Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft emission scenario

  1. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  2. Analyses of Scenarios for Past and Possible Future Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Rahmes, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This project contains several components to work with the NASA AEAP program in better definition of scenarios for aircraft emissions and in determining the sensitivity of the atmosphere to such emissions. Under this project, Don Wuebbles continues as chair of the Operations and Emissions Scenarios Committee for AEAP. We are also coordinating with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to ensure the highest quality possible in the emissions scenarios promoted by the Emissions Scenarios committee. We continue to help coordination of NASA AEAP with international activities. This includes work with ICAO towards international analysis of aircraft emissions inventories; performing analyses to compare and evaluate databases of aircraft emissions developed for NASA and by various international groups and from these analyses, develop guidelines for future emissions scenarios development. Special sensitivity analyses, using our two-dimensional chemical-transport model of the global troposphere and stratosphere, have been used to determine potential sensitivity of further enhancements that could be made to emissions scenarios development. The latter studies are to be used in prioritizing further emissions scenario development.

  3. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  4. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  5. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  6. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  7. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  8. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  9. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  10. Flying into the future: aviation emissions scenarios to 2050.

    PubMed

    Owen, Bethan; Lee, David S; Lim, Ling

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the methodology and results for calculating future global aviation emissions of carbon dioxide and oxides of nitrogen from air traffic under four of the IPCC/SRES (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change/Special Report on Emissions Scenarios) marker scenarios: A1B, A2, B1, and B2. In addition, a mitigation scenario has been calculated for the B1 scenario, requiring rapid and significant technology development and transition. A global model of aircraft movements and emissions (FAST) was used to calculate fuel use and emissions to 2050 with a further outlook to 2100. The aviation emission scenarios presented are designed to interpret the SRES and have been developed to aid in the quantification of the climate change impacts of aviation. Demand projections are made for each scenario, determined by SRES economic growth factors and the SRES storylines. Technology trends are examined in detail and developed for each scenario providing plausible projections for fuel efficiency and emissions control technology appropriate to the individual SRES storylines. The technology trends that are applied are calculated from bottom-up inventory calculations and industry technology trends and targets. Future emissions of carbon dioxide are projected to grow between 2000 and 2050 by a factor in the range of 2.0 and 3.6 depending on the scenario. Emissions of oxides of nitrogen associated with aviation over the same period are projected to grow by between a factor of 1.2 and 2.7. PMID:20225840

  11. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  12. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  13. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  14. Inventories and scenarios of nitrous oxide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Kanter, David

    2014-10-01

    Effective mitigation for N2O emissions, now the third most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas and the largest remaining anthropogenic source of stratospheric ozone depleting substances, requires understanding of the sources and how they may increase this century. Here we update estimates and their uncertainties for current anthropogenic and natural N2O emissions and for emissions scenarios to 2050. Although major uncertainties remain, ‘bottom-up’ inventories and ‘top-down’ atmospheric modeling yield estimates that are in broad agreement. Global natural N2O emissions are most likely between 10 and 12 Tg N2O-N yr-1. Net anthropogenic N2O emissions are now about 5.3 Tg N2O-N yr-1. Gross anthropogenic emissions by sector are 66% from agriculture, 15% from energy and transport sectors, 11% from biomass burning, and 8% from other sources. A decrease in natural emissions from tropical soils due to deforestation reduces gross anthropogenic emissions by about 14%. Business-as-usual emission scenarios project almost a doubling of anthropogenic N2O emissions by 2050. In contrast, concerted mitigation scenarios project an average decline of 22% relative to 2005, which would lead to a near stabilization of atmospheric concentration of N2O at about 350 ppb. The impact of growing demand for biofuels on future projections of N2O emissions is highly uncertain; N2O emissions from second and third generation biofuels could remain trivial or could become the most significant source to date. It will not be possible to completely eliminate anthropogenic N2O emissions from agriculture, but better matching of crop N needs and N supply offers significant opportunities for emission reductions.

  15. Impact of aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Sundet, J. K.; Zhou, Xiuji; Ma, Jianzhong

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional global chemistry transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of subsonic aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China in terms of a year 2000 scenario of subsonic aircraft NO x emission. The results show that subsonic aircraft NO x emission significantly affects northern China, which makes NO x at 250 hPa increase by about 50 pptv with the highest percentage of 60% in January, and leading to an ozone increase of 8 ppbv with 5% relative change in April. The NO x increase is mainly attributed to the transport process, but ozone increase is produced by the chemical process. The NO x increases by less than 10 pptv by virtue of subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China, and ozone changes less than 0.4 ppbv. When subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China is doubled, its influence is still relatively small.

  16. High-speed Civil Transport Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Matulaitis, J. A.; Krause, F. H.; Dodds, Willard J.; Albers, Martin; Hourmouziadis, J.; Hasel, K. L.; Lohmann, R. P.; Stander, C.; Gerstle, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates are given for the emissions from a proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). This advanced technology supersonic aircraft would fly in the lower stratosphere at a speed of roughly Mach 1.6 to 3.2 (470 to 950 m/sec or 920 to 1850 knots). Because it would fly in the stratosphere at an altitude in the range of 15 to 23 km commensurate with its design speed, its exhaust effluents could perturb the chemical balance in the upper atmosphere. The first step in determining the nature and magnitude of any chemical changes in the atmosphere resulting from these proposed aircraft is to identify and quantify the chemically important species they emit. Relevant earlier work is summarized, dating back to the Climatic Impact Assessment Program of the early 1970s and current propulsion research efforts. Estimates are provided of the chemical composition of an HSCT's exhaust, and these emission indices are presented. Other aircraft emissions that are not due to combustion processes are also summarized; these emissions are found to be much smaller than the exhaust emissions. Future advances in propulsion technology, in experimental measurement techniques, and in understanding upper atmospheric chemistry may affect these estimates of the amounts of trace exhaust species or their relative importance.

  17. Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, C. C.; Anderson, B. E.; Hudgins, C.; Wey, C.; Li-Jones, X.; Winstead, E.; Thornhill, L. K.; Lobo, P.; Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P.

    2006-01-01

    APEX systematically investigated the gas-phase and particle emissions from a CFM56-2C1 engine on NASA's DC-8 aircraft as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and exhaust plumage. Emissions parameters were measured at 11 engine power, settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 1, 10, and 30 m downstream of the exhaust plane as the aircraft burned three fuels to stress relevant chemistry. Gas-phase emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the ICAO data and predictions provided by GEAE empirical modeling tools. Soot particles emitted by the engine exhibited a log-normal size distribution peaked between 15 and 40 nm, depending on engine power. Samples collected 30 m downstream of the engine exhaust plane exhibited a prominent nucleation mode.

  18. NASA High Speed Research Program, Emissions Scenarios Committee report of meetings on September 26, 1991 and January 9, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.

    1992-03-23

    An important step in the process of assessing the environmental effects of possible future High-Speed Civil Transports (HSCTs) is the definition of scenarios for the emissions from a fleet of such aircraft. These scenarios are then used in numerical models of the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere to determine potential environmental effects, including concerns about changes in ozone and in climate. The Emissions Scenarios Committee was formed to provide a forum for meeting the combined needs of the atmospheric science community, the aircraft industry, NASA and the federal government in undertaking the development of scenarios for such assessments.

  19. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  20. Sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to present and possible future aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    The aircraft industry is showing renewed interest in the development of supersonic, high flying aircraft for intercontinental passenger flights. There appears to be confidence that such high-speed civil transports can be designed, and that aircraft will be economically viable as long as they are also environmentally acceptable. As such, it is important to establish the potential for such environmental problems early in the aircraft design. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying the stratosphere, depending on the fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. The purpose of this study is to build on previous analyses of potential aircraft emission effects on ozone in order to better define the sensitivity of ozone to such emissions. In addition to NO{sub x}, the effects of potential emissions of carbon monoxide and water vapor are also examined. More realistic scenarios for the emissions as a function of altitude, latitude, and season are examined in comparison to prior analyses. These studies indicate that the effects on ozone are sensitive to the altitude and latitude, as well as the magnitude, of the emissions.

  1. Analytical modeling of transport aircraft crash scenarios to obtain floor pulses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittlin, G.; Lackey, D.

    1983-01-01

    The KRAS program was used to analyze transport aircraft candidate crash scenarios. Aircraft floor pulses and seat/occupant responses are presented. Results show that: (1) longitudinal only pulses can be represented by equivalent step inputs and/or static requirements; (2) the L1649 crash test floor longitudinal pulse for the aft direction (forward inertia) is less than 9g static or an equivalent 5g pulse; aft inertia accelerations are extremely small ((ch76) 3g) for representative crash scenarios; (3) a viable procedure to relate crash scenario floor pulses to standard laboratory dynamic and static test data using state of the art analysis and test procedures was demonstrated; and (4) floor pulse magnitudes are expected to be lower for wide body aircraft than for smaller narrow body aircraft.

  2. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  3. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  4. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  5. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  6. Development of Future Scenario Emission Inventories for East Asia in Support of Multiple Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Y.; Woo, J. H.; Choi, K. C.; Lee, J. B.; Song, C. K.; Kim, S. K.; Hong, J.; Hong, S. C.; Zhang, Q.; Hong, C.; Tong, D.

    2015-12-01

    Future emission scenarios based on up-to-date regional socio-economic and control policy information were developed in support of climate-air quality integrated modeling research over East Asia. Two IPCC-participated Integrated Assessment Models(IAMs) were used to developed those scenario pathways. The two emission processing systems, KU-EPS and SMOKE-Asia, were used to convert these future scenario emissions to comprehensive chemical transport model-ready form. The NIER/KU-CREATE (Comprehensive Regional Emissions inventory for Atmospheric Transport Experiment) served as the regional base-year emission inventory. For anthropogenic emissions, it has 54 fuel classes, 201 sub-sectors and 13 pollutants, including CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, OC, BC, PM10, PM2.5, and mercury. Fast energy growth and aggressive penetration of the control measures make emissions projection very active for East Asia. Despite of more stringent air pollution control policies by the governments, however, air quality over the region seems not been improved as much - even worse in many cases. The needs of more scientific understanding of inter-relationship among emissions, transport, chemistry over the region are very high to effectively protect public health and ecosystems against ozone, fine particles, and other toxic pollutants in the air. After developing these long-term future emissions, therefore, we also tried to apply our future scenarios to develop the present emissions inventory for chemical weather forecasting and aircraft field campaign. On site, we will present; 1) the future scenario development framework and process methodologies, 2) initial development results of the future emission pathways, 3) present emission inventories from short-term projection, and 4) air quality modeling performance improvements over the region.

  7. Misrepresentation of the IPCC CO2 emission scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, Martin; Edmonds, James A.; Emori, S.; Grubler, Arnulf; Hibbard, Kathleen A.; Joos, Fortunat; Kainuma, M.; Keeling, Ralph; Kram, Tom; Manning, Andrew; Meinhausen, Malte; Moss, Richard H.; Nakicenovic, Nebojsa; Riahi, Keywan; Rose, Steven K.; Smith, Steven J.; Swart, Robert; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2010-06-01

    Estimates of recent fossil fuel CO2 emissions have been compared with the IPCC SRES (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) emission scenarios that had been developed for analysis of future climate change, impacts and mitigation. In some cases this comparison uses averages across subgroups of SRES scenarios and for one category of greenhouse gases (industrial sources of CO2). That approach can be misleading and cause confusion as it is inconsistent with many of the papers on future climate change projections that are based on a specific subset of closely scrutinized SRES scenarios, known as illustrative marker scenarios. Here, we show that comparison between recent estimates of fossil fuel emissions trends and the SRES illustrative marker scenarios leads to the conclusion that recent trends are not outside the SRES range. Furthermore, the recent economic downturn appears to have brought actual emission back toward the middle of the SRES illustrative marker scenarios. We also note that SRES emission scenarios are designed to reflect potential alternative long-term trends in a world without climate policy intervention and the trend in the resulting climate change is not sensitive to short-term fluctuations.

  8. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  9. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  10. Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

    2004-08-15

    This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

  11. Fuel dispersal modeling for aircraft-runway impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.

    1995-11-01

    A fuel dispersal model for C-141 transport accidents was developed for the Defense Nuclear Agency`s Fuel Fire Technology Base Program to support Weapon System Safety Assessments. The spectrum of accidents resulting from aircraft impact on a runway was divided into three fuel dispersal regimes: low, intermediate, and high-velocity impact. Sufficient data existed in the accident, crash test, and fuel-filled bomb literature to support development of a qualitative framework for dispersal models, but not quantitative models for all regimes. Therefore, a test series at intermediate scale was conducted to generate data on which to base the model for the high-velocity regime. Tests were conducted over an impact velocity range from 12 m/s to 91 m/s and angles of impact from 22.5{degrees} to 67.5{degrees}. Dependent variables were area covered by dispersed fuel, amount of mass in that area, and location of the area relative to the impact line. Test results showed that no liquid pooling occurred for impact velocities greater than 61 m/s, independent of the angle of impact. Some pooling did occur at lower velocities, but in no test was the liquid-layer thickness greater than 5.25 mm.

  12. Modeling framework for exploring emission impacts of alternative future scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughlin, D. H.; Benjey, W. G.; Nolte, C. G.

    2010-11-01

    This article presents an approach for creating anthropogenic emission scenarios that can be used to simulate future regional air quality. The approach focuses on energy production and use since these are principal sources of air pollution. We use the MARKAL model to characterize alternative realizations of the US energy system through 2050. Emission growth factors are calculated for major energy system categories using MARKAL, while growth factors from non-energy sectors are based on economic and population projections. The SMOKE model uses these factors to grow a base-year 2002 inventory to future years through 2050. The approach is demonstrated for two emission scenarios: Scenario 1 extends current air regulations through 2050, while Scenario 2 applies a hypothetical policy that limits carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy system. Although both scenarios show significant reductions in air pollutant emissions through time, these reductions are more pronounced in Scenario 2, where the CO2 policy results in the adoption of technologies with lower emissions of both CO2 and traditional air pollutants. The methodology is expected to play an important role in investigations of linkages among emission drivers, climate and air quality by the U.S. EPA and others.

  13. Aircraft emission measurements by remote sensing methodologies at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts from measurements taken under operating conditions, to calculate precisely the emission inventories of airports, are not available up to now. To determine these data, measurement campaigns were performed on idling aircraft at major European airports using non-intrusive spectroscopic methods like Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Emission indices for CO and NO x were calculated and compared to the values given in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) database. The emission index for CO for 36 different aircraft engine types and for NO x (24 different engine types) were determined. It was shown that for idling aircraft, CO emissions are underestimated using the ICAO database. The emission indices for NO x determined in this work are lower than given in the ICAO database. In addition, a high variance of emission indices in each aircraft family and from engine to engine of the same engine type was found. During the same measurement campaigns, the emission indices for CO and NO of eight different types of auxilliary power units were investigated.

  14. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-Eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, north of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and amoderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are expected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of avery optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite asimilar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to asignificant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the upper

  15. Present and future impact of aircraft, road traffic and shipping emissions on global tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, B.; Szopa, S.; Cozic, A.; Hauglustaine, D.; van Velthoven, P.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the LMDz-INCA climate-chemistry model and up-to-date global emission inventories are used to investigate the "present" (2000) and future (2050) impacts of transport emissions (road traffic, shipping and aircraft) on global tropospheric ozone. For the first time, both impacts of emissions and climate changes on transport-induced ozone are investigated. The 2000 transport emissions are shown to mainly affect ozone in the Northern Hemisphere, with a maximum increase of the tropospheric column of up to 5 DU, from the South-eastern US to Central Europe. The impact is dominated by road traffic in the middle and upper troposphere, North of 40° S, and by shipping in the northern lower troposphere, over oceanic regions. A strong reduction of road emissions and a moderate (B1 scenario) to high (A1B scenario) increase of the ship and aircraft emissions are projected by the year 2050. As a consequence, LMDz-INCA simulations predict a drastic decrease in the impact of road emissions, whereas aviation would become the major transport perturbation on tropospheric ozone, even in the case of a very optimistic aircraft mitigation scenario. The A1B emission scenario leads to an increase of the impact of transport on zonal mean ozone concentrations in 2050 by up to +30% and +50%, in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, respectively. Despite a similar total amount of global NOx emissions by the various transport sectors compared to 2000, the overall impact on the tropospheric ozone column is increased everywhere in 2050, due to a sectoral shift in the emissions of the respective transport modes. On the opposite, the B1 mitigation scenario leads to a significant reduction (by roughly 50%) of the ozone perturbation throughout the troposphere compared to 2000. Considering climate change, and according to scenario A1B, a decrease of the O3 tropospheric burden is simulated by 2050 due to climate change (-1.2%), whereas an increase of ozone of up to 2% is calculated in the

  16. Does extreme precipitation intensity depend on the emissions scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendergrass, Angeline G.; Lehner, Flavio; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Xu, Yangyang

    2015-10-01

    The rate of increase of global-mean precipitation per degree global-mean surface temperature increase differs for greenhouse gas and aerosol forcings and across emissions scenarios with differing composition of change in forcing. We investigate whether or not the rate of change of extreme precipitation also varies across the four emissions scenarios that force the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, version 5 multimodel ensemble. In most models, the rate of increase of maximum annual daily precipitation per degree global warming in the multimodel ensemble is statistically indistinguishable across the four scenarios, whether this extreme precipitation is calculated globally, over all land, or over extratropical land. These results indicate that in contrast to mean precipitation, extreme precipitation depends on the total amount of warming and does not depend on emissions scenario in most models.

  17. Methods for Developing Emissions Scenarios for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect

    Prinn, Ronald; Webster, Mort

    2007-08-20

    The overall objective of this research was to contribute data and methods to support the future development of new emissions scenarios for integrated assessment of climate change. Specifically, this research had two main objectives: 1. Use historical data on economic growth and energy efficiency changes, and develop probability density functions (PDFs) for the appropriate parameters for two or three commonly used integrated assessment models. 2. Using the parameter distributions developed through the first task and previous work, we will develop methods of designing multi-gas emission scenarios that usefully span the joint uncertainty space in a small number of scenarios. Results on the autonomous energy efficiency improvement (AEEI) parameter are summarized, an uncertainty analysis of elasticities of substitution is described, and the probabilistic emissions scenario approach is presented.

  18. Advanced technology for controlling pollutant emissions from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.; Diehl, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine combustor technology for the reduction of pollutant emissions is summarized. Variations of conventional combustion systems and advanced combustor concepts are discussed. Projected results from far term technology efforts aimed at applying the premixed prevaporized and catalytic combustion techniques to aircraft combustion systems indicate a potential for significant reductions in pollutant emission levels.

  19. Assessing the Impact of Aircraft Emissions on the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Anderson, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) has been the U.S. focal point for research on aircraft effects. In conjunction with U.S. basic research programs, AEAP and concurrent European research programs have driven remarkable progress reports released in 1999 [IPCC, 1999; Kawa et al., 1999]. The former report primarily focuses on aircraft effects in the upper troposphere, with some discussion on stratospheric impacts. The latter report focuses entirely on the stratosphere. The current status of research regarding aviation effects on stratospheric ozone and climate, as embodied by the findings of these reports, is reviewed. The following topics are addressed: Aircraft Emissions, Pollution Transport, Atmospheric Chemistry, Polar Processes, Climate Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft, Subsonic Aircraft Effect on the Stratosphere, Calculations of the Supersonic Impact on Ozone and Sensitivity to Input Conditions.

  20. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  1. Economically consistent long-term scenarios for air pollutant emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; West, Jason; Kyle, G. Page

    2011-09-08

    Pollutant emissions such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone precursors substantially influence climate. While future century-scale scenarios for these emissions have become more realistic through the inclusion of emission controls, they still potentially lack consistency between surface pollutant concentrations and regional levels of affluence. We demonstrate a methodology combining use of an integrated assessment model and a three-dimensional atmospheric chemical transport model, whereby a reference scenario is constructed by requiring consistent surface pollutant levels as a function of regional income over the 21st century. By adjusting air pollutant emission control parameters, we improve agreement between modeled PM2.5 and economic income among world regions through time; agreement for ozone is also improved but is more difficult to achieve because of the strong influence of upwind world regions. The scenario examined here was used as the basis for one of the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. This analysis methodology could also be used to examine the consistency of other pollutant emission scenarios.

  2. Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

  3. Measurements of aircraft emissions indices at airports passive remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter J.; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael

    2003-04-01

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts to calculate precisely the emissions inventories of airports are not available up to now from measurements taken under operating conditions. To determine these data no installations nearby or behind the aircraft are possible at airports. That's why measurements by FTIR emission spectrometry were performed by the IMK-IFU with a spectrometer installed in a van and with total measurement time at one thrust level of about 1 minute to determine CO, NO and CO2. The FTIR instrument telescope was aligned to the engine nozzle exit of standing aircraft. A DOAS and a FTIR spectrometer with globar were used for simultaneous open-path measurements of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and speciated hydrocarbons behind the aircraft by the TUG-VKMB. Measurement results at the airports Frankfurt/Main, London-Heathrow and Vienna are presented. The methods are evaluated by comparing CO emission indices from passive measurements with open-path data. The measured emission indices of CO show slightly higher values than the International Civil Aviation Organisation data sheets but less values for NOx emissions. A fruitful co-operation with the airlines AUA, BA and DLH as well as the airport authorities in Vienna and London-Heathrow supported this work which is financed from EC.

  4. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  5. Modelling the impact of aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Lowenberg, M. H.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of the trace gases CO2, CO, H2O, HC, NOx, and SOx that have the potential to perturb large scale atmospheric composition are accumulating in the atmosphere at an unprecedented rate as the demand for air traffic continues to grow. We investigate the global and regional effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere and climate using mathematical modelling, sensitivity simulations, and perturbation simulations and present historical and spatial distribution evolution of the global and regional number of departures, fuel burn and emissions. A comprehensive aircraft movement database spanning years 2005 - 2012, covering 225 countries and over 223 million departures on approximately 41000 unique routes serves as a basis for our investigation. We combine air traffic data with output from an aircraft performance model (fuel burn and emissions) including 80 distinct aircraft types, representing 216 of all the aircraft flown in the world in 2005 - 2012. This accounts for fuel burn and emissions for 99.5% of the total number of departures during that time. Simulations are being performed using a state of the art 3D Lagrangian global chemical transport model (CTM) CRI-STOCHEM for simulation of tropospheric chemistry. The model is applied with the CRI (Common Representative Intermediates) chemistry scheme with 220 chemical species, and 609 reactions. This allows us to study in detail the chemical cycles driven by NOx, governing the rate of formation of O3 which controls the production of OH and indirectly determines the lifetime of other greenhouse gases. We also investigate the impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on the European air traffic and present a model response to the perturbation of NOx emissions that followed.

  6. A unified model for ultrafine aircraft particle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, B.; Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.; Danilin, M. Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Busen, R.

    2000-12-01

    To predict the environmental impacts of commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. An analytic parameterization is presented that explains most of the observational variance. It is shown that the observed scatter in emission indices of volatile particles is due mainly to variations of plume age, the detection threshold size of the particle counters, and condensable organic emissions. The principle trend of the volatile particle concentrations with fuel sulfur content can be explained with conversion fractions of sulfur into particulate sulfuric acid at emission within the range 0.5 to 5%. A novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a future supersonic aircraft fleet confirms previous estimates and puts these simulations on a sounder physical basis.

  7. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR...

  8. A process for the quantification of aircraft noise and emissions interdependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis, Jorge

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop a process to improve actual policy-making procedures in terms of aviation environmental effects. This research work expands current practices with physics based publicly available models. The current method uses solely information provided by industry members, and this information is usually proprietary, and not physically intuitive. The process herein proposed provides information regarding the interdependencies between the environmental effects of aircraft. These interdependencies are also tied to the actual physical parameters of the aircraft and the engine, making it more intuitive for decision-makers to understand the impacts to the vehicle due to different policy scenarios. These scenarios involve the use of fleet analysis tools in which the existing aircraft are used to predict the environmental effects of imposing new stringency levels. The aircraft used are reduced to a series of coefficients that represent their performance, in terms of flight characteristics, fuel burn, noise, and emissions. These coefficients are then utilized to model flight operations and calculate what the environmental impacts of those aircraft are. If a particular aircraft does not meet the stringency to be analyzed, a technology response is applied to it, in order to meet that stringency. Depending on the level of reduction needed, this technology response can have an effect on the fuel burn characteristic of the aircraft. Another important point of the current stringency analysis process is that it does not take into account both noise and emissions concurrently, but instead, it considers them separately, one at a time. This assumes that the interdependencies between the two do not exists, which is not realistic. The latest stringency process delineated in 2004 imposed a 2% fuel burn penalty for any required improvements on NOx, no matter the type of aircraft or engine, assuming that no company had the ability to produce a

  9. Modelling the impact of aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Shallcross, D. E.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Emissions of the trace gases CO2, CO, H2O, HC, NOx, and SOx that have the potential to perturb large scale atmospheric composition are accumulating in the atmosphere at an unprecedented rate as the demand for air traffic continues to grow. We investigate the global, regional and local effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere and climate using mathematical modelling, sensitivity simulations, and perturbation simulations. The approach is to gather results for the three main industrialised regions in the Northern Hemisphere, focusing on the 40°N - 60°N latitude belt where the majority of aircraft movements take place. A comprehensive aircraft movement database spanning years 2005 - 2012, covering 225 countries and over 223 million departures on approx. 41000 unique routes serves as a basis for our investigation. We combine air traffic data with output from an aircraft performance model including 80 distinct aircraft types, representing 216 of all the aircraft flown in the world in 2005 - 2012. This accounts for fuel burn and emissions for 99.5% of the total number of departures during that time. Simulations are being performed using a state of the art 3D Lagrangian global chemical transport model (CTM) CRI-STOCHEM for simulation of tropospheric chemistry. The model will be applied with two chemistry schemes, namely the Common Representative Intermediates (CRI) reduced chemistry scheme (220 chemical species, 609 reactions) and the near explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) chemistry scheme (5900 chemical species, 13500 reactions). This will allow us to study in detail the chemical cycles driven by NOx, governing the rate of formation of O3 which controls the production of OH and indirectly determines the lifetime of other greenhouse gases.

  10. Rapid measurement of emissions from military aircraft turbine engines by downstream extractive sampling of aircraft on the ground: Results for C-130 and F-15 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Chester W.; Holdren, Michael W.; Cowen, Kenneth A.; Joseph, Darrell W.; Satola, Jan; Goodwin, Bradley; Mayfield, Howard; Laskin, Alexander; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Ortega, John V.; Newburn, Matthew; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    Aircraft emissions affect air quality on scales from local to global. More than 20% of the jet fuel used in the U.S. is consumed by military aircraft, and emissions from this source are facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations, so improved methods for quickly and accurately determining emissions from existing and new engines are needed. This paper reports results of a study to advance the methods used for detailed characterization of military aircraft emissions, and provides emission factors for two aircraft: the F-15 fighter and the C-130 cargo plane. The measurements involved outdoor ground-level sampling downstream behind operational military aircraft. This permits rapid change-out of the aircraft so that engines can be tested quickly on operational aircraft. Measurements were made at throttle settings from idle to afterburner using a simple extractive probe in the dilute exhaust. Emission factors determined using this approach agree very well with those from the traditional method of extractive sampling at the exhaust exit. Emission factors are reported for CO 2, CO, NO, NO x, and more than 60 hazardous and/or reactive organic gases. Particle size, mass and composition also were measured and are being reported separately. Comparison of the emissions of nine hazardous air pollutants from these two engines with emissions from nine other aircraft engines is discussed.

  11. Review of measurement and testing problems. [of aircraft emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Good instrumentation was required to obtain reliable and repeatable baseline data. Problems that were encountered in developing such a total system were: (1) accurate airflow measurement, (2) precise fuel flow measurement, and (3) the instrumentation used for pollutant measurement was susceptible to frequent malfunctions. Span gas quality had a significant effect on emissions test results. The Spindt method was used in the piston aircraft emissions program. The Spindt method provided a comparative computational procedure for fuel/air ratio based on measured emissions concentrations.

  12. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  13. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilheit, T.; Nordberg, W.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W.; Edgerton, A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at the 0.811-cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice. ?? 1971.

  14. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  15. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  16. Allowable carbon emissions for a medium mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachiiri, K.; Hargreaves, J. C.; Annan, J. D.; Huntingford, C.; Kawamiya, M.

    2012-04-01

    The world climate research centres are currently running Earth System Models (ESMs) forced by Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) scenarios. Based on these future pathways in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, the emphasis has been mainly on estimating the associated levels of global warming that might be expected. There is also the important task of determining emission trajectories associated with the pathways, that may then be assessed by socio-economists for feasibility. Here we use an earth system model of intermediate complexity and a probabilistic framework to estimate the range of future temperature change and allowable emissions corresponding to a medium CO2 concentration pathway (RCP4.5). Uncertainty is initially estimated by allowing the equilibrium climate sensitivity, aerosol forcing and intrinsic physical and biogeochemical processes to vary within the widely accepted ranges. The results are then further constrained by extensive use of contemporary measurements. The resulting range of temperatures corresponding to RCP4.5 remains large. By year 2300, the predicted global temperature increase from pre-industrial has ± 2 standard deviation range of 1.4K, either side of a mean of 3.0K with 91% probability for increase over 2K. This result has major implications for future planning, as the difference between the upper and lower levels of warming may be expected to be enormous in terms of impacts, and quite possibly could differentiate between what is deemed "dangerous change" or otherwise. After constraint using contemporary data, the ensemble mean of the experiment allows similar emissions to the standard RCP4.5 emission scenario. The allowable emission for the peak emission period is projected as 11.5±2.0 PgC yr-1. Our ensemble demonstrates that, with high probability, drastic cuts in emissions will be required and that there is a probability of around 2% that there will need to be an extended period of time with global negative

  17. Climate impacts of the ECLIPSE future emissions mitigation scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Laura; Collins, Bill; Olivie, Dirk; Cherian, Ribu; Quaas, Johannes; Myhre, Gunnar; Hodnebrog, Oivind; Skeie, Ragnhild

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the possible near-term climate benefits from mitigating aerosols, ozone and methane. The ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants) project developed a realistic emissions inventory based on current legislation for 2005-2050 (CLE), and a corresponding mitigation scenario designed to be beneficial for both air quality and short-term climate impact (MIT). We determine the climate impacts of the MIT scenario, focussing on the period 2040-2050. Four climate models with interactive chemistry and aerosols (HadGEM, NorESM, CESM-CAM4 and ECHAM-HAM) are used to provide multi-model ensembles of both atmosphere-only and coupled atmosphere-ocean simulations, to separate the effective radiative forcing (ERF) and the climate response. The ERFs are derived from the atmosphere-only simulations. In all models the MIT scenario leads to a negative global ERF which is driven mainly by methane emissions reductions. There is variability between models in the relative importance of methane and aerosol emissions reductions, and in the sign of ERF response to aerosol emissions reductions. The climate response to MIT is derived from the coupled simulations. In all models, MIT results in a decrease in the global mean temperature compared to CLE, with a model mean decrease of 0.22°C. The temperature decrease is seen most strongly in the Northern Hemisphere and is particularly strong in the Arctic. The ensembles of coupled-ocean simulations have therefore enabled us to identify a robust cooling signal from the air quality mitigation scenarios, which can be attributed to the different species using the ERFs.

  18. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  19. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  20. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  1. Working Toward Policy-Relevant Air Quality Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, T.

