... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations. (a) Applications for a new or modified transmitting earth...

  12. 47 CFR 25.130 - Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing requirements for transmitting earth... CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.130 Filing requirements for transmitting earth stations. (a) Applications for a new or modified transmitting earth...

  13. Discovering Earth and space: Family fun at Exploration Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamec, Bethany Holm

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 Fall Meeting started off with a bang (or at least a homemade construction paper rocket) at Exploration Station, a science exhibition geared toward children and families. This annual event, held on Sunday, 4 December, last year, featured members of the various AGU sections and focus groups who led interactive demonstrations on topics spanning the deep Earth to distant stars. The event was 4 hours long, free, and open to the public. Visitors made their way through 25 exhibits that offered a variety of easy, family friendly, and hands-on activities. Equally important, they had an opportunity to interact one-on-one with scientists and education specialists.

  14. Earth Observations from the International Space Station: Benefits for Humanity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanov, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique terrestrial remote sensing platform for observation of the Earth's land surface, oceans, and atmosphere. Unlike automated remote-sensing platforms it has a human crew; is equipped with both internal and externally-mounted active and passive remote sensing instruments; and has an inclined, low-Earth orbit that provides variable views and lighting (day and night) over 95 percent of the inhabited surface of the Earth. As such, it provides a useful complement to autonomous, sun-synchronous sensor systems in higher altitude polar orbits. Beginning in May 2012, NASA ISS sensor systems have been available to respond to requests for data through the International Charter, Space and Major Disasters, also known as the "International Disaster Charter" or IDC. Data from digital handheld cameras, multispectral, and hyperspectral imaging systems has been acquired in response to IDC activations and delivered to requesting agencies through the United States Geological Survey. The characteristics of the ISS for Earth observation will be presented, including past, current, and planned NASA, International Partner, and commercial remote sensing systems. The role and capabilities of the ISS for humanitarian benefit, specifically collection of remotely sensed disaster response data, will be discussed.

  15. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series...

  16. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) Except for applications for 20/30 GHz earth... the antenna manufacturer on representative equipment in representative configurations, and the...

  17. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series...

  18. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series...

  19. 47 CFR 25.132 - Verification of earth station antenna performance standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of earth station antenna... Verification of earth station antenna performance standards. (a)(1) All applications for transmitting earth... pursuant to § 2.902 of this chapter from the manufacturer of each antenna that the results of a series...

  20. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply,...

  1. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply,...

  2. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply,...

  3. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... earth-station transceivers subject to regulation under part 25. This requirement does not apply,...

  4. Crew Earth Observations: Twelve Years of Documenting Earth from the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Stefanov, William L.; Willis, Kimberley; Runco, Susan; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Dawson, Melissa; Trenchard, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Crew Earth Observations (CEO) payload was one of the initial experiments aboard the International Space Station, and has been continuously collecting data about the Earth since Expedition 1. The design of the experiment is simple: using state-of-the-art camera equipment, astronauts collect imagery of the Earth's surface over defined regions of scientific interest and also document dynamic events such as storms systems, floods, wild fires and volcanic eruptions. To date, CEO has provided roughly 600,000 images of Earth, capturing views of features and processes on land, the oceans, and the atmosphere. CEO data are less rigorously constrained than other remote sensing data, but the volume of data, and the unique attributes of the imagery provide a rich and understandable view of the Earth that is difficult to achieve from the classic remote sensing platforms. In addition, the length-of-record of the imagery dataset, especially when combined with astronaut photography from other NASA and Russian missions starting in the early 1960s, provides a valuable record of changes on the surface of the Earth over 50 years. This time period coincides with the rapid growth of human settlements and human infrastructure.

  5. Digital services in the ANIK C Earth Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farell, E.

    The Digital Services in the ANIK C Earth Stations built for Telesat Canada are examined, with emphasis on the major requirements, design considerations, and the achieved performance. It is noted that a design compromise is required to optimize linear and nonlinear distortions, spectral regrowth interfering with the adjacent channels, and high-power amplifier output, since the operating bit error rate of the link depends on these parameters. The requirements related to this design compromise are reviewed, as are the long- and short-term stability problems arising from the frequency conversion processes. Some features of the system hardware are described with particular reference to digital terminal equipment filters and the carrier recovery circuit.

  6. Crew systems and flight station concepts for a 1995 transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sexton, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    Aircraft functional systems and crew systems were defined for a 1995 transport aircraft through a process of mission analysis, preliminary design, and evaluation in a soft mockup. This resulted in a revolutionary pilot's desk flight station design featuring an all-electric aircraft, fly-by-wire/light flight and thrust control systems, large electronic color head-down displays, head-up displays, touch panel controls for aircraft functional systems, voice command and response systems, and air traffic control systems projected for the 1990s. The conceptual aircraft, for which crew systems were designed, is a generic twin-engine wide-body, low-wing transport, capable of worldwide operation. The flight control system consists of conventional surfaces (some employed in unique ways) and new surfaces not used on current transports. The design will be incorporated into flight simulation facilities at NASA-Langley, NASA-Ames, and the Lockheed-Georgia Company. When interfaced with advanced air traffic control system models, the facilities will provide full-mission capability for researching issues affecting transport aircraft flight stations and crews of the 1990s.

  7. Design and analysis of a mode B and mode JD satellite Earth station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hance, Dennis J.

    1994-06-01

    This thesis focuses on the design, integration, and analysis of an amateur radio service mode B and mode JD satellite earth station. Preliminary designs were investigated to determine the optimum configuration for the earth station. Modern digital modems, cabling structures, an 80386-based computer system, satellite tracking software, transmission and reception antennas, preamplifiers, and sophisticated performance measurement technologies were integrated into a functioning earth station. Initially, component availability and station design dictated the selection and acquisition of the requisite station equipment, integration of the transmitter, receiver preamplifiers, antennas, and computer equipment followed. Preliminary testing of the various components in the integration station occupied a significant amount of time. Empirical test tracking of different amateur and commercial satellites verified proper operation of the earth station. Results are discussed throughout this thesis.

  8. Indexing, screening, coding and cataloging of earth resources aircraft mission data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Tasks completed are as follows: (1) preparation of large Area Crop Inventory experiment for data base entry;(2) preparation of Earth Observations Aircraft Flight summary reports for publication; (3) updating of the aircraft mission index coverage map and Ames aircraft flight map; (4) Prepared of Earth Observation Helicopter Flight reports for publication; and (5) indexing of LANDSAT imagery. (6) formulation of phase 3 biowindows 1, 2, 3, and 4 listings by country, footprint, and acqusition dates; (7) preparation of flight summary reports; and (8) preparation of an Alaska state index coverage map.

  9. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  10. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  11. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.135 Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary Mobile-Satellite Service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  12. X-38 research aircraft mounted in Shuttle docked at Space Station - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the Earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had been some

  13. Near-Field Characterization of Methane Emission Variability from a Compressor Station Using a Model Aircraft.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Brian J; Golston, Levi M; O'Brien, Anthony S; Ross, Kevin; Harrison, William A; Tao, Lei; Lary, David J; Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N; Zondlo, Mark A

    2015-07-07

    A model aircraft equipped with a custom laser-based, open-path methane sensor was deployed around a natural gas compressor station to quantify the methane leak rate and its variability at a compressor station in the Barnett Shale. The open-path, laser-based sensor provides fast (10 Hz) and precise (0.1 ppmv) measurements of methane in a compact package while the remote control aircraft provides nimble and safe operation around a local source. Emission rates were measured from 22 flights over a one-week period. Mean emission rates of 14 ± 8 g CH4 s(-1) (7.4 ± 4.2 g CH4 s(-1) median) from the station were observed or approximately 0.02% of the station throughput. Significant variability in emission rates (0.3-73 g CH4 s(-1) range) was observed on time scales of hours to days, and plumes showed high spatial variability in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. Given the high spatiotemporal variability of emissions, individual measurements taken over short durations and from ground-based platforms should be used with caution when examining compressor station emissions. More generally, our results demonstrate the unique advantages and challenges of platforms like small unmanned aerial vehicles for quantifying local emission sources to the atmosphere.

  14. A photovoltaic power system and a low-power satellite earth station for Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard; Everson, Kent

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system and a low-power, two-way satellite earth station have been installed at Wawotobi, Sulawesi, Indonesia to provide university classroom communications for audio teleconferencing and video graphics. This project is a part of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for development assistance applications. The purpose of the photovoltaic power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic/engine-generator power system for a remote satellite earth station. This paper describes the design, installation and initial operation of the photovoltaic power system and the earth station.

  15. Photovoltaic power system for satellite Earth stations in remote areas: Project status and design description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, R.

    1984-01-01

    A photovoltaic power system which will be installed at a remote location in Indonesia to provide power for a satellite Earth station and a classroom for video and audio teleconferences are described. The Earth station may also provide telephone service to a nearby village. The use of satellite communications for development assistance applications and the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic engine generator power system for remote satellite Earth stations are demonstrated. The Indonesian rural satellite project is discussed and the photovoltaic power system is described.

  16. A photovoltaic power system and a low-power satellite earth station for Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delombard, Richard; Everson, Kent

    A photovoltaic power system and a low-power, two-way satellite earth station have been installed at Wawotobi, Sulawesi, Indonesia to provide university classroom communications for audio teleconferencing and video graphics. This project is a part of the Agency for International Development's Rural Satellite Program. The purpose of this program is to demonstrate the use of satellite communications for development assistance applications. The purpose of the photovoltaic power system is to demonstrate the suitability of a hybrid photovoltaic/engine-generator power system for a remote satellite earth station. This paper describes the design, installation and initial operation of the photovoltaic power system and the earth station.

  17. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no...

  18. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no...

  19. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no...

  20. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no...

  1. 47 CFR 25.224 - Protection of receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Protection of receive-only earth stations in... receive-only earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) Notwithstanding § 25.209(c) of this part, receive-only earth stations operating in the 17/24 GHz broadcasting-satellite service can claim no...

  2. 47 CFR 25.115 - Application for earth station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station, or stations, in the 5925-6425 MHz band, or for single or multiple stations that will transmit to... Networks of Small Antennas operating in the 11.7-12.2 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz frequency bands with U.S... small antenna network systems operating in the 11.7-12.2 GHz and 14.0-14.5 GHz frequency band...

  3. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    Space technology facilitates humanity and science with a global revolutionary view of the Earth through the acquisition of Earth Observation satellite data. Satellites capture information over different spatial and temporal scales and assist in understanding natural climate processes and in detecting and explaining climate change. Accurate Earth Observation data is needed to describe climate processes by improving the parameterisations of different climate elements. Algorithms to produce geophysical parameters from raw satellite observations should go through selection processes or participate in inter-comparison programmes to ensure performance reliability. Geophysical parameter datasets, obtained from satellite observations, should pass a quality control before they are accepted in global databases for impact, diagnostic or sensitivity studies. Calibration and Validation, or simply "Cal/Val", is the activity that endeavours to ensure that remote sensing products are highly consistent and reproducible. This is an evolving scientific activity that is becoming increasingly important as more long-term studies on global change are undertaken, and new satellite missions are launched. Calibration is the process of quantitatively defining the system responses to known, controlled signal inputs. Validation refers to the process of assessing, by independent means, the quality of the data products derived from the system outputs. These definitions are generally accepted and most often used in the remote sensing context to refer specifically and respectively to sensor radiometric calibration and geophysical parameter validation. Anchor Stations are carefully selected locations at which instruments measure quantities that are needed to run, calibrate or validate models and algorithms. These are needed to quanti-tatively evaluate satellite data and convert it into geophysical information. The instruments collect measurements of basic quantities over a long timescale

  4. Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol During the CLAMS Experiment Using Aircraft and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Remer, L.; Yamasoe, M.; Fattori, A.

    2002-05-01

    During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment Nuclepore filters were collected in two ground stations and aboard the University of Wasghington's Convair 580 Reserarch Aircraft. The two ground stations were chosen in strategic positions to characterize the chemical composition, the mass concentration, black carbon (BC) content, and the absorption properties of the aerosol particles at the surface level. One of the stations was located at the Cheasapeake lighthouse (25 km from the coast) and the other one was located at the Wallops Island. Aerosol particles where collected in two stages, fine (d<2.5um) and coarse mode (2.5Aircraft. The aircraft samples where used to characterize the elemental composition, mass concentration, BC content, and absorption properties of the aerosol in the atmospheric column in the CLAMS Experiment area. Some of the filters were also submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. The particulate matter mass for all the samples were obtained gravimetrically. The concentration of black carbon in the fine filters was optically determined by a broadband reflectance technique. The spectral (from UV to near IR) reflectance in the fine and coarse mode filter were also obtained with a FieldSpec ASD spectrometer. Aerosol elemental characterization (Na through Pb) was obtained by the PIXE (Particle induced X ray emission) analyses of the nuclepore filters. The sources of the aerosol measured at the ground stations were estimated by principal component analyses mainly in the Wallops Island, where a longer time series was collected. One of the main urban components identified in the aerosol during the experiment was sulfate. Black carbon

  5. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  6. Near-Earth Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2016 October-December

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, Brian D.

    2017-04-01

    Lightcurves for 33 near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) obtained at the Center for Solar System Studies-Palmer Divide Station (CS3-PDS) from 2016 October through December were analyzed for rotation period and signs of satellites or tumbling.

  7. NASA Aircraft Aids Earth-Mars Cave Detection Study

    NASA Video Gallery

    The most likely location for discovering potential primitive life forms on Mars to be in caves. A recent NASA-funded airborne and ground study designed to aid in detection of caves on the Earth, th...

  8. Proposed Functional Architecture and Associated Benefits Analysis of a Common Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    to unique Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and Ground Control Station (GCS) designs. A former Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology...includes a common Air Vehicle Operator (AVO) Human-Machine Interface. These requirements enabled the creation of an innovative functional architecture for...Station (GCS), Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), common, commonality, interoperability, architecture, training, Air Vehicle

  9. 78 FR 39200 - Federal Earth Stations-Non-Federal Fixed Satellite Service Space Stations; Spectrum for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...This document proposes to make spectrum allocation proposals for three different space related purposes. The Commission makes two alternative proposals to modify the Allocation Table to provide interference protection for Fixed-Satellite Service (FSS) and Mobile- Satellite Service (MSS) earth stations operated by Federal agencies under authorizations granted by the National Telecommunications......

  10. The NASA SIERRA UAV: A new unmanned aircraft for earth science investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fladeland, M. M.; Berthold, R.; Monforton, L.; Kolyer, R.; Lobitz, B.; Sumich, M.

    2008-12-01

    The Science Instrumentation Evaluation Remote Research Aircraft (SIERRA) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) makes use of a medium class, medium duration system designed by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to test new instruments and support NASA airborne science experiments. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Science Program (ASP), within the Science Missions Directorate, directed the NASA Ames Research Center to test a prototype to evaluate the utility to earth science experiments. This paper describes the aircraft system architecture, capabilities, and provides an overview of existing payloads and mission concepts that support earth science investigations in the areas of carbon cycling, boundary layer studies, and air/sea interaction in support of NASA satellite missions.

  11. 47 CFR 25.129 - Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Equipment authorization for portable earth... Requirements § 25.129 Equipment authorization for portable earth-station transceivers. (a) Except as expressly... equipment certification procedure in part 2, Subpart J of this chapter for importation, sale or lease in...

  12. The Development of Human Factor Guidelines for Unmanned Aircraft System Control Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) relate to human factors. NASA is conducting research to address the human factors relevant to UAS access to non-segregated airspace. This work covers the issues of pilot performance, interaction with ATC, and control station design. A major outcome of this research will be recommendations for human factors design guidelines for UAS control stations to support routine beyond-line-of-sight operations in the US national airspace system (NAS). To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material may already provide adequate coverage of certain issues. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  13. Small unmanned aircraft systems for remote sensing and Earth science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Moorman, Brian J.; Riddell, Kevin; Whitehead, Ken

    2012-06-01

    To understand and predict Earth-surface dynamics, scientists often rely on access to the latest remote sensing data. Over the past several decades, considerable progress has been made in the development of specialized Earth observation sensors for measuring a wide range of processes and features. Comparatively little progress has been made, however, in the development of new platforms upon which these sensors can be deployed. Conventional platforms are still almost exclusively restricted to piloted aircraft and satellites. For many Earth science research questions and applications these platforms do not yet have the resolution or operational flexibility to provide answers affordably. The most effective remote sensing data match the spatiotemporal scale of the process or feature of interest. An emerging technology comprising unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), also known as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), is poised to offer a viable alternative to conventional platforms for acquiring high-resolution remote sensing data with increased operational flexibility, lower cost, and greater versatility (Figure 1).

  14. Space Station Live: Astronaut Photos Highlight Earth Month

    NASA Video Gallery

    Melissa Dawson, an Earth scientist with NASA’s Johnson Space Center, recently spoke by phone with Public Affairs Officer Nicole Cloutier-Lemasters to discuss the importance of astronaut photograp...

  15. Circumlunar Free-Return Cycler Orbits for a Manned Earth-Moon Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genova, Anthony L.; Aldrin, Buzz

    2015-01-01

    Multiple free-return circumlunar cycler orbits were designed to allow regular travel between the Earth and Moon by a manned space station. The presented cycler orbits contain circumlunar free-return "figure-8" segments and yield lunar encounters every month. Smaller space "taxi" vehicles can rendezvous with (and depart from) the cycling Earth-Moon space station to enter lunar orbit (and/or land on the lunar surface), return to Earth, or reach destinations including Earth-Moon L1 and L2 halo orbits, near-Earth objects (NEOs), Venus, and Mars. To assess the practicality of the selected orbits, relevant cycler characteristics (including (Delta)V maintenance requirements) are presented and compared.

  16. 47 CFR 25.218 - Off-axis EIRP density envelopes for FSS earth stations transmitting in certain frequency bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Off-axis EIRP density envelopes for FSS earth....218 Off-axis EIRP density envelopes for FSS earth stations transmitting in certain frequency bands. (a) This section applies to all applications for Fixed-Satellite Service earth stations transmitting...

  17. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg A.; Kamine, Tovy Haber

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. "cones") of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement" (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Methods: Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. Results: The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though all were within the cone of "Maximum Eye Movement". All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Discussion: Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement", though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight.

  18. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, T. A.; Dobyns, T. R.; Chitre, D. M.; Lindstrom, R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will use a network of about 20 earth stations to operate as a Mode 1 network. This network will support two ACTS program objectives: to verify the technical performance of ACTS Mode 1 operation in GEO and to demonstrate the types and quality of services that can be provided by an ACTS Mode 1 communications system. The terrestrial interface design is a critical element in assuring that these network earth stations will meet the objectives. In this paper, the applicable terrestrial interface design requirements, the resulting interface specifications, and the associated terrestrial input/output hardware are discussed. A functional block diagram of a network earth station is shown.

  19. Concept design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of an earth observation platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yueneng; Wu, Jie; Zheng, Wei

    2012-11-01

    The stratosphere airship provides a unique and promising platform for earth observation. Researches on the project design and control scheme for earth observation platforms are still rarely documented. Nonlinear dynamics, model uncertainties, and external disturbances contribute to the difficulty in maneuvering the stratosphere airship. A key technical challenge for the earth observation platform is station keeping, or the ability to remain fixed over a geo-location. This paper investigates the conceptual design, modeling and station-keeping attitude control of the near-space earth observation platform. A conceptual design of the earth observation platform is presented. The dynamics model of the platform is derived from the Newton-Euler formulation, and the station-keeping control system of the platform is formulated. The station-keeping attitude control approach for the platform is proposed. The multi-input multi-output nonlinear control system is decoupled into three single-input single-output linear subsystems via feedback linearization, the attitude controller design is carried out on the new linear systems using terminal sliding mode control, and the global stability of the closed-loop system is proven by using the Lyapunov theorem. The performance of the designed control system is simulated by using the variable step Runge-Kutta integrator. Simulation results show that the control system tracks the commanded attitude with an error of zero, which verify the effectiveness and robustness of the designed control system in the presence of parametric uncertainties. The near-space earth observation platform has several advantages over satellites, such as high resolution, fast to deploy, and convenient to retrieve, and the proposed control scheme provides an effective approach for station-keeping attitude control of the earth observation platform.

  20. Instrument Display Visual Angles for Conventional Aircraft and the MQ-9 Ground Control Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamine, Tovy Haber; Bendrick, Gregg A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft instrument panels should be designed such that primary displays are in optimal viewing location to minimize pilot perception and response time. Human Factors engineers define three zones (i.e. cones ) of visual location: 1) "Easy Eye Movement" (foveal vision); 2) "Maximum Eye Movement" (peripheral vision with saccades), and 3) "Head Movement (head movement required). Instrument display visual angles were measured to determine how well conventional aircraft (T-34, T-38, F- 15B, F-16XL, F/A-18A, U-2D, ER-2, King Air, G-III, B-52H, DC-10, B747-SCA) and the MQ-9 ground control station (GCS) complied with these standards, and how they compared with each other. Selected instrument parameters included: attitude, pitch, bank, power, airspeed, altitude, vertical speed, heading, turn rate, slip/skid, AOA, flight path, latitude, longitude, course, bearing, range and time. Vertical and horizontal visual angles for each component were measured from the pilot s eye position in each system. The vertical visual angles of displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement" for all but three of the parameters measured, and almost all of the horizontal visual angles fell within this range. All conventional vertical and horizontal visual angles lay within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. However, most instrument vertical visual angles of the MQ-9 GCS lay outside the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though all were within the cone of Maximum Eye Movement. All the horizontal visual angles for the MQ-9 GCS were within the cone of "Easy Eye Movement". Most instrument displays in conventional aircraft lay within the cone of Easy Eye Movement, though mission-critical instruments sometimes displaced less important instruments outside this area. Many of the MQ-9 GCS systems lay outside this area. Specific training for MQ-9 pilots may be needed to avoid increased response time and potential error during flight. The learning objectives include: 1) Know three

  1. Validation of earth observations using international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer; Estes, John E.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate, up-to-date (science quality) land cover maps do not exist for most areas of the world. They do not exist at global scales; nor do they exist at continental, national, or local scales. This is equally true of both developed and developing nations. Land cover patterns on the surface of the Earth change. Some changes are rapid, such as urban sprawl. Other changes are slower such as the meandering of river channels consuming agricultural lands. Researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara are working with colleagues at the University of Maryland, College Park; the United States Geological Survey, Earth Resource Observation System Data Center; and, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center. We are proposing to test the capability of astronaut acquired photography to document and validate land cover change. Funding for the pilot phase of this project has been approved and research is underway to select appropriate sites in the Southern United States. The overall objects of this effort are: 1. Evaluate the potential of astronaut acquired data for the validation of land cover maps; 2. Determine to what extent astronaut acquired photography can assist in the identification of specific types of land cover change and the immediate local causes of such change; 3. Test the potential of astronauts to acquire photography to provide data concerning scientifically interesting and/or culturally significant ephemeral events; and, 4. Assist in the design for an upgraded Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF). The goal of this effort is to demonstrate the utility of ISS for the collection of information of value to researchers interested in documenting important land cover changes at scales from local to global. Using ISS data from tropical and mid latitudes combined with information extracted from polar orbiting satellites primarily from mid to high latitudes, we believe we can improve our ability to detect, document and

  2. International Space Station: Off the Earth, for the Earth, and Beyond.

    NASA Video Gallery

    In 1998, assembly began in space on a satellite that would be second in size and radiance only to the Moon…NASA’s International Space Station. Completed in the 21st Century, the International Spac...

  3. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication...

  4. 47 CFR 25.138 - Licensing requirements for GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Licensing requirements for GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication...

  5. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication...

  6. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication...

  7. 47 CFR 25.138 - Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Blanket Licensing provisions of GSO FSS Earth Stations in the 18.3-18.8 GHz (space-to-Earth), 19.7-20.2 GHz (space-to-Earth), 28.35-28.6 GHz (Earth-to-space), and 29.25-30.0 GHz (Earth-to-space) bands. 25.138 Section 25.138 Telecommunication...

  8. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  9. Piracy of Satellite Signals by Domestic Receive-Only Earth Stations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Steven D.

    Innovations in technology have enabled homeowners to pirate satellite signals intended for cable television operators through the use of home earth-stations. Section 605 of the Communications Act of 1934, which governs reception of signals, is inadequate to regulate this situation because it appears that publication of received programing outside…

  10. Double station observation of Draconid meteor outburst from two moving aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koten, Pavel; Vaubaillon, Jeremie; Margonis, Anastasios; Tóth, Juraj; Ďuriš, František; McAulliffe, Jonathan; Oberst, Jürgen

    2015-12-01

    A Draconid meteor shower outburst was observed from the boards of two scientific aircraft on 8 October 2011. In this paper we report the results of this double station experiment. The beginning and terminal heights are similar to other Draconid observations and confirm the fragile nature of the meteoroids. From the distribution function of terminal heights, a critical mass was found to be about 3.5 g. A behaviour of the terminal heights changes at this point. Light curves of Draconid meteors show great variability with a maximum of the F-number distribution around 0.35, which also confirms fragility of the material. Observed radiants of the meteors are in agreement with the theoretical model. Although encounters with two different filaments were predicted, it is impossible to distinguish between them from the radiants as well as the orbital data. Despite the complications with the data processing the airborne mission shows that such double station experiment is possible and provides valuable insight into meteor structure and dynamics.