    2010-12-01

    Though much work has been done to develop accurate chemical emission inventories, few publicly available inventories are appropriate for realistic policy analysis. Emissions from the electricity and transportation sectors, in particular, respond in complex ways to policy, technology, and energy use change. Many widely used inventories, such as the EPA National Emissions Inventory, are well-suited for modeling current air quality, but do not have the specificity needed to address "what if?" questions. Changes in electricity demand, fuel prices, new power sources, and emission controls all influence the emissions from regional power production, requiring a plant-by-plant assessment to capture the spatially explicit impacts. Similarly, land use, freight distribution, or driving behavior will yield differentiated transportation emissions for urban areas, suburbs, and rural highways. We here present results from three recent research projects at the University of Wisconsin—Madison, where bottom-up emission inventories for electricity, freight transport, and urban vehicle use were constructed to support policy-relevant air quality research. These three studies include: 1) Using the MyPower electricity dispatch model to calculate emissions and air quality impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards and other carbon-management strategies; 2) Using advanced vehicle and commodity flow data from the Federal Highway Administration to evaluate the potential to shift commodities from truck to rail (assuming expanded infrastructure), and assess a range of alternative fuel suggestions; and 3) Working with urban planners to connect urban density with vehicle use to evaluate the air quality impacts of smart-growth in major Midwest cities. Drawing on the results of these three studies, and on challenges overcome in their execution, we discuss the current state of policy-relevant emission dataset generation, as well as techniques and attributes that need to be further refined in order

  2. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  3. Possible climate change over Eurasia under different emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. P.; Monier, E.; Scott, J. R.; Forest, C. E.; Schlosser, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    In an attempt to evaluate possible climate change over EURASIA, we analyze results of six AMIP type simulations with CAM version 3 (CAM3) at 2x2.5 degree resolution. CAM3 is driven by time series of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice obtained by running the MIT IGSM2.3, which consists of a 3D ocean GCM coupled to a zonally-averaged atmospheric climate-chemistry model. In addition to changes in SSTs, CAM3 is forced by changes in greenhouse gases and ozone concentrations, sulfate aerosol forcing and black carbon loading calculated by the IGSM2.3. An essential feature of the IGSM is the possibility to vary its climate sensitivity (using a cloud adjustment technique) and the strength of the aerosol forcing. For consistency, new modules were developed in CAM3 to modify its climate sensitivity and aerosol forcing to match those used in the simulations with the IGSM2.3. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "Business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-EQ stabilization, which are similar to the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, respectively. Values of climate sensitivity used in the simulations within the IGSM-CAM framework are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the 20th century climate simulated by different versions of the IGSM with observations. The associated strength of the aerosol forcing was chosen to ensure a good agreement with the observed climate change over the 20th century. Because the concentration of sulfate aerosol significantly decreases over the 21st century in both emissions scenarios, climate changes obtained in these simulations provide a good approximation for the median, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the probability distribution of 21st century climate change.

  4. Possible climate change over Eurasia under different emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, A. P.; Monier, E.; Gao, X.

    2012-12-01

    In an attempt to evaluate possible climate change over EURASIA, we analyze results of six AMIP type simulations with CAM version 3 (CAM3) at 2x2.5 degree resolution. CAM3 is driven by time series of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and sea ice obtained by running the MIT IGSM2.3, which consists of a 3D ocean GCM coupled to a zonally-averaged atmospheric climate-chemistry model. In addition to changes in SSTs, CAM3 is forced by changes in greenhouse gases and ozone concentrations, sulfate aerosol forcing and black carbon loading calculated by the IGSM2.3. An essential feature of the IGSM is the possibility to vary its climate sensitivity (using a cloud adjustment technique) and the strength of the aerosol forcing. For consistency, new modules were developed in CAM3 to modify its climate sensitivity and aerosol forcing to match those used in the simulations with the IGSM2.3. The simulations presented in this paper were carried out for two emission scenarios, a "Business as usual" scenario and a 660 ppm of CO2-EQ stabilization, which are similar to the RCP8.5 and RCP4.5 scenarios, respectively. Values of climate sensitivity used in the simulations within the IGSM-CAM framework are median and the bounds of the 90% probability interval of the probability distribution obtained by comparing the 20th century climate simulated by different versions of the IGSM with observations. The associated strength of the aerosol forcing was chosen to ensure a good agreement with the observed climate change over the 20th century. Because the concentration of sulfate aerosol significantly decreases over the 21st century in both emissions scenarios, climate changes obtained in these simulations provide a good approximation for the median, and the 5th and 95th percentiles of the probability distribution of 21st century climate change.

  5. Developing Shipping Emissions Assessments, Inventories and Scenarios (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    Inventories of shipping have been important contributions to scientific understanding of regional pollution and transboundary transport. These inventories have also been used to evaluate global scale environmental and climate effects and trends. However, these inventories also inform policy making decisions and this role is increasingly occurring within the timescale of scientific assessment. Shipping exhibits a growth trend for uncontrolled pollutants that is highly coupled to economic activity, and historically increasing faster than many other anthropogenic sources on a global and regional scale. Shipping emissions are being regulated asymmetrically in various dimensions. Some pollutants are being controlled more than others, some regions are subject to stricter controls, and correlated changes in operations are affecting unregulated pollutant emissions. Shipping inventories require more than current assessments, including historic and future scenarios. Generally conceived as sets of business-as-usual (BAU) and high-growth scenarios, ship inventories now also need regulatory control pathways and maximum feasible reduction (MFR) scenarios. In this context, shipping inventories also present other challenges to both scientists and policymakers. Systemic bias can occur in non-shipping assessments when emissions along well-traveled shipping lanes are ignored by far offshore scientific studies, even some campaigns that control very carefully the potential influence of the shipping platforms for their measurements. Examples where shipping may contribute understood and potential biases include: a. Health impacts from transboundary pollution b. Ozone trends over the Pacific c. Sulfur emissions from biogenic sources in Northern hemisphere d. Acidification of coastal waters (potential) e. Arctic impacts on snow and ice Other challenges exist. The fuels and technology used by ships are unique from other transportation, from other stationary sources - and these are changing

  6. Comparison of impacts of aircraft emissions within the boundary layer on the regional ozone in South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Kang, Yoon-Hee

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the air pollutants emitted from aircraft within the boundary layer (BL) were investigated for their impacts on the ozone (O3) concentration at and around three international airports (Incheon, RKSI; Gimpo, RKSS; and Jeju, RKPC) using the WRF-CMAQ modeling system during the summer of 2010. The analysis was performed using two sets of simulation scenarios: (1) with (i.e., TOTAL case) and (2) without aircraft emissions (i.e., BASE case). The model study suggested that aircraft emissions within the BL over the three airports can have a significant impact on the O3 (and NOx) concentrations in the source regions (the airports) and their surrounding/downwind areas. A significant negative impact of aircraft emissions on the O3 concentrations in the late afternoon (19:00 LST) was predicted near the three airports with their largest impact of -20 ppb near the RKSI at 19:00 LST. This was attributed mainly to the high NOx conditions in the VOC-limited areas and possibly in part to the rapid titration of O3 by NO around these airports. The rate of photochemical O3 destruction due to the aircraft emissions near the three airports was the most dominant contributor to the O3 levels compared to the other physical processes.

  7. Military, Charter, Unreported Domestic Traffic and General Aviation 1976, 1984, 1992, and 2015 Emission Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortlock, Alan; VanAlstyne, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The report describes development of databases estimating aircraft engine exhaust emissions for the years 1976 and 1984 from global operations of Military, Charter, historic Soviet and Chinese, Unreported Domestic traffic, and General Aviation (GA). These databases were developed under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Advanced Subsonic Assessment (AST). McDonnell Douglas Corporation's (MDC), now part of the Boeing Company has previously estimated engine exhaust emissions' databases for the baseline year of 1992 and a 2015 forecast year scenario. Since their original creation, (Ward, 1994 and Metwally, 1995) revised technology algorithms have been developed. Additionally, GA databases have been created and all past NIDC emission inventories have been updated to reflect the new technology algorithms. Revised data (Baughcum, 1996 and Baughcum, 1997) for the scheduled inventories have been used in this report to provide a comparison of the total aviation emission forecasts from various components. Global results of two historic years (1976 and 1984), a baseline year (1992) and a forecast year (2015) are presented. Since engine emissions are directly related to fuel usage, an overview of individual aviation annual global fuel use for each inventory component is also given in this report.

  8. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  9. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  10. Optical remote sensing of aircraft emissions with the K300

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, H.; Klein, V.; Eisenmann, T.; Engler, F.; Resch, M.; Mosebach, H.; Erhard, M.; Rippel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    The K300 Double Pendulum Interferometer is a compact high resolution Fourier Transform spectrometer designed for outdoor optical remote sensing in the infrared spectral region. Apart from the known atmospheric pollution monitoring by long-path measurements and smoke stack remote sensing at power plants, the remote diagnostic of hot aircraft engine emissions is a very interesting application of the infrared spectroscopy. First results of such measurements performed with the Kayser-Threde Double Pendulum Interferometer K300 at the DLR airport, Oberpfaffenhofen on January 15, 1992 are presented and discussed.

  11. Trajectory modeling of emissions from lower stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparling, Lynn C.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Newman, Paul A.; Lait, Leslie R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of isentropic trajectory calculations has been performed for emissions by stratospheric aircraft moving across the northern midlatitude oceanic flight corridors. Emission of exhaust is simulated by the daily initialization of air parcels along a flight path on the 500 K isentropic surface. Parcels are tracked during the first three weeks of each January from 1980 to 1994 in order to determine the interannual variability in the spatial distribution of the exhaust and the likelihood of exposure to cold temperatures. Few parcels emitted along these flight paths at this time of year were found to have experienced nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) formation temperatures, except for the particularly cold Januarys 1986, 1987, and 1992. We also find that large zonal fluctuations in the distribution of the emissions are typical for this time of year and are strongly dependent on flight path. An extended 6-month (January-June) run in which parcels were released daily along the New York-London route shows that emissions in the flight corridor increase at a time-averaged rate which is nearly twice the rate at which the zonal average increases. In addition, local fluctuations of pollutant density can be several times higher than the zonal average and can persist for several weeks. A study of seasonal variability also shows a rapid buildup of emissions during the summer months. These elevated emission levels must be considered in the interpretation of environmental impact assessments based on two-dimensional transport models.

  12. Future impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH based on two scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodnebrog, Ø.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Koffi, B.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Stordal, F.; Szopa, S.; Tang, Q.; van Velthoven, P.; Williams, J. E.

    2012-08-01

    The future impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH has been investigated separately for the three sectors AIRcraft, maritime SHIPping and ROAD traffic. To reduce uncertainties we present results from an ensemble of six different atmospheric chemistry models, each simulating the atmospheric chemical composition in a possible high emission scenario (A1B), and with emissions from each transport sector reduced by 5% to estimate sensitivities. Our results are compared with optimistic future emission scenarios (B1 and B1 ACARE), presented in a companion paper, and with the recent past (year 2000). Present-day activity indicates that anthropogenic emissions so far evolve closer to A1B than the B1 scenario. As a response to expected changes in emissions, AIR and SHIP will have increased impacts on atmospheric O3 and OH in the future while the impact of ROAD traffic will decrease substantially as a result of technological improvements. In 2050, maximum aircraft-induced O3 occurs near 80° N in the UTLS region and could reach 9 ppbv in the zonal mean during summer. Emissions from ship traffic have their largest O3 impact in the maritime boundary layer with a maximum of 6 ppbv over the North Atlantic Ocean during summer in 2050. The O3 impact of road traffic emissions in the lower troposphere peaks at 3 ppbv over the Arabian Peninsula, much lower than the impact in 2000. Radiative Forcing (RF) calculations show that the net effect of AIR, SHIP and ROAD combined will change from a~marginal cooling of -0.38 ± 13 mW m-2 in 2000 to a relatively strong cooling of -32 ± 8.9 (B1) or -31 ± 20 mW m-2 (A1B) in 2050, when taking into account RF due to changes in O3, CH4 and CH4-induced O3. This is caused both by the enhanced negative net RF from SHIP, which will change from -20 ± 5.4 mW m-2 in 2000 to -31 ± 4.8 (B1) or -40 ± 11 mW m-2 (A1B) in 2050, and from reduced O3 warming from ROAD, which is likely to turn from a positive net RF of 13 ± 7.9 mW m-2 in 2000 to

  13. Future impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH based on two scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodnebrog, Ø.; Berntsen, T. K.; Dessens, O.; Gauss, M.; Grewe, V.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Koffi, B.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D.; Prather, M. J.; Stordal, F.; Szopa, S.; Tang, Q.; van Velthoven, P.; Williams, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The future impact of traffic emissions on atmospheric ozone and OH has been investigated separately for the three sectors AIRcraft, maritime SHIPping and ROAD traffic. To reduce uncertainties we present results from an ensemble of six different atmospheric chemistry models, each simulating the atmospheric chemical composition in a possible high emission scenario (A1B), and with emissions from each transport sector reduced by 5% to estimate sensitivities. Our results are compared with optimistic future emission scenarios (B1 and B1 ACARE), presented in a companion paper, and with the recent past (year 2000). Present-day activity indicates that anthropogenic emissions so far evolve closer to A1B than the B1 scenario. As a response to expected changes in emissions, AIR and SHIP will have increased impacts on atmospheric O3 and OH in the future while the impact of ROAD traffic will decrease substantially as a result of technological improvements. In 2050, maximum aircraft-induced O3 occurs near 80° N in the UTLS region and could reach 9 ppbv in the zonal mean during summer. Emissions from ship traffic have their largest O3 impact in the maritime boundary layer with a maximum of 6 ppbv over the North Atlantic Ocean during summer in 2050. The O3 impact of road traffic emissions in the lower troposphere peaks at 3 ppbv over the Arabian Peninsula, much lower than the impact in 2000. Radiative forcing (RF) calculations show that the net effect of AIR, SHIP and ROAD combined will change from a marginal cooling of -0.44 ± 13 mW m-2 in 2000 to a relatively strong cooling of -32 ± 9.3 (B1) or -32 ± 18 mW m-2 (A1B) in 2050, when taking into account RF due to changes in O3, CH4 and CH4-induced O3. This is caused both by the enhanced negative net RF from SHIP, which will change from -19 ± 5.3 mW m-2 in 2000 to -31 ± 4.8 (B1) or -40 ± 9 mW m-2 (A1B) in 2050, and from reduced O3 warming from ROAD, which is likely to turn from a positive net RF of 12 ± 8.5 mW m-2 in 2000 to a

  14. Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Harris, B.; Hashmonay, R.; Holdren, M.; Kaganan, R.; Spicer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

  15. Airborne Observations of Aerosol Emissions from F-16 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Cofer, W. R.; McDougal, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    We presented results from the SASS Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment which was conducted during May and June 1997 in collaboration with the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard Units. The project objectives were to quantify the fraction of fuel sulfur converted to S(VI) species by jet engines and to gain a better understanding of particle formation and growth processes within aircraft wakes. Size and volatility segregated aerosol measurements along with sulfur species measurements were recorded in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft equipped with F-100 engines burning fuels with a range of fuel S concentrations at different altitudes and engine power settings. A total of 10 missions were flown in which F-16 exhaust plumes were sampled by an instrumented T-39 Sabreliner aircraft. On six of the flights, measurements were obtained behind the same two aircraft, one burning standard JP-8 fuel and the other either approximately 28 ppm or 1100 ppm S fuel or an equal mixture of the two (approximately 560 ppm S). A pair of flights was conducted for each fuel mixture, one at 30,000 ft altitude and the other starting at 35,000 ft and climbing to higher altitudes if contrail conditions were not encountered at the initial flight level. In each flight, the F-16s were operated at two power settings, approx. 80% and full military power. Exhaust emissions were sampled behind both aircraft at each flight level, power setting, and fuel S concentration at an initial aircraft separation of 30 m, gradually widening to about 3 km. Analyses of the aerosol data in the cases where fuel S was varied suggest results were consistent with observations from project SUCCESS, i.e., a significant fraction of the fuel S was oxidized to form S(VI) species and volatile particle emission indices (EIs) in comparably aged plumes exhibited a nonlinear dependence upon the fuel S concentration. For the high sulfur fuel, volatile particle EIs in 10-second-old-plumes were 2 to 3 x 10 (exp 17

  16. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  17. Aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced aircraft turbine engine combustor technology was used to reduce low-power emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to levels significantly lower than those which were achieved with current technology. Three combustor design concepts, which were designated as the hot-wall liner concept, the recuperative-cooled liner concept, and the catalyst converter concept, were evaluated in a series of CF6-50 engine size 40 degree-sector combustor rig tests. Twenty-one configurations were tested at operating conditions spanning the design condition which was an inlet temperature and pressure of 422 K and 304 kPa, a reference velocity of 23 m/s and a fuel-air-ration of 10.5 g/kg. At the design condition typical of aircraft turbine engine ground idle operation, the best configurations of all three concepts met the stringent emission goals which were 10, 1, and 4 g/kg for CO, HC, and Nox, respectively.

  18. Impact of aircraft NOx emissions on the atmosphere - tradeoffs to reduce the impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauss, M.; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Lee, D. S.; Søvde, O. A.

    2006-05-01

    Within the EU-project TRADEOFF, the impact of NOx (=NO+NO2) emissions from subsonic aviation upon the chemical composition of the atmosphere has been calculated with focus on changes in reactive nitrogen and ozone. We apply a 3-D chemical transport model that includes comprehensive chemistry for both the troposphere and the stratosphere and uses various aircraft emission scenarios developed during TRADEOFF for the year 2000. The environmental effects of enhanced air traffic along polar routes and of possible changes in cruising altitude are investigated, taking into account effects of flight route changes on fuel consumption and emissions.

    In a reference case including both civil and military aircraft the model predicts aircraft-induced maximum increases of zonal-mean NOy (=total reactive nitrogen) between 156 pptv (August) and 322 pptv (May) in the tropopause region of the Northern Hemisphere. Resulting maximum increases in zonal-mean ozone vary between 3.1 ppbv in September and 7.7 ppbv in June.

    Enhanced use of polar routes implies substantially larger zonal-mean ozone increases in high Northern latitudes during summer, while the effect is negligible in winter.

    Lowering the flight altitude leads to smaller ozone increases in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere, and to larger ozone increases at altitudes below. Regarding total ozone change, the degree of cancellation between these two effects depends on latitude and season, but annually and globally averaged the contribution from higher altitudes dominates, mainly due to washout of NOy in the troposphere, which weakens the tropospheric increase.

    Raising flight altitudes increases the ozone burden both in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere, primarily due to a more efficient accumulation of pollutants in the stratosphere.

  19. Analytical Studies of Prompt NO(x) Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Langhoff, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from aircraft gas turbines is a vital part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Emissions reduction studies are critical to the feasibility of future civil aircraft operating at supersonic speeds in the stratosphere. It is believed that large fleets of supersonic aircraft using conventional gas turbine engines would emit levels of NO(x) that are harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer.

  20. RFID Transponders' RF Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen Sandra V.; Fersch, Mariatheresa S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiated emission data in aircraft communication and navigation bands are presented for several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design, operation and transmitting frequencies. The process for measuring the tags emissions in a reverberation chamber is discussed. Measurement issues dealing with tag interrogation, low level measurement in the presence of strong transmissions, and tags low duty factors are discussed. The results show strong emissions, far exceeding aircraft emission limits and can be of potential interference risks.

  1. A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.

  2. Gas Emissions Acquired during the Aircraft Particle Emission Experiment (APEX) Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changlie, Wey; Chowen, Chou Wey

    2007-01-01

    NASA, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, engine/airframe manufacturers, airlines, and airport authorities, recently sponsored a series of 3 ground-based field investigations to examine the particle and gas emissions from a variety of in-use commercial aircraft. Emissions parameters were measured at multiple engine power settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 3 different down stream locations of the exhaust. Sampling rakes at nominally 1 meter down stream contained multiple probes to facilitate a study of the spatial variation of emissions across the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the engine certification data as well as predictions provided by the engine company. However at low power settings, trace species emissions were observed to be highly dependent on ambient conditions and engine temperature.

  3. An Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions Inventory Methodology by Comparisons with Reported Airline Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D. L.; Sutkus, D. J.; DuBois, D. P.; Baughcum, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides results of work done to evaluate the calculation methodology used in generating aircraft emissions inventories. Results from the inventory calculation methodology are compared to actual fuel consumption data. Results are also presented that show the sensitivity of calculated emissions to aircraft payload factors. Comparisons of departures made, ground track miles flown and total fuel consumed by selected air carriers were made between U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) Form 41 data reported for 1992 and results of simplified aircraft emissions inventory calculations. These comparisons provide an indication of the magnitude of error that may be present in aircraft emissions inventories. To determine some of the factors responsible for the errors quantified in the DOT Form 41 analysis, a comparative study of in-flight fuel flow data for a specific operator's 747-400 fleet was conducted. Fuel consumption differences between the studied aircraft and the inventory calculation results may be attributable to several factors. Among these are longer flight times, greater actual aircraft weight and performance deterioration effects for the in-service aircraft. Results of a parametric study on the variation in fuel use and NOx emissions as a function of aircraft payload for different aircraft types are also presented.

  4. Scheduled civil aircraft emission inventories for 1992: Database development and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Tritz, Terrance G.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Pickett, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from scheduled commercial aircraft for each month of 1992. The seasonal variation in aircraft emissions was calculated for selected regions (global, North America, Europe, North Atlantic, and North Pacific). A series of parametric calculations were done to quantify the possible errors introduced from making approximations necessary to calculate the global emission inventory. The effects of wind, temperature, load factor, payload, and fuel tankering on fuel burn were evaluated to identify how they might affect the accuracy of aircraft emission inventories. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as N02), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  5. Emissions from residential combustion considering end-uses and spatial constraints: Part II, emission reduction scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winijkul, Ekbordin; Bond, Tami C.

    2016-01-01

    Cooking, heating, and other activities in the residential sector are major sources of indoor and outdoor air pollution, especially when solid fuels are used to provide energy. Because of their deleterious effects on the atmosphere and human health, multinational strategies to reduce emissions have been proposed. This study examines the effects of some possible policies, considering realistic factors that constrain mitigation: end-uses, spatial constraints involving proximity to forest or electricity, existing technology, and assumptions about user behavior. Reduction scenarios are applied to a year-2010, spatially distributed baseline of emissions of particulate matter, black carbon, organic carbon, nitrogen oxides, methane, non-methane hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Scenarios explored are: (1) cleanest current stove, where we assume that existing technology in each land type is applied to burn existing fuels; (2) stove standards, where we assume that stoves are designed to meet performance standards; and (3) clean fuels, where users adopt the cleanest fuels plausible in each land type. We assume that people living in forest access areas continue to use wood regardless of available fuels, so the clean-fuels scenario leads to a reduction in emissions of 18-25%, depending on the pollutant, across the study region. Cleaner stoves preferentially affect land types with forest access, where about half of the fuel is used; emission reductions range from 25 to 82%, depending on the pollutant. If stove performance standards can be met, particulate matter emissions are reduced by 62% for the loosest standards and 95% for the tightest standards, and carbon monoxide is reduced by 40% and 62% for the loosest and tightest standards. Reductions in specific regions and countries depend on the existing fuel mixture and the population division among land types, and are explored for Latin America, Africa, East Asia, South Asia, and Southeast Asia.

  6. Aircraft Emissions Deposited in the Stratosphere and Within the Arctic Polar Vortex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes an analysis of the quantity of emissions (water vapor, NO(x)) projected to be deposited directly within the Arctic polar vortex by projected fleets of Mach 2.4 high speed civil transports (HSCT`s). It also evaluates the amount of emissions from subsonic aircraft which are emitted into the lower stratosphere using aircraft emission inventories developed earlier for May 1990 as representative of the annual average.

  7. Project report: Aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Baughcum, S.; Metwally, M.; Seals, R.

    1994-04-01

    Analyses of scenarios of past and possible future emissions are an important aspect of assessing the potential environmental effects from aircraft, including the proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). The development of a detailed three-dimensional database that accurately represents the integration of all aircraft emissions along realistic flight paths for such scenarios requires complex computational modeling capabilities. Such a detailed data set is required for the scenarios evaluated in this interim assessment. Within the NASA High-Speed Research Program, the Emissions Scenarios Committee provides a forum for identifying the required scenarios and evaluating the resulting database being developed with the advanced emissions modeling capabilities at the Boeing Company and McDonnell Douglas Corporation.

  8. Pilot Interactions in an Over-Constrained Conflict Scenario as Studied in a Piloted Simulation of Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.; Barhydt, Richard; Barmore, Bryan; Krishnamurthy, Karthik

    2003-01-01

    Feasibility and safety of autonomous aircraft operations were studied in a multi-piloted simulation of overconstrained traffic conflicts to determine the need for, and utility of, priority flight rules to maintain safety in this extraordinary and potentially hazardous situation. An overconstrained traffic conflict is one in which the separation assurance objective is incompatible with other objectives. In addition, a proposed scheme for implementing priority flight rules by staggering the alerting time between the two aircraft in conflict was tested for effectiveness. The feasibility study was conducted through a simulation in the Air Traffic Operations Laboratory at the NASA Langley Research Center. This research activity is a continuation of the Distributed Air-Ground Traffic Management feasibility analysis reported in the 4th USA/Europe Air Traffic Management R&D Seminar in December 2001 (paper #48). The over-constrained conflict scenario studied here consisted of two piloted aircraft that were assigned an identical en-route waypoint arrival time and altitude crossing restriction. The simulation results indicated that the pilots safely resolved the conflict without the need for a priority flight rule system. Occurrences of unnecessary maneuvering near the common waypoint were traced to false conflict alerts, generated as the result of including waypoint constraint information in the broadcast data link message issued from each aircraft. This result suggests that, in the conservative interests of safety, broadcast intent information should be based on the commanded trajectory and not on the Flight Management System flight plan, to which the aircraft may not actually adhere. The use of priority flight rules had no effect on the percentage of the aircraft population meeting completely predictable which aircraft in a given pair would meet the constraints and which aircraft would make the first maneuver to yield right-of-way. Therefore, the proposed scheme for

  9. Spatial patterns of European droughts under a moderate emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinoni, J.; Naumann, G.; Vogt, J.

    2015-07-01

    Meteorological drought is generally defined as a prolonged deficiency of precipitation and is considered one of the most relevant natural hazards as the related impacts can involve many different sectors. In this study, we investigated the spatial patterns of European droughts for the periods 1981-2010, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100, focusing on the projections under a moderate emissions scenario. To do that, we used the outputs of the KNMI-RACMO2 model, which belongs to the A1B family and whose spatial resolution is 0.25° × 0.25°. By means of monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET), we computed the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) at the 12-month accumulation scale. Thereafter, we separately obtained drought frequency, duration, severity, and intensity for the whole of Europe, excluding Iceland. According to both indicators, the spatial drought patterns are projected to follow what recently characterized Europe: southern Europe, who experienced many severe drought events in the last decades, is likely to be involved by longer, more frequent, severe, and intense droughts in the near future (2041-2070) and even more in the far future (2071-2100). This tendency is more evident using the SPEI, which also depends on temperature and consequently reflects the expected warming that will be highest for the Mediterranean area in Europe. On the other side, less severe and fewer drought events are likely to occur in northern Europe. This tendency is more evident using the SPI, because the precipitation increase is projected to outbalance the temperature (and PET) rise in particular in Scandinavia. Regarding the mid-latitudes, the SPEI-based analyses point at more frequent drought events, while the SPI-based ones point at less frequent events in these regions.

  10. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...). \\17\\ U.S. EPA, ``Emission Standards and Test Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July... Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356, May 8, 1997. While ICAO's standards were not... pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare was so limited, See 62...

  11. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  12. Global emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2005 and their 2020 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Munthe, John; Wilson, Simon; Leaner, Joy

    2010-05-01

    About the three quarters of the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in the year 2005 estimated to be 1930 tonnes comes from sources where mercury is emitted as a by-product, and the rest is emitted during various applications of mercury. The largest emissions of Hg to the global atmosphere occur from combustion of fossil fuels, mainly coal in utility, industrial, and residential boilers (almost 47 %), followed by artisanal mining (almost 17 %), non-ferrous metal production, including gold production (13.5%) and cement production (about 9.5 %). Doing nothing for the improvement of the Hg emission reductions (so-called Status Quo - SQ scenario) will cause an increase of the emissions in 2020 by almost 100 % compared to the 2020 Extended Emission Control (EXEC) emission reduction scenario. Even larger increase is estimated when the 2020 SQ scenario of Hg emissions is compared with the 2020 Maximum Feasible Technical Reduction (MFTR) emission reduction scenario. The EXEC scenario assumes economic progress at a rate dependent on the future development of industrial technologies and emission control technologies, i.e. mercury-reducing technology currently generally employed throughout Europe and North America would be implemented elsewhere. It further assumes that emissions control measures currently implemented or committed to in Europe to reduce mercury emission to air or water would be implemented around the world. The MFTR scenario assumes implementation of all solutions/ measures leading to the maximum degree of reduction of mercury emissions and its loads discharged to any environment; cost is taken into account but only as a secondary consideration. Emissions of Hg in various industrial sectors, such as cement production and metal manufacturing in the year 2020 can be 2 to 3 times larger if nothing will be done to improve emission control in comparison with the EXEC scenario.

  13. Evaluation of a Pair-Wise Conflict Detection and Resolution Algorithm in a Multiple Aircraft Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The KB3D algorithm is a pairwise conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) algorithm. It detects and generates trajectory vectoring for an aircraft which has been predicted to be in an airspace minima violation within a given look-ahead time. It has been proven, using mechanized theorem proving techniques, that for a pair of aircraft, KB3D produces at least one vectoring solution and that all solutions produced are correct. Although solutions produced by the algorithm are mathematically correct, they might not be physically executable by an aircraft or might not solve multiple aircraft conflicts. This paper describes a simple solution selection method which assesses all solutions generated by KB3D and determines the solution to be executed. The solution selection method and KB3D are evaluated using a simulation in which N aircraft fly in a free-flight environment and each aircraft in the simulation uses KB3D to maintain separation. Specifically, the solution selection method filters KB3D solutions which are procedurally undesirable or physically not executable and uses a predetermined criteria for selection.

  14. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  15. Do aircraft black carbon emissions affect cirrus clouds on the global scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, J.; Kärcher, B.; Lohmann, U.; Ponater, M.

    2005-06-01

    Potential cirrus modifications caused by aircraft-produced black carbon (BC) particles via heterogeneous ice nucleation were studied with a general circulation model. Since the role of BC in cirrus cloud formation is currently not well known, hypothetical scenarios based on various assumptions on the ice nucleation efficiency of background and aircraft-induced BC particles were considered. Using these scenarios, the sensitivity of ice cloud microphysics to aviation-induced BC perturbations is studied. The model results suggest that cloud modifications induced by aircraft BC particles could change the ice crystal number concentration at northern midlatitudes significantly (10-40% changes of annual mean zonal averages at main flight altitudes), provided that such BC particles serve as efficient ice nuclei. The sign of the effect depends on the specific assumptions on aerosol-induced ice nucleation. These results demonstrate that, based on the current knowledge, significant cirrus modifications by BC from aircraft cannot be excluded.

  16. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  17. Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Programs initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate low emission advanced technology combustors for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine pollution are reviewed. Program goals are consistent with urban emission level requirements as specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and with upper atmosphere cruise emission levels as recommended by the U. S. Climatic Impact Assessment Program and National Research Council. Preliminary tests of advanced technology combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft gas turbine engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Preliminary test results from fundamental studies indicate that extremely low emission combustion systems may be possible for future generation jet aircraft. The emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

  18. Protecting civil aircraft from the MANPAD threat: is this a practical scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, William

    2005-11-01

    This paper has been written as a key note address and backdrop to the 2005 SPIE Technologies for Optical Countermeasures II Conference. The paper uses as a topic the problem of protecting civil aircraft from the Man Portable Air Defence missile Systems (MANPADS). The paper examines the economic background of the airline industry and the effects such a successful attack could have. It then addresses the various motives, means, and opportunities that the terrorists have to use MANPADS to progress attacks against civil aircraft. In reviewing the various mitigation options available to defeat or deny MANPAD engagements, the paper identifies key technology areas available for exploitation. It then focuses on the optical countermeasure technologies used in providing aircraft platform self protection. Finally, the paper summarises and concludes that whilst a lot has and can be done to militate against the MANPAD threat there is not yet an exportable, affordable and robust countermeasures technology for large scale commercial systems and operations.

  19. NO(y) from sub-sonic aircraft emissions - A global three-dimensional model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasibhatla, Prasad S.