  11. Low Earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry K.

    1987-01-01

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the Photovoltaic Power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the Photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized.

  12. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the Space Station photovoltaic power generation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, H. K.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the low earth orbital environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low earth orbital environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the Space Station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the Space Station with the desired life are also summarized.

  13. Satellite communications provisions on NASA Ames instrumented aircraft platforms for Earth science research/applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shameson, L.; Brass, J. A.; Hanratty, J. J.; Roberts, A. C.; Wegener, S. S.

    1995-01-01

    Earth science activities at NASA Ames are research in atmospheric and ecosystem science, development of remote sensing and in situ sampling instruments, and their integration into scientific research platform aircraft. The use of satellite communications can greatly extend the capability of these agency research platform aircraft. Current projects and plans involve satellite links on the Perseus UAV and the ER-2 via TDRSS and a proposed experiment on the NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite. Provisions for data links on the Perseus research platform, via TDRSS S-band multiple access service, have been developed and are being tested. Test flights at Dryden are planned to demonstrate successful end-to-end data transfer. A Unisys Corp. airborne satcom STARLink system is being integrated into an Ames ER-2 aircraft. This equipment will support multiple data rates up to 43 Mb/s each via the TDRS S Ku-band single access service. The first flight mission for this high-rate link is planned for August 1995. Ames and JPL have proposed an ACTS experiment to use real-time satellite communications to improve wildfire research campaigns. Researchers and fire management teams making use of instrumented aircraft platforms at a prescribed burn site will be able to communicate with experts at Ames, the U.S. Forest Service, and emergency response agencies.

  14. A study on variation in position of an Indian station due to solid earth tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Jayanta Kumar; Pathak, Shray

    2015-04-01

    In many geodetic analyses, it is important to consider the effect of earth tide on the instantaneous position of a station and its subsequent influence on the computation and interpretation of time series of coordinates as well as related data products. The tidal effect and temporal variations in the position of the IGS (International Global Navigational Satellite Systems [GNSS] Service) stations at Hyderabad (India), Ankara (Turkey) and Beijing Fangshan (China), due to solid earth tides has been studied. Surface tidal displacement of the station has been computed on daily basis for a month, based on the concept of gravity. Further, mean daily coordinates of the station been computed using static precise point positioning (PPP) method for a month. Results show that the station undergoes temporal displacements and its coordinates vary continuously within a day and all the days in the month. The maximum range in vertical displacement of the station has been found to be about 48 cm in a day over a period of a month and that along the north and east directions is respectively 8 cm and 14 cm. This is the maximum range but the mean value in the vertical displacement is 6 cm and along north and east is 1.7 cm and 0.09 cm, respectively. The ranges in variation in the mean value of geodetic latitude, longitude, and height of the station have been found to be 1.23, 2.73, and 3.52 cm, respectively. Further, it has been found that the tidal oscillations follow some periodicity, and thus need to be studied independently for all stations.

  15. Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan X.; McElroy, Michael B.; Wang, Tao; Palmer, Paul I.

    2004-12-01

    Observations of CO and NOy from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission over the northwest Pacific and from two Chinese ground stations (Hong Kong and Lin An) during spring 2001 are used in conjunction with an optimal estimation inverse model to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NOx. A priori emissions are based on a detailed bottom-up inventory for the observation period. The inversion analysis requires 43% and 47% increases in Chinese emissions of CO and NOx, respectively, distributed heterogeneously, with the largest adjustments required for central China. A posteriori estimates of emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia are much lower than a priori values. Inversion results for NOx emissions are consistent with CO emissions in terms of the sense of the adjustments. Inclusion of the station data in the inversion analysis significantly improves estimates for emissions from central and south China. A large increase in NOx emissions inferred for central China (a factor of 3) is attributed to decomposition of organic wastes associated with the human-animal food chain and extensive applications of chemical fertilizer. An analysis of emission ratios for CO relative to NOx for different sectors indicates that emissions attributed to industry and transportation may be underestimated in the bottom-up inventory for central China, while emissions from the domestic sector may be underestimated for south China. An increase in emission factors could help reconcile results from the inversion analysis with the "bottom-up" approach. Detailed analysis of the surface observations using a posteriori emissions indicates the importance of meteorological phenomena, notably cold fronts in March and small-scale high- and low-pressure systems in April in modulating concentrations of CO, with the latter most evident in the data from Lin An.

  16. Scheme of rendezvous mission to lunar orbital station by spacecraft launched from Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtazin, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, great experience has been accumulated in manned flight astronautics for rendezvous in near-Earth orbit. During flights of Apollo spacecraft with crews that landed on the surface of the Moon, the problem of docking a landing module launched from the Moon's surface with the Apollo spacecraft's command module in a circumlunar orbit was successfully solved. A return to the Moon declared by leading space agencies requires a scheme for rendezvous of a spacecraft launched from an earth-based cosmodromee with a lunar orbital station. This paper considers some ballistic schemes making it possible to solve this problem with minimum fuel expenditures.

  17. Dynamics and morphology of Beaufort Sea ice determined from satellites, aircraft, and drifting stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, W. J.; Gloersen, P.; Nordberg, W.; Wilheit, T. T.

    1973-01-01

    A series of measurements from drifting stations, aircraft, the ERTS-1, Nimbus 4, and Nimbus 5 satellites have jointly provided a new description of the dynamics and morphology of the ice cover of the Beaufort Sea. The combined analysis of these data show that the eastern Beaufort Sea ice cover is made up of large multiyear floes while the western part is made of small, predominantly first-year floes. The analysis suggests that this distribution might be quasi-steady and that the dynamics and thermodynamics of the region are more complex than hitherto known. The measurements consist of: (1) high resolution ERTS-1 imagery which is used to describe floe size and shape distribution, short term floe dynamics, and lead and polynya dynamics; (2) tracking by Nimbus 4 of IRLS drifting buoys to provide ice drift information which enhances the interpretation of the ERTS-1 imagery; (3) Nimbus 5 microwave (1.55 cm wavelength) imagery which provides synoptic, sequential maps on the distribution of multiyear and first-year ice types; (4) airborne microwave surveys and surface based observations made during 1971 and 1972 in conjunction with the AIDJEX (Arctic Ice Dynamics Joint Experiment) program.

  18. ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with the ACTS satellite. The ACTS experiment's program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground station technology. demonstrate future telecommunication services. demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals (Part 1) and the lessons learned throughout their six year operation including the inclined orbit phase of operations (Full Report). An overview of the Ka-band technology and components developed for the ACTS ground stations is presented. Next. the performance of the ground station technology and its evolution during the ACTS campaign are discussed to illustrate the technical tradeoffs made during the program and highlight technical advances by industry to support the ACTS experiments program and terminal operations. Finally. lessons learned during development and operation of the user terminals are discussed for consideration of commercial adoption into future Ka-band systems. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector based offset-fed antenna systems ranging in size from 0.35m to 3.4m antenna diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems, referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET). The NGS provides tracking, telemetry, and control (TT&C) and Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) network control functions. The LET supports technology verification and high data rate experiments. The ground

  19. Analysis of Delay Fluctuations on Two-Way Time Transfer Earth Stations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    the result of TWSTFT. On the TL’s earth station, the most of the equipment is located outside, including the up- and down-converters, solid - state ...power amplifier (SSPA), low-noise amplifiers (LNA), and filters. The SATRE modem is placed in an indoor temperature -controlled room . All of the... temperature . With the data collected over 2 months, we observed that the long-term and short- term temperature variations have contributed different

  20. New Construction KU-Band Antenna with Improved Radiation Diagram for Satellite Broadcasting Receiving Earth Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Peter; Alexandrova, Alissaveta

    2013-12-01

    The development of a new design small offset antenna with elliptical aperture equivalent to about 60 cm circular aperture intended for receiving earth stations in the band 11.7-12.5 GHz of Broadcasting Satellite Service (BSS) is reported in the paper. The antenna mechanical and electrical characteristics are presented. The main antenna feature is the improved antenna radiation pattern in the plane of the geostationary satellite orbit (GSO) compared to the reference antenna pattern of BSS receiving earth stations in Annex 5 of Appendix 30 of the Radio Regulations (RR) that will contribute to less interference impact between real BSS systems in Ku-band especially systems with satellites located at comparatively closely situated GSO positions. The antenna parameters values achieved in this project are in support of the idea to improve the reference antenna pattern of the BSS earth stations that will contribute to more efficient use of the frequency spectrum-orbital resources in this band corresponding to the wording of Article 44 of the Constitution of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and the main principle of the RR for equitable access to frequency spectrum and GSO.

  1. 75 FR 7975 - Procedures to Govern the Use of Satellite Earth Stations on Board Vessels in the 5925-6425 MHz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 25 Procedures to Govern the Use of Satellite Earth Stations on Board Vessels in the... Satellite Earth Stations on Board Vessels in the 5925-6425 MHz/3700-4200 MHz Bands and 14.0-14.5 GHz/11.7-12.... Expiration Date: December 31, 2012. Title: Earth Stations on Board Vessels (ESV). Form No.: Not...

  2. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS...

  3. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS...

  4. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS...

  5. 47 CFR 25.223 - Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. 25.223 Section 25.223 Telecommunication FEDERAL....223 Off-axis EIRP spectral density limits for feeder link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS. (a) This section applies to all applications for earth station licenses in the 17/24 GHz BSS...

  6. Remote sensing from manned low Earth orbit spacecraft: implications for the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Patricia Mendoza

    2010-04-01

    This paper addresses the question of what contributions the International Space Station (ISS) can make as a sensor based remote sensing platform. There is precedent for the use of manned platforms in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Skylab had the Earth Resources Experiment Package (EREP). In the Shuttle -Mir program, the Piroda module was dedicated to Earth sensing. One experiment in the Piroda, the Multispectral Stereo Scanner (MOMS-2PP) was used for quantifying the advantages of performing remote sensing on the ISS. The Space Shuttle program also made significant contributions to Earth observations. Sixteen missions carried electronic experiment packages for Earth observations and crew on almost every mission performed earth observations using cameras. Experiments planned for the ISS can also tell us much about the potential the ISS has as a remote sensing platform by examining their design and objectives. In March of 2009 an experiment called Agricultural Camera (AgCam) was delivered to the ISS for installation in the window of the Laboratory module. In fall of 2009 two more remote sensing experiments will arrive on the ISS - the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) and the Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS). These instruments will be combined on one experiment package, HICO- RAIDS experiment package (HREP), and will be placed outside the ISS, on an external platform.

  7. Computer programs for plotting spot-beam coverages from an earth synchronous satellite and earth-station antenna elevation angle contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stagl, T. W.; Singh, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A description and listings of computer programs for plotting geographical and political features of the world or a specified portion of it, for plotting spot-beam coverages from an earth-synchronous satellite over the computer generated mass, and for plotting polar perspective views of the earth and earth-station antenna elevation contours for a given satellite location are presented. The programs have been prepared in connection with a project on Application of Communication Satellites to Educational Development.

  8. Tropospheric ozone variability during the East Asian summer monsoon as observed by satellite (IASI), aircraft (MOZAIC) and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, Sarah; Boynard, Anne; Hao, Nan; Huang, Fuxiang; Wang, Lili; Ji, Dongsheng; Barret, Brice; Ghude, Sachin D.; Coheur, Pierre-François; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project, as well as observations from ground-based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years 2008-2013 of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon seen by a decrease in the tropospheric 0-6 km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. The year-to-year variability is found to be mainly dependent on meteorology. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric 0-6 km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC/IAGOS project for the EASM of 2008-2013 are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.73 (12 %) between the 0-6 km O3 column derived from IASI and aircraft data. IASI captures very well the inter-annual variation of tropospheric O3 observed by the aircraft data over the studied domain. Analysis of vertical profiles of the aircraft data shows a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at 10-20° N than elsewhere. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with a decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  9. Techniques to minimize adjacent band emissions from Earth Exploration Satellites to protect the Space Research (Category B) Earth Stations in the 8400-8450 MHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Charles C.; Sue, Miles K.; Manshadi, Farzin

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Exploration Satellites operating in the 8025-8400 MHz band can have strong adjacent band emissions on the8400-8450 MHz band which is allocated for Space Research (Category-B). The unwanted emission may exceed the protection criterion establish by the ITU-R for the protection of the Space Research (Category B) earth stations, i.e., deep-space earth stations. An SFCG Action Item (SF 23/14) was created during the 23rd SFCG meeting to explore technical and operational techniques to reduce the adjacent band emissions. In response to this action item, a study was conducted and results are presented in this document.

  10. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  11. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  12. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... any 2 millisecond active transmission interval. (h) Mobile earth stations manufactured more than six... not exceed −70 dBW/MHz, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in the band 1559... stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in...

  13. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any 2 millisecond active transmission interval. (h) Mobile earth stations manufactured more than six... not exceed −70 dBW/MHz, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in the band 1559... stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in...

  14. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... any 2 millisecond active transmission interval. (h) Mobile earth stations manufactured more than six... not exceed −70 dBW/MHz, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in the band 1559... stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in...

  15. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... any 2 millisecond active transmission interval. (h) Mobile earth stations manufactured more than six... not exceed −70 dBW/MHz, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in the band 1559... stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in...

  16. 47 CFR 25.216 - Limits on emissions from mobile earth stations for protection of aeronautical radionavigation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... any 2 millisecond active transmission interval. (h) Mobile earth stations manufactured more than six... not exceed −70 dBW/MHz, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in the band 1559... stations shall not exceed −80 dBW, averaged over any 2 millisecond active transmission interval, in...

  17. ACTS Ka-Band Earth Stations: Technology, Performance, and Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhart, Richard C.; Struharik, Steven J.; Diamond, John J.; Stewart, David

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) Project invested heavily in prototype Ka-band satellite ground terminals to conduct an experiments program with ACTS. The ACTS experiments program proposed to validate Ka-band satellite and ground-station technology, demonstrate future telecommunication services, demonstrate commercial viability and market acceptability of these new services, evaluate system networking and processing technology, and characterize Ka-band propagation effects, including development of techniques to mitigate signal fading. This paper will present a summary of the fixed ground terminals developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center and its industry partners, emphasizing the technology and performance of the terminals and the lessons learned throughout their 6-year operation, including the inclined orbit phase-of-operations. The fixed ground stations used for experiments by government, academic, and commercial entities used reflector-based offset-fed antenna systems with antennas ranging in size from 0.35 to 3.4 in. in diameter. Gateway earth stations included two systems referred to as the NASA Ground Station (NGS) and the Link Evaluation Terminal (LET).

  18. Station to instrumented aircraft L-band telemetry system and RF signal controller for spacecraft simulations and station calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scaffidi, C. A.; Stocklin, F. J.; Feldman, M. B.

    1971-01-01

    An L-band telemetry system designed to provide the capability of near-real-time processing of calibration data is described. The system also provides the capability of performing computerized spacecraft simulations, with the aircraft as a data source, and evaluating the network response. The salient characteristics of a telemetry analysis and simulation program (TASP) are discussed, together with the results of TASP testing. The results of the L-band system testing have successfully demonstrated the capability of near-real-time processing of telemetry test data, the control of the ground-received signal to within + or - 0.5 db, and the computer generation of test signals.

  19. Non-linear VLBI station motions and their impact on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters.

    PubMed

    Krásná, Hana; Malkin, Zinovy; Böhm, Johannes

    The increasing accuracy and growing time span of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations allow the determination of seasonal signals in station positions which still remain unmodelled in conventional analysis approaches. In this study we focus on the impact of the neglected seasonal signals in the station displacement on the celestial reference frame and Earth orientation parameters. We estimate empirical harmonic models for selected stations within a global solution of all suitable VLBI sessions and create mean annual models by stacking yearly time series of station positions which are then entered a priori in the analysis of VLBI observations. Our results reveal that there is no systematic propagation of the seasonal signal into the orientation of celestial reference frame but position changes occur for radio sources observed non-evenly over the year. On the other hand, the omitted seasonal harmonic signal in horizontal station coordinates propagates directly into the Earth rotation parameters causing differences of several tens of microarcseconds.

  20. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coney, Thom A.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Satellite (ACTS) is capable of two modes of communication. Mode 1 is a mesh network of Earth stations using baseband-switched, time-division multiple-access (BBS-TDMA) and hopping beams. Mode 2 is a mesh network using satellite-switched, time-division multiple-access (SS-TDMA) and fixed (or hopping) beams. The purpose of this paper is to present the functional requirements and the design of the ACTS Mode 1 Earth station terrestrial interface. Included among the requirements are that: (1) the interface support standard telecommunications service offerings (i.e., voice, video and data at rates ranging from 9.6 kbps to 44 Mbps); (2) the interface support the unique design characteristics of the ACTS communications systems (e.g., the real time demand assignment of satellite capacity); and (3) the interface support test hardware capable of validating ACTS communications processes. The resulting interface design makes use of an appropriate combination of T1 or T3 multiplexers and a small central office (maximum capacity 56 subscriber lines per unit).

  1. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veenstra, Lester B.

    1990-01-01

    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  2. International two-way satellite time transfers using INTELSAT space segment and small Earth stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veenstra, Lester B.

    1990-05-01

    The satellite operated by the International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (INTELSAT) provides new and unique capabilities for the coordinates of international time scales on a world wide basis using the two-way technique. A network of coordinated clocks using small earth stations collocated with the scales is possible. Antennas as small as 1.8 m at K-band and 3 m at C-band transmitting powers of less than 1 W will provide signals with time jitters of less than 1 ns existing spread spectrum modems. One way time broadcasting is also possible, under the INTELSAT INTELNET system, possibly using existing international data distribution (press and financial) systems that are already operating spread spectrum systems. The technical details of the satellite and requirements on satellite earth stations are given. The resources required for a regular operational international time transfer service are analyzed with respect to the existing international digital service offerings of the INTELSAT Business Service (IBS) and INTELNET. Coverage areas, typical link budgets, and a summary of previous domestic and international work using this technique are provided. Administrative procedures for gaining access to the space segment are outlined. Contact information for local INTELSAT signatories is listed.

  3. Impact of orbit modeling on DORIS station position and Earth rotation estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štěpánek, Petr; Rodriguez-Solano, Carlos Javier; Hugentobler, Urs; Filler, Vratislav

    2014-04-01

    The high precision of estimated station coordinates and Earth rotation parameters (ERP) obtained from satellite geodetic techniques is based on the precise determination of the satellite orbit. This paper focuses on the analysis of the impact of different orbit parameterizations on the accuracy of station coordinates and the ERPs derived from DORIS observations. In a series of experiments the DORIS data from the complete year 2011 were processed with different orbit model settings. First, the impact of precise modeling of the non-conservative forces on geodetic parameters was compared with results obtained with an empirical-stochastic modeling approach. Second, the temporal spacing of drag scaling parameters was tested. Third, the impact of estimating once-per-revolution harmonic accelerations in cross-track direction was analyzed. And fourth, two different approaches for solar radiation pressure (SRP) handling were compared, namely adjusting SRP scaling parameter or fixing it on pre-defined values. Our analyses confirm that the empirical-stochastic orbit modeling approach, which does not require satellite attitude information and macro models, results for most of the monitored station parameters in comparable accuracy as the dynamical model that employs precise non-conservative force modeling. However, the dynamical orbit model leads to a reduction of the RMS values for the estimated rotation pole coordinates by 17% for x-pole and 12% for y-pole. The experiments show that adjusting atmospheric drag scaling parameters each 30 min is appropriate for DORIS solutions. Moreover, it was shown that the adjustment of cross-track once-per-revolution empirical parameter increases the RMS of the estimated Earth rotation pole coordinates. With recent data it was however not possible to confirm the previously known high annual variation in the estimated geocenter z-translation series as well as its mitigation by fixing the SRP parameters on pre-defined values.

  4. DOAS measurements of NO2 from an ultralight aircraft during the Earth Challenge expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; van Roozendael, M.; van Gent, J.; Fayt, C.; Maes, J.; Toledo, X.; Ronveaux, O.; de Mazière, M.

    2012-02-01

    We report on airborne Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of NO2 tropospheric columns above South Asia, Arabic peninsula, North Africa, and Italy in November and December 2009. The DOAS instrument was installed on an ultralight aircraft involved in the Earth Challenge project, an expedition of seven pilots flying on four ultralight aircraft between Australia and Belgium. The instrument recorded spectra in limb geometry with a large field-of-view, a set-up which provides a high sensitivity to the boundary layer NO2 while minimizing the uncertainties related to the attitude variations. We compare our measurements with OMI and GOME-2 tropospheric NO2 products when the latter are available. Above Rajasthan and the Po Valley, two areas where the NO2 field is homogeneous, data sets agree very well. Our measurements in this areas are respectively 0.1 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 1 × 1015 molec cm-2 and 2.5 ± 0.5 × 1016 molec cm-2. Flying downwind of Riyadh, our NO2 measurements show with a higher spatial resolution than OMI the structure of the megacities'exhaust plume. Moreover, our measurements indicate larger columns (up to 70%) than the one seen by satellites. We also derived tropopsheric columns when no satellite data was available, if it was possible to get information on the visibility from satellite measurements of aerosol optical thickness. The maximum column we measured was above Benghazi, with 5.7 ± 2 × 1016 molec cm-2. This experiment also provides a confirmation for the recent finding of a soil signature above desert.

  5. DOAS measurements of NO2 from an ultralight aircraft during the Earth Challenge expedition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlaud, A.; Van Roozendael, M.; van Gent, J.; Fayt, C.; Maes, J.; Toledo-Fuentes, X.; Ronveaux, O.; De Mazière, M.

    2012-08-01

    We report on airborne Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) measurements of NO2 tropospheric columns above South Asia, the Arabic peninsula, North Africa, and Italy in November and December 2009. The DOAS instrument was installed on an ultralight aircraft involved in the Earth Challenge project, an expedition of seven pilots flying on four ultralight aircraft between Australia and Belgium. The instrument recorded spectra in limb geometry with a large field of view, a set-up which provides a high sensitivity to the boundary layer NO2 while minimizing the uncertainties related to the attitude variations. We compare our measurements with OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) and GOME-2 (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2) tropospheric NO2 products when the latter are available. Above Rajasthan and the Po Valley, two areas where the NO2 field is homogeneous, data sets agree very well. Our measurements in these areas are 0.1 ± 0.1 to 3 ± 1 × 1015 molec cm-2 and 2.6 ± 0.8 × 1016 molec cm-2, respectively. Flying downwind of Riyadh, our NO2 measurements show the structure of the megacity's exhaust plume with a higher spatial resolution than OMI. Moreover, our measurements are larger (up to 40%) than those seen by satellites. We also derived tropospheric columns when no satellite data were available if it was possible to get information on the visibility from satellite measurements of aerosol optical thickness. This experiment also provides a confirmation for the recent finding of a soil signature above desert.

  6. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  7. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  8. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mende, S B; Rachelson, W; Sterling, R; Frey, H U; Harris, S E; McBride, S; Rosenberg, T J; Detrick, D; Doolittle, J L; Engebretson, M; Inan, U; Labelle, J W; Lanzerotti, L J; Weatherwax, A T

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  9. Tropospheric Ozone Variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon as Observed by Satellite (IASI), Aircraft (MOZAIC) and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safieddine, S.; Boynard, A.; Hao, N.; Huang, F.; Wang, L.; Ji, D.; Barret, B.; Ghude, S. D.; Coheur, P.-F.; Hurtmans, D.; Clerbaux, C.

    2015-11-01

    Satellite measurements from the thermal Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), the Measurements of OZone and water vapor by in-service AIrbus airCraft (MOZAIC), as well as observations from ground based stations, are used to assess the tropospheric ozone (O3) variability during the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). Six years [2008-2013] of IASI data analysis reveals the ability of the instrument to detect the onset and the progression of the monsoon reflected by a decrease in the tropospheric [0-6] km O3 column due to the EASM, and to reproduce this decrease from one year to the other. Focusing on the period of May-August 2011, taken as an example year, IASI data show clear inverse relationship between tropospheric [0-6] km O3 on one hand and meteorological parameters such as cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed, on the other hand. Aircraft data from the MOZAIC project at Hyderabad, Nanjing and Guangzhou are used to validate the IASI data and to assess the effect of the monsoon on the vertical distribution of the tropospheric O3 at different locations. Results show good agreement with a correlation coefficient of 0.74 between the [0-6] km O3 column derived from IASI and MOZAIC. The aircraft data show a decrease in the tropospheric O3 that is more important in the free troposphere than in the boundary layer and at Hyderabad than at the other two Chinese cities. Ground station data at different locations in India and China show a spatiotemporal dependence on meteorology during the monsoon, with decrease up to 22 ppbv in Hyderabad, and up to 5 ppbv in the North China Plain.

  10. Multi-station lunar laser ranging - An analysis of data quality and earth rotation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickey, J. O.; Newhall, X. X.; Williams, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The lunar laser ranging (LLR) results obtained from the MERIT period (Sept. 1983 through Oct. 1984) as well as from the post-MERIT period (Nov. 1, 1984 through Aug. 12, 1985) are presented. The ranging targets on the moon include the Apollo 11, 14, and 15 reflectors and a reflector on Lunokhod 2; the LLR network includes McDonald, Texas; CERGA, France; Haleakala, Hawaii; Orroral, Australia; and Crimea, USSR, stations. Data acquired with these systems are reported, and the data quality is assessed, with particular emphasis on recent ranges. During the MERIT period, sixty-five earth rotation values (UTO) were derived from LLR data, with the best accuracy being 0.25 msec; during the post-MERIT period, 115 determinations of UTO were calculated with the best inherent accuracy of about 0.1 msec. The results are compared with those from other techniques.

  11. New modulation techniques for low-cost power and bandwidth efficient satellite earth stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le-Ngoc, T.; Pham van, H.

    1982-01-01

    New power and bandwidth efficient modulation techniques, named intersymbol interference and jitter-free (IJF)-QPSK and IJF-OQPSK, are presented. The properties of the IJF-QPSK and IJF-OQPSK signals in linear and nonlinear earth-station-satellite systems are studied. A finite-state Markov chain model is used to calculate power spectra of hard-limited IJF-QPSK and IJF-OQPSK. The results indicate that the IJF-OQPSK modulated signal exhibits much less spectrum spreading than QPSK, OQPSK, and MSK. The error probability performance of IJF-QPSK and IJF-OQPSK in an additive white Gaussian noise and adjacent-channel interference environment is evaluated. The results show that the error probability performance of the IJF-OQPSK is superior to that of QPSK, OQPSK, and MSK in narrow-band nonlinear channels.

  12. Pointing losses in single-axis and fixed-mount earth-station antennas due to satellite movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchsbaum, L. M.

    1986-06-01

    There are substantial cost advantages in the use of single-axis or fixed-mount earth-station antennas, thus reducing or eliminating the need for autotracking in earth-stations operating with quasi-stationary satellites. Such cost advantages are more relevant in small antennas where the tracking system represents a larger percentage of the overall cost. In addition, small antennas are particularly suitable to be operated without autotracking, owing to their wider half-power beamwidth. This paper describes a model for calculating the antenna pointing loss as a function of the antenna diameter, operating frequency band, satellite station-keeping tolerances, and the relative geometry between the earth-station and the satellite. The model has been extensively used in the development of Intelsat's IBS and VISTA services as well as in domestic leases. Although the model has been developed based on orbital mechanics equations, its emphasis is towards earth-station and systems engineering applications. Some example calculations and results obtained through an HP-41 CV programmable calculator are also provided.

  13. Observations of the Earth's magnetic field from the Space Station: Measurement at high and extremely low altitude using Space Station-controlled free-flyers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, W., Jr.; Frawley, J. J.; Stefanik, M.

    1984-01-01

    Simulation studies established that the main (core), crustal and electrojet components of the Earth's magnetic field can be observed with greater resolution or over a longer time-base than is presently possible by using the capabilities provided by the space station. Two systems are studied. The first, a large lifetime, magnetic monitor would observe the main field and its time variation. The second, a remotely-piloted, magnetic probe would observe the crustal field at low altitude and the electrojet field in situ. The system design and the scientific performance of these systems is assessed. The advantages of the space station are reviewed.

  14. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) FAC—Airport control tower FAE—Aeronautical enroute FAM—Aeronautical multicom FAP—Civil Air Patrol FAR...—Private aircraft only MOU—Aeronautical utility mobile MRT—ELT test RCO—Remote Communications Outlet RL... RNV—Radio Navigation Land/DME RPC—Ramp Control TJ—Aircraft earth station in the Aeronautical...

  15. Interference on the deep space Earth station systems from EESS satellites operating at the 8025-8400 MHz band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shengbo; Meng, Xin

    2007-11-01

    According to the ITU Radio Regulations and CCSDS Recommendation about radio frequency, the 8400-8450 MHz band is allocated for Space Research Service (SRS) (category B) space-to-earth, and the 8400-8450 MHz deep space band is critical to the success of deep space missions. Since the 8025-8400MHz Earth Exploration Satellite Service (EESS) band is allocated for the downlinks of earth exploration satellites, the unwanted adjacent band emission may exceed the protection criterion established by the ITU-R for the protection of the deep space earth stations by a large amount and results in harmful interference to the deep space earth station systems. This paper first introduces a conceptual future scenario with frequency bands. Secondly, the paper discusses the characteristics that are unique to the deep space downlinks and then presents the characteristics of the EESS out-of-band interference to the deep space downlink X-band. Finally, the paper describes the effects of the interference on the deep space earth station systems.

  16. A probabilistic framework for single-station location of seismicity on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, M.; Clinton, J. F.; Ceylan, S.; Euchner, F.; van Driel, M.; Khan, A.; Giardini, D.; Lognonné, P.; Banerdt, W. B.

    2017-01-01

    Locating the source of seismic energy from a single three-component seismic station is associated with large uncertainties, originating from challenges in identifying seismic phases, as well as inevitable pick and model uncertainties. The challenge is even higher for planets such as Mars, where interior structure is a priori largely unknown. In this study, we address the single-station location problem by developing a probabilistic framework that combines location estimates from multiple algorithms to estimate the probability density function (PDF) for epicentral distance, back azimuth, and origin time. Each algorithm uses independent and complementary information in the seismic signals. Together, the algorithms allow locating seismicity ranging from local to teleseismic quakes. Distances and origin times of large regional and teleseismic events (M > 5.5) are estimated from observed and theoretical body- and multi-orbit surface-wave travel times. The latter are picked from the maxima in the waveform envelopes in various frequency bands. For smaller events at local and regional distances, only first arrival picks of body waves are used, possibly in combination with fundamental Rayleigh R1 waveform maxima where detectable; depth phases, such as pP or PmP, help constrain source depth and improve distance estimates. Back azimuth is determined from the polarization of the Rayleigh- and/or P-wave phases. When seismic signals are good enough for multiple approaches to be used, estimates from the various methods are combined through the product of their PDFs, resulting in an improved event location and reduced uncertainty range estimate compared to the results obtained from each algorithm independently. To verify our approach, we use both earthquake recordings from existing Earth stations and synthetic Martian seismograms. The Mars synthetics are generated with a full-waveform scheme (AxiSEM) using spherically-symmetric seismic velocity, density and attenuation models of

  17. Extensometric observation of Earth tides and local tectonic processes at the Vyhne station, Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimich, Ladislav; Bednárik, Martin; Bezák, Vladimír; Kohút, Igor; Bán, Dóra; Eper-Pápai, Ildikó; Mentes, Gyula

    2016-06-01

    The Vyhne Tidal Station of the Earth Science Institute of the Slovak Academy of Sciences is located in the former mining gallery of St. Anthony of Padua in the Vyhne valley, Štiavnické vrchy Mts., Central Slovakia. It is equipped with a 20.5 metre long quartz-tube extensometer measuring Earth's tides, and long-term tectonic deformations of the Earth's crust. Data between 2001 and 2015 with some diverse gaps were digitally collected, processed and analysed. The effects of the local conditions, such as structure of the observatory, cavity effect, topography and geological features of the surrounding rocks, were investigated in detail and these effects were taken into consideration during the interpretation of the results of the data analysis. Tidal analysis of the extensometric data between 2005 and 2015 revealed that the measured tidal amplitudes are close to the theoretical values. The tidal transfer of the observatory was also investigated by coherence analysis between the theoretical and the measured extensometric data. The coherence is better than 0.9 both in the diurnal and semidiurnal band. The effect of the free core nutation resonance was also investigated in the case of the K1 and P1 tidal components. Since the K1/O1 ratio was about the theoretical value 0.8, than the P1/O1 was between 1.0 and 1.15 instead of the theoretical value of 0.9. The rate of the long-term strain rate was also investigated and the obtained -0.05 μstr/y shows a good agreement with the strain rate inferred from GPS measurements in the Central European GPS Reference Network.

  18. International Space Station as a Base Camp for Exploration Beyond Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raftery, Michael; Hoffman, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The idea for using the International Space Station (ISS) as platform for exploration has matured in the past year and the concept continues to gain momentum. ISS provides a robust infrastructure which can be used to test systems and capabilities needed for missions to the Moon, Mars, asteroids and other potential destinations. International cooperation is a critical enabler and ISS has already demonstrated successful management of a large multi-national technical endeavor. Systems and resources needed for expeditions can be aggregated and thoroughly tested at ISS before departure thus providing wide operational flexibility and the best assurance of mission success. A small part of ISS called an Exploration Platform (ISS-EP) can be placed at Earth-Moon Libration point 1 (EML1) providing immediate benefits and flexibility for future exploration missions. We will show how ISS and the ISS-EP can be used to reduce risk and improve the operational flexibility for missions beyond low earth orbit. Life support systems and other technology developed for ISS can be evolved and adapted to the ISS-EP and other exploration spacecraft. New technology, such as electric propulsion and advanced life support systems can be tested and proven at ISS as part of an incremental development program. Commercial companies who are introducing transportation and other services will benefit with opportunities to contribute to the mission since ISS will serve as a focal point for the commercialization of low earth orbit services. Finally, we will show how use of ISS provides immediate benefits to the scientific community because its capabilities are available today and certain critical aspects of exploration missions can be simulated.

  19. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE...

  20. Earth Observation from the International Space Station -Remote Sensing in Schools-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Johannes; Rienow, Andreas; Graw, Valerie; Heinemann, Sascha; Selg, Fabian; Menz, Gunter

    2016-04-01

    Since spring 2014, the NASA High Definition Earth Viewing (HDEV) mission at the International Space Station (ISS) is online. HDEV consists of four cameras mounted at ESA's Columbus laboratory and is recording the earth 24/7. The educational project 'Columbus Eye - Live-Imagery from the ISS in Schools' has published a learning portal for earth observation from the ISS (www.columbuseye.uni-bonn.de). Besides a video live stream, the portal contains an archive providing spectacular footage, web-GIS and an observatory with interactive materials for school lessons. Columbus Eye is carried out by the University of Bonn and funded by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) Space Administration. Pupils should be motivated to work with the footage in order to learn about patterns and processes of the coupled human-environment system like volcano eruptions or deforestation. The material is developed on the experiences of the FIS (German abbreviation for "Remote Sensing in Schools") project and its learning portal (http://www.fis.uni-bonn.de). Based on the ISS videos three different teaching material types are developed. The simplest teaching type are provided by worksheets, which have a low degree of interactivity. Alongside a short didactical commentary for teachers is included. Additionally, videos, ancillary information, maps, and instructions for interactive school experiments are provided. The observatory contains the second type of the Columbus Eye teaching materials. It requires a high degree of self-organisation and responsibility of the pupils. Thus, the observatory provides the opportunity for pupils to freely construct their own hypotheses based on a spatial analysis tool similar to those provided by commercial software. The third type are comprehensive learning and teaching modules with a high degree of interactivity, including background information, interactive animations, quizzes and different analysis tools (e.g. change detection, classification, polygon or NDVI

  1. Automated delay measurement system for an Earth station for Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejong, Gerrit; Polderman, Michel C.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of the difference of the transmit and receive delays of the signals in a Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer (TWSTFT) Earth station is crucial for its nanosecond time transfer capability. Also, the monitoring of the change of this delay difference with time, temperature, humidity, or barometric pressure is important for improving the TWSTFT capabilities. An automated system for this purpose has been developed from the initial design at NMi-VSL. It calibrates separately the transmit and receive delays in cables, amplifiers, upconverters and downconverters, and antenna feeds. The obtained results can be applied as corrections to the TWSTFT measurement when, before and after a measurement session, a calibration session is performed. Preliminary results obtained at NMi-VSL will be shown. Also, if available, the results of a manual version of the system that is planned to be circulated in Sept. 1994 together with a USNO portable station on a calibration trip to European TWSTFT Earth stations.

  2. Applications of Combustion Research on the International Space Station to Industrial Processes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schowengerdt, F.

    2002-01-01

    The mission of the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) at the Colorado School of Mines is to conduct research and educate students in scientific areas related to combustion. The center focuses on those areas where results can be applied to the development of commercial products and processes and where the research can benefit from the unique properties of space. The center is planning combustion-related research aboard the International Space Station (ISS) that will further this mission. The research will be conducted in the two ISS facilities designed for combustion experiments, Space-DRUMSTM and the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR) of the Fluids and Combustion Facility. Space-DRUMSTM is a containerless processing facility employing dynamic acoustic positioning. Guigne International, Ltd. of St. John's, Newfoundland, a CCACS member, is developing the facility in partnership with Astrium Space- Infrastructure and Teledyne Brown Engineering. This universal processing facility can handle large samples with virtually complete vibration isolation from the space station and no contamination from the experimental processing chamber. The CCACS research to be done in Space-DRUMSTM includes combustion synthesis of glass-ceramics and porous materials, nanoparticle synthesis, catalytic combustion, fluid physics and granular materials. The launch of Space-DRUMSTM to the ISS is currently scheduled for ULF-1 in January of 2003. The CIR is being developed by NASA-Glenn Research Center, and is a general-purpose combustion furnace designed to accommodate a wide range of scientific experiments. The CCACS research to be done in the CIR includes water mist fire suppression, flame synthesis of ceramic powders, nanoparticle synthesis and catalytic combustion. The CIR is currently under development, with an expected launch date in the 2005 timeframe. The applications of this combustion research in manufacturing and processing industries are far

  3. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  5. The IGS-combined station coordinates, earth rotation parameters and apparent geocenter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferland, R.; Piraszewski, M.

    2009-03-01

    The International GNSS Service (IGS) routinely generates a number of weekly, daily and sub-daily products. Station coordinates and velocities, earth rotation parameters (ERPs) and apparent geocenter are among these products generated weekly by the IGS Reference Frame Coordinator. They have been determined since 1999 by combining independent estimates from at least seven IGS Analysis Centers (ACs). Two Global Network Associate Analysis Centers (GNAACs) also provide independent combinations using the same AC weekly solutions and they are currently used to quality control the IGS combination. The combined solutions are aligned to an IGS realization (IGS05) of the ITRF2005 using a carefully selected set of the IGS Reference Frame (RF) stations (nominally 132). During the combination process, the contributing solutions are compared and outliers are removed to ensure a high level of consistency of the estimated parameters. The ACs and the weekly combined solution are consistent at the 1-2 and 3-4 mm levels for the horizontal and vertical components. Similarly, the excess Length of Day (LOD), the pole positions and pole rates are consistent at the 10μs, 0.03-0.05 mas and 0.10-0.20 mas/day levels, respectively. The consistency of the apparent geocenter estimate is about 5 mm in the X and Y components and 10 mm in the Z component. Comparison of the IGS-combined ERP estimates with the IERS Bulletin A suggests a small bias of the order of -0.04 mas and + 0.05 mas (both ±0.05 mas) in the x and y components.

  6. Dropping aircraft-deployable GPS stations on Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Jones, David

    2013-04-01

    There remains areas of scientific interest that heavy crevassing makes difficult or impossible to reach by ground via overland treks or an aircraft landing. We have developed an alternative strategy for instrumenting these regions: a sensor probe that can be dropped from an aircraft, partially bury itself in the snow whilst keeping its antennas protruding high above the surface to ensure a long operating life. Our probe has a 2.5m, 10kg missile-shaped design and can be deployed through a standard sonar-buoy launch tube. In order to achieve a consistent impact depth in different snow densities the case is fitted with fold-out fins one metre from the nose cone. This ensures a large step-change in impact surface area when the device is embedded to the correct depth. A small disk-gap-band parachute improves the angle of impact while damping any probe oscillations. We are now able to achieve near-vertical impact angles and a consistent snow penetration depth of one metre. The sensor is cheap to make (approximately £1000) and has a minimal environmental impact. This year we have used a large network of these sensors to instrument previously inaccessible parts of Scar Inlet and Pine Island Glacier.

  7. Earth's gravity field to the eighteenth degree and geocentric coordinates for 104 stations from satellite and terrestrial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1974-01-01

    Geodetic parameters describing the earth's gravity field and the positions of satellite-tracking stations in a geocentric reference frame have been computed. These parameters were estimated by means of a combination of five different types of data: routine and simultaneous satellite observations, observations of deep space probes, measurements of terrestrial gravity, and surface triangulation data. The combination gives better parameters than does any subset of data types. The dynamic solution used precision-reduced Baker-Nunn observations and laser range data of 25 satellites. Data from the 49-station National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration BC-4 network, the 19-station Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Baker-Nunn network, and independent camera stations were employed in the geometrical solution.

  8. International Space Station Accomplishments Update: Scientific Discovery, Advancing Future Exploration, and Benefits Brought Home to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Johnson-Green, Perry; Buckley, Nicole; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of "ocular syndrome" affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic, and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new "cold flame" phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28 million

  9. International space station accomplishments update: Scientific discovery, advancing future exploration, and benefits brought home to earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thumm, Tracy; Robinson, Julie A.; Alleyne, Camille; Hasbrook, Pete; Mayo, Susan; Buckley, Nicole; Johnson-Green, Perry; Karabadzhak, George; Kamigaichi, Shigeki; Umemura, Sayaka; Sorokin, Igor V.; Zell, Martin; Istasse, Eric; Sabbagh, Jean; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2014-10-01

    Throughout the history of the International Space Station (ISS), crews on board have conducted a variety of scientific research and educational activities. Well into the second year of full utilization of the ISS laboratory, the trend of scientific accomplishments and educational opportunities continues to grow. More than 1500 investigations have been conducted on the ISS since the first module launched in 1998, with over 700 scientific publications. The ISS provides a unique environment for research, international collaboration and educational activities that benefit humankind. This paper will provide an up to date summary of key investigations, facilities, publications, and benefits from ISS research that have developed over the past year. Discoveries in human physiology and nutrition have enabled astronauts to return from ISS with little bone loss, even as scientists seek to better understand the new puzzle of “ocular syndrome” affecting the vision of up to half of astronauts. The geneLAB campaign will unify life sciences investigations to seek genomic, proteomic and metabolomics of the effect of microgravity on life as a whole. Combustion scientists identified a new “cold flame” phenomenon that has the potential to improve models of efficient combustion back on Earth. A significant number of instruments in Earth remote sensing and astrophysics are providing new access to data or nearing completion for launch, making ISS a significant platform for understanding of the Earth system and the universe. In addition to multidisciplinary research, the ISS partnership conducts a myriad of student led research investigations and educational activities aimed at increasing student interest in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). Over the past year, the ISS partnership compiled new statistics of the educational impact of the ISS on students around the world. More than 43 million students, from kindergarten to graduate school, with more than 28

  10. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  11. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  12. Evaluation of Low Earth Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Rutledge, Sharon K.; Hasegawa, Mark M.; Reed, Charles K.

    1998-01-01

    Samples of International Space Station (ISS) thermal control coatings were exposed to simulated low Earth orbit (LEO) environmental conditions to determine effects on optical properties. In one test, samples of the white paint coating Z-93P were coated with outgassed products from Tefzel(R) (ethylene tetrafluoroethylene copolymer) power cable insulation as-may occur on ISS. These samples were then exposed, along with an uncontaminated Z-93P witness sample, to vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation to determine solar absorptance degradation. The Z-93P samples coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products experienced greater increases in solar absorptance than witness samples not coated with Tefzel(R) outgassing products. In another test, samples of second surface silvered Teflon(R) FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene), SiO. (where x=2)-coated silvered Teflon(R) FEP, and Z-93P witness samples were exposed to the combined environments of atomic oxygen and VLTV radiation to determine optical properties changes due to these simulated ISS environmental effects. This test verified the durability of these materials in the absence of contaminants.

  13. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low earth orbit space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K. B.

    1988-04-01

    A study was conducted to define characteristics of a Regenerative Fuel Cell System (RFCS) for low earth orbit Space Station missions. The RFCS's were defined and characterized based on both an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an alkaline electrolyte water electrolyzer and an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell integrated with an acid solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) water electrolyzer. The study defined the operating characteristics of the systems including system weight, volume, and efficiency. A maintenance philosophy was defined and the implications of system reliability requirements and modularization were determined. Finally, an Engineering Model System was defined and a program to develop and demonstrate the EMS and pacing technology items that should be developed in parallel with the EMS were identified. The specific weight of an optimized RFCS operating at 140 F was defined as a function of system efficiency for a range of module sizes. An EMS operating at a nominal temperature of 180 F and capable of delivery of 10 kW at an overall efficiency of 55.4 percent is described. A program to develop the EMS is described including a technology development effort for pacing technology items.

  14. Continuous monitoring of a large active earth flow using an integrated GPS - automatic total station approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, A.

    2009-04-01

    Landslide monitoring has evolved as a crucial tool in civil protection to mitigate and prevent disasters. The research presents an approach to continuous monitoring of a large-scale active earth flow using a system that integrates surface measurements obtained by a GPS and an automatic total station. With the data obtained from the system the landslide can be monitored in near-real-time and surface displacements can be directly utilized to provide early warning of slope movements and to study the behavior of the landslide, e.g. to predict timing and mechanisms of future failure. The Valoria landslide located in the northern Apennines of Italy was reactivated in 2001, 2005 and 2007 damaging roads and endangering houses. A monitoring system was installed in 2007-2008 in the frame of a civil protection plan aimed at risk mitigation. The system consists of an automatic total station measuring about 40 prisms located in the landslide to a maximum distance of 1.800 km; one double-frequency GPS receiver connects in streaming by wireless communication with 4 single-frequency GPS in side the flow. Until December 2007 the monitoring network was operated with periodic static surveying followed by the data post-processing. From September 2007 until March 2008 the landslide deformation was evaluated by periodic surveys with the total station and the GPS system. This first measure showed that the displacements were influenced by the rainfall events and by the snow melting. The total displacements measured vary from centimeter scale in the crown zone, where retrogressive movements were in progress, to over 50 m in the flow track zone. Starting in March 2008 data acquisition by the total station system and GPS were automated in order to allow continuous and near-real-time data processing. The displacement data collected in one and a half year of continuous operation show different acceleration and deceleration phases as a result of the pore water pressure distribution inside the

  15. Earth's gravity field to the eighteenth degree and geocentric coordinates for 104 stations from satellite and terrestrial data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    Geodetic parameters describing the earth's gravity field and the positions of satellite-tracking stations in a geocentric reference frame were computed. These parameters were estimated by means of a combination of five different types of data: routine and simultaneous satellite observations, observations of deep-space probes, measurements of terrestrial gravity, and surface-triangulation data. The combination gives better parameters than does any subset of data types. The dynamic solution used precision-reduced Baker-Nunn observations and laser range data of 25 satellites. Data from the 49-station National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration BC-4 network, the 19-station Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Baker-Nunn network, and independent camera stations were employed in the geometrical solution. Data from the tracking of deep-space probes were converted to relative longitudes and distances to the earth's axis of rotation of the tracking stations. Surface-gravity data in the form of 550-km squares were derived from 19,328 1 deg X 1 deg mean gravity anomalies.

  16. Environmental Assessment Relocation of the Aircraft Oil/Water Separator and Lift Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    CES/CEV),600 Chevron Ave,Dover AFB,DE,19902 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10 ...Purpose of Contact: ERP information 10 8.0 REFERENCES "Dover Air Force Base, Cultural Resources Management Plan", October 2000 "Biological and...HEADQUARTERS 436TH AIRLIFf WING (AMC) MEMORANDUM FOR 436 MSG/CC FROM: 436 AW/JA SUBJECT: FONSI for Relocation of Oil/Water Separator and Lift Station 10 May

  17. Results of the Calibration of the Delays of Earth Stations for TWSTFT Using the VSL Satellite Simulator Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deJong, Gerrit; Kirchner, Dieter; Ressler, Hubert; Hetzel, Peter; Davis, John; Pears, Peter; Powell, Bill; McKinley, Angela Davis; Klepczynski, Bill; DeYoung, James; Hackman, Christine; Jefferts, Steve R.; Parker, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    Two-way satellite time and frequency transfer (TWSTFT) is the most accurate and precise method of comparing two remote clocks or time scales. The accuracy obtained is dependent on the accuracy of the determination of the non-reciprocal delays of the transmit and the receive paths. When the same transponders in the satellite at the same frequencies are used, then the non-reciprocity in the Earth stations is the limiting factor for absolute time transfer.

  18. Expedition Earth and Beyond: Using Crew Earth Observation Imagery from the International Space Station to Facilitate Student-Led Authentic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Stefanov, W. L.; Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.

    2012-01-01

    Student-led authentic research in the classroom helps motivate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) related subjects. Classrooms benefit from activities that provide rigor, relevance, and a connection to the real world. Those real world connections are enhanced when they involve meaningful connections with NASA resources and scientists. Using the unique platform of the International Space Station (ISS) and Crew Earth Observation (CEO) imagery, the Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) program provides an exciting way to enable classrooms in grades 5-12 to be active participants in NASA exploration, discovery, and the process of science. EEAB was created by the Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education Program, at the NASA Johnson Space Center. This Earth and planetary science education program has created a framework enabling students to conduct authentic research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons using the captivating CEO images being taken by astronauts onboard the ISS. The CEO payload has been a science payload onboard the ISS since November 2000. ISS crews are trained in scientific observation of geological, oceanographic, environmental, and meteorological phenomena. Scientists on the ground select and periodically update a series of areas to be photographed as part of the CEO science payload.