    1993-08-01

    The 11-level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model (GCTM), which explicitly treats NO(x), HNO3, and PAN as transported species, has been used to assess the impact of sub-sonic aircraft emissions on the distribution of reactive nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) in the atmosphere. A 3D aircraft source inventory compiled by Boeing and McDonnell Douglas has been used, in conjunction with previously compiled surface-based fossil-fuel combustion and stratospheric source inventories. Consistent with previous 2D model calculations, we find that aircraft emissions have a significant impact on upper tropospheric NO(x) and HNO3 budgets in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative impact of the aircraft source on upper tropospheric NO(x) levels at mid- and high northern latitudes varies longitudinally, and that in certain regions the aircraft source dominates the total NO(x) budget. Aircraft emissions appear to only minimally impact the NO(y) budget in the Northern Hemisphere lower troposphere, and in much of the Southern Hemisphere. Comparisons of model results with NO(y) measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and over western Alaska suggest that sources other than surface-based fossil-fuel combustion, stratospheric NO(x) production, and aircraft emissions, are significant in determining the free tropospheric NO(y) budget in these regions.

  20. Summary of the general aviation manufacturers' position on aircraft piston engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The General Aviation Manufacturers recommended that the EPA rescind the aircraft piston engine emissions regulations currently on the books. The reason was the very small emission reduction potential and the very poor benefit-cost ratio involved in this form of emission reduction. The limited resources of this industry can far better be devoted to items of much greater benefit to the citizens of this country - reducing noise, improving fuel efficiency (which will incidently reduce exhaust emissions), and improving the safety, operational, and economic aspects of aircraft, all far greater contributions to our total national transportation system.

  1. The impact of emission standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The advent of environmental standards for controlling aircraft gas turbine engine emissions has led to a reevaluation of combustor design techniques. Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  2. Scenario analysis to vehicular emission reduction in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiurui; Fu, Liwei; Ji, Muse; Lang, Jianlei; Chen, Dongsheng; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming one of the important factors affecting the urban air quality in China. It is necessary and useful to policy makers to demonstrate the situation given the relevant pollutants reduction measures are taken. This paper predicted the reduction potentials of conventional pollutants (PM10, NOx, CO, HC) under different control strategies and policies in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region during 2011-2020. There are the baseline and 5 control scenarios designed, which presented the different current and future possible vehicular emissions control measures. Future population of different kinds of vehicles were predicted based on the Gompertz model, and vehicle kilometers travelled estimated as well. After that, the emissions reduction under the different scenarios during 2011-2020 could be estimated using emission factors and activity level data. The results showed that, the vehicle population in the BTH region would continue to grow up, especially in Tianjin and Hebei. Comparing the different scenarios, emission standards updating scenario would achieve a substantial reduction and keep rising up for all the pollutants, and the scenario of eliminating high-emission vehicles can reduce emissions more effectively in short-term than in long-term, especially in Beijing. Due to the constraints of existing economical and technical level, the reduction effect of promoting new energy vehicles would not be significant, especially given the consideration of their lifetime impact. The reduction effect of population regulation scenario in Beijing cannot be ignorable and would keep going up for PM10, CO and HC, excluding NOx. Under the integrated scenario considering all the control measures it would achieve the maximum reduction potential of emissions, which means to reduce emissions of PM10, NOx, CO, HC, by 56%, 59%, 48%, 52%, respectively, compared to BAU scenario for the whole BTH region in 2020. PMID:27325548

  3. Scheduled Civil Aircraft Emission Inventories for 1999: Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the scheduled commercial aircraft fleet for each month of 1999. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 1999 are compared to global totals from 1992 and 2015 databases. 1999 fuel burn, departure and distance totals for selected airlines are compared to data reported on DOT Form 41 to evaluate the accuracy of the calculations. DOT Form T-100 data were used to determine typical payloads for freighter aircraft and this information was used to model freighter aircraft more accurately by using more realistic payloads. Differences in the calculation methodology used to create the 1999 fuel burn and emissions database from the methodology used in previous work are described and evaluated.

  4. Impact on Climate due to Changes in Radiative Forcing from Stratospheric Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, M.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Herman, R.; Baughcum, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Aircraft emissions can affect climate both directly and indirectly. The 1999 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Aviation and The Global Atmosphere estimated that emissions from a fleet of one thousand High Speed Civil Transport aircraft (flying at Mach 2.4) could produce a non-negligible impact on the radiative forcing driving changes in climate. In this study we reexamine the radiative forcing from fleets of aircraft flying at stratospheric altitudes and predominantly in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude regions. We use our narrowband radiative transfer model in these studies, along with model calculations of calculated changes in ozone and water vapor from our zonally-averaged model of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. The radiative transfer model has higher resolution in the tropopause and lower stratosphere region than the models used in the 1999 IPCC assessment. Our results suggest that the radiative forcing for the water vapor emissions from aircraft was overestimated previously.

  5. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  6. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  7. Global contrail coverage simulated by CAM5 with the inventory of 2006 global aircraft emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew; Craig, Cheryl; Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper documents the incorporation of an inventory of the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions for the year of 2006 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1. The original dataset reports aircraft emission mass of ten species on an hourly basis which is converted to monthly emission mixing ratio tendencies as the released version of the dataset. We also describe how the released aircraft emission dataset is incorporated into CESM. A contrail parameterization is implemented in the CESM in which it is assumed that persistent contrails initially form when aircraft water vapor emissions experience a favorable atmospheric environment. Both aircraft emissions and ambient humidity are attributed to the formation of contrails. The ice water content of contrails is assumed to follow an empirical function of atmospheric temperature which determines the cloud fraction associated with contrails. Our modeling study indicates that the simulated global contrail coverage is sensitive to the vertical resolution of the GCMs in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere because of model assumptions about the vertical overlap structure of clouds. Furthermore, the extent of global contrail coverage simulated by CESM exhibits a seasonal cycle which is in broad agreement with observations.

  8. [Air pollutant emissions of aircraft in China in recent 30 years].

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Although aircrafts are of great importance in transportation in China, there has been rare study on air pollutant emissions of aircrafts until now. Based on the annually statistical data collected by the Statistic Center of Civil Aviation of China, using the emission factor method derived from fuel consumption, the air pollutant emissions of aircrafts during 1980-2009 were calculated, and their emission intensities and dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the emissions of SO2, CO, NO(x) and HC from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation increased from 0.31 thousand, 1.89 thousand, 2.25 thousand and 3.14 thousand tons in 1980 to 11.83 thousand, 72.98 thousand, 87.05 thousand and 121.59 thousand tons in 2009, indicating a increase of 0.397 thousand, 2.45 thousand, 2.92 thousand and 4.08 thousand tons per year, respectively. The emission intensities of SO2, CO, NO(x) and HC decreased significantly from 0.624, 3.806, 4.53 and 6.322 g x (t x km)(-1) in 1980 to 0.275, 1.697, 2.025 and 2.828 g x (t x km)(-1) in 2009, respectively. SO2, CO, NO(x) emissions of aircrafts of China Civil Aviation accounted very little of each total emissions in China, and the air pollutant emissions from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation was less than those from other industries in China. PMID:22452180

  9. Emissions Scenarios, Costs, and Implementation Considerations of REDD Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant; Andrasko, Ken; Chan, Peter

    2011-04-11

    Greenhouse gas emissions from the forestry sector are estimated to be 8.4 GtCO2-eq./year or about 17percent of the global emissions. We estimate that the cost forreducing deforestation is low in Africa and several times higher in Latin America and Southeast Asia. These cost estimates are sensitive to the uncertainties of how muchunsustainable high-revenue logging occurs, little understood transaction and program implementation costs, and barriers to implementation including governance issues. Due to lack of capacity in the affected countries, achieving reduction or avoidance of carbon emissions will require extensive REDD-plus programs. Preliminary REDD-plus Readiness cost estimates and program descriptions for Indonesia, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Guyana and Mexico show that roughly one-third of potential REDD-plus mitigation benefits might come from avoided deforestation and the rest from avoided forest degradation and other REDD-plus activities.

  10. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  11. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  12. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  13. Status of NASA aircraft engine emission reduction and upper atmosphere measurement programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced emission reduction techniques for five existing aircraft gas turbine engines are evaluated. Progress made toward meeting the 1979 EPA standards in rig tests of combustors for the five engines is reported. Results of fundamental combustion studies suggest the possibility of a new generation of jet engine combustor technology that would reduce oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions far below levels currently demonstrated in the engine-related programs. The Global Air Sampling Program (GAS) is now in full operation and is providing data on constituent measurements of ozone and other minor upper-atmosphere species related to aircraft emissions.

  14. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  15. Jet aircraft engine emissions database development: 1992 military, charter, and nonscheduled traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1995-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions database for the military, charter, and non-scheduled traffic for the year 1992 were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report also includes a comparison with a previous emission database for year 1990. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  16. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  17. Emissions from international shipping: 2. Impact of future technologies on scenarios until 2050

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; KöHler, H. W.; Lauer, A.; Lemper, B.

    2005-09-01

    In this study the today's fleet-average emission factors of the most important ship exhausts are used to calculate emission scenarios for the future. To develop plausible future technology scenarios, first upcoming regulations and compliance with future regulations through technological improvements are discussed. We present geographically resolved emission inventory scenarios until 2050, based on a mid-term prognosis for 2020 and a long-term prognosis for 2050. The scenarios are based on some very strict assumptions on future ship traffic demands and technological improvements. The four future ship traffic demand scenarios are mainly determined by the economic growth, which follows the IPCC SRES storylines. The resulting fuel consumption is projected through extrapolations of historical trends in economic growth, total seaborne trade and number of ships, as well as the average installed power per ship. For the future technology scenarios we assume a diesel-only fleet in 2020 resulting in fuel consumption between 382 and 409 million metric tons (Mt). For 2050 one technology scenario assumes that 25% of the fuel consumed by a diesel-only fleet can be saved by applying future alternative propulsion plants, resulting in a fuel consumption that varies between 402 and 543 Mt. The other scenario is a business-as-usual scenario for a diesel-only fleet even in 2050 and gives an estimate between 536 and 725 Mt. Dependent on how rapid technology improvements for diesel engines are introduced, possible technology reduction factors are applied to the today's fleet-average emission factors of all important species to estimate future ship emissions. Combining the four traffic demand scenarios with the four technology scenarios, our results suggest emissions between 8.8 and 25.0 Tg (NO2) in 2020, and between 3.1 to 38.8 Tg (NO2) in 2050. The development of forecast scenarios for CO2, NOx, SOx, CO, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter is driven by the requirements for global model

  18. Probing Emissions of Military Cargo Aircraft: Description of a Joint Field Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Spicer, C.; Holdren, M.; Cowen, K.; Harris, B.; Shores, R.; Hashmonay, R.; Kaganan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Direct emissions of NOx, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter (PM) by aircraft contribute to the pollutant levels found in the atmosphere. Aircraft emissions can be injected at the ground level or directly at the high altitude in flight. Conversion of the precursor gases into secondary PM is one of the pathways for the increased atmospheric PM. Atmospheric PM interacts with solar radiation altering atmospheric radiation balance and potentially contributing to global and regional climate changes. Also, direct emissions of air toxics, ozone precursors and PM from aircraft in and around civilian airports and military air bases can worsen local air quality in non-attainment and/or maintenance areas. These emissions need to be quantified. However, the current EPA methods for particle emission measurements from such sources, modified Method 5 and Conditional Test Method 039, are gravimetric-based, and it is anticipated that these methods will not be suitable for current and future generations of aircraft turbine engines, whose particle mass emissions are low. To evaluate measurement approaches for military aircraft emissions, two complementary projects were initiated in 2005. A joint field campaign between these two programs was executed during the first week of October 2005 at the Kentucky Air National Guard (KYANG) base in Louisville, KY. This campaign represented the first in a series of field studies for each program funded by the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and provided the basis for cross-comparison of the sampling approaches and measurement techniques employed by the respective program teams. This paper describes the overall programmatic of the multi-year SERDP aircraft emissions research and presents a summary of the results from the joint field campaign.

  19. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  20. Future Arctic temperature change resulting from a range of aerosol emissions scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    The Arctic temperature response to emissions of aerosols -- specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate -- depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic temperature response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic temperature response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the range of present-day and future Arctic temperature changes from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic temperature changes calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions from the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. A properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions -- while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO2 mitigation -- could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.

  1. Mobile Laboratory Characterization of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Nelson, D. D.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide emissions from mobile sources can strongly influence photochemical oxidant and secondary particulate nitrate formation in the troposphere. Quantification of the impact of mobile NOx sources requires accurate characterization of mobile source emissions under real world operating conditions. We have developed a mobile laboratory equipped with fast response trace gas sensors that has been deployed to quantifyon-road NOx fleet average emissions, NOx emissions from individual on-road vehicles, and aircraft NOx emissions at airports during taxi, take-off, and tarmac operations. Measurement strategies and instrumentation will be described and results of NOx emissions from a range of on-road vehicles, urban traffic mixes, and commercial aircraft will be presented.

  2. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  3. Nitric oxide emissions from the high-temperature viscous boundary layers of hypersonic aircraft within the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, S.B.; Lewis, M.J.; Dickerson, R.R.

    1993-09-20

    The authors study the nitric oxide emission characteristics of supersonic aircraft resulting from heating of viscous boundary layers along the skin of the aircraft. Previous study has concentrated on nitric oxide emissions coming from combustion products from the scramjet engines. This work shows that above mach 8, emissions from viscous heating become a significant factor in total emission of nitric oxide. Above mach 16 it becomes the dominant source of emission.

  4. The impact of emissions standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  5. Aircraft-Based Measurements of Point Source Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale Basin.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Lan, Xin; Lyon, David

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of methane (CH4) emission rates observed at eight different high-emitting point sources in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using aircraft-based methods performed as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign. We quantified CH4 emission rates from four gas processing plants, one compressor station, and three landfills during five flights conducted in October 2013. Results are compared to other aircraft- and surface-based measurements of the same facilities, and to estimates based on a national study of gathering and processing facilities emissions and 2013 annual average emissions reported to the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). For the eight sources, CH4 emission measurements from the aircraft-based mass balance approach were a factor of 3.2-5.8 greater than the GHGRP-based estimates. Summed emissions totaled 7022 ± 2000 kg hr(-1), roughly 9% of the entire basin-wide CH4 emissions estimated from regional mass balance flights during the campaign. Emission measurements from five natural gas management facilities were 1.2-4.6 times larger than emissions based on the national study. Results from this study were used to represent "super-emitters" in a newly formulated Barnett Shale Inventory, demonstrating the importance of targeted sampling of "super-emitters" that may be missed by random sampling of a subset of the total. PMID:26148549

  6. Technology and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: An IntegratedScenario Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Koomey, J.G.; Latiner, S.; Markel, R.J.; Marnay, C.; Richey, R.C.

    1998-09-01

    This report describes an analysis of possible technology-based scenarios for the U.S. energy system that would result in both carbon savings and net economic benefits. We use a modified version of the Energy Information Administration's National Energy Modeling System (LBNL-NEMS) to assess the potential energy, carbon, and bill savings from a portfolio of carbon saving options. This analysis is based on technology resource potentials estimated in previous bottom-up studies, but it uses the integrated LBNL-NEMS framework to assess interactions and synergies among these options. The analysis in this paper builds on previous estimates of possible "technology paths" to investigate four major components of an aggressive greenhouse gas reduction strategy: (1) the large scale implementation of demand-side efficiency, comparable in scale to that presented in two recent policy studies on this topic; (2) a variety of "alternative" electricity supply-side options, including biomass cofiring, extension of the renewable production tax credit for wind, increased industrial cogeneration, and hydropower refurbishment. (3) the economic retirement of older and less efficient existing fossil-find power plants; and (4) a permit charge of $23 per metric ton of carbon (1996 $/t),l assuming that carbon trading is implemented in the US, and that the carbon permit charge equilibrates at this level. This level of carbon permit charge, as discussed later in the report, is in the likely range for the Clinton Administration's position on this topic.

  7. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on NO(x) in the Lowermost Stratosphere at Northern Midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ikeda, H.; Anderson, B. E.; Brunke, K. E.; Zhao, Y.; Kita, K.; Sugita, T.; Singh, H. B.; Liu, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Airborne measurements of NO(x) total reactive nitrogen (NO(y)), O3 and condensation nuclei (CN) were made within air traffic corridors over the U.S. and North Atlantic regions (35-60 deg N) in the fall of 1997. NO(x) and NO(y) data obtained in the lowermost stratosphere (LS) were examined using the calculated increase in NO(y) ((delta)NO(y)) along five-day back trajectories as a parameter to identify possible effects of aircraft on reactive nitrogen. It is very likely that aircraft emissions had a significant impact on the NO(x) levels in the LS inasmuch as the NO(s), mixing ratios at 8.5-12 km were significantly correlated with the independent parameters of aircraft emissions, i.e., (delta)NO(y) levels and CN values. In order to estimate quantitatively the impact of aircraft emissions on NO(x), and CN, the background levels of CN and NO(x) at O3 = 100-200 ppbv were derived from the correlations of these quantities with (delta)NO(y)). On average, the aircraft emissions are estimated to have increased the NO(x) and CN values by 130 pptv and 400 STP,cc, respectively, which corresponds to 70 -/+ 30 % and 30 -/+ 20 % of the observed median values.

  8. The ANCAT/EC global inventory of NO x emissions from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. M.; Adams, K.; Cook, T.; Deidewig, F.; Ernedal, S.; Falk, R.; Fleuti, E.; Herms, E.; Johnson, C. E.; Lecht, M.; Lee, D. S.; Leech, M.; Lister, D.; Massé, B.; Metcalfe, M.; Newton, P.; Schmitt, A.; Vandenbergh, C.; van Drimmelen, R.

    A three dimensional global emissions inventory for NO, from civil and military aviation has been formulated by a joint European Civil Aviation Conference/European Commission working group in support of the AERONOX project " The Impact of NO x Emissions from Aircraft Upon the Atmosphere at Flight Altitudes 8-15 km". The inventory was compiled on a resolution of 2.8 by 2.8° by 1 km in altitude for a 12 month period spanning mid-1991 to mid-1992. Traffic movement data were compiled from Air Traffic Control recorded movements and timetables for January, April, July and October and combined with an airframe emissions performance model. The global emission of aircraft NO x was estimated to be 2.78 Tg NO 2 yr -1 and the overall emission index for NO x in g NO x kg -1 fuel burnt was 16.8. The estimated NO x emissions are higher than the most comparable inventory (NASA, 1990) by a factor of almost 2. The vertical distribution shows that 60% of the global NO x is emitted at cruise altitudes of 10-12 km. There is a pronounced latitudinal bias with 93 % of the global emissions being in the Northern Hemisphere and 70% between 30 and 60°N The spatial distributions of NO x emissions show some seasonality. Emissions of CO 2 H 2O and SO 2 have also been estimated at 528, 216 and 0.165 Tg yr -1, respectively. Although not quantified, the uncertainties in the emissions estimate of NO x from aircraft are discussed and a small overestimation in the traffic movement data base was identified. However, the uncertainties are probably smaller than those for natural sources of NO x which are injected into the top of the troposphere. More work is required to refine emission inventories from aircraft.

  9. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Several combustor concepts were designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the hot wall combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners; the recuperative cooling combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber; and the catalytic converter combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultralow levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved.

  10. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved with this technology.

  11. Spatiotemporal Characteristics, Determinants and Scenario Analysis of CO2 Emissions in China Using Provincial Panel Data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaojian

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigated the spatiotemporal variations, influencing factors and future emission trends of China’s CO2 emissions based on a provincial panel data set. A series of panel econometric models were used taking the period 1995–2011 into consideration. The results indicated that CO2 emissions in China increased over time, and were characterized by noticeable regional discrepancies; in addition, CO2 emissions also exhibited properties of spatial dependence and convergence. Factors such as population scale, economic level and urbanization level exerted a positive influence on CO2 emissions. Conversely, energy intensity was identified as having a negative influence on CO2 emissions. In addition, the significance of the relationship between CO2 emissions and the four variables varied across the provinces based on their scale of economic development. Scenario simulations further showed that the scenario of middle economic growth, middle population increase, low urbanization growth, and high technology improvement (here referred to as Scenario BTU), constitutes the best development model for China to realize the future sustainable development. Based on these empirical findings, we also provide a number of policy recommendations with respect to the future mitigation of CO2 emissions. PMID:26397373

  12. Aircraft accident investigation: the decision-making in initial action scenario.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Marcia M; Ribeiro, Selma L O

    2012-01-01

    In the complex aeronautical environment, the efforts in terms of operational safety involve the adoption of proactive and reactive measures. The process of investigation begins right after the occurrence of the aeronautical accident, through the initial action. Thus, it is in the crisis scenario, that the person responsible for the initial action makes decisions and gathers the necessary information for the subsequent phases of the investigation process. Within this scenario, which is a natural environment, researches have shown the fragility of rational models of decision making. The theoretical perspective of naturalistic decision making constitutes a breakthrough in the understanding of decision problems demanded by real world. The proposal of this study was to verify if the initial action, after the occurrence of an accident, and the decision-making strategies, used by the investigators responsible for this activity, are characteristic of the naturalistic decision making theoretical approach. To attend the proposed objective a descriptive research was undertaken with a sample of professionals that work in this activity. The data collected through individual interviews were analyzed and the results demonstrated that the initial action environment, which includes restricted time, dynamic conditions, the presence of multiple actors, stress and insufficient information is characteristic of the naturalistic decision making. They also demonstrated that, when the investigators make their decisions, they use their experience and the mental simulation, intuition, improvisation, metaphors and analogues cases, as strategies, all of them related to the naturalistic approach of decision making, in order to satisfy the needs of the situation and reach the objectives of the initial action in the accident scenario. PMID:22317482

  13. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-07-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 μg m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

  14. Aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit emissions from combusting JP-8 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, L.T.; Sylvia, D.A.; Gerstle, T.C.; Virag, P.

    1997-12-31

    Due to safety considerations and in an effort to standardize Department of Defense fuels, the US Air Force (USAF) replaced the naptha-based JP-4, MIL-T-5624, with the kerosene-based JP-8, MIL-T-83133, as the standard turbine fuel. Although engine emissions from combustion of JP-4 are well documented for criteria pollutants, little information exists for criteria and hazardous air pollutants from combustion of JP-8 fuel. Due to intrinsic differences between these two raw fuels, their combustion products were expected to differ. As part of a broader engine testing program, the Air Force, through the Human Systems Center at Brooks AFB, TX, has contracted to have the emissions characterized from aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs). Criteria pollutant and targeted HAP emissions of selected USAF aircraft engines were quantified during the test program. Emission test results will be used to develop emission factors for the tested aircraft engines and APUs. The Air Force intends to develop a mathematical relationship, using the data collected during this series of tests and from previous tests, to extrapolate existing JP-4 emission factors to representative JP-8 emission factors for other engines. This paper reports sampling methodologies for the following aircraft engine emissions tests: F110-GE-100, F101-GE-102, TF33-P-102, F108-CF-100, T56-A-15, and T39-GE-1A/C. The UH-60A helicopter engine, T700-GE-700, and the C-5A/B and C-130H auxiliary power units (GTCP165-1 and GTCP85-180, respectively) were also tested. Testing was performed at various engine settings to determine emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, total hydrocarbon, and selected hazardous air pollutants. Ambient monitoring was conducted concurrently to establish background pollutant concentrations for data correction.

  15. Fuel dispersal in high-speed aircraft/soil impact scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Tieszen, S.R.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine how the jet fuel contained in aircraft wing tanks disperses on impact with a soft terrain, i.e., soils, at high impact velocities. The approach used in this study is to combine experimental and numerical methods. Tests were conducted with an approximately 1/42 linear-scale mass-model of a 1/4 span section of a C-141 wing impacting a sand/clay mixture. The test results showed that within the uncertainty of the data, the percentage of incident liquid mass remaining in the crater is the same as that qualitatively described in earlier napalm bomb development studies. Namely, the percentage of fuel in the crater ranges from near zero for grazing impacts to 25%--50% for high angles of impact. To support a weapons system safety assessment (WSSA), the data from the current study have been reduced to correlations. The numerical model used in the current study is a unique coupling of a Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method with the transient dynamics finite element code PRONTO. Qualitatively, the splash, erosion, and soil compression phenomena are all numerically predicted. Quantitatively, the numerical method predicted a smaller crater cross section than was observed in the tests.

  16. Mapping of the CO2 and anthropogenic heat emission under spatially explicit urban land use scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Seya, H.

    2010-12-01

    The serious further efforts on CO2 and other green house gases emission reduction by global climate change mitigation remain as an urgent global issue to be solved. From the viewpoint of urban land use measures, the realization of low-carbon city is the key to change people’s behavior to reduce CO2 emission. In this respect, a lot of studies aimed at realizing low-carbon city are progressing on a number of fronts, including city planning and transportation planning. With respect to the low-carbon city, compact city is expected to reduce CO2 emission from transportation sector. Hence many studies have been conducted with scenario analysis considering modal share change, for instance, increase of public transportation use and reduction of trip length by car. On the other hand, it is important that CO2 emission from not only transportation sector but also residential sector can be reduced by a move from a detached house to a condominium, the change of family composition types and so on. In regard to residential sector, it has been founded that CO2 emission units differ among family composition types, for example, the single-person household emit more CO2 in general. From the viewpoint of an urban climate prediction, the possible range of future land use change should be recognized as the input parameters for the climate models. In addition to CO2 emission, the anthropogenic heat emission is also important as an input data of climate models in order to evaluate the social and economic impacts of urban land use change. The objective of this study is to demonstrate a compact city scenario and a dispersion scenario in Tokyo metropolitan area, which is the largest metropolitan area in the world, and to examine future climate change mitigation policies including land use for realization of low-carbon city. We have created two scenarios of population distribution by using an urban economic model. In these scenarios we have assumed extreme cases in order to show the

  17. Characterization of particulate matter and gaseous emissions of a C-130H aircraft.

    PubMed

    Corporan, Edwin; Quick, Adam; DeWitt, Matthew J

    2008-04-01

    The gaseous and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) emissions of two T56-A-15 turboprop engines of a C-130H aircraft stationed at the 123rd Airlift Wing in the Kentucky Air National Guard were characterized. The emissions campaign supports the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project WP-1401 to determine emissions factors from military aircraft. The purpose of the project is to develop a comprehensive emissions measurement program using both conventional and advanced techniques to determine emissions factors of pollutants, and to investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of the exhaust plumes from fixed and rotating wing military aircraft. Standard practices for the measurement of gaseous emissions from aircraft have been well established; however, there is no certified methodology for the measurement of aircraft PM emissions. In this study, several conventional instruments were used to physically characterize and quantify the PM emissions from the two turboprop engines. Emissions samples were extracted from the engine exit plane and transported to the analytical instrumentation via heated lines. Multiple sampling probes were used to assess the spatial variation and obtain a representative average of the engine emissions. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and mass emissions were measured using commercially available aerosol instruments. Engine smoke numbers were determined using established Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) practices, and gaseous species were quantified via a Fourier-transform infrared-based gas analyzer. The engines were tested at five power settings, from idle to take-off power, to cover a wide range of operating conditions. Average corrected particle numbers (PNs) of (6.4-14.3) x 10(7) particles per cm3 and PN emission indices (EI) from 3.5 x 10(15) to 10.0 x 10(15) particles per kg-fuel were observed. The highest PN EI were observed for the idle power conditions. The mean particle diameter

  18. Gas and Particulate Aircraft Emissions Measurements: Impacts on local air quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T.; Northway, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Timko, M.; Wood, E.; Miake-Lye, R.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Anderson, B.

    2007-12-01

    Air travel and freight shipping by air are becoming increasingly important and are expected to continue to expand. The resulting increases in the local concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX), can have negative impacts on regional air quality, human health and can impact climate change. In order to construct valid emission inventories, accurate measurements of aircraft emissions are needed. These measurements must be done both at the engine exit plane (certification) and downwind following the rapid cooling, dilution and initial atmospheric processing of the exhaust plume. We present here results from multiple field experiments which include the Experiment to Characterize Volatile Aerosol and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) and the four Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiments (APEX- 1/Atlanta/2/3) which characterized gas and particle emissions from both stationary or in-use aircraft. Emission indices (EIs) for NOx and VOCs and for particle number concentration, refractory PM (black carbon soot) and volatile PM (primarily sulfate and organic) particles are reported. Measurements were made at the engine exit plane and at several downstream locations (10 and 30 meters) for a number of different engine types and engine thrust settings. A significant fraction of organic particle mass is composed of low volatility oil-related compounds and is not combustion related, potentially emitted by vents or heated surfaces within aircraft engines. Advected plumes measurements from in-use aircraft show that the practice of reduced thrust take-offs has a significant effect on total NOx and soot emitted in the vicinity of the airport. The measurements reported here represent a first observation of this effect and new insights have been gained with respect to the chemical processing of gases and particulates important to the urban airshed.

  19. Aircraft emissions, plume chemistry, and alternative fuels: results from the APEX, AAFEX, and MDW-2009 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S.; Anderson, B.; Knighton, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We describe observations of aircraft emissions from the APEX, JETS-APEX2, APEX3, MDW-2009 and AAFEX campaigns. Direct emissions of HOx precursors are important for understanding exhaust plume chemistry due to their role in determining HOx concentrations. Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde are crucial HOx precursors and thus drivers of plume chemistry. At idle power, aircraft engine exhaust is unique among fossil fuel combustion sources due to the speciation of both NOx and VOCs. The impacts of emissions of HOx precursors on plume chemistry at low power are demonstrated with empirical observations of rapid NO to NO2 conversion, indicative of rapid HOx chemistry. The impacts of alternative fuels (derived from biomass, coal, and natural gas) on emissions of NOx, CO, and speciated VOCs are discussed.

  20. Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sharleen

    With 4.9% of total anthropogenic radiative forcing attributed to aircraft emissions, jet engines combust copious amounts of fuel producing gases including: NOx (NO + NO2), SOx, VOC's and fine particles [IPCC (1999), IPCC (2007), Lee et al., 2009]. The tropospheric non-linear relationships between NOx, OH and O3 contribute uncertainties in the ozone budget amplified by poor understanding of the NOx cycle. In a polluted urban environment, interaction of gases and particles produce various new compounds that are difficult to measure with analytical tools available today [Thiemens, 2006]. Using oxygen triple isotopic measurement of NO3 to investigate gas to particle formation and chemical transformation in the ambient atmosphere, this study presents data obtained from aerosols sampled at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, CA during January and February, 2009 and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) during Fall 2009, Winter 2010, and Spring 2010. The aerosols collected from jet aircraft exhaust in Palmdale exhibit an oxygen isotope anomaly (Delta17O =delta 17O -0.52 delta18O) increase with photochemical age of particles (-0.22 to 26.41‰) while NO3 concentration decreases from 53.76 - 5.35ppm with a radial distance from the jet dependency. Bulk aerosol samples from LAX exhibit seasonal variation with Delta17 O and NO3 concentration peaking in winter suggesting multiple sources and increased fossil fuel burning. Using oxygen triple isotopes of NO3, we are able to distinguish primary and secondary nitrate by aircraft emissions allowing new insight into a portion of the global nitrogen cycle. This represents a new and potentially important means to uniquely identify aircraft emissions on the basis of the unique isotopic composition of jet aircraft emissions.

  1. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect on stratospheric ozone (O3) from operations of supersonic and subsonic aircraft. The study is based on six emission scenarios provided to AER. The study showed that: (1) the O3 response is dominated by the portion of the emitted nitrogen compounds that is entrained in the stratosphere; (2) the entrainment is a sensitive function of the altitude at which the material is injected; (3) the O3 removal efficiency of the emitted material depends on the concentrations of trace gases in the background atmosphere; and (4) evaluation of the impact of fleet operations in the future atmosphere must take into account the expected changes in trace gas concentrations from other activities. Areas for model improvements in future studies are also discussed.

  2. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  3. Aircraft sulfur emissions and the formation of visible contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.