  19. An integrated study of earth resources in the state of California based on ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, R. N.; Thorley, G. A.; Burgy, R. H.; Schubert, G.; Estes, J. E.; Bowden, L. W.; Algazi, V. R.; Wildman, W. E.; Huntington, G. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Results of an integrated study of earth resources in the state of California using ERTS-1 and supporting aircraft data are presented. Areas of investigation cover (1) regional agricultural surveys; (2) solving water resource management problems; (3) resource management in Northern California using ERTS-1 data; (4) analysis of river meanders; (5) assessment and monitoring change in west side of the San Joaquin Valley and central coastal zone of state; (6) assessment and monitoring of changes in Southern California environment; (7) digital handling and processing of ERTS-1 data; (8) use of ERTS-1 data in educational and applied research programs of the Agricultural Extension Service; and (9) identification, classification, and mapping of salt affected soils.

  20. The 136 MHZ/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Fee, J. J.; Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study was undertaken to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low noise periods. Antenna noise temperatures will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. Telemetry data acquisition will be at 400 MHz; tracking support at 136 MHz will be provided by the Goddard Range and Range Rate (RARR) stations. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973.

  1. A DTN-ready application for the real-time dissemination of Earth Observation data received by Direct Readout stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paronis, Dimitris; Daglis, Ioannis A.; Diamantopoulos, Sotirios; Tsaoussidis, Vassilis; Tsigkanos, Antonis; Ghita, Bogdan; Evans, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The majority of Earth observation satellites operate in low Earth sun-synchronous orbit and transmit data captured by a variety of sensors. The effective dissemination of satellite data in real-time is a crucial parameter for disaster monitoring in particular. Generally, a spacecraft collects data and then stores it on-board until it passes over dedicated ground stations to transmit the data. Additionally, some satellites (e.g. Terra, Aqua, Suomi-NPP, NOAA series satellites) have the so-called Direct Broadcast (DB) capability, which is based on a real-time data transmission sub-system. Compatible Direct Readout (DR) stations in direct line of sight are able to receive these transmissions. To date data exchange between DR stations have not been fully exploited for real-time data dissemination. Stations around the world store data locally, which is then disseminated on demand via Internet gateways based on the standard TCP-IP protocols. On the other hand, Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs), which deliver data by enabling store-and-forward transmission in order to cope with link failures, service disruptions and network congestion, could prove as an alternative/complementary transmission mechanism for the efficient dissemination of data. The DTN architecture allows for efficient utilization of the network, using in-network storage and taking advantage of the network availability among the interconnected nodes. Although DTNs were originally developed for high-propagation delay, challenged connectivity environments such as deep space, the broader research community has investigated possible architectural enhancements for various emerging applications (e.g., terrestrial infrastructure, ground-to-air communications, content retrieval and dissemination). In this paper, a scheme for the effective dissemination of DB data is conceptualized, designed and implemented based on store-and-forward transmission capabilities provided by DTNs. For demonstration purposes, a set-up has

  2. Investigation of biological activity of fine fraction of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kustov, V. V.; Ostapenko, O. F.; Petrukhin, V. G.

    1974-01-01

    The biological action of a sample of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station from a new region of the mare surface on male white mice was studied. The condition and behavior of the animals were observed; the intensity of their oxygen consumption was recorded, and motor activity of the muscles, leucocyte and erythrocytes counts in the peripheral blood, and the activity of whole blood chloinesterase were determined. Experimental results showed that the tested doses of the fine fraction of the lunar surface material from the Sea of Fertility were virtually innocuous for white mice.

  3. Station coordinates in the standard earth 3 system and radiation-pressure perturbations from ISAGEX camera data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.; Latimer, J.; Mendes, G.

    1975-01-01

    Simultaneous and individual camera observations of GEOS 1, GEOS 2, Pageos, and Midas 4 obtained during the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment are utilized to determine station coordinates. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Standard Earth III system of coordinates is used to tie the geometrical network to a geocentric system and as a reference for calculating satellite orbits. A solution for coordinates combining geometrical and dynamical methods is obtained, and a comparison between the solutions and terrestrial data is made. The radiation-pressure and earth-albedo perturbations for Pageos are very large, and Pageos' orbits are used to evaluate the analytical treatment of these perturbations. Residual effects, which are probably of interest to aeronomists, remain in the Pageos orbits.

  4. Aircraft data collection in support of NASA's earth observing satellite missions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NASA's Earth observing missions have been providing global information on soil moisture, vegetation, and precipitation that is crucial for hydrological and agricultural applications. For example, accurate soil moisture information is a key component in land surface and agricultural models used for w...

  5. Testing impact of the strategy of VLBI data analysis on the estimation of Earth Orientation Parameters and station coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, Agata; Tercjak, Monika; Brzeziński, Aleksander

    2016-06-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is the only space geodetic technique capable to realise the Celestial Reference Frame and tie it with the Terrestrial Reference Frame. It is also the only technique, which measures all the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP) on a regular basis, thus the role of VLBI in determination of the universal time, nutation and polar motion and station coordinates is invaluable. Although geodetic VLBI has been providing observations for more than 30 years, there are no clear guidelines how to deal with the stations or baselines having significantly bigger post-fit residuals than the other ones. In our work we compare the common weighting strategy, using squared formal errors, with strategies involving exclusion or down-weighting of stations or baselines. For that purpose we apply the Vienna VLBI Software VieVS with necessary additional procedures. In our analysis we focus on statistical indicators that might be the criterion of excluding or down-weighting the inferior stations or baselines, as well as on the influence of adopted strategy on the EOP and station coordinates estimation. Our analysis shows that in about 99% of 24-hour VLBI sessions there is no need to exclude any data as the down-weighting procedure is sufficiently efficient. Although results presented here do not clearly indicate the best algorithm, they show strengths and weaknesses of the applied methods and point some limitations of automatic analysis of VLBI data. Moreover, it is also shown that the influence of the adopted weighting strategy is not always clearly reflected in the results of analysis.

  6. In-orbit Calibration of the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Via Two-Way Laser Ranging with an Earth Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X.; Barker, M. K.; Mao, D.; Marzarico, E.; Neumann, G. A.; Skillman, D. R.; Zagwodzki, T. W.; Torrence, M. H.; Mcgarry, J.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Orbiting planetary laser altimeters have provided critical data on such bodies as the Earth, Mars, the Moon, Mercury, and 433 Eros. The measurement accuracy of these instruments depends on accurate knowledge of not only the position and attitude of the spacecraft, but also the pointing of the altimeter with respect to the spacecraft coordinate system. To that end, we have carried out several experiments to measure post-launch instrument characteristics for the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In these experiments, the spacecraft points away from the Moon and scans the Earth in a raster pattern as the LOLA laser fires (the downlink) while a ground station on Earth fires its own laser to the spacecraft (the uplink). The downlink pulse arrival times and digitized waveforms are recorded at the ground station, the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory in Greenbelt, MD, and the uplink arrival times and pulse widths are measured by LOLA. From early in the mission, the experiments have helped to confirm a pointing anomaly when LOLA is facing towards deep space or the cold side of the Moon. Under these conditions, the downlink data indicate a laser bore-sight pointing offset of about -400 and 100 microradians in the cross-track and along-track directions, respectively. These corrections are consistent with an analysis of LOLA ground-track crossovers spread throughout the mission to determine lunar tidal flexure. The downlink data also allow the reconstruction of the laser far-field pattern. From the uplink data, we estimate a correction to the receiver telescope nighttime pointing of ~140 microradians in the cross-track direction. By comparing data from such experiments shortly after launch and nearly 5 years later, we have directly measured the changes in the laser characteristics and obtained critical data to understand the laser behavior and refine the instrument calibration.

  7. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  8. Earth's rotation and a feasibility study of a possible mexican participation with a VLBI station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo Morales, Julio Cesar; Kokina, Tatiana; Mendoza Araiza, Daniel

    This work begins by presenting a historical introduction on how the change in the Earth's rotation axis was first detected, and on related aspects of the discovery of precession and nutation phenomena. Newton's explanation of precession, the dynamical theory of nutation by Délambert as well as an acount of the first observatories dedicated to these studies are also discussed. In 1899 the International Latitude Service "ILS" was established, defining their main objectives, and started to determine the mean pole (1900 - 1905). In 1961 ILS was substituted by the International Polar Motion Service "IPMS". This service used laser telemetry to the Earth's artificial satelites "SAT", as well as to the Moon. Also in that period, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) aproved the MERIT international program, dedicated to monitor the Earth rotation intercomparing techniques of observation and analysis. It was in this program that "very long base interferometry" VLBI was used for the fist time, obtaining very good results. In 1987 the IAU started the International Earth Rotation Service "IERS" suported by its two networks ICRF and ITRF. The VLBI is said to be a powerful tool that could be used to solve global problems which have an impact in the countries' economies. In México we lack a rigid link in the geodesic network, which is linked to the global positional system NAVSTAR (GPS), as well as to the international system of coordinates (ITRF), and on the other hand there is a very high sysmic activity. We conclude by arguing that México ought to participate in IERS, as it has both scientists and infraestructure, such as the GMT, Sierra la Negra, Puebla, México. To achieve this a companion radiotelescope is needed. For this purpose, 5 telescopes are discussed, showing estimates for simultaneous reception as well as for the precission of the position of these radiotelescopes.

  9. Solar array orientations for a space station in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    A large portion of the drag of a space station in LEO is generated by its solar array; for a baseline 25-kW solar array in 334-km orbit, 1800 kg of reboost propellant/year is needed to counteract solar array drag. A study is conducted of the drag reduction potential of three possible solar array orientations: sun-pointing, sun-pointing during illumination/edge-on during eclipse, and edge-on during entire orbit. An 18.5-percent drag-makeup propellant reduction is found to be obtainable with the sun-pointing/edge-on eclipse orientation technique.

  10. First Measurements of the Earth's Electric Field at the Arctowski Antarctic Station, King George Island, by the New Polish Atmospheric Electricity Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubicki, Marek; Odzimek, Anna; Neska, Mariusz; Berliński, Jerzy; Michnowski, Stanisław

    2016-12-01

    Atmospheric electricity measurements are performed all over the globe for getting a better understanding of the processes and phenomena operating in the Earth's electric atmosphere, ionosphere and magnetosphere. Over recent years, we have established coordinated observations of atmospheric electricity, mainly of the vertical component of the Earth's atmospheric electric field, from Polish observation stations: Stanisław Kalinowski Geophysical Observatory in Świder, Poland, Stanisław Siedlecki Polar Station in Hornsund, Svalbard, Norway, and, for the first time, the Henryk Arctowski Antarctic Station in King George Island. The organisation of this network is presented here as well as a preliminary summary of geophysical conditions at Arctowski, important from the point of view of atmospheric electricity observations. In particular, we refer to the geomagnetic observations made at Arctowski station in 1978-1995. We also present the average fair-weather diurnal variation of the atmospheric electric field based on observations made so far between 2013 and 2015.

  11. The 136 MHz/400 MHz earth station antenna-noise temperature prediction program documentation for RAE-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, M.

    1972-01-01

    A simulation study to determine the 136 MHz and 400 MHz noise temperature of the ground network antennas which will track the RAE-B satellite during data transmission periods is described. Since the noise temperature of the antenna effectively sets the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the received signal, a knowledge of SNR will be helpful in locating the optimum time windows for data transmission during low-noise periods. Antenna-noise temperatures at 136 MHz and 400 MHz will be predicted for selected earth-based ground stations which will support RAE-B. The antenna-noise temperature predictions will include the effects of galactic-brightness temperature, the sun, and the brightest radio stars. Predictions will cover the ten-month period from March 1, 1973 to December 31, 1973. The RAE-B mission will be expecially susceptible to SNR degradation during the two eclipses of the Sun occurring in this period.

  12. 47 CFR 87.171 - Class of station symbols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) FAC—Airport control tower FAE—Aeronautical enroute FAM—Aeronautical multicom FAR—Aeronautical search... only MOU—Aeronautical utility mobile MRT—ELT test RCO—Remote Communications Outlet RL—Radionavigation...—Radio Navigation Land/DME RPC—Ramp Control TJ—Aircraft earth station in the Aeronautical...

  13. Optical property degradation of anodic coatings in the Space Station low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1992-01-01

    The anodic coatings and optical properties to be used for passive thermal control of the SSF are studied. Particular attention is given to the beginning-of-life optical properties for aluminum alloys suitable for structural and radiator applications, the statistical variation in the beginning-of-life properties, and estimates of the end-of-life properties of the alloys based on ultraviolet radiation testing and flight test results. It is concluded that anodic coatings can be used for thermal control of long life, low earth orbit spacecraft. Some use restrictions are defined for specific cases. Anodic coatings have been selected as baseline thermal control coating for large portions of the SSF.

  14. Ionosphere Plasma State Determination in Low Earth Orbit from International Space Station Plasma Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kramer, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    A plasma diagnostic package is deployed on the International Space Station (ISS). The system - a Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) - is used by NASA to monitor the electrical floating potential of the vehicle to assure astronaut safety during extravehicular activity. However, data from the unit also reflects the ionosphere state and seems to represent an unutilized scientific resource in the form of an archive of scientific plasma state data. The unit comprises a Floating Potential probe and two Langmuir probes. There is also an unused but active plasma impedance probe. The data, at one second cadence, are collected, typically for a two week period surrounding extravehicular activity events. Data is also collected any time a visiting vehicle docks with ISS and also when any large solar events occur. The telemetry system is unusual because the package is mounted on a television camera stanchion and its data is impressed on a video signal that is transmitted to the ground and streamed by internet to two off center laboratory locations. The data quality has in the past been challenged by weaknesses in the integrated ground station and distribution systems. These issues, since mid-2010, have been largely resolved and the ground stations have been upgraded. Downstream data reduction has been developed using physics based modeling of the electron and ion collecting character in the plasma. Recursive algorithms determine plasma density and temperature from the raw Langmuir probe current voltage sweeps and this is made available in real time for situational awareness. The purpose of this paper is to describe and record the algorithm for data reduction and to show that the Floating probe and Langmuir probes are capable of providing long term plasma state measurement in the ionosphere. Geophysical features such as the Appleton anomaly and high latitude modulation at the edge of the Auroral zones are regularly observed in the nearly circular, 51 deg inclined, 400 km

  15. 47 CFR 25.223 - Alternative licensing rules for feeder-link earth stations in the 17/24 GHz BSS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... stations that are not eligible for routine processing under § 25.212(f). (b) All applications for earth... co-polarized signals shall not exceed the following values, within ±3° of the GSO arc, under clear... signals shall not exceed the following values, for all directions other than within ±3° of the GSO...

  16. A comparison of Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) approaches to satellite service for low data rate Earth stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, G.

    1983-01-01

    A technological and economic assessment is made of providing low data rate service to small earth stations by satellite at Ka-band. Various Frequency Domain Multiple Access (FDMA) and Time Domain Multiple Access (TDMA) scenarios are examined and compared on the basis of cost to the end user. Very small stations (1 to 2 meters in diameter) are found not to be viable alternatives to available terrestrial services. However, medium size (3 to 5 meters) earth stations appear to be very competitive if a minimum throughput of about 1.5 Mbs is maintained. This constrains the use of such terminals to large users and shared use by smaller users. No advantage was found to the use of FDMA. TDMA had a slight advantage from a total system viewpoint and a very significant advantage in the space segment (about 1/3 the required payload weight for an equivalent capacity).

  17. Chemical Potency and Degradation Products of Medications Stored Over 550 Earth Days at the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2016-01-01

    Medications degrade over time, and degradation is hastened by extreme storage conditions. Current procedures ensure that medications aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are restocked before their expiration dates, but resupply may not be possible on future long-duration exploration missions. For this reason, medications stored on the ISS were returned to Earth for analysis. This was an opportunistic, observational pilot-scale investigation to test the hypothesis that ISS-aging does not cause unusual degradation. Nine medications were analyzed for active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) content and degradant amounts; results were compared to 2012 United States Pharmacopeia (USP) requirements. The medications were two sleep aids, two antihistamines/decongestants, three pain relievers, an antidiarrheal, and an alertness medication. Because the samples were obtained opportunistically from unused medical supplies, each medication was available at only 1 time point and no control samples (samples aged for a similar period on Earth) were available. One medication met USP requirements 5 months after its expiration date. Four of the nine (44% of those tested) medications tested met USP requirements 8 months post expiration. Another three medications (33%) met USP guidelines 2-3 months before expiration. One compound, a dietary supplement used as a sleep aid, failed to meet USP requirements at 11 months post expiration. No unusual degradation products were identified. Limited, evidence-based extension of medication shelf-lives may be possible and would be useful in preparation for lengthy exploration missions. Only analysis of flight-aged samples compared to appropriately matched ground controls will permit determination of the spaceflight environment on medication stability.

  18. Controlled Directional Solidification of Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Comparison Between Samples Processed on Earth and in the Microgravity Environment Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Tewari, Surendra N.; Erdman, Robert G.; Poirier, David R.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of the international "MIcrostructure Formation in CASTing of Technical Alloys" (MICAST) program is given. Directional solidification processing of metals and alloys is described, and why experiments conducted in the microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to promote our understanding of this commercially relevant practice. Microstructural differences observed when comparing the aluminum - 7 wt% silicon alloys directionally solidified on Earth to those aboard the ISS are presented and discussed.

  19. Chemical Characterization of Aerosols on the East Coast of the United States Using Aircraft and Ground-Based Stations during the CLAMS Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida Castanho, Andréa D.; Vanderlei Martins, J.; Hobbs, Peter V.; Artaxo, Paulo; Remer, Lorraine; Yamasoe, Marcia; Colarco, Peter R.

    2005-04-01

    The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment was carried out off the central East Coast of the United States in July 2001. During CLAMS, aerosol particle mass was measured at two ground stations and on the University of Washington's Convair 580 research aircraft. Physical and chemical characteristics of the aerosols were identified and quantified. Three main aerosol regimes were identified in the region and are discussed in this work: local pollution/sea salt background, long-range transported dust, and long-range transported pollution. The major component measured in the fine mode of the aerosol on the ground at Wallops Island, Virginia, was sulfate, estimated as NH4HSO4, which accounted for 55% ± 9% on average of the fine particle mass (FPM) during the experiment period. Black carbon concentrations accounted for 3% ± 1% of FPM; soil dust was also present, representing on average 6% ± 8% of FPM. The difference between the sum of the masses of the measured compounds and the total fine particle mass was 36% ± 10% of FPM, which is attributed primarily to nitrates and organic carbon that were not measured. Aerosol chemical composition in the atmospheric column is also discussed and compared with ground-based measurements. Aerosol dust concentration reached 40% of FPM during an incursion of Saharan dust between 24 and 26 July. Sulfate aerosol reached 70% of FPM during the transport of regional pollution on 17 July. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aerosol optical thickness, coupled with air parcel back trajectories, supported the conclusion of episodes of long-range transport of dust from the Sahara Desert and pollutants from the continental United States.

  20. Verifying single-station seismic approaches using Earth-based data: Preparation for data return from the InSight mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panning, Mark P.; Beucler, Éric; Drilleau, Mélanie; Mocquet, Antoine; Lognonné, Philippe; Banerdt, W. Bruce

    2015-03-01

    The planned InSight mission will deliver a single seismic station containing 3-component broadband and short-period sensors to the surface of Mars in 2016. While much of the progress in understanding the Earth and Moon's interior has relied on the use of seismic networks for accurate location of sources, single station approaches can be applied to data returned from Mars in order to locate events and determine interior structure. In preparation for the data return from InSight, we use a terrestrial dataset recorded at the Global Seismic Network station BFO, located at the Black Forest Observatory in Germany, to verify an approach for event location and structure determination based on recordings of multiple orbit surface waves, which will be more favorable to record on Mars than Earth due to smaller planetary radius and potentially lower background noise. With this approach applied to events near the threshold of observability on Earth, we are able to determine epicentral distance within approximately 1° (corresponding to ∼60 km on Mars), and origin time within ∼30 s. With back azimuth determined from Rayleigh wave polarization, absolute locations are determined generally within an aperture of 10°, allowing for localization within large tectonic regions on Mars. With these locations, we are able to recover Earth mantle structure within ±5% (the InSight mission requirements for martian mantle structure) using 1D travel time inversions of P and S travel times for datasets of only 7 events. The location algorithm also allows for the measurement of great-circle averaged group velocity dispersion, which we measure between 40 and 200 s to scale the expected reliable frequency range of the InSight data from Earth to Mars data. Using the terrestrial data, we are able to resolve structure down to ∼200 km, but synthetic tests demonstrate we should be able to resolve martian structure to ∼400 km with the same frequency content given the smaller planetary size.

  1. New Approaches in estimating Dust Devil Parameters, Trajectories and Populations from Single-Station Measurements on Mars and Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    A Monte-Carlo modeling approach (Lorenz, J. Atm. Sci., 2014) using a power law population function and empirical correlations between diameter and longevity can be used to reconcile single-station pressure records of vortex close-approaches with visual counts of dust devils and Large Eddy Simulations (LES). That work suggests that on Earth, the populations can be reconciled if dust-lifting occurs with a typical threshold corresponding to core pressure drop of 0.8 mb, a little higher than the ~0.3 mb estimated in laboratory experiments. A similar analysis can be conducted at Mars. The highest vortex production rates in LES, indicated from field encounters, and extrapolated from visual counts, appear to be of the order of 1000 per km2 per day.Recent field experiments at a playa near Goldstone, CA (Lorenz et al., Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, in press) show that dust devils cause a ground tilt, due to the negative pressure load of the vortex on the elastic ground, that can be detected with a broadband seismometer like that on InSight. Dust devils therefore can serve as a ‘seismic source’ to characterize the shallow subsurface.Observations of the InSight landing area in Elysium by Reiss and Lorenz (Icarus, submitted) show that dust devil trails are abundant, but smaller in diameter than those at Gusev. This may indicate a shallower Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) at this site and season : Fenton and Lorenz (Icarus, 2015) found that observed dust devil height and spacing in Amazonis relates to the PBL thickness.Quantitative assessment of dust devil effects (e.g. electrical and magnetic signatures) requires knowledge of encounter geometry, notably miss distance. A recent heuristic approach has been developed (Lorenz, Icarus, submitted) to fit an analytic vortex model to pressure, windspeed and direction histories to recover this geometry. Some ambiguities exist, but can be constrained with camera images and/or the azimuth history estimated from

  2. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  3. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  4. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  5. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  6. 47 CFR 25.250 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth....250 Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Earth Stations in the 19.3-19.7 GHz and 29.1-29.5 GHz Bands. (a) NGSO MSS applicants shall be licensed to operate in the 29.1-29.5 GHz band for...

  7. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  8. Modelling solar radiation reached to the Earth using ANFIS, NN-ARX, and empirical models (Case studies: Zahedan and Bojnurd stations)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piri, Jamshid; Kisi, Ozgur

    2015-02-01

    The amount of incoming solar energy that crosses the Earth's atmosphere is called solar radiation. The solar radiation is a series of ultraviolet wavelengths including visible and infrared light. The solar rays at the Earth's surface is one of the key factor in water resources, environmental and agricultural modelling. Solar radiation is rarely measured by weather stations in Iran and other developing countries; as a result, many empirical approaches have been applied to estimate it by using other climatic parameters. In this study, non-linear models, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and neural network auto-regressive model with exogenous inputs (NN-ARX) along with empirical models, Angstrom and Hargreaves-Samani, have been used to estimate the solar radiation. The data was collected from two synoptic stations with different climatic conditions (Zahedan and Bojnurd) during the period of 5 and 7 years, respectively. These data contain sunshine hours, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average relative humidity and solar radiation. The Angstrom and Hargreaves-Samani empirical models, respectively, based on sunshine hours and temperature were calibrated and evaluated in both stations. In order to train, test, and validate ANFIS and NNRX models, 60%, 25%, and 15% of the data were applied, respectively. The results of artificial intelligence models were compared with the empirical models. The findings showed that ANFIS (R2=0.90 and 0.97 for Zahedan and Bojnurd, respectively) and NN-ARX (R2=0.89 and 0.96 for Zahedan and Bojnurd, respectively) performed better than the empirical models in estimating daily solar radiation.

  9. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy...

  10. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy...

  11. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket Licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy service (RAS... coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities and Associated Coordination..., Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, Stinchfield Woods, MI...

  12. 47 CFR 25.226 - Blanket licensing provisions for domestic, U.S. Vehicle-Mounted Earth Stations (VMESs) receiving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of VMESs in the 14.47-14.5 GHz (Earth-to-space) frequency band in the vicinity of radio astronomy... location, and the applicable coordination zone. Table 1—Applicable Radio Astronomy Service (RAS) Facilities... Astronomical Research Institute, Rosman, NC 35°11′59″ 82°52′19″ 160. U of Michigan Radio Astronomy...

  13. The Effects of Hands-On Learning Stations on Building American Elementary Teachers' Understanding about Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulunuz, Nermin; Jarrett, Olga S.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conceptual change indicates that not only children, but also teachers have incomplete understanding or misconceptions on science concepts. This mixed methods study was concerned with in-service teachers' understanding of four earth and space science concepts taught in elementary school: reason for seasons, phases of the moon, rock…

  14. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth...

  15. Simulation of the geomagnetic field experienced by the International Space Station in its revolution around the Earth: Effects on psychophysiological responses to affective picture viewing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Seppia, C.; Mezzasalma, L.; Messerotti, M.; Cordelli, A.; Ghione, S.

    2006-02-01

    There is evidence suggesting that exposure to an abnormal magnetic environment may produce psychophysiological effects related to abnormalities in responses to stress. This may be of relevance for space medicine where astronauts are exposed to a magnetic field different from that exerted by the Earth. Aim of this study was to assess how the exposure of the head to a magnetic field simulating the one encountered by the International Space Station (ISS) during a single orbit (90 min) around the Earth affects the cardiovascular and psychophysiological parameters. Twenty-four human volunteers were studied double blindly in random order under sham and magnetic exposure. During exposure, the persons were shown a set of pictures of different emotional content while subjective self-rating, skin conductance (SC), blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured. In addition, BP, HR, and tooth pain threshold were assessed before and after exposure. While subjects were under magnetic exposure, skin conductance was strongly differentiated (F|2,36 = 22.927; p = 0.0001), being high during emotionally involving (positive and negative) pictures and low during neutral pictures. Conversely, when subjects were under sham exposure, no significant differences were observed. There was, however, a trend for higher heart rate during picture viewing under magnetic exposure as compared to sham exposure. No effects were found for the other variables. These results suggest that an abnormal magnetic field that simulates the one encountered by ISS orbiting around the Earth may enhance autonomic response to emotional stimuli.

  16. Summit Station Skiway Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    delivery of personnel and materials, is by skied airplanes (currently Twin Otters and LC-130s) or by annual traverse. To support aircraft, the station...Station during the first sea - son (2009) of skiway construction at Pegasus Airfield (Haehnel et al. 2013) but consistently lower than densities of

  17. Scheduling of an aircraft fleet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paltrinieri, Massimo; Momigliano, Alberto; Torquati, Franco

    1992-01-01

    Scheduling is the task of assigning resources to operations. When the resources are mobile vehicles, they describe routes through the served stations. To emphasize such aspect, this problem is usually referred to as the routing problem. In particular, if vehicles are aircraft and stations are airports, the problem is known as aircraft routing. This paper describes the solution to such a problem developed in OMAR (Operative Management of Aircraft Routing), a system implemented by Bull HN for Alitalia. In our approach, aircraft routing is viewed as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem. The solving strategy combines network consistency and tree search techniques.

  18. Design of a Free and Open Source Data Processing, Archiving, and Distribution Subsystem for the Ground Receiving Station of the Philippine Scientific Earth Observation Micro-Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aranas, R. K. D.; Jiao, B. J. D.; Magallon, B. J. P.; Ramos, M. K. F.; Amado, J. A.; Tamondong, A. M.; Tupas, M. E. A.

    2016-06-01

    The Philippines's PHL-Microsat program aims to launch its first earth observation satellite, DIWATA, on the first quarter of 2016. DIWATA's payload consists of a high-precision telescope (HPT), spaceborne multispectral imager (SMI) with liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and a wide field camera (WFC). Once launched, it will provide information about the Philippines, both for disaster and environmental applications. Depending on the need, different remote sensing products will be generated from the microsatellite sensors. This necessitates data processing capability on the ground control segment. Rather than rely on commercial turnkey solutions, the PHL-Microsat team, specifically Project 3:DPAD, opted to design its own ground receiving station data subsystems. This paper describes the design of the data subsystems of the ground receiving station (GRS) for DIWATA. The data subsystems include: data processing subsystem for automatic calibration and georeferencing of raw images as well as the generation of higher level processed data products; data archiving subsystem for storage and backups of both raw and processed data products; and data distribution subsystem for providing a web-based interface and product download facility for the user community. The design covers the conceptual design of the abovementioned subsystems, the free and open source software (FOSS) packages used to implement them, and the challenges encountered in adapting the existing FOSS packages to DIWATA GRS requirements.

  19. Heat-physical properties of lunar surface material returned to earth by the Luna 16 automatic station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avduyevskiy, V. S.; Anfimov, N. A.; Marov, M. Y.; Treskin, Y. A.; Shalayev, S. P.; Ekonomov, A. P.

    1974-01-01

    Density, specific heat capacity, and coefficient of thermal conductivity were studied on a sample of lunar surface material returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. The study was carried out in a helium-filled chamber. The density of the surface material when freely heaped was 1.2 g/cu cm, and when shaken down -- 1.7 g/cu cm. The specific heat capacity was 0.177 + or - 0.010 cal x g/1 x deg/1. The coefficient of thermal conductivity in the material was 4.8 x 10/6 + or - 1.2 x 10/6 cal x cm/1 x sec/1 x deg/1.

  20. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  1. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  2. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  3. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  4. 47 CFR 97.221 - Automatically controlled digital station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station. (a) This rule section does not apply to an auxiliary station, a beacon station, a repeater station, an earth station, a space station, or a space telecommand station. (b) A station may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatically controlled digital station....

  5. Measurement of atmospheric air-earth current density from a tropical station using improvised Wilson's plate antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anil Kumar, C. P.; Panneerselvam, C.; Nair, K. U.; Jeeva, K.; Selvaraj, C.; Johnson Jeyakumar, H.; Gurubaran, S.

    2009-07-01

    We have developed an experimental set-up to measure the atmospheric air-earth current (conduction current). Data obtained with the continuous measurements of Wilson's plate are used to study of air-earth current density, with the aim of gaining an understanding of the experimental set-up's response to different meteorological conditions, including fair-weather days. This paper is a part of the on-going Global Electric Circuit (GEC) studies from Tirunelveli (8.7°N, 77.8°E), a measurement site in the tropical and southern tip of the Indian peninsula. Attempts have been made in past few years to obtain the global signature in this region with this sensor, but on most of the occasions it has been impossible to obtain the global signature during fair-weather days. The data used for February-April, 2007 have the well-defined nature of this global signature, which is in agreement with the well-established classical Carnegie curve of GEC. This paper also deals with very important observations made at sunrise and during those hours when fog existed. It is noted that the resistivity of the atmosphere increased significantly with the onset of fog and later decreased as the fog disappeared, based on the measured value of conduction current density when compared with the electric field measured by horizontal passive wire antenna. Also, during fair-weather conditions, conduction current and electric field variations are similar because the conductivity during this period is more or less constant at this site. Observations made during different meteorological conditions, such as different wind speeds, humidities, and temperatures, are also discussed.

  6. Probability of Causation for Space Radiation Carcinogenesis Following International Space Station, Near Earth Asteroid, and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Chappell, Lori J.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer risk is an important concern for International Space Station (ISS) missions and future exploration missions. An important question concerns the likelihood of a causal association between a crew members radiation exposure and the occurrence of cancer. The probability of causation (PC), also denoted as attributable risk, is used to make such an estimate. This report summarizes the NASA model of space radiation cancer risks and uncertainties, including improvements to represent uncertainties in tissue-specific cancer incidence models for never-smokers and the U.S. average population. We report on tissue-specific cancer incidence estimates and PC for different post-mission times for ISS and exploration missions. An important conclusion from our analysis is that the NASA policy to limit the risk of exposure-induced death to 3% at the 95% confidence level largely ensures that estimates of the PC for most cancer types would not reach a level of significance. Reducing uncertainties through radiobiological research remains the most efficient method to extend mission length and establish effective mitigators for cancer risks. Efforts to establish biomarkers of space radiation-induced tumors and to estimate PC for rarer tumor types are briefly discussed.

  7. Optical Orbit Determination of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbit Satellite Effected by Baseline Distances between Various Ground-based Tracking Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Ju Young; Jo, Jung Hyun; Choi, Jin; Kim, Bang-Yeop; Yoon, Joh-Na; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Park, Sun-Youp; Bae, Young Ho; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Jang-Hyun; Kim, Ji-Hye

    2015-09-01

    We estimated the orbit of the Communication, Ocean and Meteorological Satellite (COMS), a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite, through data from actual optical observations using telescopes at the Sobaeksan Optical Astronomy Observatory (SOAO) of the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Optical Wide field Patrol (OWL) at KASI, and the Chungbuk National University Observatory (CNUO) from August 1, 2014, to January 13, 2015. The astrometric data of the satellite were extracted from the World Coordinate System (WCS) in the obtained images, and geometrically distorted errors were corrected. To handle the optically observed data, corrections were made for the observation time, light-travel time delay, shutter speed delay, and aberration. For final product, the sequential filter within the Orbit Determination Tool Kit (ODTK) was used for orbit estimation based on the results of optical observation. In addition, a comparative analysis was conducted between the precise orbit from the ephemeris of the COMS maintained by the satellite operator and the results of orbit estimation using optical observation. The orbits estimated in simulation agree with those estimated with actual optical observation data. The error in the results using optical observation data decreased with increasing number of observatories. Our results are useful for optimizing observation data for orbit estimation.

  8. Observation of neutron albedo of the Earth atmosphere by BTN-M1 instrument onboard International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyakov, Vladislav; Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Kozyrev, S. Alexander; Sanin, Anton; Mokrousov, Maxim; Vostrukhin, Andrey; Malakhov, Alexey

    The unusual long and deep solar minimum 23/24 has established some new space age extrema for the solar activity and solar wind parameters. Based on the long-term in situ solar wind measurements near the Earth, we have studied the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and field fluctuations, proton density and temperature, solar wind dynamic pressure, and other parameters for the recent three solar cycles. We correlate them with the record of the sunspot number, cosmic ray intensity, and cosmic ray Forbush decreases for the same time window, to study how the solar-cycle variation of IMF affects the cosmic rays. In addition, using the in situ plasma and magnetic field observations, we have surveyed the large-scale solar wind structures, including stream interaction regions, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and interplanetary shocks, at the solar minimum 23/24. By comparing them with the previous solar minima, we will demonstrate how this unusual solar minimum affects these large-scale structures and also investigate the correlation of the large-scale solar wind structures with the comic ray Forbush decreases.

  9. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  10. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  11. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  12. 14 CFR 93.155 - Aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aircraft operations. 93.155 Section 93.155... § 93.155 Aircraft operations. (a) When an advisory is received from the Ketchikan Flight Service Station stating that an aircraft is on final approach to the Ketchikan International Airport, no...

  13. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) (c) Applications for modification of earth station authorizations shall be... authorizations shall be submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S. Both earth station and space station... for earth station authorization or § 25.164 for space stations, or included as a condition of...

  14. Earth Science With the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zawodny, Joe; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Thomason, Larry; Roell, Marilee; Pitts, Mike; Moore, Randy; Hill, Charles; Flittner, David; Damadeo, Rob; Cisewski, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) III is the fourth generation of solar occultation instruments operated by NASA, the first coming under a different acronym, to investigate the Earth's upper atmosphere. Three flight-ready SAGE III instruments were built by Ball Aerospace in the late 1990s, with one launched aboard the former Russian Aviation and Space Agency (now known as Roskosmos) Meteor-3M platform on 10 December 2001 (continuing until the platform lost power in 2006). Another of the original instruments was manifested for the ISS in the 2004 time frame, but was delayed because of budgetary considerations. Fortunately, that SAGE III/ISS mission was restarted in 2009 with a major focus upon filling an anticipated gap in ozone and aerosol observation in the second half of this decade. Here we discuss the mission architecture, its implementation, and data that will be produced by SAGE III/ISS, including their expected accuracy and coverage. The 52-degree inclined orbit of the ISS is well-suited for solar occultation and provides near-global observations on a monthly basis with excellent coverage of low and mid-latitudes. This is similar to that of the SAGE II mission (1985-2005), whose data set has served the international atmospheric science community as a standard for stratospheric ozone and aerosol measurements. The nominal science products include vertical profiles of trace gases, such as ozone, nitrogen dioxide and water vapor, along with multi-wavelength aerosol extinction. Though in the visible portion of the spectrum the brightness of the Sun is one million times that of the full Moon, the SAGE III instrument is designed to cover this large dynamic range and also perform lunar occultations on a routine basis to augment the solar products. The standard lunar products were demonstrated during the SAGE III/M3M mission and include ozone, nitrogen dioxide & nitrogen trioxide. The operational flexibility of the SAGE III spectrometer accomplishes

  15. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  16. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  17. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  18. 47 CFR 80.1185 - Supplemental eligibility for mobile-satellite stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station license for a ship earth station may be issued to: (1) The owner or operator of a ship. (2) A... operator of the ship aboard which the ship earth station is to be installed and operated. (b) A station license for a portable ship earth station may be issued to the owner or operator of portable earth...

  19. 47 CFR 25.172 - Requirements for reporting space station control arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... case of a non-U.S.-licensed space station, prior to commencing operation with U.S. earth stations. (1... earth station(s) communicating with the space station from any site in the United States. (3) The location, by city and country, of any telemetry, tracking, and command earth station that communicates...

  20. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  1. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be... applicable provisions of part 1, subpart Y of this chapter. (c) Applications for modification of earth... for earth station authorizations or § 25.164 for space stations, or included as a condition of...

  2. 47 CFR 25.271 - Control of transmitting stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... station. (b) The licensee of a transmitting earth station licensed under this part shall ensure that a trained operator is present on the earth station site, or at a designated remote control point for the earth station, at all times that transmissions are being conducted. No operator's license is...

  3. Uplink Power Control For Earth/Satellite/Earth Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakraborty, Dayamoy

    1994-01-01

    Proposed control subsystem adjusts power radiated by uplink transmitter in Earth station/satellite relay station/ Earth station communication system. Adjustments made to compensate for anticipated changes in attenuation by rain. Raw input is a received downlink beacon singal, amplitude of which affected not only by rain fade but also by scintillation, attenuation in atmospheric gases, and diurnal effects.

  4. Advanced aircraft for atmospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P.; Wegener, S.; Langford, J.; Anderson, J.; Lux, D.; Hall, D. W.

    1991-01-01

    The development of aircraft for high-altitude research is described in terms of program objectives and environmental, technological limitations, and the work on the Perseus A aircraft. The need for these advanced aircraft is proposed in relation to atmospheric science issues such as greenhouse trapping, the dynamics of tropical cyclones, and stratospheric ozone. The implications of the study on aircraft design requirements is addressed with attention given to the basic categories of high-altitude, long-range, long-duration, and nap-of-the-earth aircraft. A strategy is delineated for a platform that permits unique stratospheric measurements and is a step toward a more advanced aircraft. The goal of Perseus A is to carry scientific air sampling payloads weighing at least 50 kg to altitudes of more than 25 km. The airfoils are designed for low Reynolds numbers, the structural weight is very low, and the closed-cycle power plant runs on liquid oxygen.

  5. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule B. Applications for modification of space station authorizations shall be submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S. Both earth station and space station... for earth station authorization or § 25.164 for space stations, or included as a condition of...

  6. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule B. Applications for modification of space station authorizations shall be submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S. Both earth station and space station... for earth station authorization or § 25.164 for space stations, or included as a condition of...

  7. CHAMBARA: The changing hydrography and man made biomass burning in Africa: a concept for earth observations from the International Space Station.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian

    2010-05-01

    In parallel to vegetation mapping exemplified by VEGETATION and spectral thematic instruments as MERIS, other important natural and man-made phenomena characterize the equatorial and low latitude regions region covered especially well by the International Space Station orbit. The agreement between the space agencies evolves now to a lifetime of the ISS up to 2025. Two themes can be proposed: hydrography and biomass burning. Hydrography has an extreme human importance as human life and agriculture depend on water, transport as well; also the hydroelectric energy which could be harnessed from the hydrological network is tremendous and would allow a sustainable development of the entire region. The CHAMBARA proposed concept differs from other satellite observation programmes in a sense that the images are taken either according either to pre-planned scientific campaigns controlled from an operation centre either according to real time unexpected events or emergencies. For example, biomass burning imaging campaigns are organised at the end of the dry season, while deltas and lake are monitored at specific points of the dry seasons and, if the cloud cover allows it, at periods of the wet season. In exceptional cases, as natural disasters or rapidly varying scenes, the operation centre will reschedule the programme and even ask for exceptional crew assistance. This project aims at this point to the European and African scientific communities specialized on Sub-Saharan Africa which is currently studied by several Belgian scientific institutions but its techniques could also be extended to the Amazon basin, tropical Asia and Oceania. The equipment proposed will be an advanced true colour rapid camera, external mounting is wished in order to free the optical window but nadir pointing should be the nominal position. An example of the concept is given by the serendipitous image ISS004E11 Central African observation (ISS photograph, May 16, 2002, centered near 8.6 degrees

  8. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating the presence of an obstruction to low flying aircraft, one all round...

  9. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating the presence of an obstruction to low flying aircraft, one all round...

  10. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating the presence of an obstruction to low flying aircraft, one all round...

  11. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  12. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  13. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  14. Dragon Departs the Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Expedition 31 crew used the Canadarm2 robotic arm to demate the SpaceX Dragon cargo vehicle from the Earth-facing port of the station’s Harmony node at 4:07 a.m. EDT on Thursday. It was relea...

  15. Derivation and definition of a linear aircraft model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Eugene L.; Antoniewicz, Robert F.; Krambeer, Keith D.

    1988-01-01

    A linear aircraft model for a rigid aircraft of constant mass flying over a flat, nonrotating earth is derived and defined. The derivation makes no assumptions of reference trajectory or vehicle symmetry. The linear system equations are derived and evaluated along a general trajectory and include both aircraft dynamics and observation variables.

  16. International Space Station Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, Timothy William

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a general overview of the International Space Station Power Systems. The topics include: 1) The Basics of Power; 2) Space Power Systems Design Constraints; 3) Solar Photovoltaic Power Systems; 4) Energy Storage for Space Power Systems; 5) Challenges of Operating Power Systems in Earth Orbit; 6) and International Space Station Electrical Power System.

  17. Simultaneous Laser Ranging and Communication from an Earth-Based Satellite Laser Ranging Station to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter in Lunar Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Skillman, David R.; Hoffman, Evan D.; Mao, Dandan; McGarry, Jan F.; Neumann, Gregory A.; McIntire, Leva; Zellar, Ronald S.; Davidson, Frederic M.; Fong, Wai H.; Krainak, Michael A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We report a free space laser communication experiment from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit through the on board one-way Laser Ranging (LR) receiver. Pseudo random data and sample image files were transmitted to LRO using a 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) signal format. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to achieve error free data transmission at a moderate coding overhead rate. The signal fading due to the atmosphere effect was measured and the coding gain could be estimated.

  18. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  19. Enabler operator station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Keitzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). This LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an earth-bound model. Several recommendations are made in the appendix as to the changes needed in material selection for the lunar environment. The operator station is designed dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which includes life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of grid members, semi-rigid members and woven fabrics.

  20. Enabler operator station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Andrea; Kietzman, John; King, Shirlyn; Stover, Rae; Wegner, Torsten

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this project was to design an onboard operator station for the conceptual Lunar Work Vehicle (LWV). The LWV would be used in the colonization of a lunar outpost. The details that follow, however, are for an Earth-bound model. The operator station is designed to be dimensionally correct for an astronaut wearing the current space shuttle EVA suit (which include life support). The proposed operator station will support and restrain an astronaut as well as to provide protection from the hazards of vehicle rollover. The threat of suit puncture is eliminated by rounding all corners and edges. A step-plate, located at the front of the vehicle, provides excellent ease of entry and exit. The operator station weight requirements are met by making efficient use of rigid members, semi-rigid members, and woven fabrics.

  1. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  2. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  3. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  4. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  5. 47 CFR 25.258 - Sharing between NGSO MSS Feeder links Stations and GSO FSS services in the 29.25-29.5 GHz Bands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... (a) Operators of NGSO MSS feeder link earth stations and GSO FSS earth stations in the band 29.25 to... MSS feeder link earth station complexes, that will minimize instances of unacceptable interference to the GSO FSS space stations. Earth station licensees operating with GSO FSS systems shall be capable...

  6. Global Positioning System for the Geosciences: Summary and Proceedings of a Workshop on Improving the GPS Reference Station Infrastructure for Earth, Oceanic, and Atmospheric Science Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report, which represents the results of the workshop, is divided into two sections. Section I includes an executive summary, a chapter introducing the reader to GPS and its usefulness for Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric research, and four chapters summarizing the themes of the workshop presentations, poster papers, and working group discussions. Section II contains the proceedings of the workshop and is divided into five chapters corresponding to the five categories of invited papers written by workshop speakers and authors of poster papers. The appendices contain additional information about the workshop and the Steering Committee.

  7. Human Exploration Missions Study: Space Surveillance Telescope Transfer to and Station at a Halo Orbit at the Earth-Sun Libration Point L2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, Vincent A., Sr.

    2001-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine mission profile and delta velocity requirements to place a telescope at the Earth-Sun libration point L2. The program, Integrated Mission Program (IMP), was selected to be used in the investigation. A description of IMP and its capabilities may be found in the Addenda. The Addenda also contains the libration halo equations, constants and other parameters. Comments regarding the chaotic nature of numerical integration near the libration points are also attached in the Addenda. A basic two stage S/C with a simple mission profile was selected. This profile is shown.

  8. The 1979 Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study. Volume 1: Description of experiments and selected aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, G. L.; Lee, R. B., III; Mathis, J. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Southeastern Virginia Urban Plume Study (SEV-UPS) utilizes remote sensors and satellite platforms to monitor the Earth's environment and resources. SEV-UPS focuses on the application of specific remote sensors to the monitoring and study of specific air quality problems. The 1979 SEV-UPS field program was conducted with specific objectives: (1) to provide correlative data to evaluate the Laser Absorption spectrometer ozone remote sensors; (2) to demonstrate the utility of the sensor for the study of urban ozone problems; (3) to provide additional insights into air quality phenomena occuring in Southeastern Virginia; and (4) to compare measurement results of various in situ measurement platforms. The field program included monitoring from 12 surface stations, 4 aircraft, 2 tethered balloons, 2 radiosonde release sites, and numerous surface meteorological observation sites. The aircraft monitored 03, NO, NOX, Bscat, temperature, and dewpoint temperature.

  9. STDN network operations procedure for Apollo range instrumentation aircraft, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, A. R.; Pfeiffer, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo range instrumentation aircraft (ARIA) fleet which consists of four EC-135N aircraft used for Apollo communication support is discussed. The ARIA aircraft are used to provide coverage of lunar missions, earth orbit missions, command module/service module separation to spacecraft landing, and assist in recovery operations. Descriptions of ARIA aircraft, capabilities, and instrumentation are included.

  10. International space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucas, Lawrence J.

    1996-02-01

    The International Space Station represents the largest scientific and technological cooperative program in history, drawing on the resources of thirteen nations. The early stages of construction will involve significant participation from the Russian Space Agency (RSA), numerous nations of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the space agencies of Canada (CSA), Japan (NASDA) and the United States Space Agency (NASA). Its purpose is to place a unique, highly capable laboratory in tower orbit, where high value scientific research can be performed in microgravity. In addition to providing facilities where an international crew of six astronaut-scientists can live and work in space, it will provide important laboratory research facilities for performing basic research in life science, biomedical and material sciences, as well as space and engineering technology development which cannot be accomplished on Earth. The Space Station will be comprised of numerous interlocking components which are currently being constructed on Earth. Space Station will be assembled in orbit over a period of time and will provide several experimentation modules as well as habitation modules and interfaces for logistic modules. Including the four extensive solar rays from which it will draw electrical power, the Station will measure more than 300 feet wide by 200 feet long. This paper will present an overview of the various phases of construction of the Space Station and the planned science thought will be performed during the construction phase and after completion.

  11. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  12. The Canadian Space Agency, Space Station, Strategic Technologies for Automation and Robotics Program technology development activity in protection of materials from the low Earth orbit space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francoeur, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Technologies in Automation and Robotics (STEAR) program is managing a number of development contracts to improve the protection of spacecraft materials from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment. The project is structured in two phases over a 3 to 4 year period with a budget of 3 to 4 million dollars. Phase 1 is designed to demonstrate the technical feasibility and commercial potential of a coating/substrate system and its associated application process. The objective is to demonstrate a prototype fabrication capability using a full scale component of a commercially viable process for the protection of materials and surface finishes from the LEO space environment, and to demonstrate compliance with a set of performance requirements. Only phase 1 will be discussed in this paper.

  13. Modular space station facilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, P. J.

    1973-01-01

    The modular space station will operate as a general purpose laboratory (GPL). In addition, the space station will be able to support many attached or free-flying research and application modules that would be dedicated to specific projects like astronomy or earth observations. The GPL primary functions have been organized into functional laboratories including an electrical/electronics laboratory, a mechanical sciences laboratory, an experiment and test isolation laboratory, a hard data process facility, a data evaluation facility, an optical sciences laboratory, a biomedical and biosciences laboratory, and an experiment/secondary command and control center.

  14. Greenhouse (III): Gas-Exchange and Seed-to-Seed Experiments on the Russian Space Station MIR and Earth-grown, Ethylene-Treated Wheat Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Bingham, Gail; Carman, John; Bubenheim, David; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor B.; Chernova, Lola; Nefodova, Yelena

    2001-01-01

    The Mir Space Station provided an outstanding opportunity to study long-term plant responses when exposed to a microgravity environment. Furthermore, if plants can be grown to maturity in a microgravity environment, they might be used in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). The primary objective of the Greenhouse experiment onboard Mir was to grow Super Dwarf and Apogee wheat through complete life cycles in microgravity; i.e., from seed-to-seed-to-seed. Additional objectives were to study chemical, biochemical, and structural changes in plant tissues as well as photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration (evaporation of water from plants). Another major objective was to evaluate the suitability clothe facilities on Mir for advanced research with plants. The Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Russian/Bulgarian plant growth chamber, the Svet, to which the United States added instrumentation systems to monitor changes in CO2 and water vapor caused by the plants (with four infrared gas analyzers monitoring air entering and leaving two small plastic chambers). In addition, the US instrumentation also monitored O2; air, leaf (IR), cabin pressure; photon flux; and substrate temperature and substrate moisture (16 probes in the root module). Facility modifications were first performed during the summer of 1995 during Mir 19, which began after STS-72 left Mir. Plant development was monitored by daily observations and some photographs.