    Contrail formation in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft engine burning fuels with 2 ppmm and 266 ppmm sulfur has been studied using an aerosol dynamics model coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code. For both the low and high sulfur fuels, the model predicted approximately 35% of the available water condenses within 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. However, particle size distributions for the low sulfur plume are broader and extend to larger sizes. Model results indicate that, for the engine and flight conditions treated, sulfuric acid is a viable soot activating agent when the fuel sulfur mass loading is reduced to 2 ppmm and that differences in the contrail particle size distribution for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 266 ppmm would be difficult to detect.

  4. CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport.

    PubMed

    Klapmeyer, Michael E; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-10-16

    The goal of this research was to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particle number, and black carbon (BC) from in-use aircraft and related activity at a regional airport. Pollutant concentrations were measured adjacent to the airfield and passenger terminal at the Roanoke Regional Airport in Virginia. Observed NO(x) emission indices (EIs) for jet-powered, commuter aircraft were generally lower than those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organization databank for both taxi (same as idle) and takeoff engine settings. NO(x) EIs ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 g (kg fuel)(-1) across five types of aircraft during taxiing, whereas EIs were consistently higher, 8.8-20.6 g (kg fuel)(-1), during takeoff. Particle number EIs ranged from 1.4 × 10(16) to 7.1 × 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) and were slightly higher in taxi mode than in takeoff mode for four of the five types of aircraft. Diurnal patterns in CO(2) and NO(x) concentrations were influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions, while patterns in particle number concentrations were attributable mainly to patterns in aircraft activity. CO(2) and NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance were higher at the terminal than at the airfield and were lower than found in urban areas. PMID:22963581

  5. Scenario analysis for nutrient emission reduction in the European inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Thieu, V.; Grizzetti, B.; Britz, W.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a large body of legislation, high nutrient loads are still emitted in European inland waters. In the present study we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios aiming at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from anthropogenic activities to all European Seas. In particular, we tested the full implementation of the European Urban Waste Water Directive, which controls emissions from point source. In addition, we associated the full implementation of this Directive with a ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents. Then we tested two human diet scenarios and their impacts on nutrient emissions. We also developed a scenario based on an optimal use of organic manure. The impacts of all our scenarios were evaluated using a statistical model of nitrogen and phosphorus fate (GREEN) linked to an agro-economic model (CAPRI). We show that the ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents coupled with the full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Directive is the most effective approach for reducing phosphorus emissions from human based activities. Concerning nitrogen, the highest reductions are obtained with the optimized use of organic manure.

  6. Emissions inventory and scenario analyses of air pollutants in Guangdong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hui; Meng, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Air pollution, causing significantly adverse health impacts and severe environmental problems, has raised great concerns in China in the past few decades. Guangdong Province faces major challenges to address the regional air pollution problem due to the lack of an emissions inventory. To fill this gap, an emissions inventory of primary fine particles (PM2.5) is compiled for the year 2012, and the key precursors (sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) are identified. Furthermore, policy packages are simulated during the period of 2012-2030 to investigate the potential mitigation effect. The results show that in 2012, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions in Guangdong Province were as high as (951.7, 1363.6, and 294.9) kt, respectively. Industrial production processes are the largest source of SO2 and PM2.5 emissions, and transport is the top contributor of NO x emissions. Both the baseline scenario and policy scenario are constructed based on projected energy growth and policy designs. Under the baseline scenario, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions will almost double in 2030 without proper emissions control policies. The suggested policies are categorized into end-of-pipe control in power plants (ECP), end-of-pipe control in industrial processes (ECI), fuel improvement (FI), energy efficiency improvement (EEI), substitution-pattern development (SPD), and energy saving options (ESO). With the implementation of all these policies, SO2, NO x , and PM2.5 emissions are projected to drop to (303.1, 585.4, and 102.4) kt, respectively, in 2030. This inventory and simulated results will provide deeper insights for policy makers to understand the present situation and the evolution of key emissions in Guangdong Province.

  7. Experimental Measurements of the Effects of Photo-chemical Oxidation on Aerosol Emissions in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracolo, M. A.; Presto, A. A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Nguyen, N.; Ranjan, M.; Reeder, A.; Lipsky, E.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many military and commercial airfields are located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter (PM2.5), but the contribution of emissions from in-use aircraft to local and regional PM2.5 concentrations is uncertain. In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Air National Guard 171st Air Refueling Wing, the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Mobile Laboratory was deployed to measure fresh and aged emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. The CFM-56 family of engine powers many different types of military and civilian aircraft, including the Boeing 737 and several Airbus models. It is one of the most widely deployed models of engines in the world. The goal of this work was to measure the gas-particle partitioning of the fresh emissions at atmospherically relevant conditions and to investigate the effect of atmospheric oxidation on aerosol loadings as the emissions age. Emissions were sampled from an inlet installed one meter downstream of the engine exit plane and transferred into a portable smog chamber via a heated inlet line. Separate experiments were conducted at different engine loads ranging from ground idle to take-off rated thrust. During each experiment, some diluted exhaust was added to the chamber and the volatility of the fresh emissions was then characterized using a thermodenuder. After this characterization, the chamber was exposed to either ambient sunlight or UV lights to initiate photochemical oxidation, which produced secondary aerosol and ozone. A suite of gas and particle-phase instrumentation was used to characterize the evolution of the gas and particle-phase emissions, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure particle size and composition distributions. Fresh emissions of fine particles varied with engine load with peak emission factors at low and high loads. At high engine loads, the fresh emissions were dominated by black carbon; at low loads volatile organic carbon emissions were

  8. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  9. Soot in the stratosphere: The impact of current and HSCT aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.D.A. ); Pueschel, R.F.; Snetsinger, K.G. . Ames Research Center)

    1991-08-01

    One of the trace components of emissions from aircraft engines and other combustion sources are soot particles. These particles are strongly absorbing in the visible and IR spectra, may act as condensation nuclei, and may provide a large surface area for the catalytic promotion of gas-phase chemical reactions. Soot if found throughout the troposphere, even at remote locations, and also in the stratosphere. Present techniques do not allow an unambiguous identification of the sources. This paper discusses the emission of soot from existing and proposed aircraft and the contribution of this soot to concentrations observed in the troposphere and stratosphere. We consider the implications of these emissions for issues in stratospheric physics and chemistry. 11 refs.

  10. Scheduled Civil Aircraft Emission Inventories for 1976 and 1984: Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Tritz, Terrance G.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from scheduled commercial aircraft for four months (February, May, August, and November) of 1976 and 1984. Combining this data with earlier published data for 1990 and 1992, trend analyses for fuel burned, NOx, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons were calculated for selected regions (global, North America, Europe, North Atlantic, and North Pacific). These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  11. ESP v1.0: Methodology for Exploring Emission Impacts of Future Scenarios in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article presents a methodology for creating anthropogenic emission inventories that can be used to simulate future regional air quality. The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) methodology focuses on energy production and use, the principal sources of many air pollutants. Emi...

  12. Propagation of uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios through the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, A.A.; Goldstein, R.A. )

    1994-09-01

    The authors used the GLOCO model, which is a carbon cycling model that considers seven terrestrial biomes, two oceans and one atmosphere, to evaluate the rise in atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration, (pCO[sub 2]) and the partitioning of carbon to the global compartments (ocean, atmosphere and terrestrial) as a function of time for a number of possible anthropogenic carbon emission scenarios, based on different energy policies as developed by the Energy Modeling Forum (EMF-12). The authors then evaluated the possible uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty in carbon emission scenarios and the propagation of this uncertainty throughout the model to obtain an envelope for the rise in pCO[sub 2]. Large fluctuations in the input signal are smoothed by the carbon cycle, resulting in more than a four-fold reduction in uncertainty in the output signal (pCO[sub 2]). In addition, they looked at the effect that other model variables have on the pCO[sub 2] envelope, specifically the ratio of carbon to nitrogen in the emissions. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) will vary throughout the next century depending on the mix on energy sources chosen. More nitrogen in the emissions can produce a cofertilization effect in the terrestrial biomes, which would lead to sequestration of additional carbon. The uncertainty in C:N will enlarge the pCO[sub 2] uncertainty envelope by up to 20 ppm.

  13. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  14. Modeling the Effects of Aircraft Emissions on Atmospheric Photochemistry Using Layered Plume Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, M. A.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    Aviation is an expanding industry, experiencing continued growth and playing an increasingly noticed role in upper tropospheric/lower stratospheric composition. Nitrogen oxides and other gas-phase emissions from aircraft react to affect ozone photochemistry. This research investigates the effects of treating aircraft gas-phase chemistry within an expanding layered plume versus at the grid scale. SMVGEAR II, a sparse-matrix, vectorized Gear-type solver for ordinary differential equations, is used to solve chemical equations at both the grid scale and subgrid scale. A Subgrid Plume Model (SPM) is used to advance the expanding plume, accounting for wind shear and diffusion. Simulations suggest that using a layered plume approach results in noticeably different final NOx concentrations, demonstrating the importance of these plume dynamics in predicting the effects of aircraft on ozone concentrations. Results showing the effects of a layered plume, single plume, and no plume on ozone after several hours will be presented.

  15. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Dove, Sophie G.; Kline, David I.; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E.; Tyson, Gene W.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century. PMID:24003127

  16. Future reef decalcification under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Dove, Sophie G; Kline, David I; Pantos, Olga; Angly, Florent E; Tyson, Gene W; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-09-17

    Increasing atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) is a major threat to coral reefs, but some argue that the threat is mitigated by factors such as the variability in the response of coral calcification to acidification, differences in bleaching susceptibility, and the potential for rapid adaptation to anthropogenic warming. However the evidence for these mitigating factors tends to involve experimental studies on corals, as opposed to coral reefs, and rarely includes the influence of multiple variables (e.g., temperature and acidification) within regimes that include diurnal and seasonal variability. Here, we demonstrate that the inclusion of all these factors results in the decalcification of patch-reefs under business-as-usual scenarios and reduced, although positive, calcification under reduced-emission scenarios. Primary productivity was found to remain constant across all scenarios, despite significant bleaching and coral mortality under both future scenarios. Daylight calcification decreased and nocturnal decalcification increased sharply from the preindustrial and control conditions to the future scenarios of low (reduced emissions) and high (business-as-usual) increases in pCO2. These changes coincided with deeply negative carbonate budgets, a shift toward smaller carbonate sediments, and an increase in the abundance of sediment microbes under the business-as-usual emission scenario. Experimental coral reefs demonstrated highest net calcification rates and lowest rates of coral mortality under preindustrial conditions, suggesting that reef processes may not have been able to keep pace with the relatively minor environmental changes that have occurred during the last century. Taken together, our results have serious implications for the future of coral reefs under business-as-usual environmental changes projected for the coming decades and century. PMID:24003127

  17. Estimates of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols from aircraft SVOC and IVOC emissions using CMAQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woody, M. C.; West, J. J.; Jathar, S. H.; Robinson, A. L.; Arunachalam, S.

    2015-06-01

    Utilizing an aircraft-specific parameterization based on smog chamber data in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with the volatility basis set (VBS), we estimated contributions of non-traditional secondary organic aerosols (NTSOA) for aircraft emissions during landing and takeoff (LTO) activities at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. NTSOA, formed from the oxidation of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (S/IVOCs), is a heretofore unaccounted component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in most air quality models. We expanded a prerelease version of CMAQ with VBS implemented for the Carbon Bond 2005 (CB05) chemical mechanism to use the Statewide Air Pollution Research Center 2007 (SAPRC-07) chemical mechanism and added species representing aircraft S/IVOCs and corresponding NTSOA oxidation products. Results indicated that the maximum monthly average NTSOA contributions occurred at the airport and ranged from 2.4 ng m-3 (34 % from idle and 66 % from non-idle aircraft activities) in January to 9.1 ng m-3 (33 and 67 %) in July. This represents 1.7 % (of 140 ng m-3) in January and 7.4 % in July (of 122 ng m-3) of aircraft-attributable PM2.5 compared to 41.0-42.0 % from elemental carbon and 42.8-58.0 % from inorganic aerosols. As a percentage of PM2.5, impacts were higher downwind of the airport, where NTSOA averaged 4.6-17.9 % of aircraft-attributable PM2.5 and, considering alternative aging schemes, was as high as 24.0 % - thus indicating the increased contribution of aircraft-attributable SOA as a component of PM2.5. However, NTSOA contributions were generally low compared to smog chamber results, particularly at idle, due to the considerably lower ambient organic aerosol concentrations in CMAQ compared to those in the smog chamber experiments.

  18. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  19. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  20. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-09-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO(2) emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO(2) emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO(2) emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO(2) emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO(2) emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO(2) emissions control and mitigation. PMID:20549450

  1. Emission scenario of non-CO2 gases from energy activities and other sources in China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Kejun; Hu, Xiulian

    2005-12-01

    This paper gives a quantitative analysis on the non-CO2 emissions related to energy demand, energy activities and land use change of six scenarios with different development pattern in 2030 and 2050 based on IPAC emission model. The various mitigation technologies and policies are assessed to understand the corresponding non-CO2 emission reduction effect. The research shows that the future non-CO2 emissions of China will grow along with increasing energy demand, in which thermal power and transportation will be the major emission and mitigation sectors. During the cause of future social and economic development, the control and mitigation of non-CO2 emissions is a problem as challenging and pressing as that of CO2 emissions. This study indicates that the energy efficiency improvement, renewable energy, advanced nuclear power generation, fuel cell, coal-fired combined cycle, clean coal and motor vehicle emission control technologies will contribute to non-CO2 emissions control and mitigation. PMID:16512217

  2. Evaluation of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Powered Blended-Wing-Body Aircraft Concept for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Freh, Joshua E.; Olson, Erik D.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A blended-wing-body configuration with advanced technology hydrogen fuel cell electric propulsion is considered. Predicted noise and emission characteristics are compared to a current technology conventional configuration designed for the same mission. The significant technology issues which have to be addressed to make this concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program was initiated to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  3. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  4. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  5. Eastern Asian Emissions of Anthropogenic Halocarbons Deduced from Aircraft Concentration Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, Paul I.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickle, Loretta, J.; Blake, Donald R.; Sachse, Glen W.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Kiley, Christopher M.

    2003-01-01

    The Montreal Protocol restricts production of ozone-depleting halocarbons worldwide. Enforcement of the protocol has relied mainly on annual government statistics of production and consumption of these compounds (bottom-up approach). We show here that aircraft observations of ha1ocarbon:CO enhancement ratios on regional to continental scales can be used to infer halocarbon emissions, providing independent verification of the bottom-up approach. We apply this topdown approach to aircraft observations of Asian outflow &om the TRACE-P mission over the western Pacific (March-April 2001) and derive emissions from eastern Asia (China, Japan, and Korea). We derive an eastern Asian carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) source of 21.5 Gg yr(sup -1), several-fold larger than previous estimates and amounting to -30% of the global budget for this gas. Our emission estimate for CFC-11 from eastern Asia is 50% higher than inventories derived from manufacturing records. Our emission estimates for methyl chloroform (CH3CC13) and CFC-12 are in agreement with existing inventories. For halon 1211 we find only a strong local source originating from the Shanghai area. Our emission estimates for the above gases result in a approximately equal to 40% increase in the ozone depletion potential (ODP) of Asian emissions relative to previous estimates, corresponding to a approximately equal to 10% global increase in ODP.

  6. Near-Field Characterization of Methane Emission Variability from a Compressor Station Using a Model Aircraft.

    PubMed

    Nathan, Brian J; Golston, Levi M; O'Brien, Anthony S; Ross, Kevin; Harrison, William A; Tao, Lei; Lary, David J; Johnson, Derek R; Covington, April N; Clark, Nigel N; Zondlo, Mark A

    2015-07-01

    A model aircraft equipped with a custom laser-based, open-path methane sensor was deployed around a natural gas compressor station to quantify the methane leak rate and its variability at a compressor station in the Barnett Shale. The open-path, laser-based sensor provides fast (10 Hz) and precise (0.1 ppmv) measurements of methane in a compact package while the remote control aircraft provides nimble and safe operation around a local source. Emission rates were measured from 22 flights over a one-week period. Mean emission rates of 14 ± 8 g CH4 s(-1) (7.4 ± 4.2 g CH4 s(-1) median) from the station were observed or approximately 0.02% of the station throughput. Significant variability in emission rates (0.3-73 g CH4 s(-1) range) was observed on time scales of hours to days, and plumes showed high spatial variability in the horizontal and vertical dimensions. Given the high spatiotemporal variability of emissions, individual measurements taken over short durations and from ground-based platforms should be used with caution when examining compressor station emissions. More generally, our results demonstrate the unique advantages and challenges of platforms like small unmanned aerial vehicles for quantifying local emission sources to the atmosphere. PMID:26011292

  7. Hydrocarbon emissions from in-use commercial aircraft during airport operations.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Rogers, Todd; Dunlea, Edward J; Jayne, John T; Miake-Lye, Richard; Knighton, Berk

    2006-07-15

    The emissions of selected hydrocarbons from in-use commercial aircraft at a major airport in the United States were characterized using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) to probe the composition of diluted exhaust plumes downwind. The emission indices for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and toluene, as well as other hydrocarbon species, were determined through analysis of 45 intercepted plumes identified as being associated with specific aircraft. As would have been predicted for high bypass turbine engines, the hydrocarbon emission index was greater in idle and taxiway acceleration plumes relative to approach and takeoff plumes. The opposite was seen in total NOy emission index, which increased from idle to takeoff. Within the idle plumes sampled in this study, the median emission index for formaldehyde was 1.1 g of HCHO per kg of fuel. For the subset of hydrocarbons measured in this work, the idle emissions levels relative to formaldehyde agree well with those of previous studies. The projected total unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) deduced from the range of in-use idle plumes analyzed in this work is greater than a plausible range of engine types using the defined idle condition (7% of rated engine thrust) in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank reference. PMID:16903278

  8. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is issuing this Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to describe information currently available and information being collected that will be used by the Administrator to issue a subsequent proposal regarding whether, in the Administrator's judgment, aircraft lead emissions from aircraft using leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) cause or contribute to air pollution which may......

  9. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  10. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  11. Land use change emission scenarios: anticipating a forest transition process in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Ana Paula Dutra; Vieira, Ima Célia Guimarães; Assis, Talita Oliveira; Dalla-Nora, Eloi L; Toledo, Peter Mann; Santos-Junior, Roberto Araújo Oliveira; Batistella, Mateus; Coelho, Andrea Santos; Savaget, Elza Kawakami; Aragão, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Cruz; Nobre, Carlos Afonso; Ometto, Jean Pierre H

    2016-05-01

    Following an intense occupation process that was initiated in the 1960s, deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have decreased significantly since 2004, stabilizing around 6000 km(2) yr(-1) in the last 5 years. A convergence of conditions contributed to this, including the creation of protected areas, the use of effective monitoring systems, and credit restriction mechanisms. Nevertheless, other threats remain, including the rapidly expanding global markets for agricultural commodities, large-scale transportation and energy infrastructure projects, and weak institutions. We propose three updated qualitative and quantitative land-use scenarios for the Brazilian Amazon, including a normative 'Sustainability' scenario in which we envision major socio-economic, institutional, and environmental achievements in the region. We developed an innovative spatially explicit modelling approach capable of representing alternative pathways of the clear-cut deforestation, secondary vegetation dynamics, and the old-growth forest degradation. We use the computational models to estimate net deforestation-driven carbon emissions for the different scenarios. The region would become a sink of carbon after 2020 in a scenario of residual deforestation (~1000 km(2) yr(-1)) and a change in the current dynamics of the secondary vegetation - in a forest transition scenario. However, our results also show that the continuation of the current situation of relatively low deforestation rates and short life cycle of the secondary vegetation would maintain the region as a source of CO2 - even if a large portion of the deforested area is covered by secondary vegetation. In relation to the old-growth forest degradation process, we estimated average gross emission corresponding to 47% of the clear-cut deforestation from 2007 to 2013 (using the DEGRAD system data), although the aggregate effects of the postdisturbance regeneration can partially offset these emissions. Both processes (secondary

  12. OCEANOGRAPHY. Contrasting futures for ocean and society from different anthropogenic CO₂ emissions scenarios.

    PubMed

    Gattuso, J-P; Magnan, A; Billé, R; Cheung, W W L; Howes, E L; Joos, F; Allemand, D; Bopp, L; Cooley, S R; Eakin, C M; Hoegh-Guldberg, O; Kelly, R P; Pörtner, H-O; Rogers, A D; Baxter, J M; Laffoley, D; Osborn, D; Rankovic, A; Rochette, J; Sumaila, U R; Treyer, S; Turley, C

    2015-07-01

    The ocean moderates anthropogenic climate change at the cost of profound alterations of its physics, chemistry, ecology, and services. Here, we evaluate and compare the risks of impacts on marine and coastal ecosystems—and the goods and services they provide—for growing cumulative carbon emissions under two contrasting emissions scenarios. The current emissions trajectory would rapidly and significantly alter many ecosystems and the associated services on which humans heavily depend. A reduced emissions scenario—consistent with the Copenhagen Accord's goal of a global temperature increase of less than 2°C—is much more favorable to the ocean but still substantially alters important marine ecosystems and associated goods and services. The management options to address ocean impacts narrow as the ocean warms and acidifies. Consequently, any new climate regime that fails to minimize ocean impacts would be incomplete and inadequate. PMID:26138982

  13. Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, J.; Kärcher, B.; Döpelheuer, A.; Feichter, J.; Lohmann, U.; Baumgardner, D.

    2004-12-01

    The black carbon (BC) burden of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLS) is investigated with the general circulation model (GCM) ECHAM4. The special focus is the contribution of aircraft emissions to the UTLS BC loading. Previous studies on the role of aircraft emissions in the global BC cycle either neglect BC sources located at the Earth's surface or simplify the BC cycle by assuming pre-defined BC residence times. Here, the global BC cycle including emissions, transport, and removal is explicitly simulated. The BC emissions considered include surface sources as well as BC from aviation. This enables a consistent calculation of the relative contribution of aviation to the global atmospheric BC cycle. As a further extension to the previous studies, the aviation-induced perturbation of the UTLS BC particle number concentration is investigated. The uncertainties associated with the model predictions are evaluated by means of several sensitivity studies. Especially, the sensitivity of the results to different assumptions on the BC hygroscopic properties is analysed. The simulated UTLS BC concentrations are compared to in-situ observations. The simulations suggest that the large-scale contribution of aviation to the UTLS BC mass budget typically amounts to only a few percent, even in the most frequented flight regions. The aviation impact far away from these regions is negligible. The simulated aircraft contributions to the UTLS BC particle number concentration are much larger compared to the corresponding mass perturbations. The simulations suggest that aviation can cause large-scale increases in the UTLS BC particle number concentration of more than 30% in regions highly frequented by aircraft. The relative effect shows a pronounced annual variation with the largest relative aviation impact occurring during winter.

  14. Simulating the global atmospheric black carbon cycle: a revisit to the contribution of aircraft emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendricks, J.; Kärcher, B.; Döpelheuer, A.; Feichter, J.; Lohmann, U.; Baumgardner, D.

    2004-06-01

    The black carbon (BC) burden of the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere (UTLS) is investigated with the general circulation model (GCM) ECHAM4. The special focus is the contribution of aircraft emissions to the UTLS BC loading. Previous studies on the role of aircraft emissions in the global BC cycle either neglect BC sources located at the Earth's surface or simplify the BC cycle by assuming pre-defined BC residence times. Here, the global BC cycle including emissions, transport, and removal is explicitly simulated. The BC emissions considered include surface sources as well as BC from aviation. This enables a consistent calculation of the relative contribution of aviation to the global atmospheric BC cycle. As a further extension to the previous studies, the aviation-induced perturbation of the UTLS BC particle number concentration is investigated. Several sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the uncertainties associated with the model predictions. The simulated UTLS BC concentrations are compared to in-situ observations. The simulations suggest that the large-scale contribution of aviation to the UTLS BC mass budget typically amounts to only a few percent, even in the most frequented flight regions. The aviation impact far away from these regions is negligible. The simulated aircraft contributions to the UTLS BC particle number concentration are much larger compared to the corresponding mass perturbations. The simulations suggest that aviation can cause large-scale increases in the UTLS BC particle number concentration of more than 30% in regions highly frequented by aircraft. The relative effect shows a pronounced annual variation with the largest relative aviation impact occurring during winter.

  15. Integrated Modeling & Development of Emission Scenarios for Methane and Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Atul K.

    2005-09-30

    This report outlines main accomplishments on the development of Emission inventories and Scenarios for Key Indirect Greenhouse Gases (CO, VOCs, NOx) and methane supported by Office of Science (BER), US Department of Energy. This research produced 3 journal articles, 1 book chapter, and 4 research articles/abstracts in conference proceedings. In addition, this grant supported two PhD students and one undergraduate student at UIUC.

  16. Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Andersen, Stephen O.; McFarland, Mack

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are manufactured for use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. While HFCs do not deplete ozone, many are potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Here, new global scenarios show that baseline emissions of HFCs could reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050. The new baseline (or business-as-usual) scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. The scenarios rely on detailed data reported by countries to the United Nations; projections of gross domestic product and population; and recent observations of HFC atmospheric abundances. In the baseline scenarios, by 2050 China (31%), India and the rest of Asia (23%), the Middle East and northern Africa (11%), and the USA (10%) are the principal source regions for global HFC emissions; and refrigeration (40-58%) and stationary air conditioning (21-40%) are the major use sectors. The corresponding radiative forcing could reach 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in 2050, which would be 12-24% of the increase from business-as-usual CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2050. National regulations to limit HFC use have already been adopted in the European Union, Japan and USA, and proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries.

  17. Future atmospheric abundances and climate forcings from scenarios of global and regional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Andersen, Stephen O.; McFarland, Mack

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are manufactured for use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. While HFCs do not deplete ozone, many are potent greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Here, new global scenarios show that baseline emissions of HFCs could reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050. The new baseline (or business-as-usual) scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. The scenarios rely on detailed data reported by countries to the United Nations; projections of gross domestic product and population; and recent observations of HFC atmospheric abundances. In the baseline scenarios, by 2050 China (31%), India and the rest of Asia (23%), the Middle East and northern Africa (11%), and the USA (10%) are the principal source regions for global HFC emissions; and refrigeration (40-58%) and stationary air conditioning (21-40%) are the major use sectors. The corresponding radiative forcing could reach 0.22-0.25 W m-2 in 2050, which would be 12-24% of the increase from business-as-usual CO2 emissions from 2015 to 2050. National regulations to limit HFC use have already been adopted in the European Union, Japan and USA, and proposals have been submitted to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries.

  18. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  19. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods. PMID:19583153

  20. Composition and morphology of particle emissions from in-use aircraft during takeoff and landing.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Bostrom, Thor E; Johnson, Graham R; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    In order to provide realistic data for air pollution inventories and source apportionment at airports, the morphology and composition of ultrafine particles (UFP) in aircraft engine exhaust were measured and characterized. For this purpose, two independent measurement techniques were employed to collect emissions during normal takeoff and landing operations at Brisbane Airport, Australia. PM1 emissions in the airfield were collected on filters and analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Morphological and compositional analyses of individual ultrafine particles in aircraft plumes were performed on silicon nitride membrane grids using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). TEM results showed that the deposited particles were in the range of 5-100 nm in diameter, had semisolid spherical shapes and were dominant in the nucleation mode (18-20 nm). The EDX analysis showed the main elements in the nucleation particles were C, O, S, and Cl. The PIXE analysis of the airfield samples was generally in agreement with the EDX in detecting S, Cl, K, Fe, and Si in the particles. The results of this study provide important scientific information on the toxicity of aircraft exhaust and their impact on local air quality. PMID:23618073

  1. Interpreting global energy and emission scenarios: Methods for understanding and communicating policy insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, Leslie

    Energy scenarios for the 21st century powerfully inform perceptions and expectations in the minds of energy investors, consumers, and policy-makers. Scenarios that stabilize global warming call for large-scale energy technology transitions, fueling debates about the relative roles for a range of technologies including nuclear power, carbon sequestration, biofuels, solar power, and efficient end-use devices. In the last decade, hundreds of scenarios have been published by more than a dozen research teams using different models, baselines and mitigation targets. Despite the efforts to summarize findings in a few major assessments, a gap in understanding remains at a critical science-policy juncture between scenario analysts and the audiences their work is designed to serve. Addressing the issue requires an interdisciplinary approach that incorporates knowledge and methods from the fields of energy engineering, economics, climate science, and policy analysis. This research applies two analytical techniques to investigate the effects of an imposed climate policy on the underlying energy system. The first disentangles the effect of a policy intervention on key demographic and technology drivers of fossil fuel use, and the second decomposes reductions in emissions by specific energy technology types. Because the techniques may be applied to any energy scenario with technology detail, this study demonstrates their application to ten sample stabilization scenarios from three leading models. Revealing the importance of data and assumptions overlooked or not well disclosed in the past, the results highlight an implausibly high pressure on energy supply innovations while the potential for energy efficiency improvements is systematically underestimated. The findings are significant to both scenario analysts and the decision-makers in public policy and private investment who are influenced by their work.

  2. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  3. Ground-based aircraft exhaust measurements of a Lufthansa Airbus A340 using FTIR emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    The emission inventories of aircraft emissions are being set up using flight routing data and test rig measurements of the engine manufacturers for certification purposes which have to be extrapolated with respect to the actual parameters at cruise altitude. Precise data from in-service engines are not existing. FTIR-emission-spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component exhaust gas analysis method has been further developed to specify the traceable molecules in aircraft exhausts, to determine the detection limits, and to obtain reliable statements concerning its accuracy. The first measurement with the Airbus A340 engine CFM56-5C2 during run up tests at ground level showed the overall ability of the FTIR-emission system to analyze the exhausts of modern gas turbines with high bypass ratio and mixing of fan air into the exhausts before the nozzle exit. Good quality spectra were measured and analyzed with respect to the mixing rations of CO2, H2O, CO, NO, and N2O, and the emission indices of CO, NO, and N2O. Total measurement times at one thrust level should be about 15 minutes to obtain reliable result which can be compared to the ICAO data of this engine.

  4. Global projections for anthropogenic reactive nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere: an assessment of scenarios in the scientific literature

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlef; Bouwman, Lex; Smith, Steven J.; Dentener, Frank

    2011-09-17

    Most long-term scenarios of global N emissions are produced by Integrated Assessment Models in the context of climate change assessment. The scenarios indicate that N emissions are likely to increase in the next decades, followed by a stabilization or decline. Critical factors for future N emissions are the development of the underlying drivers (especially fertilizer use, animal husbandry, transport and power generation), air pollution control policy and climate policy. The new scenarios made for climate change assessment, the Representative Concentration Pathways - RCPs, are not representative of the range of possible N-emission projections. A more focused development of scenarios for air pollution may improve the relevance and quality of the scenarios.

  5. Global Scenarios of Air Pollutant Emissions from Road Transport through to 2050

    PubMed Central

    Takeshita, Takayuki

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents global scenarios of sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) emissions from road transport through to 2050, taking into account the potential impacts of: (1) the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries; (2) global CO2 mitigation policy implementation; and (3) vehicle cost assumptions, on study results. This is done by using a global energy system model treating the transport sector in detail. The major conclusions are the following. First, as long as non-developed countries adopt the same vehicle emission standards as in developed countries within a 30-year lag, global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles decrease substantially over time. Second, light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty trucks make a large and increasing contribution to future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles. Third, the timing of air pollutant emission regulation implementation in developing countries has a large impact on future global emissions of SO2, NOx, and PM from road vehicles, whereas there is a possibility that global CO2 mitigation policy implementation has a comparatively small impact on them. PMID:21845172

  6. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on Reactive Nitrogen over the North Atlantic Flight Corridor Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Ikeda, H.; Gregory, G. L.; Anderson, B. E.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D.; Liu, S. C.; Singh, H. B.; Thompson, A.