  15. Detection of Rain-on-Snow (ROS) Events Using the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) and Weather Station Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, E. M.; Brucker, L.; Forman, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the winter months, the occurrence of rain-on-snow (ROS) events can impact snow stratigraphy via generation of large scale ice crusts, e.g., on or within the snowpack. The formation of such layers significantly alters the electromagnetic response of the snowpack, which can be witnessed using space-based microwave radiometers. In addition, ROS layers can hinder the ability of wildlife to burrow in the snow for vegetation, which limits their foraging capability. A prime example occurred on 23 October 2003 in Banks Island, Canada, where an ROS event is believed to have caused the deaths of over 20,000 musk oxen. Through the use of passive microwave remote sensing, ROS events can be detected by utilizing observed brightness temperatures (Tb) from AMSR-E. Tb observed at different microwave frequencies and polarizations depends on snow properties. A wet snowpack formed from an ROS event yields a larger Tb than a typical dry snowpack would. This phenomenon makes observed Tb useful when detecting ROS events. With the use of data retrieved from AMSR-E, in conjunction with observations from ground-based weather station networks, a database of estimated ROS events over the past twelve years was generated. Using this database, changes in measured Tb following the ROS events was also observed. This study adds to the growing knowledge of ROS events and has the potential to help inform passive microwave snow water equivalent (SWE) retrievals or snow cover properties in polar regions.

  16. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  17. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  18. Performance requirements analysis for payload delivery from a space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, A. L.; Soldner, J. K.; Bell, J. (Editor); Ricks, G. W.; Kincade, R. E.; Deatkins, D.; Reynolds, R.; Nader, B. A.; Hill, O.; Babb, G. R.

    1983-01-01

    Operations conducted from a space station in low Earth orbit which have different constraints and opportunities than those conducted from direct Earth launch were examined. While a space station relieves many size and performance constraints on the space shuttle, the space station's inertial orbit has different launch window constraints from those associated with customary Earth launches which reflect upon upper stage capability. A performance requirements analysis was developed to provide a reference source of parametric data, and specific case solutions and upper stage sizing trade to assist potential space station users and space station and upper stage developers assess the impacts of a space station on missions of interest.

  19. Space agriculture in micro- and hypo-gravity: A comparative study of soil hydraulics and biogeochemistry in a cropping unit on Earth, Mars, the Moon and the space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, Federico; Pallud, Céline

    2010-12-01

    Increasing interest is developing towards soil-based agriculture as a long-term bioregenerative life support during space and planetary explorations. Contrary to hydroponics and aeroponics, soil-based cropping would offer an effective approach to sustain food and oxygen production, decompose organic wastes, sequester carbon dioxide, and filter water. However, the hydraulics and biogeochemical functioning of soil systems exposed to gravities lower than the Earth's are still unknown. Since gravity is crucial in driving water flow, hypogravity will affect nutrient and oxygen transport in the liquid and gaseous phases, and could lead to suffocation of microorganisms and roots, and emissions of toxic gases. A highly mechanistic model coupling soil hydraulics and nutrient biogeochemistry previously tested on soils on Earth ( g=9.806 m s -2) is used to highlight the effects of gravity on the functioning of cropping units on Mars (0.38 g), the Moon (0.16 g), and in the international space station (ISS, nearly 0 g). For each scenario, we have compared the net leaching of water, the leaching of NH 3, NH 4+, NO 2- and NO 3- solutes, the emissions of NH 3, CO 2, N 2O, NO and N 2 gases, the concentrations profiles of O 2, CO 2 and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in soil, the pH, and the dynamics of various microbial functional groups within the root zone against the same control variables in the soil under terrestrial gravity. The response of the soil ecodynamics was relatively linear; gravitational accelerations lower than the Earth's resulted in 90-100% lower water leaching rates, 95-100% lower nutrient leaching rates, and lower emissions of NH 3 and NO gases (80-95% and 30-40%, respectively). Lower N loss through leaching resulted in 60-100% higher concentration of the microbial biomass, but did not alter the vertical stratification of the microbial functional groups with respect to the stratification on Earth. However, the higher biomass concentration produced higher

  20. Space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.; Hayes, Judith

    1989-01-01

    The history of American space flight indicates that a space station is the next logical step in the scientific pursuit of greater knowledge of the universe. The Space Station and its complement of space vehicles, developed by NASA, will add new dimensions to an already extensive space program in the United States. The Space Station offers extraordinary benefits for a comparatively modest investment (currently estimated at one-ninth the cost of the Apollo Program). The station will provide a permanent multipurpose facility in orbit necessary for the expansion of space science and technology. It will enable significant advancements in life sciences research, satellite communications, astronomy, and materials processing. Eventually, the station will function in support of the commercialization and industrialization of space. Also, as a prerequisite to manned interplanetary exploration, the long-duration space flights typical of Space Station missions will provide the essential life sciences research to allow progressively longer human staytime in space.

  1. Status and Operations at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) - Also a Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.; Denn, F. M.; Rutan, D. A.; Madigan, J. J.; Arduini, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    25 km off the coast of Virginia, a lighthouse structure has been used for scientific measurements for over a decade. The CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) at Chesapeake Light is involved in several projects and networks. This report focuses on measurements and analysis made over the last 5 years at COVE. Being part of the BSRN network, most of the instruments at COVE are radiometers that measure both downwelling and upwelling flux at visible and infrared wavelengths. Basic meteorological parameters are also monitored. A table will show all the instrumentation and measurements being collected at COVE for the BSRN network as well as other data collections for aerosol, black carbon, total column water vapor and more. The initial motivation for COVE was to serve as a surface validation site for satellites. We compare modeled and actual downwelling shortwave and longwave measurements into 3 different sky scenarios (clear, partly cloudy and cloudy) over a number of years. Results show the best agreement for the clear sky model in both shortwave and longwave, with downwelling longwave correlating and having less mean bias than downwelling shortwave. COVE provides a wide range of measurements over an ocean environment with other examinations including aerosol studies, black carbon analysis and determination of spectral albedos from Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometers (MFRSRs). One example displays how we can use these studies and analysis to trace smoke over the COVE site and how it affects our measurements.Chesapeake Light. Home of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) ` Location of Chesapeake Light. Home of COVE. 25 kilometers East of Virginia. Coordinates: 36.90 North, 75.71 West

  2. Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research Testbed: Aircraft Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Thomas L.; Langford, William M.; Hill, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) testbed being developed at NASA Langley Research Center is an experimental flight test capability for research experiments pertaining to dynamics modeling and control beyond the normal flight envelope. An integral part of that testbed is a 5.5% dynamically scaled, generic transport aircraft. This remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) is powered by twin turbine engines and includes a collection of sensors, actuators, navigation, and telemetry systems. The downlink for the plane includes over 70 data channels, plus video, at rates up to 250 Hz. Uplink commands for aircraft control include over 30 data channels. The dynamic scaling requirement, which includes dimensional, weight, inertial, actuator, and data rate scaling, presents distinctive challenges in both the mechanical and electrical design of the aircraft. Discussion of these requirements and their implications on the development of the aircraft along with risk mitigation strategies and training exercises are included here. Also described are the first training (non-research) flights of the airframe. Additional papers address the development of a mobile operations station and an emulation and integration laboratory.

  3. Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The official start of a bold new space program, essential to maintain the United States' leadership in space was signaled by a Presidential directive to move aggressively again into space by proceeding with the development of a space station. Development concepts for a permanently manned space station are discussed. Reasons for establishing an inhabited space station are given. Cost estimates and timetables are also cited.

  4. Earth Viewing Applications Laboratory (EVAL). Instrument catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    There were 87 instruments described that are used in earth observation, with an additional 51 instruments containing references to programs and their major functions. These instruments were selected from such sources as: (1) earth observation flight program, (2) operational satellite improvement programs, (3) advanced application flight experiment program, (4) shuttle experiment definition program, and (5) earth observation aircraft program.

  5. 44. LOOKING NORTH AT STEEL FRAMEWORK OF AIRCRAFT STOREHOUSE (BLDG. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. LOOKING NORTH AT STEEL FRAMEWORK OF AIRCRAFT STOREHOUSE (BLDG. 17) FROM ACROSS THIRD AVE. USN PHOTO, FEBRUARY 5, 1941. - Quonset Point Naval Air Station, Roger Williams Way, North Kingstown, Washington County, RI

  6. Assessment of NDE needs for aging corporate and private aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Eugene R.

    1998-03-01

    Considerable attention has been focused on the life extension of ageing military and commercial aircraft by the government and major aircraft fabricators. A vital, but often neglected segment of the aircraft industry is the are of inspecting ageing fleets of corporate and privately-owned aircraft. Many of these aircraft are inspected and maintained by the various FAA-approved repair stations located around the country. Nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods, equipment, and trained inspectors are a key aspect of maintaining these aircraft; however, there are currently several issues that need to be addressed by the private sector NDI community. Personnel training and certification to an accepted standard is critically needed in this industry since experience and capability in NDI can vary considerably between FAA stations and inspectors. Also, the updating of NDI methods are standards is needed. A review of these issues and suggestions for improvement are presented.

  7. Venus Atmospheric Exploration by Solar Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; LaMarre, C.; Colozza, A.

    2002-01-01

    The Venus atmosphere is a favorable environment for flying powered aircraft. The atmospheric pressure makes flight much easier than on planets such as Mars. Above the clouds, solar energy is available in abundance on Venus, and the slow rotation of Venus allows a solar airplane to be designed for flight within continuous sunlight. The atmosphere between 50 km and 75 km on Venus is one of the most dynamic and interesting regions of the planet. The challenge for a Venus aircraft will be the fierce winds and caustic atmosphere. In order to remain on the sunlit side of Venus, an exploration aircraft will have to be capable of sustained flight at or above the wind speed. An aircraft would be a powerful tool for exploration. By learning how Venus can be so similar to Earth, and yet so different, we will learn to better understand the climate and geological history of the Earth.

  8. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont...IATA member airlines at $100 million based on 1976 operations. Thus the numbers are large, but detailed analyses on specific aircraft types, in known...demonstrate this in any quantitative way with accurate figures. Better information is required on the cost of corrosion, together with analyses of the

  9. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  10. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  11. 32 CFR 707.4 - Aircraft warning lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aircraft warning lights. 707.4 Section 707.4... RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.4 Aircraft warning lights. Naval vessels may display... light on each obstruction....

  12. 47 CFR 25.117 - Modification of station license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... application by the Commission. (b) Both earth station and space station modification applications must be... modification of space station authorizations must be submitted on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S. Only... space station authorizations shall be filed in accordance with § 25.114, but only those items...

  13. Altus aircraft on runway

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The remotely piloted Altus aircraft flew several developmental test flights from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., in 1996. The Altus--the word is Latin for 'high'--is a variant of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. It is designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and is powered by a turbocharged four-cylinder piston engine. The first Altus was developed under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, while a second Altus was built for a Naval Postgraduate School/Department of Energy program. A pilot in a control station on the ground flew the craft by radio signals, using visual cues from a video camera in the nose of the Altus and information from the craft's air data system. Equipped with a single-stage turbocharger during the 1996 test flights, the first Altus reached altitudes in the 37,000-foot range, while the similarly-equipped second Altus reached 43,500 feet during developmental flights at Dryden in the summer of 1997. The NASA Altus also set an endurance record of more than 26 hours while flying a science mission in late 1996 and still had an estimated 10 hours of fuel remaining when it landed. Now equipped with a two-stage turbocharger, the NASA Altus maintained an altitude of 55,000 feet for four hours during flight tests in 1999.

  14. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  15. Stations Outdoors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madison, John P.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Described is a program of outdoor education utilizing activity-oriented learning stations. Described are 13 activities including: a pond study, orienteering, nature crafts, outdoor mathematics, linear distance measurement, and area measurement. (SL)

  16. Aviation's role in earth resources surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syvertson, C. A.; Mulholland, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The role of satellites designed to make a wide variety of earth observations is discussed along with the renewed interest in the use of aircraft as platforms for similar and complementary earth resources surveys. Surveys covering the areas of forestry, agriculture, hydrology, oceanography, geology, and geography are included. Aerials surveys equipped for nonphotographic remote sensing and aircraft flights synchronized with satellite observations to provide correlated data are discussed. Photographs are shown to illustrate preliminary results from several of the test sites.

  17. Gluing Practice at Aircraft Manufacturing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truax, T R

    1928-01-01

    This report records observations and recommendations resulting from an inspection trip to representative aircraft manufacturing establishments and repair stations. This inspection was made for the Navy Department and was specifically in reference to gluing practice at the various places visited. The period of the visits was between November 23, 1926 and February 16, 1927.

  18. Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This fish-eye view of the Russian Mir Space Station was photographed by a crewmember of the STS-74 mission after the separation. The image shows the installed Docking Module at bottom. The Docking Module was delivered and installed, making it possible for the Space Shuttle to dock easily with Mir. The Orbiter Atlantis delivered water, supplies, and equipment, including two new solar arrays to upgrade the Mir; and returned to Earth with experiment samples, equipment for repair and analysis, and products manufactured on the Station. Mir was constructed in orbit by cornecting different modules, each launched separately from 1986 to 1996, providing a large and livable scientific laboratory in space. The 100-ton Mir was as big as six school buses and commonly housed three crewmembers. Mir was continuously occupied, except for two short periods, and hosted international scientists and American astronauts until August 1999. The journey of the 15-year-old Russian Mir Space Station ended March 23, 2001, as Mir re-entered the Earth's atmosphere and fell into the south Pacific ocean. STS-74 was the second Space Shuttle/Mir docking mission launched on November 12, 1995, and landed at the Kennedy Space Center on November 20, 1995.

  19. Buzz Lightyear's Space Station Mission Logs

    NASA Video Gallery

    The world's most famous space ranger returned to Earth in September 2009 after more than a year in orbit, and now he's sharing his adventures. Learn more about the International Space Station with ...

  20. Orbital Path of the International Space Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronauts Don Pettit, Andre Kuipers and Dan Burbank explain the orbital path of the International Space Station. Earth video credit: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA's Johnson Space Cen...

  1. Station Commander Captures Unprecedented View of Comet

    NASA Video Gallery

    International Space Station Commander Dan Burbank captured spectacular imagery of Comet Lovejoy as seen from about 240 miles above the Earth’s horizon on Wednesday, Dec. 21. Burbank described se...

  2. Aircraft Rockets,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-16

    to fixed observer. It is easy to note that when the steam locomotive rapidly passes by station, the tone of whistle with the approximation/approach...the velocity of steam locomotive is added, and during the removal/distance - it is deducted. A similar pheromnon is also observed with the reflection... starter valve of angins; 11 - oxidizer tank; 12 - air reducer; 13 - valve/gate of tank/ballocn. Page 33. In the engine head are established the

  3. Space Station Water Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, Charles E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    The manned Space Station will exist as an isolated system for periods of up to 90 days. During this period, safe drinking water and breathable air must be provided for an eight member crew. Because of the large mass involved, it is not practical to consider supplying the Space Station with water from Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to depend upon recycled water to meet both the human and nonhuman water needs on the station. Sources of water that will be recycled include hygiene water, urine, and cabin humidity condensate. A certain amount of fresh water can be produced by CO2 reduction process. Additional fresh water will be introduced into the total pool by way of food, because of the free water contained in food and the water liberated by metabolic oxidation of the food. A panel of scientists and engineers with extensive experience in the various aspects of wastewater reuse was assembled for a 2 day workshop at NASA-Johnson. The panel included individuals with expertise in toxicology, chemistry, microbiology, and sanitary engineering. A review of Space Station water reclamation systems was provided.

  4. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  5. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  6. Destiny's Earth Observation Window

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronaut Michael J. Bloomfield, STS-110 mission commander, looks through the Earth observation window in the Destiny laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The STS-110 mission prepared the ISS for future spacewalks by installing and outfitting the S0 (S-zero) truss and the Mobile Transporter. The 43-foot-long S0 Truss, weighing in at 27,000 pounds, was the first of 9 segments that will make up the Station's external framework that will eventually stretch 356 feet (109 meters), or approximately the length of a football field. This central truss segment also includes a flatcar called the Mobile Transporter and rails that will become the first 'space railroad,' which will allow the Station's robotic arm to travel up and down the finished truss for future assembly and maintenance. The completed truss structure will hold solar arrays and radiators to provide power and cooling for additional international research laboratories from Japan and Europe that will be attached to the Station. Milestones of the STS-110 mission included the first time the ISS robotic arm was used to maneuver spacewalkers around the Station and marked the first time all spacewalks were based out of the Station's Quest Airlock. It was also the first Shuttle to use three Block II Main Engines. The Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, STS-110 mission, was launched April 8, 2002 and returned to Earth April 19, 2002.

  7. A lunar space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, LU; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    1989-01-01

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  8. A lunar space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Lu; Merrow, Mark; Coons, Russ; Iezzi, Gabrielle; Palarz, Howard M.; Nguyen, Marc H.; Spitzer, Mike; Cubbage, Sam

    A concept for a space station to be placed in low lunar orbit in support of the eventual establishment of a permanent moon base is proposed. This space station would have several functions: (1) a complete support facility for the maintenance of the permanent moon base and its population; (2) an orbital docking area to facilitate the ferrying of materials and personnel to and from Earth; (3) a zero gravity factory using lunar raw materials to grow superior GaAs crystals for use in semiconductors and mass produce inexpensive fiber glass; and (4) a space garden for the benefit of the air food cycles. The mission scenario, design requirements, and technology needs and developments are included as part of the proposal.

  9. Analysis of Background Seismic Noise Recorded at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, K. R.; Aster, R.; Beaudoin, B. C.; Butler, R.

    2006-12-01

    A small array of high frequency seismometers was recently placed around the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station in order to characterize seismic noise generated by the station during operations. This week long experiment, titled, "South Pole Analysis of Machines" or SPAM was conducted in January of 2006 using equipment provided by IRIS PASSCAL to sample the high frequency noise sources generated at the NSF's research base. These data will be correlated to those observed at the ultra quiet GSN seismic station (QSPA) located 5 miles from the base. The purpose of the experiment is to show that although the QSPA sensors are 5 miles away and nearly 1000 feet deep in the ice, there is still a risk of contamination of the signals by cultural noise from the South Pole research base. A Quiet Sector was established around the QSPA station in order to minimize vibrational noise sources, but there is interest in moving some experiments out into the Quiet Sector. Characterizing the noise sources will help us determine the potential reduction in data quality expected at the QSPA station as experiments move closer to the site. Sensors were placed next to the power generators, aircraft taxiway, large antenna towers, as well as at the base of the new station itself. Sensors were also placed between the research base and the QSPA station to get an idea of the propagation of the noise toward the QSPA station. Several high frequency noise sources are clearly seen on all array elements with a number of very clear spectral lines above 1 Hz. These are primarily associated with snow moving tractors and power generators. Smaller signals are seen that may be related to wind loading on the new South Pole elevated station along with harmonics that appear to be correlated with large air handling equipment in the station. Also evident are air operations with landings, takeoffs, taxi and idling C-130's evident. Although greatly attenuated, almost all of these signals are observed at the QSPA

  10. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  11. Systems and Methods for Collaboratively Controlling at Least One Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estkowski, Regina I. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An unmanned vehicle management system includes an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) control station controlling one or more unmanned vehicles (UV), a collaborative routing system, and a communication network connecting the UAS and the collaborative routing system. The collaborative routing system being configured to receive flight parameters from an operator of the UAS control station and, based on the received flight parameters, automatically present the UAS control station with flight plan options to enable the operator to operate the UV in a defined airspace.

  12. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (San Diego, California) MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate and, through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. It can carry over 2000 lb of experiment payloads in the avionics bay and external pods and is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) that is designed to be deployable by air, land, or sea. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled for Summer 2007.

  13. Firefighters from Mayport Naval Station train at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Firefighters hold their hoses on a burning simulated aircraft, creating a rainbow. Watching at right (red uniform) and in the foreground are trainers. The training exercises for firefighters with Fire and Emergency Services at Naval Station Mayport, Fla., are being held at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Pad 30.

  14. CO/sub 2/ measurements with an infrared laser spectrometer on flash samples collected at Jungfraujoch high-altitude research station (3500 meters asl) and with light aircraft up to 8000 meters over Switzerland

    SciTech Connect

    Zumbrunn, R.; Friedli, H.J.; Neftel, A.; Rauber, D.

    1983-08-20

    The authors discuss the use of an infrared laser spectrometer for CO/sub 2/ concentration analysis of flask samples. The precision of the system is 2.5 per thousand, or 0.75 ppM. A series of monthly measurements at the Jungfraujoch high-altitude research station, Switzerland (3500 m asl), is discussed together with vertical profiles up to 8000 m asl. 9 references, 5 figures.

  15. Drop Tower and Aircraft Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urban, David L.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is a brief introduction to existing capabilities in drop towers and low-gravity aircraft that will be presented as part of a Symposium: Microgravity Platforms Other Than the ISS, From Users to Suppliers which will be a half day program to bring together the international community of gravity-dependent scientists, program officials and technologists with the suppliers of low gravity platforms (current and future) to focus on the future requirements and use of platforms other than the International Space Station (ISS).

  16. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. Ikhana, a Native American word meaning 'intelligence', can carry over 2000 lbs of atmospheric and remote sensing instruments in the payload bay and external pods. The aircraft is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. Redundant flight control, avionics, power, and network systems increase the system reliability and allow easier access to public airspace. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) using both C-band line-of-sight and Ku-band over-the-horizon satellite datalinks. NASA's GCS has been modified to support on-site science monitoring, or the downlink data can be networked to remote sites. All ground support systems are designed to be deployable to support global Eart science investigations. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The ARTS can host research algorithms that will autonomously command and control on-board sensors, perform sensor health monitoring, conduct data analysis, and request changes to the flight plan to maximize data collection. The ARTS also has the ability to host algorithms that will autonomously control the aircraft trajectory based on sensor needs, (e.g. precision trajectory for repeat pass interferometry) or to optimize mission objectives (e.g. search for specific atmospheric conditions). Standard on-board networks will collect science data for recording and for inclusion in the aircraft's high bandwidth downlink. The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled

  17. X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had

  18. Measuring Wildfires From Aircraft And Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Meyers, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite systems yield wide-area views, providing total coverage of affected areas. System developed for use aboard aircraft includes digital scanner that records data in 12 channels. Transmits data to ground station for immediate use in fighting fires. Enables researchers to estimate gaseous and particulate emissions from fires. Provides information on temperatures of flame fronts and soils, intensities and rate of spread of fires, characteristics of fuels and smoke plumes, energy-release rates, and concentrations and movements of trace gases. Data relates to heating and cooling of soils, loss of nutrients, and effects on atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic systems.

  19. Practical Applications of a Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The potential uses of a special station for civil and commercial applications is examined. Five panels of experts representing user-oriented communities, and a sixth panel which dealth with system design considerations, based their studies on the assumption that the station would be a large platform, capable of housing a wide array of diverse instruments, and could be either manned or unmanned. The Earth's Resources Panel dealt with applications of remote sensing for resource assessment. The Earth's Environment Panel dealt with the Earth's atmosphere and its impact on society. The Ocean Operations Panel looked at both science and applications. The Satellite Communications Panel assessed the potential role of a space station in the evolution of commercial telecommunication services up to the year 2000. The Materials Science and Engineering panel focused on the utility of a space station environment for materials processing.

  20. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  1. Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2015-05-01

    Earth has continents, subduction and mobile lid plate tectonics, but details of the early evolution are poorly understood. Here I summarize the Hadean-Archean record, review evidence for a hotter Earth and consider geodynamic models for early Earth.

  2. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  3. NASA's Earth Science Flight Program Meets the Challenges of Today and Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ianson, Eric E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Earth science flight program is a dynamic undertaking that consists of a large fleet of operating satellites, an array of satellite and instrument projects in various stages of development, a robust airborne science program, and a massive data archiving and distribution system. Each element of the flight program is complex and present unique challenges. NASA builds upon its successes and learns from its setbacks to manage this evolving portfolio to meet NASA's Earth science objectives. NASA fleet of 16 operating missions provide a wide range of scientific measurements made from dedicated Earth science satellites and from instruments mounted to the International Space Station. For operational missions, the program must address issues such as an aging satellites operating well beyond their prime mission, constellation flying, and collision avoidance with other spacecraft and orbital debris. Projects in development are divided into two broad categories: systematic missions and pathfinders. The Earth Systematic Missions (ESM) include a broad range of multi-disciplinary Earth-observing research satellite missions aimed at understanding the Earth system and its response to natural and human-induced forces and changes. Understanding these forces will help determine how to predict future changes, and how to mitigate or adapt to these changes. The Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program provides frequent, regular, competitively selected Earth science research opportunities that accommodate new and emerging scientific priorities and measurement capabilities. This results in a series of relatively low-cost, small-sized investigations and missions. Principal investigators whose scientific objectives support a variety of studies lead these missions, including studies of the atmosphere, oceans, land surface, polar ice regions, or solid Earth. This portfolio of missions and investigations provides opportunity for investment in innovative Earth science that enhances

  4. A new Space Station power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1988-01-01

    A new concept for a Space Station power system is proposed which reduces the drag effect of the solar panels and eliminates eclipsing by the Earth. The solar generator is physically separated from the Space Station, and power transmitted to the station by a microwave beam. The power station can thus be placed high enough that drag is not a significant factor. For a resonant orbit where the ratio of periods s:p is a ratio of odd integers, and the orbital planes nearly perpendicular, an orbit can be chosen such that the line of sight is never blocked if the lower orbit has an altitude greater than calculatable mininum. For the 1:3 resonance, this minimum altitude is 0.5 r(e). Finally, by placing the power station into a sun-synchronous orbit, it can be made to avoid shadowing by the Earth, thus providing continuous power.

  5. Teaching Geologic/Earth Science Remote Sensing at the Collegiate and the Secondary School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, John J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes util satellite photography, satellite remote sensing, and high altitude aircraft photography for teaching environmental and ecological aspects of earth science at the secondary or college levels. (SL)

  6. Space Station personal hygiene study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  7. Concrete: Potential material for Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. D.

    1992-01-01

    To build a permanent orbiting space station in the next decade is NASA's most challenging and exciting undertaking. The space station will serve as a center for a vast number of scientific products. As a potential material for the space station, reinforced concrete was studied, which has many material and structural merits for the proposed space station. Its cost-effectiveness depends on the availability of lunar materials. With such materials, only 1 percent or less of the mass of a concrete space structure would have to be transported from earth.

  8. Lunar Orbiter: Moon and Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The worlds first view of the Earth taken by a spacecraft from the vicinity of the Moon. The photo was transmitted to Earth by the United States Lunar Orbiter I and recieved at the NASA tracking station at Robledo de Chavela near Madrid, Spain. This crescent of the Earth was photographed August 23 at 16:35 GMT when the spacecraft was on its 16th orbit and just about to pass behind the Moon. This is the view the astronauts will have when they come around the backside of the Moon and face the Earth. The Earth is shown on the left of the photo with the U.S. east coast in the upper left, southern Europe toward the dark or night side of the Earth, and Antartica at the bottom of the Earth crescent. The surface of the Moon is shown on the right side of the photograph.

  9. Airborne Science Program: Observing Platforms for Earth Science Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Airborne Science Program and the platforms used for conducting investigations for the Earth System Science. Included is a chart that shows some of the aircraft and the operational altitude and the endurance of the aircraft, views of the Dryden Aircraft Operation Facility, and some of the current aircraft that the facility operates, and the varieties of missions that are flown and the type of instrumentation. Also included is a chart showing the attributes of the various aircraft (i.e., duration, weight for a payload, maximum altitude, airspeed and range) for comparison

  10. Middle School Students From Georgia Ask About Earth Science

    NASA Video Gallery

    From NASA's International Space Station Mission Control Center, Will Stefanov, Chief Earth Scientist at Johnson Space Center, participates in a Digital Learning Network (DLN) event with students at...

  11. Micro Weather Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoenk, Michael E.

    1999-01-01

    Improved in situ meteorological measurements in the troposphere and stratosphere are needed for studies of weather and climate, both as a primary data source and as validation for remote sensing instruments. Following the initial development and successful flight validation of the surface acoustic wave (SAW) hygrometer, the micro weather station program was directed toward the development of an integrated instrument, capable of accurate, in situ profiling of the troposphere, and small enough to fly on a radiosonde balloon for direct comparison with standard radiosondes. On April 23, 1998, working with Frank Schmidlin and Bob Olson of Wallops Island Flight Facility, we flew our instrument in a dual payload experiment, for validation and direct comparison with a Vaisala radiosonde. During that flight, the SAW dewpoint hygrometer measured frostpoint down to -76T at 44,000 feet. Using a laptop computer in radio contact with the balloon, we monitored data in real time, issued the cutdown command, and recovered the payload less than an hour after landing in White Sands Missile Range, 50 miles from the launch site in Hatch, New Mexico. Future flights will extend the intercomparison, and attempt to obtain in situ meteorological profiles from the surface through the tropopause. The SAW hygrometer was successfully deployed on the NASA DC8 as part of NASA's Third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX-3) during August and September, 1998. This field campaign was devoted to the study of hurricane tracking and intensification using NASA-funded aircraft. In situ humidity data from the SAW hygrometer are currently being analyzed and compared with data from other instruments on the DC8 and ER2 aircraft. Additional information is contained in the original.

  12. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  13. Unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, Predator B in flight.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. ALTAIR/PREDATOR B -- General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., is developing the Altair version of its Predator B unmanned reconnaissance aircraft, shown here, under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. NASA plans to use the Altair as a technology demonstrator testbed aircraft to validate a variety of command and control technologies for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), as well as demonstrate the capability to perform a variety of Earth science missions. The Altair is designed to carry an 700-lb. payload of scientific instruments and imaging equipment for as long as 32 hours at up to 52,000 feet altitude. Ten-foot extensions have been added to each wing, giving the Altair an overall wingspan of 84 feet with an aspect ratio of 23. It is powered by a 700-hp. rear-mounted TPE-331-10 turboprop engine, driving a three-blade propeller. Altair is scheduled to begin flight tests in the fourth quarter of 2002, and be acquired by NASA following successful completion of those basic airworthiness tests in early 2003 for evaluation of over-the-horizon control, detect, see and avoid and other technologies required to allow UAVs to operate safely with other aircraft in the national airspace.

  14. Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonehrenfried, Dutch

    This video, 'Hey] What's Space Station Freedom?', has been produced as a classroom tool geared toward middle school children. There are three segments to this video. Segment One is a message to teachers presented by Dr. Jeannine Duane, New Jersey, 'Teacher in Space'. Segment Two is a brief Social Studies section and features a series of Presidential Announcements by President John F. Kennedy (May 1961), President Ronald Reagan (July 1982), and President George Bush (July 1989). These historical announcements are speeches concerning the present and future objectives of the United States' space programs. In the last segment, Charlie Walker, former Space Shuttle astronaut, teaches a group of middle school children, through models, computer animation, and actual footage, what Space Station Freedom is, who is involved in its construction, how it is to be built, what each of the modules on the station is for, and how long and in what sequence this construction will occur. There is a brief animation segment where, through the use of cartoons, the children fly up to Space Station Freedom as astronauts, perform several experiments and are given a tour of the station, and fly back to Earth. Space Station Freedom will take four years to build and will have three lab modules, one from ESA and another from Japan, and one habitation module for the astronauts to live in.

  15. Rapid toxicity detection in water quality control utilizing automated multispecies biomonitoring for permanent space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, E. L.; Young, R. C.; Smith, M. D.; Eagleson, K. W.

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate proposed design characteristics and applications of automated biomonitoring devices for real-time toxicity detection in water quality control on-board permanent space stations. Simulated tests in downlinking transmissions of automated biomonitoring data to Earth-receiving stations were simulated using satellite data transmissions from remote Earth-based stations.

  16. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  17. Technology assessment of space stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, V. T.

    1971-01-01

    The social impacts, both beneficial and detrimental, which can be expected from a system of space stations operating over relatively long periods of time in Earth orbit, are examined. The survey is an exercise in technology assessment. It is futuristic in nature. It anticipates technological applications which are still in the planning stage, and many of the conclusions are highly speculative and for this reason controversial.

  18. Space Stations using the Skylon Launch System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    After the International Space Station is decommissioned in 2020 or soon after, Skylon will be an operating launch system and it is the obvious means to launch any successor in orbit infrastructure. The study looked at establishing 14 stations of 7 different types located from Low Earth Orbit to the Moon's surface with common elements all launched by Skylon. The key reason for the study was to validate Skylon could launch such an infrastructure, but the study's secondary objectives were to contribute to consideration of what should replace the ISS, and explore a ``multiple small station'' architecture. It was found that the total acquisition costs for LEO stations could be below 1 billion (2010) while for stations beyond LEO total acquisition costs were found to be between 3 and £5 billion. No technical constraints on the Skylon launch system were found that would prevent it launching all 14 stations in under 5 years.

  19. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  20. Low Earth Orbit satellite traffic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelzel, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a significant tool for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) capacity analysis, needed to support marketing, economic, and design analysis, known as a Satellite Traffic Simulator (STS). LEO satellites typically use multiple beams to help achieve the desired communication capacity, but the traffic demand in these beams in usually not uniform. Simulations of dynamic, average, and peak expected demand per beam is a very critical part of the marketing, economic, and design analysis necessary to field a viable LEO system. An STS is described in this paper which can simulate voice, data and FAX traffic carried by LEO satellite beams and Earth Station Gateways. It is applicable world-wide for any LEO satellite constellations operating over any regions. For aeronautical applications to LEO satellites. the anticipates aeronautical traffic (Erlangs for each hour of the day to be simulated) is prepared for geographically defined 'area targets' (each major operational region for the respective aircraft), and used as input to the STS. The STS was designed by Constellations Communications Inc. (CCI) and E-Systems for usage in Brazil in accordance with an ESCA/INPE Statement Of Work, and developed by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) to execute on top of its Satellite Tool Kit (STK) commercial software. The STS simulates constellations of LEO satellite orbits, with input of traffic intensity (Erlangs) for each hour of the day generated from area targets (such as Brazilian States). accumulated in custom LEO satellite beams, and then accumulated in Earth Station Gateways. The STS is a very general simulator which can accommodate: many forms of orbital element and Walker Constellation input; simple beams or any user defined custom beams; and any location of Gateways. The paper describes some of these features, including Manual Mode dynamic graphical display of communication links, to illustrate which Gateway links are accessible and which links are not, at each 'step' of the

  1. A Review of Fighter Aircraft Capability for Smart Bombs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    bombs ( Esker , 1994). A total of 168 F/A-18C/D aircraft were produced (Lambert, 1994:586). A total of 72 F/A-18E/F aircraft will be produced, with...1,000 lb. class JDAM, JSOW, and WCMD fit at all the F/A-18 air-to-ground weapon stations ( Esker , 1994). Electrical and Logical Interface. The F/A-18 has...wiring and power support in accordance with MIL-STD-704, MIL-STD-1553, and MIL-STD-1760 at each weapon station ( Esker , 1994). The F/A-18 weapon

  2. Satellite-tracking and Earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Tracking of LAGEOS for polar motion and Earth rotation studies and for other geophysical investigations, including crustal dynamics, Earth and ocean tides, and the general development of precision orbit determination continues. The BE-C and Starlette satellites were tracked for refined determinations of station coordinates and the Earth's gravity field and for studies of solid Earth dynamics.

  3. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  4. Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

  5. Mission to planet earth

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    Plans for environmental monitoring using remote-sensing satellites in the era of the International Space Station are reviewed. The role of international cooperation is stressed, considering the present Landsat, SPOT, and Marine Observation Satellite programs; ERS-1 and Topex/Poseidon; and plans for the Italian Lageos-2, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, and the Japanese Advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The NASA Mission to Planet Earth proposal calls for four polar-orbit and five GEO platforms (five NASA, two ESA, and two NASDA), to be in place by the year 2000, as well as dedicated spacecraft of the Earth System Explorer series in the 1990s. Payloads will monitor the geomagnetic field, atmospheric temperature and water vapor, O3 and aerosols, outgoing radiation, precipitation, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ocean chlorophyll, surface winds, wave height, ocean circulation, snow cover, land use, vegetation, crops, volcanic activity, and the hydrologic cycle.

  6. Satellite tracking and earth dynamics research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The SAO laser site in Arequipa continued routine operations throughout the reporting period except for the months of March and April when upgrading was underway. The laser in Orroral Valley was operational through March. Together with the cooperating stations in Wettzell, Grasse, Kootwikj, San Fernando, Helwan, and Metsahove the laser stations obtained a total of 37,099 quick-look observations on 978 passes of BE-C, Starlette, and LAGEOS. The Network continued to track LAGEOS at highest priority for polar motion and Earth rotation studies, and for other geophysical investigations, including crustal dynamics, Earth and ocean tides, and the general development of precision orbit determination. The Network performed regular tracking of BE-C and Starlette for refined determinations of station coordinate and the Earth's gravity field and for studies of solid earth dynamics. Monthly statistics of the passes and points are given by station and by satellite.

  7. Earth Resources Laboratory research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The accomplishments of the Earth Resources Laboratory's research and technology program are reported. Sensors and data systems, the AGRISTARS project, applied research and data analysis, joint research projects, test and evaluation studies, and space station support activities are addressed.

  8. B-52 Launch Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    the development of parachute recovery systems used to recover the space shuttle solid rocket booster casings. It also supported eight orbiter (space shuttle) drag chute tests in 1990. In addition, the B-52 served as the air launch platform for the first six Pegasus space boosters. During its many years of service, the B-52 has undergone several modifications. The first major modification was made by North American Aviation (now part of Boeing) in support of the X-15 program. This involved creating a launch-panel-operator station for monitoring the status of the test vehicle being carried, cutting a large notch in the right inboard wing flap to accommodate the vertical tail of the X-15 aircraft, and installing a wing pylon that enables the B-52 to carry research vehicles and test articles to be air-launched/dropped. Located on the right wing, between the inboard engine pylon and the fuselage, this wing pylon was subjected to extensive testing prior to its use. For each test vehicle the B-52 carried, minor changes were made to the launch-panel operator's station. Built originally by the Boeing Company, the NASA B-52 is powered by eight Pratt & Whitney J57-19 turbojet engines, each of which produce 12,000 pounds of thrust. The aircraft's normal launch speed has been Mach 0.8 (about 530 miles per hour) and its normal drop altitude has been 40,000 to 45,000 feet. It is 156 feet long and has a wing span of 185 feet.

  9. Correlation of forebody pressures and aircraft yawing moments on the X-29A aircraft at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Landers, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    In-flight pressure distributions are presented at angles of attack from 15 deg to 66 deg and at Mach numbers from 0.22 to 0.60 at four fuselage stations on the forebody of the X-29A aircraft. Forebody yawing moments are obtained from the integrated pressure distributions and the results are correlated with the overall aircraft yawing moments. Yawing moments created by the forebody were not significant until an angle of attack of 50 deg or above and correlated well with the aircraft left yawing moment.

  10. International Space Station: becoming a reality.

    PubMed

    David, L

    1999-07-01

    An overview of the development of the International Space Station (ISS) is presented starting with a brief history of space station concepts from the 1960's to the decision to build the present ISS. Other topics discussed include partnerships with Japan, Canada, ESA countries, and Russia; design changes to the ISS modules, the use of the ISS for scientific purposes and the application of space research to medicine on Earth; building ISS modules on Earth, international funding for Russian components, and the political aspects of including Russia in critical building plans. Sidebar articles examine commercialization of the ISS, multinational efforts in the design and building of the ISS, emergency transport to Earth, the use of robotics in ISS assembly, application of lessons learned from the Skylab project to the ISS, initial ISS assembly in May 1999, planned ISS science facilities, and an overview of space stations in science fiction.

  11. International Space Station payload accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  12. Earth Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Tom

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some of the more concerted, large-scale efforts in the earth resources areas" in order to help the computer community obtain insights into the activities it can jointly particpate in withthe earth resources community." (Author)

  13. An experimental measurement of galactic cosmic radiation dose in conventional aircraft between San Francisco and London compared to theoretical values for conventional and supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R.; Boyer, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    These direct measurements are in fair agreement with computations made using a program which considers both basic cosmic ray atmospheric physics and the focusing effect of the earth's magnetic field. These measurements also agree with those made at supersonic jet aircraft altitudes in Rb-57 aircraft. It is concluded that experiments and theory show that the doses received at conventional jet aircraft altitudes are slightly higher than those encountered in supersonic flights at much higher altitudes.

  14. Live from Space Station Learning Technologies Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is the Final Report for the Live From Space Station (LFSS) project under the Learning Technologies Project FY 2001 of the MSFC Education Programs Department. AZ Technology, Inc. (AZTek) has developed and implemented science education software tools to support tasks under the LTP program. Initial audience consisted of 26 TreK in the Classroom schools and thousands of museum visitors to the International Space Station: The Earth Tour exhibit sponsored by Discovery Place museum.

  15. Overview of Propulsion Systems for a Mars Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Miller, Christopher J.; Reed, Brian D.; Kohout, Lisa L.; Loyselle, Patricia L.

    2001-01-01

    The capabilities and performance of an aircraft depends greatly on the ability of the propulsion system to provide thrust. Since the beginning of powered flight, performance has increased in step with advancements in aircraft propulsion systems. These advances in technology from combustion engines to jets and rockets have enabled aircraft to exploit our atmospheric environment and fly at altitudes near the Earth's surface to near orbit at speeds ranging from hovering to several times the speed of sound. One of the main advantages of our atmosphere for these propulsion systems is the availability of oxygen. Getting oxygen basically "free" from the atmosphere dramatically increases the performance and capabilities of an aircraft. This is one of the reasons our present-day aircraft can perform such a wide range of tasks. But this advantage is limited to Earth; if we want to fly an aircraft on another planetary body, such as Mars, we will either have to carry our own source of oxygen or use a propulsion system that does not require it. The Mars atmosphere, composed mainly of carbon dioxide, is very thin. Because of this low atmospheric density, an aircraft flying on Mars will most likely be operating, in aerodynamical terms, within a very low Reynolds number regime. Also, the speed of sound within the Martian environment is approximately 20 percent less than it is on Earth. The reduction in the speed of sound plays an important role in the aerodynamic performance of both the aircraft itself and the components of the propulsion system, such as the propeller. This low Reynolds number-high Mach number flight regime is a unique flight environment that is very rarely encountered here on Earth.

  16. Space Station lubrication considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, Lubert J.; Dufrane, Keith

    1987-01-01

    Future activities in space will require the use of large structures and high power availability in order to fully exploit opportunities in Earth and stellar observations, space manufacturing and the development of optimum space transportation vehicles. Although these large systems will have increased capabilities, the associated development costs will be high, and will dictate long life with minimum maintenance. The Space Station provides a concrete example of such a system; it is approximately one hundred meters in major dimensions and has a life requirement of thirty years. Numerous mechanical components will be associated with these systems, a portion of which will be exposed to the space environment. If the long life and low maintenance goals are to be satisfied, lubricants and lubrication concepts will have to be carefully selected. Current lubrication practices are reviewed with the intent of determining acceptability for the long life requirements. The effects of exposure of lubricants and lubricant binders to the space environment are generally discussed. Potential interaction of MoS2 with atomic oxygen, a component of the low Earth orbit environment, appears to be significant.

  17. International Space Station Capabilities and Payload Accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugler, Justin; Jones, Rod; Edeen, Marybeth

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the research facilities and capabilities of the International Space Station. The station can give unique views of the Earth, as it provides coverage of 85% of the Earth's surface and 95% of the populated landmass every 1-3 days. The various science rack facilities are a resource for scientific research. There are also external research accom0dations. The addition of the Japanese Experiment Module (i.e., Kibo) will extend the science capability for both external payloads and internal payload rack locations. There are also slides reviewing the post shuttle capabilities for payload delivery.

  18. FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FLIGHT LINE, LOOKING TOWARD FLIGHT LINE FIRE STATION (BUILDING 2748)CENTER AND AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE DOCKS (BUILDINGS 2741 AND 2766)LEFT. VIEW TO NORTH - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, U.S. Route 9, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  19. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  20. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  1. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  2. Correlation of forebody pressures and aircraft yawing moments on the X-29A aircraft at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, David F.; Richwine, David M.; Landers, Stephen

    1992-01-01

    In-flight pressure distributions at four fuselage stations on the forebody of the X-29A aircraft have been reported at angles of attack from 15 to 66 deg and at Mach numbers from 0.22 to 0.60. At angles of attack of 20 deg and higher, vortices shed from the nose strake caused suction peaks in the pressure distributions that generally increased in magnitude with angle of attack. Above 30 deg-angle of attack, the forebody pressure distributions became asymmetrical at the most forward station, while they remained nearly symmetrical until 50 to 55 deg-angle of attack for the aft stations. Between 59 to 66 deg-angle of attack, the asymmetry of the pressure distributions changed direction. Yawing moments for the forebody alone were obtained by integrating the forebody pressure distributions. At 45 deg-angle of attack, the aircraft yaws to the right and at 50 deg and higher, the aircraft yaws to the left. The forebody yawing moments correlated well with the aircraft left yawing moment at an angle of attack of 50 deg or higher. At a 45 deg-angle of attack, the forebody yawing moments did not correlate well with the aircraft yawing moment, but it is suggested that this was due to asymmetric pressures on the cockpit region of the fuselage which was not instrumented. The forebody was also shown to provide a positive component of directional stability of the aircraft at angles of attack of 25 deg or higher. A Mach number effect was noted at angles of attack of 30 deg or higher at the station where the nose strake was present. At this station, the suction peaks in the pressure distributions at the highest Mach number were reduced and much more symmetrical as compared to the lower Mach number pressure distributions.

  3. Predicted aircraft effects on stratospheric ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Wofsy, Steve; Kley, Dieter; Zhadin, Evgeny A.; Johnson, Colin; Weisenstein, Debra; Prather, Michael J.; Wuebbles, Donald J.

    1991-01-01

    The possibility that the current fleet of subsonic aircraft may already have caused detectable changes in both the troposphere and stratosphere has raised concerns about the impact of such operations on stratospheric ozone and climate. Recent interest in the operation of supersonic aircraft in the lower stratosphere has heightened such concerns. Previous assessments of impacts from proposed supersonic aircraft were based mostly on one-dimensional model results although a limited number of multidimensional models were used. In the past 15 years, our understanding of the processes that control the atmospheric concentrations of trace gases has changed dramatically. This better understanding was achieved through accumulation of kinetic data and field observations as well as development of new models. It would be beneficial to start examining the impact of subsonic aircraft to identify opportunities to study and validate the mechanisms that were proposed to explain the ozone responses. The two major concerns are the potential for a decrease in the column abundance of ozone leading to an increase in ultraviolet radiation at the ground, and redistribution of ozone in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere leading to changes in the Earth's climate. Two-dimensional models were used extensively for ozone assessment studies, with a focus on responses to chlorine perturbations. There are problems specific to the aircraft issues that are not adequately addressed by the current models. This chapter reviews the current status of the research on aircraft impact on ozone with emphasis on immediate model improvements necessary for extending our understanding. The discussion will be limited to current and projected commercial aircraft that are equipped with air-breathing engines using conventional jet fuel. The impacts are discussed in terms of the anticipated fuel use at cruise altitude.

  4. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  5. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  6. Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Intelligent Virtual Station (IVS) is enabling the integration of design, training, and operations capabilities into an intelligent virtual station for the International Space Station (ISS). A viewgraph of the IVS Remote Server is presented.

  7. International Space Station Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, William V., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The overview of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of the program vision and mission; Space Station uses; definition of program phases; as well as descriptions and status of several scheduled International Space Station Overview assembly flights.

  8. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  9. User data dissemination concepts for earth resources: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, R.; Scott, M.; Mitchell, C.; Torbett, A.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of the future capabilities of earth-resources data sensors (both satellite and airborne) and their requirements on the data dissemination network were investigated and optimum ways of configuring this network were determined. The scope of this study was limited to the continental U.S.A. (including Alaska) and to the 1985-1995 time period. Some of the conclusions and recommendations reached were: (1) Data from satellites in sun-synchronous polar orbits (700-920 km) will generate most of the earth-resources data in the specified time period. (2) Data from aircraft and shuttle sorties cannot be readily integrated in a data-dissemination network unless already preprocessed in a digitized form to a standard geometric coordinate system. (3) Data transmission between readout stations and central preprocessing facilities, and between processing facilities and user facilities are most economically performed by domestic communication satellites. (4) The effect of the following factors should be studied: cloud cover, expanded coverage, pricing strategies, multidiscipline missions.

  10. Commercial Earth Observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP) at Stennis Space Center, Applied Analysis, Inc. developed a new tool for analyzing remotely sensed data. The Applied Analysis Spectral Analytical Process (AASAP) detects or classifies objects smaller than a pixel and removes the background. This significantly enhances the discrimination among surface features in imagery. ERDAS, Inc. offers the system as a modular addition to its ERDAS IMAGINE software package for remote sensing applications. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant. Through the Earth Observation Commercial Applications Program (EOCAP), Ocean and Coastal Environmental Sensing (OCENS) developed SeaStation for marine users. SeaStation is a low-cost, portable, shipboard satellite groundstation integrated with vessel catch and product monitoring software. Linked to the Global Positioning System, SeaStation provides real time relationships between vessel position and data such as sea surface temperature, weather conditions and ice edge location. This allows the user to increase fishing productivity and improve vessel safety. EOCAP is a government/industry cooperative program designed to encourage commercial applications of remote sensing. Projects can run three years or more and funding is shared by NASA and the private sector participant.

  11. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  12. Discover Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen

    1998-01-01

    Discover Earth is a NASA-sponsored project for teachers of grades 5-12, designed to: (1) enhance understanding of the Earth as an integrated system; (2) enhance the interdisciplinary approach to science instruction; and (3) provide classroom materials that focus on those goals. Discover Earth is conducted by the Institute for Global Environmental Strategies in collaboration with Dr. Eric Barron, Director, Earth System Science Center, The Pennsylvania State University; and Dr. Robert Hudson, Chair, the Department of Meteorology, University of Maryland at College Park. The enclosed materials: (1) represent only part of the Discover Earth materials; (2) were developed by classroom teachers who are participating in the Discover Earth project; (3) utilize an investigative approach and on-line data; and (4) can be effectively adjusted to classrooms with greater/without technology access. The Discover Earth classroom materials focus on the Earth system and key issues of global climate change including topics such as the greenhouse effect, clouds and Earth's radiation balance, surface hydrology and land cover, and volcanoes and climate change. All the materials developed to date are available on line at (http://www.strategies.org) You are encouraged to submit comments and recommendations about these materials to the Discover Earth project manager, contact information is listed below. You are welcome to duplicate all these materials.