    1999-01-01

    The impact of aircraft emissions on reactive nitrogen in the upper troposphere (UT) and lowermost stratosphere (LS) was estimated using the NO(y)-O3 correlation obtained during the SASS Ozone and NO(x) Experiment (SONEX) carried out over the US continent and North Atlantic Flight Corridor (NAFC) region in October and November 1997. To evaluate the large scale impact, we made a reference NO(y)-O3 relationship in air masses, upon which aircraft emissions were considered to have little impact. For this purpose, the integrated input of NO(x) from aircraft into an air mass along a 10-d back trajectory (DELTA-NO(y)) was calculated based on the ANCAT/EC2 emission inventory. The excess NO(y) (dNO(y)) was calculated from the observed NO(y) and the reference NO(y)-O3 relationship. As a result, a weak positive correlation was found between the dNO(y) and DELTA-NO(y), and dNO(y) and NO(x)/NO(y) values, while no positive correlation between the dNO(y) and CO values was found, suggesting that dNO(y) values can be used as a measure of the NO(x) input from aircraft emissions. The excess NO(y) values calculated from another NO(y)-O3 reference relationship made using in-situ CN data also agreed with these dNO(y) values, within the uncertainties. At the NAFC region (45 N - 60 N), the median value of dNO(y) in the troposphere increased with altitude above 9 km and reached 70 pptv (20% of NO(y)) at 11 km. The excess NO(x) was estimated to be about half of the dNO(y) values, corresponding to 30% of the observed NO(x) level. Higher dNO(y) values were generally found in air masses where O3 = 75 - 125 ppbv, suggesting a more pronounced effect around the tropopause. The median value of dNO(y) in the stratosphere at the NAFC region at 8.5 - 11.5 km was about 120 pptv. The higher dNO(y) values in the LS were probably due to the accumulated effect of aircraft emissions, given the long residence time of affected air in the LS. Similar dNO(y) values were also obtained in air masses sampled over

  7. Aircraft mass budgeting to measure CO2 emissions of Rome, Italy.

    PubMed

    Gioli, Beniamino; Carfora, Maria F; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Metallo, Maria C; Poli, Attilio A; Toscano, Piero; Miglietta, Franco

    2014-04-01

    Aircraft measurements were used to estimate the CO2 emission rates of the city of Rome, assessed against high-resolution inventorial data. Three experimental flights were made, composed of vertical soundings to measure Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) properties, and circular horizontal transects at various altitudes around the city area. City level emissions and associated uncertainties were computed by means of mass budgeting techniques, obtaining a positive net CO2 flux of 14.7 ± 4.5, 2.5 ± 1.2, and 10.3 ± 1.2 μmol m(-2) s(-1) for the three flights. Inventorial CO2 fluxes at the time of flights were computed by means of spatial and temporal disaggregation of the gross emission inventory, at 10.9 ± 2.5, 9.6 ± 1.3, and 17.4 ± 9.6 μmol m(-2) s(-1). The largest differences between the two dataset are associated with a greater variability of wind speed and direction in the boundary layer during measurements. Uncertainty partitioned into components related to horizontal boundary flows and top surface flow, revealed that the latter dominates total uncertainty in the presence of a wide variability of CO2 concentration in the free troposphere (up to 7 ppm), while it is a minor term with uniform tropospheric concentrations in the study area (within 2 ppm). Overall, we demonstrate how small aircraft may provide city level emission measurements that may integrate and validate emission inventories. Optimal atmospheric conditions and measurement strategies for the deployment of aircraft experimental flights are finally discussed. PMID:24218113

  8. Asian emissions of CO and NOx: Constraints from aircraft and Chinese station data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuxuan X.; McElroy, Michael B.; Wang, Tao; Palmer, Paul I.

    2004-12-01

    Observations of CO and NOy from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission over the northwest Pacific and from two Chinese ground stations (Hong Kong and Lin An) during spring 2001 are used in conjunction with an optimal estimation inverse model to constrain estimates of Asian emissions of CO and NOx. A priori emissions are based on a detailed bottom-up inventory for the observation period. The inversion analysis requires 43% and 47% increases in Chinese emissions of CO and NOx, respectively, distributed heterogeneously, with the largest adjustments required for central China. A posteriori estimates of emissions from biomass burning in Southeast Asia are much lower than a priori values. Inversion results for NOx emissions are consistent with CO emissions in terms of the sense of the adjustments. Inclusion of the station data in the inversion analysis significantly improves estimates for emissions from central and south China. A large increase in NOx emissions inferred for central China (a factor of 3) is attributed to decomposition of organic wastes associated with the human-animal food chain and extensive applications of chemical fertilizer. An analysis of emission ratios for CO relative to NOx for different sectors indicates that emissions attributed to industry and transportation may be underestimated in the bottom-up inventory for central China, while emissions from the domestic sector may be underestimated for south China. An increase in emission factors could help reconcile results from the inversion analysis with the "bottom-up" approach. Detailed analysis of the surface observations using a posteriori emissions indicates the importance of meteorological phenomena, notably cold fronts in March and small-scale high- and low-pressure systems in April in modulating concentrations of CO, with the latter most evident in the data from Lin An.

  9. Power plant emissions: particulate matter-related health damages and the benefits of alternative emission reduction scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, C.

    2004-06-15

    This report estimates the avoidable health effects of each of a series of alternative regulatory scenarios for power plants, focusing on the adverse human health effects due to exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) This report uses the same analytical methods that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency used in 2003 to prepare an analysis of the potential health effects of the proposed Clear Skies Act (EPA 2003). This report conducts an analysis of the impacts in 2010 and 2020 of three policy alternatives to the proposed Clear Skies Act, The Jeffords/Lieberman/Collins 'The Clean Power Act', S. 366, and the EPA August 2001 Straw Proposal (one of several alternatives EPA analyzed prior to the announcement of the Clear Skies Initiative in 2002). The report also examines the health impacts associated with the total emissions from coal fired electricity generating units in 2010. Chapter 2 describes the emissions inventory estimates, and the changes in the emissions associated with each scenario analyzed. Chapter 3 describes the methods used to estimate changes in particulate matter concentrations. Chapter 4 describes general issues arising in estimating and valuing changes in adverse health effects associated with changes in particulate matter. Chapter 5 describes in some detail the methods used for estimating and valuing adverse health effects, and Chapter 6 presents the results of these analyses. Chapter 7 presents estimates of the impact of these alternative policy options on the PM non-attainment status. 117 refs., 21 figs., 32 tabs., 3 apps.

  10. Global Health Impacts of Future Aviation Emissions Under Alternative Control Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence of an association between fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter and adverse health outcomes. This study analyzes the global excess mortality attributable to the aviation sector in the present (2006) and in the future (three 2050 scenarios) using the integrated exposure response model that was also used in the 2010 Global Burden of Disease assessment. The PM2.5 concentrations for the present and future scenarios were calculated using aviation emission inventories developed by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center and a global chemistry-climate model. We found that while excess mortality due to the aviation sector emissions is greater in 2050 compared to 2006, improved fuel policies (technology and operations improvements yielding smaller increases in fuel burn compared to 2006, and conversion to fully sustainable fuels) in 2050 could lead to 72% fewer deaths for adults 25 years and older than a 2050 scenario with no fuel improvements. Among the four health outcomes examined, ischemic heart disease was the greatest cause of death. Our results suggest that implementation of improved fuel policies can have substantial human health benefits. PMID:25412200

  11. Integrated acoustic emission/vibration sensor for detecting damage in aircraft drive train components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godínez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Ozevin, Didem; Finlayson, Richard D.; Anastasopoulos, Athanasios; Tsimogiannis, Apostolos

    2007-04-01

    Diaphragm-type couplings are high misalignment torque and speed transfer components used in aircrafts. Crack development in such couplings, or in the drive train in general, can lead to component failure that can bring down an aircraft. Real time detection of crack formation and growth is important to prevent such catastrophic failures. However, there is no single Nondestructive Monitoring method available that is capable of assessing the early stages of crack growth in such components. While vibration based damage identification techniques are used, they cannot detect cracks until they reach a considerable size, which makes detection of the onset of cracking extremely difficult. Acoustic Emission (AE) can detect and monitor early stage crack growth, however excessive background noise can mask acoustic emissions produced by crack initiation. Fusion of the two mentioned techniques can increase the accuracy of measurement and minimize false alarms. However, a monitoring system combining both techniques could prove too large and heavy for the already restricted space available in aircrafts. In the present work, we will present a newly developed integrated Acoustic Emission/Vibration (AE/VIB) combined sensor which can operate in the temperature range of -55°F to 257°F and in high EMI environment. This robust AE/VIB sensor has a frequency range of 5 Hz-2 kHz for the vibration component and a range of 200-400 kHz for the acoustic emission component. The sensor weight is comparable to accelerometers currently used in flying aircraft. Traditional signal processing approaches are not effective due to high signal attenuation and strong background noise conditions, commonly found in aircraft drive train systems. As an alternative, we will introduce a new Supervised Pattern Recognition (SPR) methodology that allows for simultaneous processing of the signals detected by the AE/VIB sensor and their classification in near-real time, even in these adverse conditions. Finally, we

  12. Designing a Methodology for Future Air Travel Scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Gerstle, John H.; Edmonds, Jae; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Krull, Nick; Metwally, Munir; Mortlock, Alan; Prather, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    The growing demand on air travel throughout the world has prompted several proposals for the development of commercial aircraft capable of transporting a large number of passengers at supersonic speeds. Emissions from a projected fleet of such aircraft, referred to as high-speed civil transports (HSCT's), are being studied because of their possible effects on the chemistry and physics of the global atmosphere, in particular, on stratospheric ozone. At the same time, there is growing concern about the effects on ozone from the emissions of current (primarily subsonic) aircraft emissions. Evaluating the potential atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions from HSCT's requires a scientifically sound understanding of where the aircraft fly and under what conditions the aircraft effluents are injected into the atmosphere. A preliminary set of emissions scenarios are presented. These scenarios will be used to understand the sensitivity of environment effects to a range of fleet operations, flight conditions, and aircraft specifications. The baseline specifications for the scenarios are provided: the criteria to be used for developing the scenarios are defined, the required data base for initiating the development of the scenarios is established, and the state of the art for those scenarios that have already been developed is discussed. An important aspect of the assessment will be the evaluation of realistic projections of emissions as a function of both geographical distribution and altitude from an economically viable commercial HSCT fleet. With an assumed introduction date of around the year 2005, it is anticipated that there will be no HSCT aircraft in the global fleet at that time. However, projections show that, by 2015, the HSCT fleet could reach significant size. We assume these projections of HSCT and subsonic fleets for about 2015 can the be used as input to global atmospheric chemistry models to evaluate the impact of the HSCT fleets, relative to an all

  13. Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

    2014-04-27

    Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

  14. Scenarios of animal waste production and fertilizer use and associated ammonia emission for the developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouwman, A. F.; Van Der Hoek, K. W.

    Livestock production and the use of synthetic fertilizer are responsible for about half of the global emission of NH 3. Depending on the animal category between 10 and 36% of the N in animal excreta is lost as NH 3. The current annual NH 3 emission in developing countries of 15 million ton N accounts for 2/3 of the global emission from animal excreta. In addition, 7.2 million tons NH 3N of synthetic N fertilizers are lost as NH 3 in developing countries. This is 80% of the global NH 3 emission from synthetic fertilizer's use. Along with human population increase and economic growth, livestock production in developing countries may even increase by a factor of 3 between now and 2025. The net result of rapid increase of livestock production combined with higher efficiency is an increase in NH 3 emissions of only 60% from 15 to 24 million tons NH 3N between 1990 and 2025 in developing countries. Livestock production is an important consumer of feedstuffs, mainly cereals, thereby inducing additional demand for synthetic fertilizers. Despite the projected major increase of synthetic fertilizer use from 42 to 106 million ton N between 1990 and 2025, the NH 3 loss in developing countries may decrease if a shift towards other fertilizer types, that are less vulnerable to NH 3 volatilization, is realized. According to the scenario, the total emission of NH 3 associated with food production in developing countries will increase from 22 to 30 million ton N yr -1 between 1990 and 2025. Although the NH 3 emission increases more slowly than food production, in particular, animal production may show geographic concentration in certain regions, which may lead to high local emission densities and associated environmental problems.

  15. Large gain in air quality compared to an alternative anthropogenic emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-08-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistry-transport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the year-to-year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  16. Large Gain in Air Quality Compared to an Alternative Anthropogenic Emissions Scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daskalakis, Nikos; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Myriokefalitakis, Stelios; Fanourgakis, George S.; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-01-01

    During the last 30 years, significant effort has been made to improve air quality through legislation for emissions reduction. Global three-dimensional chemistrytransport simulations of atmospheric composition over the past 3 decades have been performed to estimate what the air quality levels would have been under a scenario of stagnation of anthropogenic emissions per capita as in 1980, accounting for the population increase (BA1980) or using the standard practice of neglecting it (AE1980), and how they compare to the historical changes in air quality levels. The simulations are based on assimilated meteorology to account for the yearto- year observed climate variability and on different scenarios of anthropogenic emissions of pollutants. The ACCMIP historical emissions dataset is used as the starting point. Our sensitivity simulations provide clear indications that air quality legislation and technology developments have limited the rapid increase of air pollutants. The achieved reductions in concentrations of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, black carbon, and sulfate aerosols are found to be significant when comparing to both BA1980 and AE1980 simulations that neglect any measures applied for the protection of the environment. We also show the potentially large tropospheric air quality benefit from the development of cleaner technology used by the growing global population. These 30-year hindcast sensitivity simulations demonstrate that the actual benefit in air quality due to air pollution legislation and technological advances is higher than the gain calculated by a simple comparison against a constant anthropogenic emissions simulation, as is usually done. Our results also indicate that over China and India the beneficial technological advances for the air quality may have been masked by the explosive increase in local population and the disproportional increase in energy demand partially due to the globalization of the economy.

  17. Esimating the emission of photopollutants from the city of Lagos from aircraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, M. J.; Hopkins, J.; Lee, J.; Lewis, A.; Marsham, J.; Parker, D.; Stewart, D.; Capes, G.; Williams, P.; Crosier, J.

    2007-12-01

    The city of Lagos, Nigeria is the second most populated city in Africa and by 2020 is likely to be the most populated. During the AMMA campaign in 2006 the UK BAe146 aircraft flew an orbit around the city observing the concentration of key photo-pollutants. This allowed the fluxes and thus emissions from the city to be calculated. We calculate CO, NOx and VOC emissions to be on the order of 1 Tg (CO) yr-1, 0.01 Tg (N) yr-1, 0.2 Tg (VOC) yr-1 respectively. Based upon a principal components analysis of the observations we split the emissions due to evaporative, low temperature combustion and high temperature combustion.

  18. Aircraft emission impacts in a neighborhood adjacent to a general aviation airport in southern California.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shishan; Fruin, Scott; Kozawa, Kathleen; Mara, Steve; Winer, Arthur M; Paulson, Suzanne E

    2009-11-01

    Real time air pollutant concentrations were measured downwind of Santa Monica Airport (SMA), using an electric vehicle mobile platform equipped with fast response instruments in spring and summer of 2008. SMA is a general aviation airport operated for private aircraft and corporate jets in Los Angeles County, California. An impact area of elevated ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations was observed extending beyond 660 m downwind and 250 m perpendicular to the wind on the downwind side of SMA. Aircraft operations resulted in average UFP concentrations elevated by factors of 10 and 2.5 at 100 and 660 m downwind, respectively, over background levels. The long downwind impact distance (i.e., compared to nearby freeways at the same time of day) is likely primarily due to the large volumes of aircraft emissions containing higher initial concentrations of UFP than on-road vehicles. Aircraft did not appreciably elevate average levels of black carbon (BC), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PB-PAH), although spikes in concentration of these pollutants were observed associated with jet takeoffs. Jet departures resulted in peak 60-s average concentrations of up to 2.2 x 10(6) cm(-3), 440 ng m(-3), and 30 microg m(-3) for UFP, PB-PAH, and BC, respectively, 100 m downwind of the takeoff area. These peak levels were elevated by factors of 440, 90, and 100 compared to background concentrations. Peak UFP concentrations were reasonably correlated (r(2) = 0.62) with fuel consumption rates associated with aircraft departures, estimated from aircraft weights and acceleration rates. UFP concentrations remained elevated for extended periods associated particularly with jet departures, but also with jet taxi and idle, and operations of propeller aircraft. UFP measured downwind of SMA had a median mode of about 11 nm (electric mobility diameter), which was about half of the 22 nm median mode associated with UFP from heavy duty diesel trucks. The observation of highly

  19. Emission of atmospheric pollutants out of Africa - Analysis of CARIBIC aircraft air samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorenz, Ute R.; Baker, Angela K.; Schuck, Tanja; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.; Ziereis, Helmut; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Africa is the single largest continental source of biomass burning (BB) emissions. The burning African savannas and tropical forests are a source for a wide range of chemical species, which are important for global atmospheric chemistry, especially for the pristine Southern Hemisphere. Emitted compounds include carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons, oxygenated hydrocarbons and particles. Deep convection over Central Africa transports boundary layer emissions to the free troposphere making aircraft-based observations useful for investigation of surface emissions and examination of transport and chemistry processes over Africa The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmosphere.com part of IAGOS www.iagos.org) is a long term atmospheric measurement program using an instrument container deployed aboard a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600 for a monthly sequence of long-distance passenger flights. Besides the online measurements mixing ratios of greenhouse gases and a suite of C2-C8 non methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are measured from flask samples collected at cruise altitude. During northern hemispheric winter 2010/2011 CARIBIC flights took place from Frankfurt to Cape Town and Johannesburg in South Africa. Several BB tracers like methane, CO and various NMHCs were found to be elevated over tropical Africa. Using tracer-CO- and tracer-NOy-correlations emissions were characterized. The NMHC-CO correlations show monthly changing slopes, indicating a change in burned biomass, major fire stage, source region and/or other factors influencing NMHC emissions. To expand our analysis of emission sources a source region data filter was used, based on backward trajectories calculated along the flight tracks. Taking all CARIBIC samples into account having backward trajectories to the African boundary layer the dataset was enlarged from 77 to 168 samples. For both datasets tracer

  20. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  1. Wildfires in eastern Texas in August and September 2000: Emissions, aircraft measurements, and impact on photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junquera, Victoria; Russell, Matthew M.; Vizuete, William; Kimura, Yosuke; Allen, David

    The accuracy of wildfire air pollutant emission estimates was assessed by comparing observations of carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM) concentrations in wildfire plumes to predictions of CO and PM concentrations, based on emission estimates and air quality models. The comparisons were done for observations made in southeast Texas in August and September of 2000. The fire emissions were estimated from acreage burned, fuel loading information, and fuel emission factor models. A total of 389 km 2 (96,100 acres) burned in wildfires in the domain encompassing the Houston/Galveston-Beaumont/Port Arthur (HGBPA) area during August and September 2000. On the days of highest wildfire activity, the fires resulted in an estimated 3700 tons of CO emissions, 250 tons of volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions, 340 tons of PM 2.5, and 50 tons of NO x emissions; estimated CO and VOC emissions from the fires exceeded light duty gasoline vehicle emissions in the Houston area on those days. When the appropriate aircraft data were available, aloft measurements of CO in the fire plumes were compared to concentrations of CO predicted using the emission estimates. Concentrations estimated based on emission predictions and air quality models were within a factor of 2 of the observed values. The estimated emissions from fires were used, together with a gridded photochemical model, to characterize the extent of dispersion of the fire emissions and the photochemistry associated with the fire emissions. Although the dispersion and photochemical impacts varied from fire to fire, for wildfires less than 10,000 acres, the greatest enhancements of CO and ozone concentrations due to the fire emissions were generally confined to regions within 10-100 km of the fire. Within 10 km of these fires, CO concentrations can exceed 2 ppm and ozone concentrations can be enhanced by 60 ppb. The extent of photo-oxidant formation in the plumes was limited by NO x availability and isoprene

  2. Fermi Large Area Telescope observation of high-energy solar flares: constraining emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omodei, Nicola; Pesce-Rollins, Melissa; Petrosian, Vahe; Liu, Wei; Rubio da Costa, Fatima

    2015-08-01

    The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is the most sensitive instrument ever deployed in space for observing gamma-ray emission >100 MeV. This has also been demonstrated by its detection of quiescent gamma-ray emission from pions produced by cosmic-ray protons interacting in the solar atmosphere, and from cosmic-ray electron interactions with solar optical photons. The Fermi LAT has also detected high-energy gamma-ray emission associated with GOES M-class and X-class X-ray flares, each accompanied by a coronal mass ejection and a solar energetic particle event increasing the number of detected solar flares by almost a factor of 10 with respect to previous space observations. During the impulsive phase, gamma rays with energies up to several hundreds of MeV have been recorded by the LAT. Emission up to GeV energies lasting several hours after the flare has also been recorded by the LAT. Of particular interest are the recent detections of two solar flares whose position behind the limb was confirmed by the STEREO-B satellite. While gamma-ray emission up to tens of MeV resulting from proton interactions has been detected before from occulted solar flares, the significance of these particular events lies in the fact that these are the first detections of >100 MeV gamma-ray emission from footpoint-occulted flares. We will present the Fermi-LAT, RHESSI and STEREO observations of these flares and discuss the various emission scenarios for these sources.

  3. 75 FR 36034 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... provide comment on the ANPR. DATES: The comment period for the ANPR published April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22440... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 87 RIN 2060-AP79 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston... Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline (hereinafter...

  4. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  5. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  6. Modeling Future Land Use Scenarios in South Korea: Applying the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios and the SLEUTH Model on a Local Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Haejin; Hwang, YunSeop; Ha, Sung Ryong; Kim, Byung Sik

    2015-05-01

    This study developed three scenarios of future land use/land cover on a local level for the Kyung-An River Basin and its vicinity in South Korea at a 30-m resolution based on the two scenario families of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B1, as well as a business-as-usual scenario. The IPCC SRES A2 and B1 were used to define future local development patterns and associated land use change. We quantified the population-driven demand for urban land use for each qualitative storyline and allocated the urban demand in geographic space using the SLEUTH model. The model results demonstrate the possible land use/land cover change scenarios for the years from 2000 to 2070 by examining the broad narrative of each SRES within the context of a local setting, such as the Kyoungan River Basin, constructing narratives of local development shifts and modeling a set of `best guess' approximations of the future land use conditions in the study area. This study found substantial differences in demands and patterns of land use changes among the scenarios, indicating compact development patterns under the SRES B1 compared to the rapid and dispersed development under the SRES A2.

  7. Changes in land cover and carbon emissions to 2050 from African tropical forests using policy scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporte, N.; Galford, G. L.; Soares Filho, B. S.

    2011-12-01

    Africa has the second largest block of rainforest in the world, next to the Amazon basin, with the majority of the carbon being stored in the dense humid forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Historically, political instability in the DRC kept development and deforestation low, with primary forest uses being extensive logging and small scale agriculture. In the last decade, political stability has opened the country to foreign investment in forested areas, largely for industrial-scale oil palm plantations and more recently to rice production. The DRC ranks worst on the IFPRI global hunger index, scoring "extremely serious" based on the proportion of undernourished population, prevalence of underweight in children under 5 and the mortality rates of children under 5. In fact, DRC saw its hunger score increase (worsen) from 1990 to 2010, with a 66% gain compared to the other 8 worsening countries increasing only 21% or less. This is a critical time for policy in the DRC, where business-as-usual (relatively low deforestation rates) is unlikely to continue given today's relative political stability and economic stabilization compared to the 1990s. The country must examine options for forest conservation in balance with foreign investment for use of forest resources, national development of rural livelihoods and domestic production of food. Here we present deforestation trajectories simulated through the year 2050 under a set of scenarios. The scenarios consider the relative carbon emissions from business-as-usual (no new policy), conservation (policy favoring protection and enforcement for forest areas), and a food security scenario (favoring clearing for industrial agriculture, extractive timber resources and development of new agricultural areas). Carbon emissions for each scenario are estimated with a coupled bookkeeping model. These scenarios are not predictive of the future, rather, they are meant to provide an understanding of the outcomes of

  8. Municipal solid waste management scenarios for Attica and their greenhouse gas emission impact.

    PubMed

    Papageorgiou, Asterios; Karagiannidis, Avraam; Barton, John R; Kalogirou, Efstratios

    2009-11-01

    Disposal of municipal solid waste in sanitary landfills is still the main waste management method in the Attica region, as in most regions of Greece. Nevertheless, diversion from landfilling is being promoted by regional plans, in which the perspectives of new waste treatment technologies are being evaluated. The present study aimed to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impact of different municipal solid waste treatment technologies currently under assessment in the new regional plan for Attica. These technologies are mechanical-biological treatment, mass-burn incineration and mechanical treatment and have been assessed in the context of different scenarios. The present study utilized existing methodologies and emission factors for the quantification of GHG emissions from the waste management process and found that all technologies under assessment could provide GHG emission savings. However, the performance and ranking of these technologies is strongly dependent on the existence of end markets for the waste-derived fuels produced by the mechanical-biological treatment processes. In the absence of these markets the disposal of these fuels would be necessary and thus significant GHG savings would be lost. PMID:19837710

  9. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  10. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  11. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  12. O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O radiative forcing resulting from a supersonic jet transport emission scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, A.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Penner, J.E.; Grant, K.E.; Tamaresis, J.; Connell, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The tropospheric radiative forcing has been calculated for ozone and water vapor perturbations caused by a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft emission scenario. Atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone were obtained using the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model (CRT) of the global troposphere and stratosphere. IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. UV-Visible-Near IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL two stream solar radiation model. For the case of water vapor the IR and Near IR radiative forcing was determined at five different latitudes and then averaged using an appropriate latitudinal average to obtain the global average value. Global average values of radiative forcing were approximately 1.2--2.6 10{sup {minus}3} W/m{sup 2}, depending on the background atmospheric water vapor profile. This result is consistent with prior published values for a similar aircraft scenario and supports the conclusion that the water vapor climate forcing effect is very small. The radiative forcing in the IR and UV-Visible spectral ranges, due to the ozone perturbation, was calculated for the globally averaged atmosphere. Global average values of the radiative forcing were 0.034 W/m{sup 2} for the UV-Visible spectral range and 0.006 W/m{sup 2} for the IR spectral range (0.04 W/m{sup 2} total). This result is also consistent with the range of published values obtained for a similar HSCT scenario. As was the case for water vapor, the ozone forcing is too small to be of major consequence.

  13. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    1994-05-01

    Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total) compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  14. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  15. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  16. Comparison of remote sensing techniques for measurements of aircraft emissions indices at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter J.; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael; Gostomczyk, Adam; Kabarowska, Barbara; Zalewski, Leszec; Dahl, Guenter

    2004-02-01

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts were measured at airports non-intrusively by FTIR emission spectrometry at the engine nozzle exit as well as by FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry) behind the aircraft. Two measurement campaigns were performed to compare these different measurement methods. A kerosene powered burner was operated in that way that the different methods were applied for the exhaust gas investigations during the same time and at nearly the same exhaust gas volume. The burner was built with a nozzle exit diameter of 37 cm and a power of about 150 kW. Fresh air was pumped into the burner tube by a fan. Calibration gases as pure CO and NO were added in different amounts to vary the concentration of these gases in the exhaust. The sampling probe of an intrusive measurement system was installed in the centre of the exhaust stream near the exhaust exit for measurements of these gases and CO2 as well as NO2, UHC, SO2 and O2. An APU (GTCP36-300) in a test bed was used in the same way. CO was mixed into the exhausts near the nozzle exit. The passive FTIR instrument was operated in the test bed using special noise and vibration isolation. The open-path instruments were installed at the chimney exit on the roof of the test bed building. The deviations between the different measurement methods were in the order of +/-10 up to +/-20 %.

  17. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, Anke; Thomas, Jennie L.; Schlager, Hans; Law, Kathy; Kim, Jin; Reiter, Anja; Schäfler, Andreas; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Rose, Maximilian; Raut, Jean-Christophe; Marelle, Louis

    2014-05-01

    Arctic change has opened the region to new industrial activities, most notably transit shipping and resource extraction. The impacts that Arctic industrialization will have on pollutants and Arctic climate are not well understood. In order to understand how shipping and offshore oil/gas extraction impact on Arctic tropospheric chemistry and composition, we conducted the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign. The campaign was conducted in July 2012 using the DLR Falcon research aircraft, based in Andenes, Norway. The Falcon was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species) to characterize these emissions and their atmospheric chemistry. The Falcon performed nine scientific flights to study emissions from different ships (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) off the Norwegian Coast. Distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition were found in emissions from these increasing pollution sources. We also studied the composition of biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires to put the emerging local pollution within a broader context. In addition to our measurements, we used a regional chemical transport model to study the influence of emerging pollution sources on gas and aerosol concentrations in the region. We will present an overview on the measured trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources and discuss the impact of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  18. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards. PMID:26495879

  19. The Future of Land Use in the United States: Downscaling SRES Emission Scenarios to Ecoregions and Pixels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T. L.; Sayler, K.; Bouchard, M. A.; Reker, R.; Sleeter, R. R.; Zhu, Z.; Auch, R.; Acevedo, W.; Soulard, C. E.; Griffith, G.

    2011-12-01

    Scenario analysis has emerged as a useful tool for evaluating uncertain futures in ecological systems. We describe research initiated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop a comprehensive portfolio of future land-use and land-cover (LULC) scenarios for the United States. The USGS has identified LULC scenarios as a focal area of future research. Scenarios are used to assist in the understanding of possible future developments in complex systems that typically have high levels of scientific uncertainty. Scenarios generally require knowledge of history and current conditions, and specific understanding about how drivers of change have acted to influence the historical and current condition. We describe methods and results of downscaling LULC and associated narrative storylines from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). The downscaling methods leverage three primary sources of information: 1) comprehensive land-use histories developed through remote sensing and survey data, 2) modeled LULC outputs from global integrated assessment models (IAMs), and 3) expert knowledge of regional land change. First, national and ecoregional narrative storylines were derived from the global IPCC framework. Based on the characteristics of downscaled narrative storylines, experts used historical data and information on the rates and types of LULC change, in conjunction with coarse-scale IAM projections of land use, to produce future quantitative scenarios. An accounting model was developed to handle all aspects of scenario downscaling. Here we present the methods used to construct ecoregion-specific scenarios of LULC change consistent with the IPCC-SRES scenarios, as well as results at multiple geographic scales. The USGS LandCarbon assessment is implementing a scenario-based approach for projecting changes in LULC that may result in changes to ecosystem carbon flux and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Results described

  20. Quantifying emerging local anthropogenic emissions in the Arctic region: the ACCESS aircraft campaign experiment (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roiger, A.; Thomas, J. L.; Schlager, H.; Law, K.; Kim, J.; Reiter, A.; Schaefler, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Rose, M.; Raut, J.; Marelle, L.

    2013-12-01

    Arctic sea ice has decreased dramatically in the past few decades, which has opened the Arctic Ocean to transit shipping and hydrocarbon extraction. These anthropogenic activities are expected to increase emissions of air pollutants and climate forcers (e.g. aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic troposphere significantly in the future. However, large knowledge gaps exist how these emissions influence regional air pollution and Arctic climate. Here we present an overview on the ACCESS (Arctic Climate Change, Economy, and Society, a European Union Seventh Framework Programme project) aircraft campaign, which primarily focused on studying emissions from emerging Arctic pollution sources. During the ACCESS campaign in July 2012, the DLR Falcon was based in Andenes, Norway, and was equipped with a suite of trace gas and aerosol instruments (black carbon, ozone, as well as other trace species). During nine scientific flights, emissions from different ship types (e.g. cargo, passenger, and fishing vessels) and a variety of offshore extraction facilities (e.g. drilling rigs, production and storage platforms) were probed off the Norwegian Coast. The emissions from these increasing pollution sources showed distinct differences in chemical and aerosol composition. To put the emerging local pollution within a broader context, we also measured sulfur-rich emissions originating from industrial activities on the Kola Peninsula and black carbon containing biomass burning plumes imported from Siberian wildfires. We will present an overview on the trace gas and aerosol properties of the different emission sources, and discuss the influence of future local anthropogenic activities on the Arctic air composition by combining measurements with model simulations.

  1. Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heland, J.; Schäfer, K.

    The results of ground-based FTIR emission measurements of major combustion products such as CO 2, H 2O, CO, NO, and N 2O of in-service aircraft engines are reported and compared to values published in recent literature. About 25% differences in the NO and CO emission indices at several power settings were found for two military bypass engines of the same type. In addition the measured CO emission index of (51.8±4.6) g kg -1 at idle power of a CFM56-3 engine was about 27% lower than the value given by Spicer et al. (1984, 1994)for this engine type and about 27-48% higher than the ICAO data ( ICAO, 1995) for the whole span of CFM56-3 engines. The CO emission index measured at idle power of a CFM56-5C2 engine of AN Airbus A340 was (24±4) g kg -1 and can be compared to the ICAO value of 34 g kg -1. The N 2O mixing ratios measured at a higher power setting of this engine was found to be 4 ppm and is in the range of reported literature values. Since the NO and CO emissions are strongly connected to the combustion process/efficiency and thus to the state of engine maintainance and/or the engine age, it can be concluded that there are significant engine-to-engine (of the same type) and possibly day-to-day variations in the emission characteristics of aero engines which cannot be neglected for the estimation of the overall air-traffic emissions.

  2. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; et al

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmosphericmore » version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the

  3. Future climate change under RCP emission scenarios with GISS ModelE2

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Miller, R. L.; Tausnev, N.; Kelley, M.; Ruedy, R.; Russell, G. L.; Aleinov, I.; Bauer, M.; Bauer, S.; Bleck, R.; Canuto, V.; Cheng, Y.; Clune, T. L.; Del Genio, A. D.; Faluvegi, G.; Hansen, J. E.; Healy, R. J.; Kiang, N. Y.; Koch, D.; Lacis, A. A.; LeGrande, A. N.; Lerner, J.; Lo, K. K.; Menon, S.; Oinas, V.; Perlwitz, J.; Puma, M. J.; Rind, D.; Romanou, A.; Sato, M.; Shindell, D. T.; Sun, S.; Tsigaridis, K.; Unger, N.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yao, M. -S.; Zhang, Jinlun

    2015-02-24

    We examine the anthropogenically forced climate response for the 21st century representative concentration pathway (RCP) emission scenarios and their extensions for the period 2101–2500. The experiments were performed with ModelE2, a new version of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Sciences (GISS) coupled general circulation model that includes three different versions for the atmospheric composition components: a noninteractive version (NINT) with prescribed composition and a tuned aerosol indirect effect (AIE), the TCAD version with fully interactive aerosols, whole-atmosphere chemistry, and the tuned AIE, and the TCADI version which further includes a parameterized first indirect aerosol effect on clouds. Each atmospheric version is coupled to two different ocean general circulation models: the Russell ocean model (GISS-E2-R) and HYCOM (GISS-E2-H). By 2100, global mean warming in the RCP scenarios ranges from 1.0 to 4.5° C relative to 1850–1860 mean temperature in the historical simulations. In the RCP2.6 scenario, the surface warming in all simulations stays below a 2 °C threshold at the end of the 21st century. For RCP8.5, the range is 3.5–4.5° C at 2100. Decadally averaged sea ice area changes are highly correlated to global mean surface air temperature anomalies and show steep declines in both hemispheres, with a larger sensitivity during winter months. By the year 2500, there are complete recoveries of the globally averaged surface air temperature for all versions of the GISS climate model in the low-forcing scenario RCP2.6. TCADI simulations show enhanced warming due to greater sensitivity to CO₂, aerosol effects, and greater methane feedbacks, and recovery is much slower in RCP2.6 than with the NINT and TCAD versions. All coupled models have decreases in the Atlantic overturning stream function by 2100. In RCP2.6, there is a complete recovery of the Atlantic overturning stream function by the year 2500 while with scenario RCP8.5, the E2-R

  4. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  5. Validation of Point Source Emissions of SO2 Using Aircraft Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiddler, M. N.; Green, J. R.; Bililign, S.; McDuffie, E.; Fibiger, D. L.; Brown, S. S.; Jaegle, L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Thornton, J. A.; Campos, T. L.; Shah, V.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Haskins, J.; Sparks, T.; Ebben, C. J.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Veres, P. R.; Dibb, J. E.; Schroder, J. C.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Day, D. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Sullivan, A.; Guo, H.; Weber, R. J.; Leen, J. B.; DiGangi, J. P.; Wolfe, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions inventories of SO2 in the Eastern United States have largely relied on point source measurements from power plants. A comparison will be made between these source measurements and in situ measurements using the TECO 43C SO2 analyzer a CO/CO2 analyzer during an airborne platform aboard the NCAR C-130 plane during wintertime conditions, which was part of a suite of measurements taken during the Wintertime Investigation of Transport, Emission, and Reactivity (WINTER) 2015 field campaign. The data obtained originates from a series of survey night and day flights that occurred from Feb 3 to Mar 13, 2015 over the Eastern coastal region of the United States ranging from New York to Florida. SO2/CO2 mixing ratios will be compared from three sources: power plant emission values (taking into account dispersion), chemical forecast predictions, and aircraft data. During the winter the removal processes for gaseous SO2 are slower, which results in a measurably longer atmospheric lifetime. Loss, emission, and dispersion rates will be discussed.

  6. Air quality impacts of motor vehicle emissions in the south coast air basin: Current versus more stringent control scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collet, Susan; Kidokoro, Toru; Sonoda, Yukihiro; Lohman, Kristen; Karamchandani, Prakash; Chen, Shu-Yun; Minoura, Hiroaki

    2012-02-01

    States are working to comply with the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Often, regulations restricting vehicle emissions are promulgated in order to attain compliance with the NAAQS. Currently, more stringent vehicle emission regulations are being considered by government agencies. This paper compares emissions from passenger cars and light duty trucks under the current California Low Emission Vehicle (LEV II) standards to a control scenario which was anticipated in 2008 to become LEV III (referred to as "more stringent control" in this paper) and determines if the scenario would result in additional improvements to air quality in California's South Coast Air Basin. The air quality modeling was performed using the Community Multi-scale Air Quality Model (CMAQ) for years 2005, 2014 and 2020. The more stringent control sensitivity study simulated a scenario in which all new passenger cars and light duty trucks in the California South Coast Air Basin in year 2016 achieve Super Ultra-Low Emission Vehicle (SULEV) tail pipe emissions, zero evaporative emissions and more stringent aggressive driving requirements. The total on-road vehicles emissions difference when averaged across the South Coast Air Basin showed the more stringent scenario compared to LEV II to have reductions of 1% for oxides of nitrogen (NO x), 1% for as reactive organic gases (ROG) and 5% for carbon monoxide (CO) in 2030. LEV II modeled ozone levels in the western areas of the basin increased in 2014 and 2020 as compared to 2005, because these areas are VOC-sensitive and the reductions in NO x emissions in these regions are larger than the VOC reductions. In other areas of the South Coast Basin, ozone is reduced by 1.5% or less. The more stringent control scenario modeled levels of ozone have a maximum decrease from LEV II levels by 1% or less in 2014 and 1.5% or less in 2020.

  7. Exploring synergies between climate and air quality policies using long-term global and regional emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braspenning Radu, Olivia; van den Berg, Maarten; Klimont, Zbigniew; Deetman, Sebastiaan; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Muntean, Marilena; Heyes, Chris; Dentener, Frank; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present ten scenarios developed using the IMAGE2.4 framework (Integrated Model to Assess the Global Environment) to explore how different assumptions on future climate and air pollution policies influence emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants. These scenarios describe emission developments in 26 world regions for the 21st century, using a matrix of climate and air pollution policies. For climate policy, the study uses a baseline resulting in forcing levels slightly above RCP6.0 and an ambitious climate policy scenario similar to RCP2.6. For air pollution, the study explores increasingly tight emission standards, ranging from no improvement, current legislation and three variants assuming further improvements. For all pollutants, the results show that more stringent control policies are needed after 2030 to prevent a rise in emissions due to increased activities and further reduce emissions. The results also show that climate mitigation policies have the highest impact on SO2 and NOX emissions, while their impact on BC and OC emissions is relatively low, determined by the overlap between greenhouse gas and air pollutant emission sources. Climate policy can have important co-benefits; a 10% decrease in global CO2 emissions by 2100 leads to a decrease of SO2 and NOX emissions by about 10% and 5%, respectively compared to 2005 levels. In most regions, low levels of air pollutant emissions can also be achieved by solely implementing stringent air pollution policies. The largest differences across the scenarios are found in Asia and other developing regions, where a combination of climate and air pollution policy is needed to bring air pollution levels below those of today.

  8. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2000 and their scenarios until 2020.

    PubMed

    Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Pacyna, Jozef M; Fudala, Janina; Strzelecka-Jastrzab, Ewa; Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Panasiuk, Damian

    2006-10-15

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding European emissions of mercury and presents estimates of European emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources for the year 2000. This information was then used as a basis for Hg emission scenario development until the year 2020. Combustion of coal in power plants and residential heat furnaces generates about half of the European emissions being 239 tonnes. The coal combustion is followed by the production of caustic soda with the use of the Hg cell process (17%). Major points of mercury emission generation in the mercury cell process include: by-product hydrogen stream, end box ventilation air, and cell room ventilation air. This technology is now being changed to other caustic soda production technologies and further reduction of Hg emissions is expected in this connection. The third category on the list of the largest Hg emitters in Europe is cement production (about 13%). The largest emissions were estimated for Russia (the European part of the country), contributing with about 27% to the European emissions, followed by Poland, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Most of these countries use coal as a major source of energy in order to meet the electricity and heat demands. In general, countries in the Central and Eastern Europe generated the main part of the European emissions in 2000. Emission reductions between 20% and 80% of the 2000 emission amounts can be obtained by the year 2020, as estimated by various scenarios. PMID:16887169

  9. Global Air Quality Predictions of Particulate Matter in the Middle East and Sensitivity to Future Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couzo, E. A.; Holmes, C. D.; Paltsev, S.; Alawad, A.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine the influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers of future PM in the Middle East region using two future emissions scenarios to drive the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry model. The Arabian Peninsula is a major source of windblown dust as well as anthropogenic aerosols. Future emissions - driven jointly and individually by climate change and anthropogenic emissions from this rapidly growing region - will play an important role in both climate forcing and human health impacts from particulate matter. We use two scenarios to compare their climate and air quality implications. First, we use the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) for four radiative forcing cases. Second, we develop a consistent future greenhouse gas and conventional pollutant emission inventory using the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, which is a general equilibrium model of the global economy that calculates how economic growth and anthropogenic emissions change as a result of policies and other stressors. With EPPA, we examine three emissions cases, a business-as-usual case and two stabilization cases leading to anthropogenic radiative forcings of 3.7 W/m2 and 4.5 W/m2. We use these scenarios to drive GEOS-Chem for present and future climate, assessing changes in chemical composition of aerosol and drivers, both natural and anthropogenic, out to 2050. We find that projected anthropogenic emissions are strong determinants of future particulate matter air quality in the Middle East region.

  10. Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile Aerosol and Trace-Species Emissions (EXCAVATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Branham, H.-S.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Miller, T. M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Blake, D. R.; Boudries, H.; Canagaratna, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) was conducted at Langley Research Center (LaRC) in January 2002 and focused upon assaying the production of aerosols and aerosol precursors by a modern commercial aircraft, the Langley B757, during ground-based operation. Remaining uncertainty in the postcombustion fate of jet fuel sulfur contaminants, the need for data to test new theories of particle formation and growth within engine exhaust plumes, and the need for observations to develop air quality models for predicting pollution levels in airport terminal areas were the primary factors motivating the experiment. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) and the Ultra Effect Engine Technology (UEET) Program sponsored the experiment which had the specific objectives of determining ion densities; the fraction of fuel S converted from S(IV) to S(VI); the concentration and speciation of volatile aerosols and black carbon; and gas-phase concentrations of long-chain hydrocarbon and PAH species, all as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and plume age.

  11. Scenarios of land use and land cover change in the conterminous United States: Utilizing the special report on emission scenarios at ecoregional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Bouchard, Michelle A.; Reker, Ryan R.; Soulard, Christopher E.; Acevedo, William; Griffith, Glenn E.; Sleeter, Rachel R.; Auch, Roger F.; Sayler, Kristi L.; Prisley, Stephen; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    Global environmental change scenarios have typically provided projections of land use and land cover for a relatively small number of regions or using a relatively coarse resolution spatial grid, and for only a few major sectors. The coarseness of global projections, in both spatial and thematic dimensions, often limits their direct utility at scales useful for environmental management. This paper describes methods to downscale projections of land-use and land-cover change from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emission Scenarios to ecological regions of the conterminous United States, using an integrated assessment model, land-use histories, and expert knowledge. Downscaled projections span a wide range of future potential conditions across sixteen land use/land cover sectors and 84 ecological regions, and are logically consistent with both historical measurements and SRES characteristics. Results appear to provide a credible solution for connecting regionalized projections of land use and land cover with existing downscaled climate scenarios, under a common set of scenario-based socioeconomic assumptions.

  12. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  13. Determination of PM mass emissions from an aircraft turbine engine using particle effective density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdina, L.; Brem, B. T.; Abegglen, M.; Lobo, P.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.; Hagen, D. E.; Sierau, B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Inventories of particulate matter (PM) emissions from civil aviation and air quality models need to be validated using up-to-date measurement data corrected for sampling artifacts. We compared the measured black carbon (BC) mass and the total PM mass determined from particle size distributions (PSD) and effective density for a commercial turbofan engine CFM56-7B26/3. The effective density was then used to calculate the PM mass losses in the sampling system. The effective density was determined using a differential mobility analyzer and a centrifugal particle mass analyzer, and increased from engine idle to take-off by up to 60%. The determined mass-mobility exponents ranged from 2.37 to 2.64. The mean effective density determined by weighting the effective density distributions by PM volume was within 10% of the unit density (1000 kg/m3) that is widely assumed in aircraft PM studies. We found ratios close to unity between the PM mass determined by the integrated PSD method and the real-time BC mass measurements. The integrated PSD method achieved higher precision at ultra-low PM concentrations at which current mass instruments reach their detection limit. The line loss model predicted ∼60% PM mass loss at engine idle, decreasing to ∼27% at high thrust. Replacing the effective density distributions with unit density lead to comparable estimates that were within 20% and 5% at engine idle and high thrust, respectively. These results could be used for the development of a robust method for sampling loss correction of the future PM emissions database from commercial aircraft engines.

  14. Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heland, J; Schäfer, K

    1997-07-20

    Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

  15. The impact of nitrogen oxides emissions from aircraft upon the atmosphere at flight altitudes—results from the aeronox project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    The AERONOX project investigated the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) from aircraft engines and global air traffic at cruising altitudes, the resultant increase in NO x concentrations, and the effects on the composition of the atmosphere, in particular with respect to ozone formation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The project was structured into three subprojects: Engine exhaust emissions, physics and chemistry in the aircraft wake, and global atmospheric model simulations. A complementary program of work by aviation experts has provided detailed information on air traffic data which was combined with data on aircraft performance and emissions to produce a global emissions inventory. This summary gives an overview of the results of this project. Further details are given in the following papers of this issue and the final project report of 1995. The work resulted in improved predictive equations to determine NO x emissions at cruise conditions based on available data for aircraft/engine combinations, and NO x emission measurements on two engines in cruise conditions. This information was combined with a traffic database to provide a new global NO x emissions inventory. It was found that only minor chemical changes occur during the vortex regime of the emission plume; however, this result does not exclude the possibility of further changes in the dispersion phase. A variety of global models was set up to investigate the changes in NO x concentrations and photochemistry. Although aviation contributes only a small proportion (about 3%) of the total global NO x from all anthropogenic sources, the models show that aviation contributes a large fraction to the concentrations of NOX in the upper troposphere, in particular north of 30°N.

  16. Theory and Apparatus for Measurement of Emissivity for Radiative Cooling of Hypersonic Aircraft with Data for Inconel and Inconel X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Sullivan, William J , Jr; Wade, William R

    1957-01-01

    The importance of radiation as a means of cooling high-supersonic- and hypersonic-speed aircraft is discussed to show the need for measurements of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces. The theory underlying the measurement of the total hemispherical emissivity of surfaces is presented, readily duplicable apparatus for performing the measurements is described, and measurements for stably oxidized Inconel and Inconel X are given for the temperature range from 600 F to 2,000 F.

  17. In situ observations and model calculations of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; DöPelheuer, A.; Brock, C. A.; Schröder, F.

    1999-09-01

    The exhaust aerosol of two aircraft at cruise was extensively characterized in the size range from 0.003 to 2 μm for plume ages ≤2 s. The black carbon (BC) exhaust aerosol of an older technology engine (Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H Mk501) consisted of a primary BC mode with a modal diameter of 0.035 μm and a mode of coagulated BC particles with a peak near 0.15-0.16 μm in diameter. The total number density at the nozzle exit plane was 3×107 cm-3. In contrast, a modern technology engine (CFM International CFM56-3B1) emitted far smaller BC particles with a primary mode at 0.025 μm and a coagulated mode at 0.15 μm, as well as fewer particles by number with a concentration of 9×106 cm-3. The single-scattering albedo of the jet exhaust aerosol was 0.035 ± 0.02 inside the plume, indicating a dominant contribution of ultrafine (D<0.1 μm) BC particles to light extinction. Black carbon number emission indices EI(N) varied from 3.5×1014 (CFM56-3B1) to 1.7×1015 kg-1 (M45H Mk501) with corresponding mass emission indices EI(BC) of 0.011 and 0.1 g kg-1. Previously reported corresponding values for a CF6-80C2A2 engine were 6×1014 kg-1 and 0.023 g kg-1, respectively. A comparison between EI(BC) values calculated by a new correlation method and measured data shows an excellent agreement, with deviations <10% at cruise conditions. By extending the EI(BC) calculation method to a globally operating aircraft fleet, a fleet-averaged emission index EI(BC) = 0.038 g kg-1 is calculated.

  18. PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF ZINC-CONTAINING EMISSION PARTICLES IN THREE RAT STRAINS: MULTIPLE EXPOSURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Zinc-Containing Emission Particles in Three Rat Strains: Multiple Exposure Scenarios. Kodavanti, U. P., Schladweiler, M. C. J., Ledbetter, A. D., Hauser, R.*, Christiani, D. C.*, McGee, J., Richards, J. R., and Costa, D. L. (2002)....

  19. Analysis of UK and European NOx and VOC emission scenarios in the Defra model intercomparison exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derwent, Richard; Beevers, Sean; Chemel, Charles; Cooke, Sally; Francis, Xavier; Fraser, Andrea; Heal, Mathew R.; Kitwiroon, Nutthida; Lingard, Justin; Redington, Alison; Sokhi, Ranjeet; Vieno, Massimo

    2014-09-01

    Simple emission scenarios have been implemented in eight United Kingdom air quality models with the aim of assessing how these models compared when addressing whether photochemical ozone formation in southern England was NOx- or VOC-sensitive and whether ozone precursor sources in the UK or in the Rest of Europe (RoE) were the most important during July 2006. The suite of models included three Eulerian-grid models (three implementations of one of these models), a Lagrangian atmospheric dispersion model and two moving box air parcel models. The assignments as to NOx- or VOC-sensitive and to UK- versus RoE-dominant, turned out to be highly variable and often contradictory between the individual models. However, when the assignments were filtered by model performance on each day, many of the contradictions could be eliminated. Nevertheless, no one model was found to be the 'best' model on all days, indicating that no single air quality model could currently be relied upon to inform policymakers robustly in terms of NOx- versus VOC-sensitivity and UK- versus RoE-dominance on each day. It is important to maintain a diversity in model approaches.

  20. Aircraft validation of Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer retrievals of HDO / H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. L.; Cherry, J. E.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.; Noone, D.; Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, J.

    2014-09-01

    The EOS (Earth Observing System) Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrieves the atmospheric HDO / H2O ratio in the mid-to-lower troposphere as well as the planetary boundary layer. TES observations of water vapor and the HDO isotopologue have been compared with nearly coincident in situ airborne measurements for direct validation of the TES products. The field measurements were made with a commercially available Picarro L1115-i isotopic water analyzer on aircraft over the Alaskan interior boreal forest during the three summers of 2011 to 2013. TES special observations were utilized in these comparisons. The TES averaging kernels and a priori constraints have been applied to the in situ data, using version 5 (V005) of the TES data. TES calculated errors are compared with the standard deviation (1σ) of scan-to-scan variability to check consistency with the TES observation error. Spatial and temporal variations are assessed from the in situ aircraft measurements. It is found that the standard deviation of scan-to-scan variability of TES δD is ±34.1‰ in the boundary layer and ± 26.5‰ in the free troposphere. This scan-to-scan variability is consistent with the TES estimated error (observation error) of 10-18‰ after accounting for the atmospheric variations along the TES track of ±16‰ in the boundary layer, increasing to ±30‰ in the free troposphere observed by the aircraft in situ measurements. We estimate that TES V005 δD is biased high by an amount that decreases with pressure: approximately +123‰ at 1000 hPa, +98‰ in the boundary layer and +37‰ in the free troposphere. The uncertainty in this bias estimate is ±20‰. A correction for this bias has been applied to the TES HDO Lite Product data set. After bias correction, we show that TES has accurate sensitivity to water vapor isotopologues in the boundary layer.

  1. Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture and Food Security in 2050 under a Range of Plausible Socioeconomic and Emissions Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, K.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Bodirsky, B.; Kavallari, A.; Mason-d'Croz, D.; van der Mensbrugghe, D.; Robinson, S.; Sands, R.; Tabeau, A.; Willenbockel, D.; Islam, S.; van Meijl, H.; Mueller, C.; Robertson, R.

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have combined climate, crop and economic models to examine the impact of climate change on agricultural production and food security, but results have varied widely due to differences in models, scenarios and data. Recent work has examined (and narrowed) these differences through systematic model intercomparison using a high-emissions pathway to highlight the differences. New work extends that analysis to cover a range of plausible socioeconomic scenarios and emission pathways. Results from three general circulation models are combined with one crop model and five global economic models to examine the global and regional impacts of climate change on yields, area, production, prices and trade for coarse grains, rice, wheat, oilseeds and sugar to 2050. Results show that yield impacts vary with changes in population, income and technology as well as emissions, but are reduced in all cases by endogenous changes in prices and other variables.

  2. Views of Growing Methane Emissions near Oil and Natural Gas Activity: Satellite, Aircraft, and Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kollonige, D. E.; Thompson, A. M.; Diskin, G. S.; Hannigan, J. W.; Nussbaumer, E.

    2015-12-01

    To better understand the discrepancies between current top-down and bottom-up estimates, additional methane (CH4) measurements are necessary for regions surrounding growing oil and natural gas (ONG) development. We have evaluated satellite measurements of CH4 in US regions with ONG operations for their application as "top-down" constraints (part of the NASA Air Quality Applied Sciences Team (AQAST) project). For validation of the satellite instruments' sensitivities to emitted gases, we focus on regions where the DISCOVER-AQ (Deriving Information on Surface Conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality) campaign deployed ground and aircraft measurements in Maryland (2011), California and Texas (2013), and Colorado (2014). The largest CH4 signals were observed in the Greater Green River and Powder River Basins using Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Representative Tropospheric Volume Mixing Ratio (RTVMR) measurements. A long-term comparison between a ground remote-sensing Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) at Boulder and TES for 2010-2013 shows good correlation and differences ranging 2.5-5% for their yearly distribution of total column CH4. To determine any correlation between lower/mid-tropospheric CH4 (where a thermal IR sensor, such as TES, is most sensitive) and near-surface/boundary CH4 (where sources emit), we analyze the variability of DISCOVER-AQ aircraft profiles using principal component analysis and assess the correlation between near-surface (0-2 km) and mid-tropospheric (>2 km) CH4 concentrations. Using these relationships, we estimate near-surface CH4 using mid-tropospheric satellite measurements based on the partial column amounts within vertical layers with a linear regression. From this analysis, we will demonstrate whether the uncertainties of satellite-estimated near-surface CH4 are comparable to observed variability near ONG activity. These results will assist validation of satellite instrument

  3. Net in-cabin emission rates of VOCs and contributions from outside and inside the aircraft cabin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jun; Li, Zheng; Yang, Xudong

    2015-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are one of the most important types of air pollutants in aircraft cabin. Balancing source intensity of VOCs and ventilation strategies is an essential conducive way to obtain acceptable aircraft cabin environment. This paper intends to develop a simplified model by a case study to estimate the net VOC emission rates of cabin interior, and contributions from outside and inside the aircraft cabin. In-flight continuous measurements of total VOCs (TVOC) in cabin air were made in six domestic flights in March 2013. The results indicate that the concentrations of TVOC mostly ranged from 0.20 mg m-3 to 0.40 mg m-3 in cabin air, which first increased at ascent, and then kept elevated during cruise, and decreased at descent in general. For further ventilation information, carbon dioxide (CO2) in supply air and re-circulated air was simultaneously observed as a ventilation tracer to calculate the bleed air ratios, outside airflow rates and total airflow rates in these flights. And thus, the emission rates derived from cabin interior and contributions of TVOC from bleed air and cabin interior were estimated for the whole flight accordingly. Results indicate that during the cruise phase, TVOC in cabin air mainly came from cabin interiors. However, contributions from outside air also became significant during taxiing on the ground, ascent and descent phases. The simplified model would be useful for developing better control strategies of aircraft cabin air quality.

  4. Changes in future air quality, deposition, and aerosol-cloud interactions under future climate and emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glotfelty, Timothy; Zhang, Yang; Karamchandani, Prakash; Streets, David G.

    2016-08-01

    The prospect of global climate change will have wide scale impacts, such as ecological stress and human health hazards. One aspect of concern is future changes in air quality that will result from changes in both meteorological forcing and air pollutant emissions. In this study, the GU-WRF/Chem model is employed to simulate the impact of changing climate and emissions following the IPCC AR4 SRES A1B scenario. An average of 4 future years (2020, 2030, 2040, and 2050) is compared against an average of 2 current years (2001 and 2010). Under this scenario, by the Mid-21st century global air quality is projected to degrade with a global average increase of 2.5 ppb in the maximum 8-hr O3 level and of 0.3 μg m-3 in 24-hr average PM2.5. However, PM2.5 changes are more regional due to regional variations in primary aerosol emissions and emissions of gaseous precursor for secondary PM2.5. Increasing NOx emissions in this scenario combines with a wetter climate elevating levels of OH, HO2, H2O2, and the nitrate radical and increasing the atmosphere's near surface oxidation state. This differs from findings under the RCP scenarios that experience declines in OH from reduced NOx emissions, stratospheric recovery of O3, and increases in CH4 and VOCs. Increasing NOx and O3 levels enhances the nitrogen and O3 deposition, indicating potentially enhanced crop damage and ecosystem stress under this scenario. The enhanced global aerosol level results in enhancements in aerosol optical depth, cloud droplet number concentration, and cloud optical thickness. This leads to dimming at the Earth's surface with a global average reduction in shortwave radiation of 1.2 W m-2. This enhanced dimming leads to a more moderate warming trend and different trends in radiation than those found in NCAR's CCSM simulation, which does not include the advanced chemistry and aerosol treatment of GU-WRF/Chem and cannot simulate the impacts of changing climate and emissions with the same level of detailed

  5. Multimodel ensemble projection of precipitation in eastern China under A1B emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Xiaorui; Wang, Shuyu; Tang, Jianping; Lee, Dong-Kyou; Gao, Xuejie; Wu, Jia; Hong, Songyou; Gutowski, William J.; McGregor, John

    2015-10-01

    As part of the Regional Climate Model Intercomparison Project for Asia, future precipitation projection in China is constructed using five regional climate models (RCMs) driven by the same global climate model (GCM) of European Centre/Hamburg version 5. The simulations cover both the control climate (1978-2000) and future projection (2041-2070) under the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenario A1B. For the control climate, the RCMs have an advantage over the driving GCM in reproducing the summer mean precipitation distribution and the annual cycle. The biases in simulating summer precipitation mainly are caused by the deficiencies in reproducing the low-level circulation, such as the western Pacific subtropical high. In addition, large inter-RCM differences exist in the summer precipitation simulations. For the future climate, consistent and inconsistent changes in precipitation between the driving GCM and the nested RCMs are observed. Similar changes in summer precipitation are projected by RCMs over western China, but model behaviors are quite different over eastern China, which is dominated by the Asian monsoon system. The inter-RCM difference of rainfall changes is more pronounced in spring over eastern China. North China and the southern part of South China are very likely to experience less summer rainfall in multi-RCM mean (MRM) projection, while limited credibility in increased summer rainfall MRM projection over the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin. The inter-RCM variability is the main contributor to the total uncertainty for the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin and South China during 2041-2060, while lowest for Northeast China, being less than 40%.

  6. Projected changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells in a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascale, Salvatore; Lucarini, Valerio; Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare; ul Hasson, Shabeh

    2016-02-01

    In this diagnostic study we analyze changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells by the end of the twenty-first century under the most extreme IPCC5 emission scenario (RCP8.5) as projected by twenty-four coupled climate models contributing to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5). We use estimates of the centroid of the monthly rainfall distribution as an index of the rainfall timing and a threshold-independent, information theory-based quantity such as relative entropy (RE) to quantify the concentration of annual rainfall and the number of dry months and to build a monsoon dimensionless seasonality index (DSI). The RE is projected to increase, with high inter-model agreement over Mediterranean-type regions—southern Europe, northern Africa and southern Australia—and areas of South and Central America, implying an increase in the number of dry days up to 1 month by the end of the twenty-first century. Positive RE changes are also projected over the monsoon regions of southern Africa and North America, South America. These trends are consistent with a shortening of the wet season associated with a more prolonged pre-monsoonal dry period. The extent of the global monsoon region, characterized by large DSI, is projected to remain substantially unaltered. Centroid analysis shows that most of CMIP5 projections suggest that the monsoonal annual rainfall distribution is expected to change from early to late in the course of the hydrological year by the end of the twenty-first century and particularly after year 2050. This trend is particularly evident over northern Africa, southern Africa and western Mexico, where more than 90 % of the models project a delay of the rainfall centroid from a few days up to 2 weeks. Over the remaining monsoonal regions, there is little inter-model agreement in terms of centroid changes.

  7. Efficient Formation of Stratospheric Aerosol for Climate Engineering by Emission of Condensible Vapor from Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Heckendorn, Patricia; Peter. Thomas; Keith, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analysis suggests that the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol climate engineering through emission of non-condensable vapors such as SO2 is limited because the slow conversion to H2SO4 tends to produce aerosol particles that are too large; SO2 injection may be so inefficient that it is difficult to counteract the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling. Here we describe an alternate method in which aerosol is formed rapidly in the plume following injection of H2SO4, a condensable vapor, from an aircraft. This method gives better control of particle size and can produce larger radiative forcing with lower sulfur loadings than SO2 injection. Relative to SO2 injection, it may reduce some of the adverse effects of geoengineering such as radiative heating of the lower stratosphere. This method does not, however, alter the fact that such a geoengineered radiative forcing can, at best, only partially compensate for the climate changes produced by CO2.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Particle Sampling Probes for Emission Measurements of Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Poshin; Chen, Da-Ren; Sanders, Terry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Considerable attention has been recently received on the impact of aircraft-produced aerosols upon the global climate. Sampling particles directly from jet engines has been performed by different research groups in the U.S. and Europe. However, a large variation has been observed among published data on the conversion efficiency and emission indexes of jet engines. The variation results surely from the differences in test engine types, engine operation conditions, and environmental conditions. The other factor that could result in the observed variation is the performance of sampling probes used. Unfortunately, it is often neglected in the jet engine community. Particle losses during the sampling, transport, and dilution processes are often not discussed/considered in literatures. To address this issue, we evaluated the performance of one sampling probe by challenging it with monodisperse particles. A significant performance difference was observed on the sampling probe evaluated under different temperature conditions. Thermophoretic effect, nonisokinetic sampling and turbulence loss contribute to the loss of particles in sampling probes. The results of this study show that particle loss can be dramatic if the sampling probe is not well designed. Further, the result allows ones to recover the actual size distributions emitted from jet engines.