  13. SPACE: Enhancing Life on Earth. Proceedings Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobden, Alan (Editor); Hobden, Beverly (Editor); Bagley, Larry E. (Editor); Bolton, Ed (Editor); Campaigne, Len O. (Editor); Cole, Ron (Editor); France, Marty (Editor); Hand, Rich (Editor); McKinley, Cynthia (Editor); Zimkas, Chuck (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The proceedings of the 12th National Space Symposium on Enhancing Life on Earth is presented. Technological areas discussed include: Space applications and cooperation; Earth sensing, communication, and navigation applications; Global security interests in space; and International space station and space launch capabilities. An appendices that include featured speakers, program participants, and abbreviation & acronyms glossary is also attached.

  14. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  15. Ground station siting considerations for DGPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waid, James D.

    1994-01-01

    Aircraft guidance and positioning in the final approach and landing phases of flight requires a high degree of accuracy. The Global Positioning System operating in differential mode (DGPS) is being considered for this application. Prior to implementation, all sources of error must be considered. Multipath was shown to be the dominant source of error for DGPS and theoretical studies verified that multipath is particularly severe within the final approach and landing regions. Because of aircraft dynamics, the ground station segment of DGPS is the part of the system where multipath can most effectively be reduced. Ground station siting will be a key element in reducing multipath errors for DGPS system. This situation can also be improved by using P-code or narrow correlator C/A-code receivers along with a multipath rejecting antenna. A study of GPS multipath errors for a stationary DGPS ground station is presented. A discussion of GPS multipath error characteristics are presented along with some actual multipath data. The data was collected for different ground station siting configurations using P-code, standard C/A-code, and narrow correlator C/A-code receiver architectures and two separate antenna constructions.

  16. 47 CFR 25.102 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except... Commission. (b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by...

  17. Ohio's First Electrolysis-Based Hydrogen Fueling Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demattia, Brianne

    2014-01-01

    Presentation to the earth day coalition describing efforts with NASA GRC and Cleveland RTA on Ohio's hydrogen fueling station and bus demonstration. Project background and goals, challenges and successes, and current status.

  18. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Environments for the International Space Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-15

    Baseline micrometeoroid and orbital debris fluence estimates for spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are provided. For these calculations, an orbit similar to that of the International Space Station (ISS) is used.

  19. 47 CFR 25.102 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except... Commission. (b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by...

  20. 47 CFR 25.102 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except... Commission. (b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by...

  1. 47 CFR 25.102 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except... Commission. (b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by...

  2. 47 CFR 25.102 - Station authorization required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... apparatus for the transmission of energy or communications or signals by space or earth stations except... Commission. (b) Protection from impermissible levels of interference to the reception of signals by...

  3. Station Cameras Capture New Views of Major Hurricane Irene

    NASA Video Gallery

    From 230 miles above the Earth, cameras on the International Space Station captured new views of powerful Hurricane Irene as it churned over the Bahamas at 3:10 p.m. EDT on August 24, 2011. Irene i...

  4. Computer programs for estimating aircraft takeoff performance in three dimensional space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    A set of computer programs has been developed to estimate the takeoff and initial climb-out maneuver of a given aircraft in three-dimensional space. The program is applicable to conventional, vectored lift and power-lift concept aircraft. The aircraft is treated as a point mass flying over a flat earth with no side slip, and the rotational dynamics have been neglected. The required input is described and a sample case presented.

  5. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  6. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  7. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  8. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  9. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  10. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.

  11. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  12. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  13. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  14. High-Altitude Aircraft and Balloon-Borne Observations of OH, HO2, ClO, BrO, NO2, ClONO2, ClOOCl, H2O, and O3 in Earth's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James G.

    1999-01-01

    Using observations from balloon-borne instruments and aircraft-borne instruments the investigation arrived at the following developments.: (1) Determination of the dominant catalytic cycles that destroy ozone in the lower stratosphere; (2) The partial derivatives of the rate limiting steps are observables in the lower stratosphere; (3) Recognition that the "Low NOx" condition is the regime that holds the greatest potential for misjudgement of Ozone loss rates; (4) Mapping of the Bromine radical contribution to the ozone destruction rate in the lower stratosphere; (5) Observation of OH, HO2 and ClO in the plume of the Concorde SST in the stratosphere; (6) Determination of the diurnal behavior of OH in the lower stratosphere; (7) Observed OH and H02 in the Troposphere and the interrelationship between Ozone and OH, HO2, CO and NO; (8) Analysis of the Catalytic Production of Ozone and Reactions that Couple OH and H02 in the Troposphere; (9) The continuing development of the understanding of the Tropopause temperatures, water vapor mixing ratios, and vertical advection and the mixing in of mid-latitude air; (10) Performed Multiple Tracer Analyses as a diagnostic of water vapor intrusion into the "Middle World" (i.e., the lowermost stratsophere); (11) Flight testing of a new instrument for the In Situ detection of ClON02 from the ER-2; (12) Laser induced fluorescence detection of NO2. There is included an in depth discussion of each of these developments and observations.

  15. Earth Science Enterprise Technology Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA's Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) is dedicated to understanding the total Earth system and the effects of natural and human-induced changes on the global environment. The goals of ESE are: (1) Expand scientific knowledge of the Earth system using NASA's unique vantage points of space, aircraft, and in situ platforms; (2) Disseminate information about the Earth system; and (3) Enable the productive use of ESE science and technology in the public and private sectors. ESE has embraced the NASA Administrator's better, faster, cheaper paradigm for Earth observing missions. We are committed to launch the next generation of Earth Observing System (EOS) missions at a substantially lower cost than the EOS first series. Strategic investment in advanced instrument, spacecraft, and information system technologies is essential to accomplishing ESE's research goals in the coming decades. Advanced technology will play a major role in shaping the ESE fundamental and applied research program of the future. ESE has established an Earth science technology development program with the following objectives: (1) To accomplish ESE space-based and land-based program elements effectively and efficiently; and (2) To enable ESE's fundamental and applied research programs goals as stated in the NASA Strategic Plan.

  16. Altus I aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The remotely-piloted Altus I aircraft climbs away after takeoff from Rogers Dry Lake adjacent to NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. The short series of test flights sponsored by the Naval Postgraduate School in early August, 1997, were designed to demonstrate the ability of the experimental craft to cruise at altitudes above 40,000 feet for sustained durations. On its final flight Aug. 15, the Altus I reached an altitude of 43,500 feet. The Altus I and its sister ship, the Altus II, are variants of the Predator surveillance drone built by General Atomics/Aeronautical Systems, Inc. They are designed for high-altitude, long-duration scientific sampling missions, and are powered by turbocharged piston engines. The Altus I incorporates a single-stage turbocharger, while the Altus II, built for NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology program, sports a two-stage turbocharger to enable the craft to fly at altitudes above 55,000 feet. The Altus II, the first of the two craft to be completed, made its first flight on May 1, 1996. With its engine augmented by a single-stage turbocharger, the Altus II reached an altitude of 37,000 ft during its first series of development flights at Dryden in Aug., 1996. In Oct. of that year, the Altus II was flown in an Atmospheric Radiation Measurement study for the Department of Energy's Sandia National Laboratory in Oklahoma. During the course of those flights, the Altus II set a single-flight endurance record for remotely-operated aircraft of more than 26 hours. The Altus I, completed in 1997, flew a series of development flights at Dryden that summer. Those test flights culminated with the craft reaching an altitude of 43,500 ft while carrying a simulated 300-lb payload, a record for an unmanned aircraft powered by a piston engine augmented with a single-stage turbocharger. The Altus II sustained an altitudeof 55,000 feet for four hours in 1999. A pilot in a control station on the ground flies the

  17. Dragon Captured and Berthed to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 33 Commander Suni Williams used the International Space Station’s Canadarm2 robotic arm to install the SpaceX Dragon cargo ship to its docking port on the Earth-facing side of the Harm...

  18. Soyez Departs From International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Expedition Seven photographed the Soyez TMA-1 Capsule through a window of the International Space Station (ISS) as it departed for Earth. Aboard were Expedition Six crew members, astronauts Kerneth D. Bowersox and Donald R. Pettit, and cosmonaut Nikolai M. Budarin. Expedition Six served a 5 and 1/2 month stay aboard the ISS, the longest stay to date.

  19. Space Station: Key to the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The possible applications, advantages and features of an advanced space station to be developed are considered in a non-technical manner in this booklet. Some of the areas of application considered include the following: the detection of large scale dynamic earth processes such as changes in snow pack, crops, and air pollution levels; the…

  20. Space Station power system issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giudici, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite.

  1. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  2. Space Station Spartan study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, J. H.; Schulman, J. R.; Neupert, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    The required extension, enhancement, and upgrading of the present Spartan concept are described to conduct operations from the space station using the station's unique facilities and operational features. The space station Spartan (3S), the free flyer will be deployed from and returned to the space station and will conduct scientific missions of much longer duration than possible with the current Spartan. The potential benefits of a space station Spartan are enumerated. The objectives of the study are: (1) to develop a credible concept for a space station Spartan; and (2) to determine the associated requirements and interfaces with the space station to help ensure that the 3S can be properly accommodated.

  3. NASA Benefits Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews several ways in which NASA research has benefited Earth and made life on Earth better. These innovations include: solar panels, recycled pavement, thermometer pill, invisible braces for straightening teeth, LASIK, aerodynamic helmets and tires for bicycles, cataract detection, technology that was used to remove Anthrax spores from mail handling facilities, study of atomic oxygen erosion of materials has informed the restoration of artwork, macroencapsulation (a potential mechanism to deliver anti cancer drugs to specific sites), and research on a salmonella vaccine. With research on the International Space Station just beginning, there will be opportunities for entrepreneurs and other government agencies to access space for their research and development. As well as NASA continuing its own research on human health and technology development.

  4. Utility and technology for a space central power station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, P. F.; Garrett, L. B.

    1982-01-01

    The technological and economical impacts of a large central power station in Earth orbit on the performance and cost of future spacecraft and their orbital-transfer systems are examined. It is shown that beaming power to remote users cannot be cost-effective if the central power station uses the same power generation system that would be readily available for provision of on-board power. Laser transmitters/receivers to make central power stations feasible are considered. The cost-effectiveness of meeting Earth-orbiting spacecraft electrical demands from a central power station was analyzed, indicating that this application cannot justify the investment required for the central station. Key technology needs which must be met to enable a viable central power station in the future are identified.

  5. A new direction in energy conversion - The all-electric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft to be more efficient than conventional designs and offer substantial operating costs reductions. Compared to present aircraft, an all-electric transport can save at least 10 percent in fuel burn. The cornerstone of an all-electric aircraft is the electric secondary power system. This paper reviews the major features of flight critical electric secondary power systems. Research required to lay the foundation for an all-electric aircraft is briefly discussed.

  6. A new direction in energy conversion - The all-electric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spitzer, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies of all-electric aircraft that use electric-only secondary power and flight critical fly-by-wire flight controls, and brings to the attention of the power system designer the intrinsic advantages of such aircraft. The all-electric aircraft is made possible by the development of rare earth magnet materials and fault tolerant systems technologies. Recent studies have shown all-electric aircraft to be more efficient than conventional designs and offer substantial operating costs reductions. Compared to present aircraft, an all-electric transport can save at least 10 percent in fuel burn. The cornerstone of an all-electric aircraft is the electric secondary power system. This paper reviews the major features of flight critical electric secondary power systems. Research required to lay the foundation for an all-electric aircraft is briefly discussed.

  7. Rainbow Earth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Library and Archives, Phoenix.

    The environment is a great concern in the 1990s, and everyone needs to work at maintaining our planet. The 1992 Arizona State Library Reading Program, "Rainbow Earth," provides children with many techniques they can use to help the Earth. This reading program guide provides information on the following: goals, objectives, and evaluation;…

  8. Earth tides

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nineteen papers on gravity, tilt, and strain tides are compiled into this volume. Detailed chapters cover the calculation of the tidal forces and of the Earth's response to them, as well as actual observations of earth tides. Partial Contents: On Earth tides. The tidal forces: Tidal Forces. New Computations of the Tide-Generating Potential. Corrected Tables of Tidal Harmonics. The Theory of Tidal Deformations. Body Tides on an Elliptical, Rotating, Elastic and Oceanless Earth, Deformation of the Earth by Surface Loads. Gravimetric Tidal Loading Computed from Integrated Green's Functions. Tidal Friction in the Solid Earth. Loading Tides Versus Body Tides. Lunar Tidal Acceleration from Earth Satellite Orbit Analysis. Observations: gravity. Tidal Gravity in Britain: Tidal Loading and the Spatial Distribution of the Marine Tide. Tidal Loading along a Profile Europe-East Africa-South Asia-Australia and the Pacific Ocean. Detailed Gravity-Tide Spectrum between One and Four Cycles per Day. Observations: tilt and strain. Cavity and Topographic Effects in Tilt and Strain Measurement. Observations of Local Elastic Effects on Earth Tide Tilts and Strains.

  9. Methane and Other Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Aircraft in Alaska: 2009 - 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Wolter, S.; Patrick, L.; Newberger, T.; Chen, H.; Oltmans, S. J.; Bruhwiler, L.; Miller, C. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2011-12-01

    Due to their huge potential impact on the Earth's warming, methane (CH4) emissions in the Arctic are currently widely-studied and debated in the carbon cycle community. Emissions from carbon stored in Arctic soil are projected to increase as the region warms and the permafrost thaws, creating a potent feedback mechanism for climate change. This year, NASA's Carbon in Arctic Reservoirs Vulnerability Experiment (CARVE) began multi-year aircraft measurements in Alaska, which, coupled with regional modeling of methane fluxes, will evaluate and quantify the effect of regional climate change on ecosystem CO2 and CH4 fluxes. A crucial component of such regional modeling is the choice of background mixing ratio for a given atmospheric sample. A recent addition to the NOAA/GMD aircraft program provides valuable information on background mixing ratios for the Alaskan interior and provides insight into the seasonal cycle and inter-annual variability as well as spatial and temporal context for the measurements being made during the CARVE campaigns. The NOAA/GMD aircraft program began new, ongoing greenhouse gas measurements in Alaska in 2009 (complementing existing ground stations at Barrow and Cold Bay, and a flask-only aircraft site outside of Fairbanks), through a collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard. Bi-weekly Arctic Domain Awareness flights on C-130 aircraft generally begin in Kodiak, continue to Barrow, and return back to Kodiak after altitude profiles over Kivalina and Galena. On-board measurements include continuous CO2, CH4, CO, and ozone, as well as 24 flask samples analyzed at NOAA for CO2, CH4, CO, and 50 additional gases. In addition to spanning a large geographic region, the measurements also span the entire growing season, from late March to late November each year. We will present data from 2009 - 2011, with a focus on Arctic CH4. The measurements provide us with additional understanding of the various influences on the seasonal cycles of CH4 and CO2

  10. Space station erectable manipulator placement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grimaldi, Margaret E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A habitable space station was proposed for low earth orbit, to be constructed from components which will be separately carried up from the earth and thereafter assembled. A suitable manipulating system having extraordinary manipulative capability is required. The invention is an erectable manipulator placement system for use on a space station and comprises an elongate, lattice-like boom having guide tracks attached thereto, a carriage-like assembly pivotally mounted on and extending from said dolly. The system further includes a turntable base pivotally interconnected with the proximal end of the boom and positioned either on a part of a transferring vehicle, or on another payload component being carried by the said transferring vehicle, or on the space station. Novelty resides in the use of a turntable base having a hinged boom with a dolly translatable therealong to carry the arm-like assembly, thus providing an additional 3 degrees of freedom to the arm.

  11. The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS): A New Earth Science Capability for ISS (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, M. J.; Yorks, J. E.; Scott, S.; Kupchock, A.; Selmer, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Cloud-Aerosol Transport System (CATS) is a lidar remote sensing instrument developed for deployment to the International Space Station (ISS). The CATS lidar will provide range-resolved profile measurements of atmospheric aerosol and cloud distributions and properties. The CATS instrument uses a high repetition rate laser operating at three wavelengths (1064, 532, and 355 nm) to derive properties of cloud/aerosol layers including: layer height, layer thickness, backscatter, optical depth, extinction, and depolarization-based discrimination of particle type. The CATS mission was designed to capitalize on the Space Station's unique orbit and facilities to continue existing Earth Science data records, to provide observational data for use in forecast models, and to demonstrate new technologies for use in future missions. The CATS payload will be installed on the Japanese Experiment Module - Exposed Facility (JEM-EF). The payload is designed to operate on-orbit for at least six months, and up to three years. The payload is completed and currently scheduled for a mid-2014 launch. The ISS and, in particular, the JEM-EF, is an exciting new platform for spaceborne Earth observations. The ability to leverage existing aircraft instrument designs coupled with the lower cost possible for ISS external attached payloads permits rapid and cost effective development of spaceborne sensors. The CATS payload is based on existing instrumentation built and operated on the high-altitude NASA ER-2 aircraft. The payload is housed in a 1.5 m x 1 m x 0.8 m volume that attaches to the JEM-EF. The allowed volume limits the maximum size for the collecting telescope to 60 cm diameter. Figure 1 shows a schematic layout of the CATS payload, with the primary instrument components identified. Figure 2 is a photo of the completed payload. CATS payload cut-away view. Completed CATS payload assembly.

  12. Testing of Polymer Materials on MIR Space Station and on International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakhvalov, Yu. O.; Alexandrov, N. G.; Smirnova, T. N.; Milinchuk, V. K.; Klinshpont, E. R.; Ananjeva, O. A.; Pasevich, O. F.; Novikov, L. S.; Chernik, V. N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of space tests of different polymer films. The experiments were carried out aboard Mir Space Station in 1985-1999 and continued aboard the International Space Station (ISS) since 1998. Two types of polymer film samples were studied: unprotected and protected with glass filters. Upon return to Earth, the samples were analyzed using different analytical techniques and the data on mass loss, changes in thickness and changes in optical properties were obtained.

  13. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... proposed service, details of the link noise budget, typical or baseline earth station parameters... demonstration should address whether stored energy will be removed at the spacecraft's end of life, by depleting... each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  14. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proposed service, details of the link noise budget, typical or baseline earth station parameters... demonstration should address whether stored energy will be removed at the spacecraft's end of life, by depleting... each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  15. 47 CFR 25.114 - Applications for space station authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... proposed service, details of the link noise budget, typical or baseline earth station parameters... demonstration should address whether stored energy will be removed at the spacecraft's end of life, by depleting... each proposed space station on FCC Form 312, Main Form and Schedule S, together with attached...

  16. STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Backdropped against the blue and white Earth, and sporting a readily visible new addition in the form of the Canadarm2 or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), the International Space Station was photographed following separation from the Space Shuttle Endeavour.

  17. Space station structures and dynamics test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Carleton J.; Townsend, John S.; Ivey, Edward W.

    1987-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a low-Earth orbit space station poses unique challenges for development and implementation of new technology. The technology arises from the special requirement that the station be built and constructed to function in a weightless environment, where static loads are minimal and secondary to system dynamics and control problems. One specific challenge confronting NASA is the development of a dynamics test program for: (1) defining space station design requirements, and (2) identifying the characterizing phenomena affecting the station's design and development. A general definition of the space station dynamic test program, as proposed by MSFC, forms the subject of this report. The test proposal is a comprehensive structural dynamics program to be launched in support of the space station. The test program will help to define the key issues and/or problems inherent to large space structure analysis, design, and testing. Development of a parametric data base and verification of the math models and analytical analysis tools necessary for engineering support of the station's design, construction, and operation provide the impetus for the dynamics test program. The philosophy is to integrate dynamics into the design phase through extensive ground testing and analytical ground simulations of generic systems, prototype elements, and subassemblies. On-orbit testing of the station will also be used to define its capability.

  18. 14 CFR 91.105 - Flight crewmembers at stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... crewmember of a U.S.-registered civil aircraft shall, during takeoff and landing, keep his or her shoulder... at the crewmember's station is not equipped with a shoulder harness; or (2) The crewmember would be unable to perform required duties with the shoulder harness fastened....

  19. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  20. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  1. ANSS Backbone Station Installation and Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meremonte, M.; Leeds, A.; Overturf, D.; McMillian, J.; Allen, J.; McNamara, D.

    2004-12-01

    During 2004 several new broadband seismic stations have been deployed as a part of the USGS's Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) backbone and regional networks. New stations include: ERPA, MNTX, OGLA, AMTX, NATX, KCCO, BMO, MARC, TZTN, LAO, DGMT, REDW, KSU1, MOOW, TPAW, LOHW, RAMW. Permanent station locations were chosen to minimize the local noise conditions by recording continuous data and using a quantitative analysis of the statistical distribution of noise power estimates. For each one-hour segment of continuous data, a power spectral density (PSD) is estimated and smoothed in full octave averages at 1/8 octave intervals. Powers for each 1/8 period interval were then accumulated in one dB power bins. A statistical analysis of power bins yields probability density functions (PDFs) as a function of noise power for each of the octave bands at each station and component. Examination of earthquake signal, artifacts related to station operation and episodic cultural noise in the PDFs allow us to estimate both the overall station quality and the level of earth noise at each potential backbone site. The main function of a seismic network, such as the ANSS, is to provide high quality data for earthquake monitoring, source studies, and Earth structure research. The utility of seismic data is greatly increased when noise levels are reduced. A good quantification and understanding of seismic noise is a first step at reducing noise levels in seismic data and improving overall data quality from the ANSS backbone network.

  2. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  3. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  4. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  5. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  6. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  7. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  8. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  9. Pathfinder aircraft returning from a flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder solar-powered research aircraft settles in for landing on the bed of Rogers Dry Lake at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, after a successful test flight Nov. 19, 1996. The ultra-light craft flew a racetrack pattern at low altitudes over the flight test area for two hours while project engineers checked out various systems and sensors on the uninhabited aircraft. The Pathfinder was controlled by two pilots, one in a mobile control unit which followed the craft, the other in a stationary control station. Pathfinder, developed by AeroVironment, Inc., is one of several designs being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71

  10. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and

  11. Repair Aircraft Parking Apron at Naval Station Norfolk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-10

    officials stated that the approval chain for DD Form 1391 understood FOD operational risks, so they did not detail FOD -related matters. They also stated that...Acronyms CIM Chevron Industrial Membrane FOD Foreign Object Debris HPA Heliport Apron IG Inspector General NAVFAC Naval...with pavement condition indexes at or below the specified values or where foreign object debris ( FOD )* is in the immediate or foreseeable future. The

  12. Improving Aircraft Refueling Procedures at Naval Air Station Oceana

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching existing data sources, gathering...and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any...5 A. LITERATURE REVIEW ...............................................................................5 1. Neighboring

  13. 47 CFR 2.303 - Other forms of identification of stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... type of the aircraft. Aeronautical Name of the city, area, or airdrome served together with such..., local government, shipyard, land transportation, and aviation services Name of station licensee (in abbreviated form if practicable), or location of station, or name of city, area, or facility...

  14. A Performance Measurement System for the Aircraft Intermediate Maintenance Department Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    Air Station or ship and performs intermediate level maintenance on aircraft remuovable V components such as engines, avionic ec•uipment, ejection...seats, etc. In resource management terminolcgy, a shore-based AIMD is Al a cost center of a Naval Air Station which is designated as a responsibility...parent Naval Air Station . Thus, the purpose of the management control process is to accomplish the stated organizational objectives, effectively and

  15. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  16. Hourly average values of solar wing parameters (flow rate and ion temperatures) according to data of measurements of the Venera-9 and Venera-10 automatic interplanetary stations on an Earth-Venus during the period June 1975 - April 1976

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaysberg, O. L.; Dyachkov, A. V.; Smirnov, V. N.; Tsyrkin, K. B.; Isaeva, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Four electrostatic analyzers with channel electron multipliers as detectors were used to measure solar wind ionic flow. The axes of the fields of vision of two of these analyzers were directed along the axis of the automatic interplanetary station, oriented towards the Sun, while the other two were turned in one plane at angles of +15 deg and -15 deg. The full hemisphere of the angular diagram of each analyzer was approximately 5 deg. The energetic resolution was approximately 6%, and the geometric energy was 0.002 sq cm ave. keV. Each analyzer covered an energetic range of approximately 10 in eight energetic intervals. Spectral distributions were processed in order to obtain the velocity and temperature of the protons. Tabular data show the hour interval (universal time) and the average solar wind velocity in kilometers per second.

  17. Remote sensing of ocean color from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, G. L.; Ewing, G. C.

    1970-01-01

    Over 3000 ocean spectra of sunlight backscattered from the upper layers of the sea have been obtained at flight altitudes to 10,000 feet together with detailed ground truth. These spectra are from stations which include a wide range of water masses differing as to biological and physical condition. This data bank and the analysis already performed demonstrates the probable feasibility of using ocean color as a parameter to locate areas of special significance to physical oceanographers and marine biologists from aircraft and satellites.

  18. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  19. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  20. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.