  9. Aircraft NO/x/ emissions and stratospheric ozone reductions - Another look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Whitten, R. C.; Toon, O. B.; Inn, E. C. Y.; Hamill, P.

    1981-01-01

    New estimates for stratospheric ozone perturbations attributable to supersonic transport (SST) emissions are presented. First, a review is given of recent data pointing to lower OH concentrations below 30 km, as compared to the values predicted by photochemical models. The evidence for lower OH comes from a wide range of laboratory and atmospheric studies. The sensitivity of theoretical estimates of ozone change to OH abundances, and the coupling mechanisms between the O(x)-NO(x)-HO(x)-Cl(x) families which are responsible for the sensitivity, are discussed. Updated calculations for SST-induced ozone alterations are compared with older predictions. For example, assuming continuous aircraft injection of NO2 at 20 km at a rate of 1 x 10 to the 9th kg per year (globally), a 4% ozone decrease, is now calculated where earlier a 3% ozone increase was found. This large variance from previous forecasts suggests that new assessments of certain other polluting agents, particularly nitrogen fertilizers, are needed.

  10. Characterization of dust emission from alluvial sources using aircraft observations and high-resolution modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, Kerstin; Flamant, Cyrille; Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre; Kocha, Cecile; Banks, Jamie; Brindley, Helen; Lavaysse, Christophe; Marnas, Fabien; Pelon, Jacques; Tulet, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    We investigate mineral dust emission from alluvial sediments within the upland region in northern Mauritania in the vicinity of a decaying nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ). For the first time, the impact of valleys that are embedded in a rather homogeneous surrounding is investigated with regard to their role as dust source. Measures for local atmospheric dust burden were retrieved from airborne observations, satellite observations, and model simulations and analyzed in order to provide complementary information at different horizontal scales. Observations by the LNG backscatter lidar system flying aboard the SAFIRE Falcon 20 aircraft were taken along five parallel flight legs perpendicular to the orientation of the main valley system dominating the topography of the study area. Results from a comparison of lidar-derived extinction coefficients with topography and aerial photographs confirm the relevance of (1) alluvial sediments at the valley bottoms as a dust source, and (2) the break-down of the nocturnal LLJ as a trigger for dust emission in this region. An evaluation of the AROME regional model, forecasting dust at high resolution (5 km grid), points towards an underrepresentation of alluvial dust sources in this region. This is also evident from simulations by the MesoNH research model. Although MesoNH simulations show higher dust loadings than AROME which are more comparable to the observations, both models understimate the dust concentrations within the boundary layer compared to lidar observations. A sensitivity study on the impact of horizontal grid spacing (5 km versus 1 km) highlights the importance of spatial resolution on simulated dust loadings.

  11. Characterization of dust emission from alluvial sediments using aircraft observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schepanski, K.; Flamant, C.; Chaboureau, J.; Kocha, C.; Banks, J.; Brindley, H. E.; Lavaysse, C.; Marnas, F.; Pelon, J.; Tulet, P.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies using satellite observations show that numerous dust sources are located in the foothills of arid and semi-arid mountain regions such as over North Africa. Alluvial sediments deposited on the valley bottoms and flood plains are very prone to wind erosion and frequently serve as dust source. High surface wind speeds related to the break-down of the nocturnal low-level jet (LLJ) during the morning hours are identified as a frequent driving mechanism for dust uplift. We investigate dust emission from alluvial dust sources located within the upland region in northern Mauritania and discuss the impact of valleys with regard to their role as dust source. Measures for local atmospheric dust burden were retrieved from airborne observations, MSG SEVIR dust AOD fields and MesoNH model simulations, and analyzed in order to provide complementary information on dust source activation and local dust transport at different horizontal scales. Vertical distribution of atmospheric mineral dust was obtained from the LNG backscatter lidar system flying aboard the French Falcon-20 aircraft. Lidar extinction coefficients were compared to topography, aerial photographs, and dust AOD fields to confirm the relevance of alluvial sediments at the valley bottoms as dust source. The observed dust emission event was further evaluated using the regional model MesoNH. A sensitivity study on the impact of the horizontal grid spacing highlights the importance of the spatial resolution on simulated dust loadings. The results further illustrate the importance of an explicit representation of alluvial dust sources in such models to better capture the spatial-temporal distribution of airborne dust concentrations.

  12. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT's) on a universal airline network.Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT's. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  13. Aircraft Emission Inventories Projected in Year 2015 for a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) Universal Airline Network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.; Henderson, S.C.

    1995-07-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCT`s) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The objective of this work was to evaluate the changes in geographical distribution of the HSCT emissions as the fleet size grew from 500 to 1000 HSCT`s. For this work, a new expanded HSCT network was used and flights projected using a market penetration analysis rather than assuming equal penetration as was done in the earlier studies. Emission inventories on this network were calculated for both Mach 2.0 and Mach 2.4 HSCT fleets with NOx cruise emission indices of approximately 5 and 15 grams NOx/kg fuel. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer attitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  14. Improving and Assessing Aircraft-based Greenhouse Gas Emission Rate Measurements at Indianapolis as part of the INFLUX project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimburger, A. M. F.; Shepson, P. B.; Stirm, B. H.; Susdorf, C.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.

    2015-12-01

    Since the Copenhagen accord in 2009, several countries have affirmed their commitment to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. The United States and Canada committed to reduce their emissions by 17% below 2005 levels, by 2020, Europe by 14% and China by ~40%. To achieve such targets, coherent and effective strategies in mitigating atmospheric carbon emissions must be implemented in the next decades. Whether such goals are actually achieved, they require that reductions are "measurable", "reportable", and "verifiable". Management of greenhouse gas emissions must focus on urban environments since ~74% of CO2 emissions worldwide will be from cities, while measurement approaches are highly uncertain (~50% to >100%). The Indianapolis Flux Experiment (INFLUX) was established to develop, assess and improve top-down and bottom-up quantifications of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Based on an aircraft mass balance approach, we performed a series of experiments focused on the improvement of CO2, CH4 and CO emission rates quantification from Indianapolis, our final objective being to drastically improve the method overall uncertainty from the previous estimate of 50%. In November-December 2014, we conducted nine methodologically identical mass balance experiments in a short period of time (24 days, one downwind distance) for assumed constant total emission rate conditions, as a means to obtain an improved standard deviation of the mean determination. By averaging the individual emission rate determinations, we were able to obtain a method precision of 17% and 16% for CO2 and CO, respectively, at the 95%C.L. CH4 emission rates are highly variable day to day, leading to precision of 60%. Our results show that repetitive sampling can enable improvement in precision of the aircraft top-down methods through averaging.

  15. Insights into future air quality: Analysis of future emissions scenarios using the MARKAL model

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide an update on the development and evaluation of four Air Quality Futures (AQF) scenarios. These scenarios represent widely different assumptions regarding the evolution of the U.S. energy system over the next 40 years. The primary differences between...

  16. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to

  17. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, E.; Yamagata, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socio-economic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above pre-industrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large-scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full post-process combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required, however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise a conflict of land-use with food production is inevitable.

  18. BECCS capability of dedicated bioenergy crops under a future land-use scenario targeting net negative carbon emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Etsushi; Yamagata, Yoshiki

    2014-09-01

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) is a key component of mitigation strategies in future socioeconomic scenarios that aim to keep mean global temperature rise below 2°C above preindustrial, which would require net negative carbon emissions in the end of the 21st century. Because of the additional need for land, developing sustainable low-carbon scenarios requires careful consideration of the land-use implications of deploying large scale BECCS. We evaluated the feasibility of the large-scale BECCS in RCP2.6, which is a scenario with net negative emissions aiming to keep the 2°C temperature target, with a top-down analysis of required yields and a bottom-up evaluation of BECCS potential using a process-based global crop model. Land-use change carbon emissions related to the land expansion were examined using a global terrestrial biogeochemical cycle model. Our analysis reveals that first-generation bioenergy crops would not meet the required BECCS of the RCP2.6 scenario even with a high-fertilizer and irrigation application. Using second-generation bioenergy crops can marginally fulfill the required BECCS only if a technology of full postprocess combustion CO2 capture is deployed with a high-fertilizer application in the crop production. If such an assumed technological improvement does not occur in the future, more than doubling the area for bioenergy production for BECCS around 2050 assumed in RCP2.6 would be required; however, such scenarios implicitly induce large-scale land-use changes that would cancel half of the assumed CO2 sequestration by BECCS. Otherwise, a conflict of land use with food production is inevitable.

  19. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were investigated with the CMAQ chemistry transport model for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5 %, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions is implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulfur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from newly built ships.

  20. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the Greater North Sea region - Part 2: Scenarios for 2030

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthias, V.; Aulinger, A.; Backes, A.; Bieser, J.; Geyer, B.; Quante, M.; Zeretzke, M.

    2015-04-01

    Scenarios for future shipping emissions in the North Sea have been developed in the framework of the Clean North Sea Shipping project. The effects of changing NOx and SO2 emissions were invesigated with the chemistry transport model CMAQ for the year 2030 in the North Sea area. It has been found that, compared to today, the contribution of shipping to the NO2 and O3 concentrations will increase due to the expected enhanced traffic by more than 20 and 5%, respectively, by 2030 if no regulation for further emission reductions will be implemented in the North Sea area. PM2.5 will decrease slightly because the sulphur contents in ship fuels will be reduced as international regulations foresee. The effects differ largely between regions, seasons and date of the implementation of stricter regulations for NOx emissions from new built ships.

  1. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  2. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  3. Comparison of methane emissions from wetlands measured from aircraft and towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, S. A.; Faloona, I. C.; Drexler, J. Z.; Anderson, F. E.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Sturtevant, C. S.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Knox, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    The ability to estimate surface fluxes from light, fixed-wing aircraft is investigated during two flights over Twitchell Island, a heavily managed peatland dominated by irrigated crops approximately 6 km x 3 km in the Sacramento Delta. Flux towers provide a continuous measurement at a single point, while airborne fluxes provide a snapshot of a large area at a given time. The ability to integrate the two methods would provide a means to estimate a continuous regional flux from tower measurements. The single engine airplane (Mooney TLS), provided by Scientific Aviation, was flown around the island while concurrent flux measurements (latent & sensible heat, CO2, CH4) were being made from 4 m towers at two locations on the surface. The flux estimate made with the airplane uses horizontal mean wind measured in real-time from the airplane and the methane mixing ratio measured onboard with a Picarro f2301 analyzer. During the flights there was clear periodicity in all scalars measured coincident with the flight time required to circle the island (~6 minutes), indicating a connection between the surface and the observed signal in the airplane. For methane, higher mixing ratios were observed on the downwind side of the island. An internal boundary layer was observed, which we believe resulted from the Montezuma Hills wind farms upwind of Twitchell Island. Scalars were well-mixed throughout the depth of that internal boundary layer (~500m), which is shown to be consistent with a theoretical estimate of the internal boundary layer given the transition from the wind farm to the island vegetation. Surface emissions were estimated using a mass-balance approach where each of the terms in the scalar budget equation are estimated using a least squares minimization of the data while the airplane was within 10 km of the center of the island and the altitude was below 300 meters. Surface emission of methane during the first flight was estimated at 36 × 13 nmol m-2 s-1. During the

  4. The Change of the North American Monsoon Seasonal Precipitation in the CCSMv.4 under IPCC CO2 Emission Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, M.; Tribbia, J. J.; Caron, J.

    2012-12-01

    The North American monsoon (NAM), characterized by distinct seasonal precipitation over western Mexico and the Southwestern United States, is a summertime phenomenon that depends on complex interactions between the Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the North American land mass. Thus, the NAM is strongly influenced by the El Niño Southern Oscillation, a dominant mode of interannual Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and atmospheric variability, as well as the North Pacific Oscillation, a low-frequency (decadal) Pacific variation. This study assesses present day and projected changes in the NAM precipitation on a yearly and seasonal basis. Observations from the NCEP-NCAR Reanalysis project are compared to the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM) from 1980 to 2000. Spatial patterns agree well, but still show an overestimation in precipitation within the NAM region. Fifteen CCSM ensemble runs, for various IPCC AR4 emission scenarios (A1, B1, and constant CO2), are assessed within each specific scenario and averaged, for comparisons between 1980-2000 and 2080-2100. In the NAM region we find yearly and seasonal decreases in precipitation and increases in temperature for all IPCC emission scenarios. Our analysis further finds statistical significance to the differences in mean precipitation and temperature over the NAM region, due in part to different levels of CO2 in the atmosphere.; Future temperature climate (2080-2100) within a "high emission" scenario is compared to present temperature climate (1980-2000) to create a difference temperature plot throughout the southwestern United States.

  5. ESP v2.0: Enhanced method for exploring emission impacts of future scenarios in the United States – addressing spatial allocation

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method produces future-year air pollutant emissions for mesoscale air quality modeling applications. We present ESP v2.0, which expands upon ESP v1.0 by spatially allocating future-year emissions to account for projected population and land ...

  6. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  7. Aircraft HO sub x and NO sub x emission effects on stratospheric ozone and temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glatt, L.; Widhopf, G. F.

    1978-01-01

    A simplified two-dimensional steady-state photochemical model of the atmosphere was developed. The model was used to study the effect on the thermal and chemical structure of the atmosphere of two types of pollution cases: (1) injection of NOx and HOx from a hypothetical fleet of supersonic and subsonic aircraft and (2) injection of HOx from a hypothetical fleet of liquid-fueled hydrogen aircraft. The results are discussed with regard to stratospheric perturbations in ozone, water vapor and temperature.

  8. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO FORMATION SCENARIOS OF BURSTY RADIO EMISSION FROM ULTRACOOL DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, A. A.; Doyle, J. G.; Yu, S.; Hallinan, G.; Antonova, A.; Golden, A.

    2012-02-10

    Recently, a number of ultracool dwarfs have been found to produce periodic radio bursts with high brightness temperature and polarization degree; the emission properties are similar to the auroral radio emissions of the magnetized planets of the solar system. We simulate the dynamic spectra of radio emission from ultracool dwarfs. The emission is assumed to be generated due to the electron-cyclotron maser instability. We consider two source models: the emission caused by interaction with a satellite and the emission from a narrow sector of active longitudes; the stellar magnetic field is modeled by a tilted dipole. We have found that for the dwarf TVLM 513-46546, the model of the satellite-induced emission is inconsistent with observations. On the other hand, the model of emission from an active sector is able to reproduce qualitatively the main features of the radio light curves of this dwarf; the magnetic dipole seems to be highly tilted (by about 60 Degree-Sign ) with respect to the rotation axis.

  10. Assessment of uncertainties of an aircraft-based mass balance approach for quantifying urban greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Shepson, P. B.; Caulton, D. R.; Stirm, B.; Samarov, D.; Gurney, K. R.; Turnbull, J.; Davis, K. J.; Possolo, A.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Moser, B.; Hendricks, A.; Lauvaux, T.; Mays, K.; Whetstone, J.; Huang, J.; Razlivanov, I.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S. J.

    2014-09-01

    Urban environments are the primary contributors to global anthropogenic carbon emissions. Because much of the growth in CO2 emissions will originate from cities, there is a need to develop, assess, and improve measurement and modeling strategies for quantifying and monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from large urban centers. In this study the uncertainties in an aircraft-based mass balance approach for quantifying carbon dioxide and methane emissions from an urban environment, focusing on Indianapolis, IN, USA, are described. The relatively level terrain of Indianapolis facilitated the application of mean wind fields in the mass balance approach. We investigate the uncertainties in our aircraft-based mass balance approach by (1) assessing the sensitivity of the measured flux to important measurement and analysis parameters including wind speed, background CO2 and CH4, boundary layer depth, and interpolation technique, and (2) determining the flux at two or more downwind distances from a point or area source (with relatively large source strengths such as solid waste facilities and a power generating station) in rapid succession, assuming that the emission flux is constant. When we quantify the precision in the approach by comparing the estimated emissions derived from measurements at two or more downwind distances from an area or point source, we find that the minimum and maximum repeatability were 12 and 52%, with an average of 31%. We suggest that improvements in the experimental design can be achieved by careful determination of the background concentration, monitoring the evolution of the boundary layer through the measurement period, and increasing the number of downwind horizontal transect measurements at multiple altitudes within the boundary layer.

  11. Aircraft de-icer: Recycling can cut carbon emissions in half

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-01-15

    Flight-safety regulations in most countries require aircraft to be ice-free upon takeoff. In icy weather, this means that the aircraft usually must be de-iced (existing ice is removed) and sometimes anti-iced (to protect against ice-reformation). For both processes, aircraft typically are sprayed with an 'antifreeze' solution, consisting mainly of glycol diluted with water. This de/anti-icing creates an impact on the environment, of which environmental regulators have grown increasingly conscious. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), for example, recently introduced stricter rules that require airports above minimum size to collect de-icing effluents and send them to wastewater treatment. De-icer collection and treatment is already done at most major airports, but a few have gone one step further: rather than putting the effluent to wastewater, they recycle it. This study examines the carbon savings that can be achieved by recycling de-icer. There are two key findings. One, recycling, as opposed to not recycling, cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50% - and even more, in regions where electricity-generation is cleaner. Two, recycling petrochemical-based de-icer generates a 15-30% lower footprint than using 'bio' de-icer without recycling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon footprint of aircraft de-icing can be measured. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling aircraft de-icer cuts the footprint of aircraft de-icing by 40-50%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recycling 'fossil' de-icer is lower carbon than not recycling 'bio' de-icer.

  12. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours. PMID:9686444

  13. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  14. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  15. Quantifying climate change mitigation potential in Great Plains wetlands for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin B.; Ratliff, Jamie L.; Wein, Anne; Bliss, Norman B.; Sleeter, Benjamin M.; Sohl, Terry L.; Li, Zhengpeng

    2015-01-01

    We examined opportunities for avoided loss of wetland carbon stocks in the Great Plains of the United States in the context of future agricultural expansion through analysis of land-use land-cover (LULC) change scenarios, baseline carbon datasets and biogeochemical model outputs. A wetland map that classifies wetlands according to carbon pools was created to describe future patterns of carbon loss and potential carbon savings. Wetland avoided loss scenarios, superimposed upon LULC change scenarios, quantified carbon stocks preserved under criteria of carbon densities or land value plus cropland suitability. Up to 3420 km2 of wetlands may be lost in the region by 2050, mainly due to conversion of herbaceous wetlands in the Temperate Prairies where soil organic carbon (SOC) is highest. SOC loss would be approximately 0.20 ± 0.15 megagrams of carbon per hectare per year (MgC ha−1 yr−1), depending upon tillage practices on converted wetlands, and total ecosystem carbon loss in woody wetlands would be approximately 0.81 ± 0.41 MgC ha−1 yr−1, based on biogeochemical model results. Among wetlands vulnerable to conversion, wetlands in the Northern Glaciated Plains and Lake Agassiz Plains ecoregions exhibit very high mean SOC and on average, relatively low land values, potentially creating economically competitive opportunities for avoided carbon loss. This mitigation scenarios approach may be adapted by managers using their own preferred criteria to select sites that best meet their objectives. Results can help prioritize field-based assessments, where site-level investigations of carbon stocks, land value, and consideration of local priorities for climate change mitigation programs are needed.

  16. Uncertainties of the extreme high flows under climate change impact due to emission scenarios, hydrological models and parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ye; Booij, Martijn; Zhu, Qian; Pan, Suli; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2013-04-01

    Climate change has exerted a significant impact on the hydrological cycle which is closely related to human's daily life. Due to the fact that the extreme precipitation is happening with increasing frequency and intensity, the study of extreme high flows has been an issue of great importance in recent years. Normally the future discharges are simulated by hydrological models with outputs from the RCMs. However the uncertainties are involved in every step of the processes, including GCMs, emission scenarios, downscaling methods, hydrological models and etc. In this study, the uncertainties in extreme high flows originating from greenhouse gas emission scenarios, hydrological model structures and their parameters were evaluated for the Jinhua River basin, East China. The baseline (1961-1990) climate and future (2011-2040) climate for scenario A1B, A2 and B2 were downscaled by the PRECIS Regional Climate Model with a spatial resolution of 50km×50km from the General Circulation Model (GCM). The outputs of the PRECIS (daily temperature and daily precipitation) were bias corrected by a distribution based method and a linear correction method. Three hydrological models (GR4J, HBV and Xinanjiang) were applied to simulate the daily discharge. The parameter uncertainty in hydrological models were taken into account and quantified by means of the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method. The GLUE was applied for each hydrological model in three emission scenarios. In total 30000 parameter sets were randomly generated within the parameter ranges, in which about 10% parameter sets were above the pre-assigned threshold and represented as the parameter uncertainty. The annual maximum discharge was used for the extreme high flow analysis. There was an overestimation for the monthly precipitation in July, August and September and an overestimation of 6.3-7.8 oC for monthly temperature all year round in the PRECIS output. The biases were reduced after bias

  17. A scenario analysis of the life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of a new residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Säynäjoki, Antti; Heinonen, Jukka; Junnila, Seppo

    2012-09-01

    While buildings are often credited as accounting for some 40% of the global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the construction phase is typically assumed to account for only around one tenth of the overall emissions. However, the relative importance of construction phase emissions is quickly increasing as the energy efficiency of buildings increases. In addition, the significance of construction may actually be much higher when the temporal perspective of the emissions is taken into account. The construction phase carbon spike, i.e. high GHG emissions in a short time associated with the beginning of the building’s life cycle, may be high enough to question whether new construction, no matter how energy efficient the buildings are, can contribute to reaching the greenhouse gas mitigation goals of the near future. Furthermore, the construction of energy efficient buildings causes more GHG emissions than the construction of conventional buildings. On the other hand, renovating the current building stock together with making energy efficiency improvements might lead to a smaller construction phase carbon spike and still to the same reduced energy consumption in the use phase as the new energy efficient buildings. The study uses a new residential development project in Northern Europe to assess the overall life cycle GHG emissions of a new residential area and to evaluate the influence of including the temporal allocation of the life cycle GHG emissions in the assessment. In the study, buildings with different energy efficiency levels are compared with a similar hypothetical area of buildings of the average existing building stock, as well as with a renovation of an area with average buildings from the 1960s. The GHG emissions are modeled with a hybrid life cycle assessment. The study suggests that the carbon payback time of constructing new residential areas is several decades long even when using very energy efficient buildings compared to utilizing the current

  18. Potential health risks from exposure to hazardous waste incinerator emissions -- Worst-case scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kosalwat, P.; Whitten, M.

    1995-12-31

    Potential health hazards to persons exposed to maximum permitted levels of air emissions from a hypothetical hazardous waste incinerator were investigated. By using extremely conservative assumptions, a multiple pathway, health risk assessment was performed for the facility. The procedures used to perform the risk analysis were based on US EPA ``Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Combustor Emissions.`` Ambient air concentrations of chemicals in air approved dispersion model (ISCST model). The model is based on maximum (instantaneous) allowable emission rates for permitted constituents, which is likely to overstate exposures and resultant health risks associated with facility emissions. The analysis focused on 22 key chemicals which typically exist in emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. Exposure pathways included inhalation, soil contact, and consumption of locally derived food products (fruits and vegetables, beef, milk, and fish). The receptors were hypothetical residents living in an area of maximum air concentrations and deposition downwind of the facility. The results showed that the theoretical excess cancer risk levels for lifetime exposure to the incinerator emissions for residents was 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} (i.e., 1 in 100,000 exposed individuals), which is approximately one magnitude higher than EPA`s target risk level of 10{sup {minus}6} (i.e., 1 in 1 million exposed individuals) used for environmentally-related chemical exposures. Long-term exposure to noncarcinogenic chemicals potentially present in the emissions was not expected to result in adverse health effects for adults or children living in the immediate vicinity. Total hazard quotients which included oral, dermal, and inhalation exposures, were below unity (i.e., 0.30 and 0.26 for a maximally exposed child and a maximally exposed adult, respectively).

  19. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

    2014-05-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  20. Scenario analysis on the goal of carbon emission peaking around 2030 of China proposed in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, T.

    2015-12-01

    A goal of carbon (C) emission peaking around 2030 of China was declared in the China-U.S. joint statement on climate change, and emphasized in China's intended nationally determined contributions (INDC). Here, we predicted the carbon emission of China during the period 2011~2050 under seven scenarios, and analyzed the scientific and social implications of realizing the goal. Our results showed that: (1) C emissions of China will reach their peaks at 2022~2045 (with peak values 3.15~5.10 Pg C), and the predicted decay rates of C intensity were 2.1~4.2% in 2011~2050; (2) the precondition that the national C emission reaches the peak before 2030 is that the annual decay rates of C intensity must exceed 3.3% , as decay rates under different scenarios were predicted higher than that except for Past G8 scenario; (3) the national C emission would reach the peak before 2030, if the government of China should realize the C emissions reduction goals of China's 12th five-year plan, climate commitments of Copenhagen and INDC; (4) Chinese government could realize the goal of C emission peaking around 2030 from just controlling C emission intensity , but associated with relatively higher government's burden. In summary, China's C emission may well peak before 2030, meanwhile the combination of emissions reduction and economic macro-control would be demanded to avoid heavier social pressure of C emissions reduction occurred.

  1. Trend and uncertainty analysis of simulated climate change impacts with multiple GCMs and emission scenarios

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impacts of climate change on hydrology, soil erosion, and wheat production during 2010-2039 at El Reno in central Oklahoma, USA, were simulated using the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model. Projections from four GCMs (CCSR/NIES, CGCM2, CSIRO-Mk2, and HadCM3) under three emissions scenari...

  2. Can trace gas emission be modified by management scenarios in the northern Corn Belt?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field plots were established in 2002 in west central Minnesota to compare tillage, rotation and fertilizer treatments and to identify and develop economically-viable and environmentally- sustainable farming systems. Greenhouse gas emission (nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide) was monitored in...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Contrasting Management Scenarios in the Northern Corn Belt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term cropping systems field plots were established in 2002 in west central Minnesota to compare tillage, rotation and fertilizer treatments and to identify and develop economically viable and environmentally sustainable farming systems. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission was monitored in three scena...

  4. Downscaling socioeconomic and emissions scenarios for global environmental change research:a review

    SciTech Connect

    Van Vuuren, Detlet; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan

    2010-05-01

    Abstract: Global change research encompasses global to local scale analysis. Impacts analysis in particular often requires spatial downscaling, whereby socio-economic and emissions variables specified at relatively large spatial scales are translated to values at a country or grid level. The methods used for spatial downscaling are reviewed, classified, and current applications discussed.

  5. Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

  6. Emissions of C6-C8 aromatic compounds in the United States: Constraints from tall tower and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lu; Millet, Dylan B.; Baasandorj, Munkhbayar; Griffis, Timothy J.; Travis, Katherine R.; Tessum, Christopher W.; Marshall, Julian D.; Reinhart, Wesley F.; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Wisthaler, Armin; Graus, Martin; Warneke, Carsten; Gouw, Joost

    2015-01-01

    present two full years of continuous C6-C8 aromatic compound measurements by PTR-MS at the KCMP tall tower (Minnesota, US) and employ GEOS-Chem nested grid simulations in a Bayesian inversion to interpret the data in terms of new constraints on US aromatic emissions. Based on the tall tower data, we find that the RETRO inventory (year-2000) overestimates US C6-C8 aromatic emissions by factors of 2.0-4.5 during 2010-2011, likely due in part to post-2000 reductions. Likewise, our implementation of the US EPA's NEI08 overestimates the toluene flux by threefold, reflecting an inventory bias in non-road emissions plus uncertainties associated with species lumping. Our annual top-down emission estimates for benzene and C8 aromatics agree with the NEI08 bottom-up values, as does the inferred contribution from non-road sources. However, the NEI08 appears to underestimate on-road emissions of these compounds by twofold during the warm season. The implied aromatic sources upwind of North America are more than double the prior estimates, suggesting a substantial underestimate of East Asian emissions, or large increases there since 2000. Long-range transport exerts an important influence on ambient benzene over the US: on average 43% of its wintertime abundance in the US Upper Midwest is due to sources outside North America. Independent aircraft measurements show that the inventory biases found here for C6-C8 aromatics also apply to other parts of the US, with notable exceptions for toluene in California and Houston, Texas. Our best estimates of year-2011 contiguous US emissions are 206 (benzene), 408 (toluene), and 822 (C8 aromatics) GgC.

  7. Hadronic Scenarios for Gamma-Ray Emission from Three Supernova Remnants Interacting with Molecular Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huan; Fang, Jun; Zhang, Li

    2014-04-01

    GeV γ-rays detected with the large area telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray space telescope in the direction of HB21, MSH 17-39 and G337.0-0.1 have been recently reported. The three supernova remnants (SNRs) show interactions with molecular clouds, and they are effective gamma-ray emitters as the relativistic protons accelerated by the SNR shocks inelastically colliding with the dense gas in the clouds. The origin of the observed γ-rays for the three remnants is investigated in the scenario of the diffusive shock acceleration. In the model, a part of the SNR shock transmits into the nearby molecular clouds, and the shock velocity is greatly reduced. As a result, a shock with a relatively low Alfvén Mach number is generated, and the spectra of the accelerated protons and the γ-ray photons produced via proton-proton interaction can be obtained. The results show that the observed γ-ray spectra for the three SNRs interacting with the molecular clouds can be reproduced. It can be concluded that the hadronic origin of the γ-rays for the three SNRs is approved, and the ability of SNR shocks to accelerate protons is also supported.

  8. Canadian economic and emissions model for agriculture, C.E.E.M.A., version 1.0, report 2: Preliminary results of selected scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Kulshreshtha, S.N.

    1999-09-01

    This is one of three technical reports which document an integrated agro-ecological economic modelling system that can be used to simultaneously assess the economic and the greenhouse gas emission impacts of agricultural policies at the regional and national levels. After an introduction on the importance of agricultural emissions of greenhouse gases and the need for a study of this issue, chapter 2 reviews the greenhouse gas emission model. Chapter 3 contains model-based estimates of greenhouse gas emission levels for the base year of 1990. Chapter 4 predicts future levels of emissions under medium-term baseline projections. Chapter 5 reviews some of the mitigation strategies available to Canadian farmers and assesses their impact on greenhouse emissions. Implications of trends in livestock production are also examined as a separate scenario. Using the scenarios developed in chapter 5, chapter 6 presents results of greenhouse gas emission estimates for individual gases, various production regions, and various emissions activities. The final chapter summarizes major results and discusses their implications for agricultural policy. Appendices include a description of the modelling methodology and a table showing estimates of the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions by crop and livestock production activities under various scenarios.

  9. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  10. Study of the impact of cruise and passenger ships on a Mediterranean port city air quality - Study of future emission mitigation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liora, Natalia; Poupkou, Anastasia; Kontos, Serafim; Giannaros, Christos; Melas, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    An increase of the passenger ships traffic is expected in the Mediterranean Sea as targeted by the EU Blue Growth initiative. This increase is expected to impact the Mediterranean port-cities air quality considering not only the conventional atmospheric pollutants but also the toxic ones that are emitted by the ships (e.g. Nickel). The aim of this study is the estimation of the present and future time pollutant emissions from cruise and passenger maritime transport in the port area of Thessaloniki (Greece) as well as the impact of those emissions on the city air quality. Cruise and passenger ship emissions have been estimated for the year 2013 over a 100m spatial resolution grid which covers the greater port area of Thessaloniki. Emissions have been estimated for the following macro-pollutants; NOx, SO2, NMVOC, CO, CO2 and particulate matter (PM). In addition, the most important micro-pollutants studied in this work are As, Cd, Pb, Ni and Benzo(a)pyrene for which air quality limits have been set by the EU. Emissions have been estimated for three operation modes; cruising, maneuvering and hotelling. For the calculation of the present time maritime emissions, the activity data used were provided by the Thessaloniki Port Authority S.A. Moreover, future pollutant emissions are estimated using the future activity data provided by the Port Authority and the IMO legislation for shipping in the future. In addition, two mitigation emission scenarios are examined; the use of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) as a fuel used by ships and the implementation of cold ironing which is the electrification of ships during hotelling mode leading to the elimination of the corresponding emissions. The impact of the present and future passenger ship emissions on the air quality of Thessaloniki is examined with the use of the model CALPUFF applied over the 100m spatial resolution grid using the meteorology of WRF. Simulations of the modeling system are performed for four different emission

  11. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  12. Probing emissions of military cargo aircraft: description of a joint field measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Corporan, Edwin; DeWitt, Matthew J; Spicer, Chester W; Holdren, Michael W; Cowen, Kenneth A; Laskin, Alex; Harris, David B; Shores, Richard C; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    2008-06-01

    To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air National Guard base in Louisville, KY. Conventional and research-grade instrumentation and methodology were used in the field campaign during the first week of October 2005. Particulate emissions were sampled at the engine exit plane and at 15 m downstream. In addition, remote sensing of the gaseous species was performed via spectroscopic techniques at 5 and 15 m downstream of the engine exit. It was found that PM mass and number concentrations measured at 15-m downstream locations, after dilution-correction generally agreed well with those measured at the engine exhaust plane; however, higher variations were observed in the far-field after natural dilution of the downstream measurements was accounted for. Using carbon dioxide-normalized data we demonstrated that gas species measurements by extractive and remote sensing techniques agreed reasonably well. PMID:18581808

  13. Assessment of Microphysical Models in the National Combustion Code (NCC) for Aircraft Particulate Emissions: Particle Loss in Sampling Lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Thomas; Liu, Nan-Suey

    2008-01-01

    This paper at first describes the fluid network approach recently implemented into the National Combustion Code (NCC) for the simulation of transport of aerosols (volatile particles and soot) in the particulate sampling systems. This network-based approach complements the other two approaches already in the NCC, namely, the lower-order temporal approach and the CFD-based approach. The accuracy and the computational costs of these three approaches are then investigated in terms of their application to the prediction of particle losses through sample transmission and distribution lines. Their predictive capabilities are assessed by comparing the computed results with the experimental data. The present work will help establish standard methodologies for measuring the size and concentration of particles in high-temperature, high-velocity jet engine exhaust. Furthermore, the present work also represents the first step of a long term effort of validating physics-based tools for the prediction of aircraft particulate emissions.

  14. Mars methane emission and transport scenarios using the GEM-Mars GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neary, Lori; Daerden, Frank; Kaminski, J. W.; McConnell, J. C.

    2010-05-01

    The observation of methane (Formisano et al., 2004; Krasnopolsky et al., 2004; Mumma et al., 2009) in the Martian atmosphere has raised questions about its source and origin as well as its chemical behaviour. The photochemical lifetime of methane is on the order of several hundred years which would give a well-mixed, uniform distribution but measurements suggest locally enhanced "plumes". The GEM-Mars three-dimensional global chemistry-climate model is used to investigate the possible emission rates and lifetime of methane. The model simulations have a horizontal resolution of 4x4 degrees with 101 vertical levels up to approximately 140 km. References Formisano, V., S. Atreya, T. Encrenaz, N. Ignatiev, and M. Giuranna (2004), Detection of Methane in the Atmosphere of Mars, Science 306, 1758 (2004). Krasnopolsky, V. A., J. P. Maillard, and T. C. Owen (2004), Icarus 172, 537. Mumma, M.J., G.L. Villanueva, R.E. Novak, T. Hewagama, B.P. Bonev, M.A. DiSanti, A.M. Mandell, and M.D. Smith (2009), Strong Release of Methane on Mars in Northern Summer 2003. Science, 2009. 323: p. 1041-1045.

  15. Assessing concentrations and health impacts of air quality management strategies: Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation (FRESH-EST).

    PubMed

    Milando, Chad W; Martenies, Sheena E; Batterman, Stuart A

    2016-09-01

    In air quality management, reducing emissions from pollutant sources often forms the primary response to attaining air quality standards and guidelines. Despite the broad success of air quality management in the US, challenges remain. As examples: allocating emissions reductions among multiple sources is complex and can require many rounds of negotiation; health impacts associated with emissions, the ultimate driver for the standards, are not explicitly assessed; and long dispersion model run-times, which result from the increasing size and complexity of model inputs, limit the number of scenarios that can be evaluated, thus increasing the likelihood of missing an optimal strategy. A new modeling framework, called the "Framework for Rapid Emissions Scenario and Health impact ESTimation" (FRESH-EST), is presented to respond to these challenges. FRESH-EST estimates concentrations and health impacts of alternative emissions scenarios at the urban scale, providing efficient computations from emissions to health impacts at the Census block or other desired spatial scale. In addition, FRESH-EST can optimize emission reductions to meet specified environmental and health constraints, and a convenient user interface and graphical displays are provided to facilitate scenario evaluation. The new framework is demonstrated in an SO2 non-attainment area in southeast Michigan with two optimization strategies: the first minimizes emission reductions needed to achieve a target concentration; the second minimizes concentrations while holding constant the cumulative emissions across local sources (e.g., an emissions floor). The optimized strategies match outcomes in the proposed SO2 State Implementation Plan without the proposed stack parameter modifications or shutdowns. In addition, the lower health impacts estimated for these strategies suggest that FRESH-EST could be used to identify potentially more desirable pollution control alternatives in air quality management planning

  16. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2014-11-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows minimizing several error sources in the model (e.g. representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion). The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory, and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g. boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g. BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably though sensitivity tests. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained on the TNO BC emissions and on EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as on the BC/NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC/NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests potential error compensations in the BC emissions spatial distribution over the agglomeration.

  17. Enduse Global Emissions Mitigation Scenarios (EGEMS): A New Generation of Energy Efficiency Policy Planning Models

    SciTech Connect

    McNeil, Michael A.; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; McMahon, James E.

    2009-05-29

    This paper presents efforts to date and prospective goals towards development of a modelling and analysis framework which is comprehensive enough to address the global climate crisis, and detailed enough to provide policymakers with concrete targets and achievable outcomes. In terms of energy efficiency policy, this requires coverage of the entire world, with emphasis on countries and regions with large and/or rapidly growing energy-related emissions, and analysis at the 'technology' level-building end use, transport mode or industrial process. These elements have not been fully addressed by existing modelling efforts, which usually take either a top-down approach, or concentrate on a few fully industrialized countries where energy demand is well-understood. Inclusion of details such as appliance ownership rates, use patterns and efficiency levels throughout the world allows for a deeper understanding of the demand for energy today and, more importantly, over the coming decades. This is a necessary next step for energy analysts and policy makers in assessment of mitigation potentials. The modelling system developed at LBNL over the past 3 years takes advantage of experience in end use demand and in forecasting markets for energy-consuming equipment, in combination with known technology-based efficiency opportunities and policy types. A particular emphasis has been placed on modelling energy growth in developing countries. Experiences to date include analyses covering individual countries (China and India), end uses (refrigerators and air conditioners) and policy types (standards and labelling). Each of these studies required a particular effort in data collection and model refinement--they share, however, a consistent approach and framework which allows comparison, and forms the foundation of a comprehensive analysis system leading to a roadmap to address the greenhouse gas mitigation targetslikely to be set in the coming years.

  18. Influence of Jet Fuel Composition on Aircraft Engine Emissions: A Synthesis of Aerosol Emissions Data from the NASA APEX, AAFEX, and ACCESS Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C.; Herndon, S. C.; Knighton, W. B.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Yu, Z.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    We statistically analyze the impact of jet fuel properties on aerosols emitted by the NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engines burning fifteen different aviation fuels. Data were collected for this single engine type during four different, comprehensive ground tests conducted over the past decade, which allow us to clearly link changes in aerosol emissions to fuel compositional changes. It is found that the volatile aerosol fraction dominates the number and volume emissions indices (EIs) over all engine powers, which are driven by changes in fuel aromatic and sulfur content. Meanwhile, the naphthalenic content of the fuel determines the magnitude of the non-volatile number and volume EI as well as the black carbon mass EI. Linear regression coefficients are reported for each aerosol EI in terms of these properties, engine fuel flow rate, and ambient temperature, and show that reducing both fuel sulfur content and napththalenes to near-zero levels would result in roughly a ten-fold decrease in aerosol number emitted per kg of fuel burn. This work informs future efforts to model aircraft emissions changes as the aviation fleet gradually begins to transition toward low-aromatic, low-sulfur alternative jet fuels from bio-based or Fischer-Tropsch production pathways.

  19. Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of commercial aviation has fueled concerns over air quality around airports and the surrounding communities. Airports must expand their operations to meet the increase in air traffic, but expansion plans have been delayed or canceled due to concerns over local air quality. This paper presents the methodology for real-time measurements of aircraft engine specific Particulate Matter (PM) emissions and analysis of the associated high resolution data acquired during normal Landing and Take-Off (LTO) operations 100-300 m downwind of an active taxi-/runway at the Oakland International Airport. The airframe-engine combinations studied included B737-300 with CFM56-3B engines, B737-700/800 with CFM56-7B engines, A320 with V2500-A5 engines, MD-80 with JT-8D engines, A300 with CF6-80 engines, DC-10 with CF6-50 engines, and CRJ-100/200 with CF34-3B engines. For all engine types studied, the size distributions were typically bimodal in nature with a nucleation mode comprised of freshly nucleated PM and an accumulation mode comprised mostly of PM soot with some condensed volatile material. The PM number-based emission index observed ranged between 7 × 1015-3 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at idle/taxi and between 4 × 1015-2 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at take-off, and the associated PM mass-based emission index (EIm) ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 g kg-1 fuel burned at both the idle/taxi and take-off conditions. Older technology engines such as the CFM56-3B and JT8D engines were observed to have as much as 3× higher PM EIm values at take-off compared to newer engine technology such as the CFM56-7B engine. The results from this study provide information for better characterizing evolving PM emissions from in-service commercial aircraft under normal LTO operations and assessing their impact on local and regional air quality and health related impacts.

  20. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  1. A USA Commercial Flight Track Database for Upper Tropospheric Aircraft Emission Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, Donald P.; Minnis, Patrick; Costulis, Kay P.

    2003-01-01

    A new air traffic database over the contiguous United States of America (USA) has been developed from a commercially available real-time product for 2001-2003 for all non-military flights above 25,000 ft. Both individual flight tracks and gridded spatially integrated flight legs are available. On average, approximately 24,000 high-altitude flights were recorded each day. The diurnal cycle of air traffic over the USA is characterized by a broad daytime maximum with a 0130-LT minimum and a mean day-night air traffic ratio of 2.4. Each week, the air traffic typically peaks on Thursday and drops to a low Saturday with a range of 18%. Flight density is greatest during late summer and least during winter. The database records the disruption of air traffic after the air traffic shutdown during September 2001. The dataset should be valuable for realistically simulating the atmospheric effects of aircraft in the upper troposphere.

  2. Constraining Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft Observations and Mesoscale Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkley, Z.; Davis, K.; Lauvaux, T.; Miles, N.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Deng, A.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.; Schwietzke, S.

    2015-12-01

    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated fugitive emission rate associated with the production phase varies greatly between studies, hindering our understanding of the natural gas energy efficiency. This study presents a new application of inverse methodology for estimating regional fugitive emission rates from natural gas production. Methane observations across the Marcellus region in northeastern Pennsylvania were obtained during a three week flight campaign in May 2015 performed by a team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Global Monitoring Division and the University of Michigan. In addition to these data, CH4 observations were obtained from automobile campaigns during various periods from 2013-2015. An inventory of CH4 emissions was then created for various sources in Pennsylvania, including coalmines, enteric fermentation, industry, waste management, and unconventional and conventional wells. As a first-guess emission rate for natural gas activity, a leakage rate equal to 2% of the natural gas production was emitted at the locations of unconventional wells across PA. These emission rates were coupled to the Weather Research and Forecasting model with the chemistry module (WRF-Chem) and atmospheric CH4 concentration fields at 1km resolution were generated. Projected atmospheric enhancements from WRF-Chem were compared to observations, and the emission rate from unconventional wells was adjusted to minimize errors between observations and simulation. We show that the modeled CH4 plume structures match observed plumes downwind of unconventional wells, providing confidence in the methodology. In all cases, the fugitive emission rate was found to be lower than our first guess. In this initial emission configuration, each well has been assigned the same fugitive emission rate, which can potentially impair our ability to match the observed spatial variability

  3. Screening analysis and selection of emission reduction concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust emission reduction concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the emission reduction technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution reduction problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected emission reduction responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.

  4. Modeled Trends in Impacts of Landing and Takeoff Aircraft Emissions on Surface Air-Quality in U.S for 2005, 2010 and 2018

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennam, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the present-day impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality is essential to plan potential mitigation policies for future growth. Stringent regulation on mobile source-related emissions in the recent past coupled with anticipated rise in the growth in aviation activity can increase the relative impacts of aviation-attributable surface air quality if adequate measures for reducing aviation emissions are not implemented. Though aircraft emissions during in-flight mode (at upper altitudes) contribute a significant (70 - 80%) proportion of the total aviation emissions, landing and takeoff (LTO) related emissions can have immediate impact on surface air quality, as most of the large airports are located in urban areas, specifically those that are designated in nonattainment for O3 and/or PM2.5. In this study, we modeled impacts of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles on surface air quality using the latest version of the CMAQ model for two contemporary years (2005, 2010) and one future year (2018). For this regional scale modeling study, we used highly resolved aircraft emissions from the FAA's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), meteorology from NASA's Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) downscaled with the WRF model, dynamically varying chemical boundary conditions from the CAM-Chem global model (which also used the same AEDT emissions but at the global scale), and spatio-temporally resolved lightning NOx emissions estimated using National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) flash density data. We evaluated our model results with air quality observations from surface-based networks and in-situ aircraft observation data for the contemporary years. We will present results from model evaluation using this enhanced modeling system, as well as the trajectories in aviation- related air quality (focusing on O3, NO2 and PM2.5) for the three modeling years considered in this study. These findings will help plan

  5. Future development programs. [for emission reduction and production of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, L.

    1976-01-01

    A company program was planned which has a main drive to develop those emission reduction concepts that have the promise of earliest success. These programs were proposed in an attempt to enhance existing engine systems, exploiting their potential for emission reduction as far as is compatible with retaining the well established features in them that are well understood and in current production. The intended programs identified in the area of new concepts were: (1) upgrading the TCM fuel system, (2) evaluation of accelerator pump, (3) reduced cooling requirement, and (4) variable spark timing.

  6. Emissions and new technology programs for conventional spark-ignition aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    A long-range technology plan in support of general aviation engines was formulated and is being implemented at the Lewis Research Center. The overall program was described, and that part of the program that represents the in-house effort at Lewis was presented in detail. Three areas of government and industry effort involving conventional general-aviation piston engines were part of a coordinated overall plan: (1) FAA/NASA joint program, (2) NASA contract exhaust emissions pollution reduction program, and (3) NASA in-house emissions reduction and new technology program.

  7. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

  8. ESP v2.0: enhanced method for exploring emission impacts of future scenarios in the United States - addressing spatial allocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ran, L.; Loughlin, D. H.; Yang, D.; Adelman, Z.; Baek, B. H.; Nolte, C. G.

    2015-06-01

    The Emission Scenario Projection (ESP) method produces future-year air pollutant emissions for mesoscale air quality modeling applications. We present ESP v2.0, which expands upon ESP v1.0 by spatially allocating future-year non-power sector emissions to account for projected population and land use changes. In ESP v2.0, US Census division-level emission growth factors are developed using an energy system model. Regional factors for population-related emissions are spatially disaggregated to the county level using population growth and migration projections. The county-level growth factors are then applied to grow a base-year emission inventory to the future. Spatial surrogates are updated to account for future population and land use changes, and these surrogates are used to map projected county-level emissions to a modeling grid for use within an air quality model. We evaluate ESP v2.0 by comparing US 12 km emissions for 2005 with projections for 2050. We also evaluate the individual and combined effects of county-level disaggregation and of updating spatial surrogates. Results suggest that the common practice of modeling future emissions without considering spatial redistribution over-predicts emissions in the urban core and under-predicts emissions in suburban and exurban areas. In addition to improving multi-decadal emission projections, a strength of ESP v2.0 is that it can be applied to assess the emissions and air quality implications of alternative energy, population and land use scenarios.

  9. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-02-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg yr-1, compared with 1.92 Tg yr-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg yr-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg yr-1), livestock (0.87 Tg yr-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg yr-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08, respectively. An observation system simulation experiment (OSSE) shows that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  10. Spatially resolving methane emissions in California: constraints from the CalNex aircraft campaign and from present (GOSAT, TES) and future (TROPOMI, geostationary) satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wecht, K. J.; Jacob, D. J.; Sulprizio, M. P.; Santoni, G. W.; Wofsy, S. C.; Parker, R.; Bösch, H.; Worden, J.

    2014-08-01

    We apply a continental-scale inverse modeling system for North America based on the GEOS-Chem model to optimize California methane emissions at 1/2° × 2/3° horizontal resolution using atmospheric observations from the CalNex aircraft campaign (May-June 2010) and from satellites. Inversion of the CalNex data yields a best estimate for total California methane emissions of 2.86 ± 0.21 Tg a-1, compared with 1.92 Tg a-1 in the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory used as a priori and 1.51 Tg a-1 in the California Air Resources Board (CARB) inventory used for state regulations of greenhouse gas emissions. These results are consistent with a previous Lagrangian inversion of the CalNex data. Our inversion provides 12 independent pieces of information to constrain the geographical distribution of emissions within California. Attribution to individual source types indicates dominant contributions to emissions from landfills/wastewater (1.1 Tg a-1), livestock (0.87 Tg a-1), and gas/oil (0.64 Tg a-1). EDGAR v4.2 underestimates emissions from livestock, while CARB underestimates emissions from landfills/wastewater and gas/oil. Current satellite observations from GOSAT can constrain methane emissions in the Los Angeles Basin but are too sparse to constrain emissions quantitatively elsewhere in California (they can still be qualitatively useful to diagnose inventory biases). Los Angeles Basin emissions derived from CalNex and GOSAT inversions are 0.42 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.08 Tg a-1 that the future TROPOMI satellite instrument (2015 launch) will be able to constrain California methane emissions at a detail comparable to the CalNex aircraft campaign. Geostationary satellite observations offer even greater potential for constraining methane emissions in the future.

  11. Aircraft-Based Estimate of Total Methane Emissions from the Barnett Shale Region.

    PubMed

    Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Kort, Eric A; Shepson, Paul B; Brewer, Alan; Cambaliza, Maria; Conley, Stephen A; Davis, Ken; Deng, Aijun; Hardesty, Mike; Herndon, Scott C; Lauvaux, Thomas; Lavoie, Tegan; Lyon, David; Newberger, Tim; Pétron, Gabrielle; Rella, Chris; Smith, Mackenzie; Wolter, Sonja; Yacovitch, Tara I; Tans, Pieter

    2015-07-01

    We present estimates of regional methane (CH4) emissions from oil and natural gas operations in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using airborne atmospheric measurements. Using a mass balance approach on eight different flight days in March and October 2013, the total CH4 emissions for the region are estimated to be 76 ± 13 × 10(3) kg hr(-1) (equivalent to 0.66 ± 0.11 Tg CH4 yr(-1); 95% confidence interval (CI)). We estimate that 60 ± 11 × 10(3) kg CH4 hr(-1) (95% CI) are emitted by natural gas and oil operations, including production, processing, and distribution in the urban areas of Dallas and Fort Worth. This estimate agrees with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) estimate for nationwide CH4 emissions from the natural gas sector when scaled by natural gas production, but it is higher than emissions reported by the EDGAR inventory or by industry to EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. This study is the first to show consistency between mass balance results on so many different days and in two different seasons, enabling better quantification of the related uncertainty. The Barnett is one of the largest production basins in the United States, with 8% of total U.S. natural gas production, and thus, our results represent a crucial step toward determining the greenhouse gas footprint of U.S. onshore natural gas production. PMID:26148550

  12. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  13. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  14. Comparison of improved Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) CO{sub 2} with HIPPO and SGP aircraft profile measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kulawik, S. S.; Worden, J. R.; Wofsy, S. C.; Biraud, S. C.; Nassar, R.; Jones, D. B.A.; Olsen, E. T.; Osterman, G. B.

    2012-02-01

    Comparisons are made between mid-tropospheric Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) satellite measurements and ocean profiles from three Hiaper Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) campaigns and land aircraft profiles from the United States Southern Great Plains (SGP) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site over a 4-yr period. These comparisons are used to characterize the bias in the TES CO{sub 2} estimates and to assess whether calculated and actual uncertainties and sensitivities are consistent. The HIPPO dataset is one of the few datasets spanning the altitude range where TES CO{sub 2} estimates are sensitive, which is especially important for characterization of biases. We find that TES CO{sub 2} estimates capture the seasonal and latitudinal gradients observed by HIPPO CO{sub 2} measurements; actual errors range from 0.8–1.2 ppm, depending on the campaign, and are approximately 1.4 times larger than the predicted errors. The bias of TES versus HIPPO is within 0.85 ppm for each of the 3 campaigns; however several of the sub-tropical TES CO{sub 2} estimates are lower than expected based on the calculated errors. Comparisons of aircraft flask profiles, which are measured from the surface to 5 km, to TES CO{sub 2} at the SGP ARM site show good agreement with an overall bias of 0.1 ppm and rms of 1.0 ppm. We also find that the predicted sensitivity of the TES CO{sub 2} estimates is too high, which results from using a multi-step retrieval for CO{sub 2} and temperature. We find that the averaging kernel in the TES product corrected by a pressure-dependent factor accurately reflects the sensitivity of the TES CO{sub 2} product.

  15. Estimation of thermal flux and emissivity of the land surface from multispectral aircraft data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.

    1989-01-01

    In order to evaluate the importance of surface thermal flux and emissivity variations on surface and boundary layer processes, a technique that uses thermal data from an airborne multispectral scanner to determine the surface skin temperature and thermal emissivity over a regional area has been developed. These values are used to estimate the total flux density emanating from the surface and at the top of the atmosphere. Data from the multispectral atmospheric mapping sensor (MAMS) collected during the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE) are used to develop the technique, and to show the time and space variability of the flux values. The ground truth data available during FIFE provide a unique resource to evaluate this technique.

  16. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine, supplement A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamping, R. K.; Manning, I.; Myers, D.; Tjoa, B.

    1980-01-01

    Testing was conducted using the basic RC2-75 engine, to which several modifications were incorporated which were designed to reduce the hydrocarbon emissions and reduce the specific fuel consumption. The modifications included close-in surface gap spark plugs, increased compression ratio rotors, and provisions for utilizing either side or peripheral intake ports, or a combination of the two if required. The proposed EPA emissions requirements were met using the normal peripheral porting. The specific fuel economy demonstrated for the modified RC2-75 was 283 g/kW-hr at 75% power and 101 brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 272.5 g/kW-hr at 75% power and 111 BMEP. The latter would result from rating the engine for takeoff at 285 hp and 5500 rpm, instead of 6000 rpm.

  17. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  18. Application of automobile emission control technology to light piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, D.; Kittredge, G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility was evaluated for achieving the EPA Standards for HC and CO emissions through the use of air-fuel ratio enleanment at selected power modes combined with improved air-fuel mixture preparation, and in some cases improved cooling. Air injection was also an effective approach for the reduction of HC and CO, particularly when combined with exhaust heat conservation techniques such as exhaust port liners.

  19. The particle production at the event horizon of a black hole as gravitational Fowler-Nordheim emission in uniformly accelerated frame, in the non-relativistic scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Sanchari; Ghosh, Sutapa; Chakrabarty, Somenath

    2015-11-01

    In the conventional scenario, the Hawking radiation is believed to be a tunneling process at the event horizon of the black hole. In the quantum field theoretic approach the Schwinger's mechanism is generally used to give an explanation of this tunneling process. It is the decay of quantum vacuum into particle anti-particle pairs near the black hole surface. However, in a reference frame undergoing a uniform accelerated motion in an otherwise flat Minkowski space-time geometry, in the non-relativistic approximation, the particle production near the event horizon of a black hole may be treated as a kind of Fowler-Nordheim field emission, which is the typical electron emission process from a metal surface under the action of an external electrostatic field. This type of emission from metal surface is allowed even at extremely low temperature. It has been noticed that in one-dimensional scenario, the Schrödinger equation satisfied by the created particle (anti-particle) near the event horizon, can be reduced to a differential form which is exactly identical with that obeyed by an electron immediately after the emission from the metal surface under the action of a strong electrostatic field. The mechanism of particle production near the event horizon of a black hole is therefore identified with Schwinger process in relativistic quantum field theory, whereas in the non-relativistic scenario it may be interpreted as Fowler-Nordheim emission process, when observed from a uniformly accelerated frame.

  20. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  1. Flux Calculation Using CARIBIC DOAS Aircraft Measurements: SO2 Emission of Norilsk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, D.; Heue, K.-P.; Rauthe-Schoech, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.; Lamsal, L. N.; Krotkov, N. A.; Platt, U.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a case-study of the nickel smelter in Norilsk (Siberia), the retrieval of trace gas fluxes using airborne remote sensing is discussed. A DOAS system onboard an Airbus 340 detected large amounts of SO2 and NO2 near Norilsk during a regular passenger flight within the CARIBIC project. The remote sensing data were combined with ECMWF wind data to estimate the SO2 output of the Norilsk industrial complex to be around 1 Mt per year, which is in agreement with independent estimates. This value is compared to results using data from satellite remote sensing (GOME, OMI). The validity of the assumptions underlying our estimate is discussed, including the adaptation of this method to other gases and sources like the NO2 emissions of large industries or cities.

  2. Assessment of air quality benefits from national air pollution control policies in China. Part I: Background, emission scenarios and evaluation of meteorological predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Litao; Jang, Carey; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David; Fu, Joshua; Lei, Yu; Schreifels, Jeremy; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming; Lam, Yun-Fat; Lin, Jerry; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Voorhees, Scott; Evarts, Dale; Phillips, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    Under the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP, 2006-2010) for national environmental protection by the Chinese government, the overarching goal for sulfur dioxide (SO 2) controls is to achieve a total national emissions level of SO 2 in 2010 10% lower than the level in 2005. A similar nitrogen oxides (NO x) emissions control plan is currently under development and could be enforced during the 12th FYP (2011-2015). In this study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA)'s Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (Models-3/CMAQ) modeling system was applied to assess the air quality improvement that would result from the targeted SO 2 and NO x emission controls in China. Four emission scenarios — the base year 2005, the 2010 Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, the 2010 SO 2 control scenario, and the 2010 NO x control scenario—were constructed and simulated to assess the air quality change from the national control plan. The Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) was applied to generate the meteorological fields for the CMAQ simulations. In this Part I paper, the model performance for the simulated meteorology was evaluated against observations for the base case in terms of temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and precipitation. It is shown that MM5 model gives an overall good performance for these meteorological variables. The generated meteorological fields are acceptable for using in the CMAQ modeling.

  3. The impact of high altitude aircraft on the ozone layer in the stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tie, Xue XI; Brasseur, Guy; Lin, Xing; Friedlingstein, P.; Granier, Claire; Rasch, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential effects on the ozone layer of gases released by the engines of proposed high altitude supersonic aircraft. The major problem arises from the emissions of nitrogen oxides which have the potential to destroy significant quantities of ozone in the stratosphere. The magnitude of the perturbation is highly dependent on the cruise altitude of the aircraft. Furthermore, the depletion of ozone is substantially reduced when heterogeneous conversion of nitrogen oxides into nitric acid on sulfate aerosol particles is taken into account in the calculation. The sensitivity of the aerosol load on stratospheric ozone is investigated. First, the model indicates that the aerosol load induced by the SO2 released by aircraft is increased by about 10-20% above the background aerosols at mid-high latitude of the Northern Hemisphere at 15 km for the NASA emission scenario A (the NASA emission scenarios are explained in Tables I to III). This increase in aerosol has small effects on stratospheric ozone. Second, when the aerosol load is increased following a volcanic eruption similar to the eruption of El Chichon (Mexico, April 1982), the ozone column in spring increases by as much as 9% in response to the injection of NOx from the aircraft with the NASA emission scenario A. Finally, the modeled suggests that significant ozone depletion could result from the formation of additional polar stratospheric clouds produced by the injection of H2O and HNO3 by the aircraft engines.

  4. Effect of aircraft on ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumb, I. C.; Ryan, K. R.

    1998-12-01

    Changes in ozone levels for a range of scenarios, including those for present and projected future aircraft emissions and for present and future halogen loadings, are calculated using the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization two-dimensional chemical transport model. These changes are applied to measured ozone columns and vertical profiles based on measurements to produce vertical profiles of ozone for each scenario considered, which are traceable to measurements. A radiative transfer model is then used to investigate changes in biologically active radiation reaching the surface of the Earth resulting from current and future fleets of aircraft and those resulting from changing levels of halogen compounds in the atmosphere. It is shown that equal changes in ozone column for these scenarios do not produce equal changes in biologically weighted fluxes reaching the ground. This is because aircraft affect ozone mainly in the upper troposphere, whereas the effects of halogens are greatest in the middle and lower stratosphere. The magnitude of the ratio of the biologically weighted flux change to the ozone column change is greater for the case of the aircraft, due to the larger contribution to multiple scattering in the troposphere. For the same reason, projected fleets of supersonic aircraft are shown to have a smaller effect on UV radiation for a given change in ozone column than subsonic aircraft. While aerosols reduce the UV radiation reaching the ground for all scenarios investigated, they have minimal impact on the ratios of UV changes to ozone column changes because the bulk of the aerosol loading is below the altitudes where ozone changes due to aircraft or halogens occur.

  5. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic-Combustor Program, phase 1. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgess, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Six catalytic combustor concepts were defined, analyzed, and evaluated. Major design considerations included low emissions, performance, safety, durability, installations, operations and development. On the basis of these considerations the two most promising concepts were selected. Refined analysis and preliminary design work was conducted on these two concepts. The selected concepts were required to fit within the combustor chamber dimensions of the reference engine. This is achieved by using a dump diffuser discharging into a plenum chamber between the compressor discharge and the turbine inlet, with the combustors overlaying the prediffuser and the rear of the compressor. To enhance maintainability, the outer combustor case for each concept is designed to translate forward for accessibility to the catalytic reactor, liners and high pressure turbine area. The catalytic reactor is self-contained with air-cooled canning on a resilient mounting. Both selected concepts employed integrated engine-starting approaches to raise the catalytic reactor up to operating conditions. Advanced liner schemes are used to minimize required cooling air. The two selected concepts respectively employ fuel-rich initial thermal reaction followed by rapid quench and subsequent fuel-lean catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide, and, fuel-lean thermal reaction of some fuel in a continuously operating pilot combustor with fuel-lean catalytic reaction of remaining fuel in a radially-staged main combustor.

  6. Introduction to the SONEX (Subsonic Assessment Ozone and Nitrogen Oxides Experiment) and POLINAT-2 (Pollution from Aircraft Emissions in the North Atlantic Flight Corridor) Special Issue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Schlager, Hans; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Emissions of atmospheric species from the engines of subsonic aircraft at cruise altitude (roughly, above seven kilometers) are of concern to scientists, the aviation industry and policymakers for two reasons. First, water vapor, soot and sulfur oxides, and related heterogeneous processes, may modify clouds and aerosols enough to perturb radiative forcing in the UT/LS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere). A discussion of these phenomena appears in Chapter 3 of the IPCC Aviation Assessment (1999). An airborne campaign conducted to evaluate aviation effects on contrail, cirrus and cloud formation, is described in Geophysical Research Letters. The second concern arises from subsonic aircraft emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO + NO2 = NO(sub x)), CO, and hydrocarbons. These species may add to the background mixture of photochemically reactive species that form ozone. In the UT/LS, ozone is a highly effective greenhouse gas. The impacts of subsonic aircraft emissions on tropospheric NO(sub x) and ozone budgets have been studied with models that focus on UT chemistry [e.g. see discussions of individual models in Brasseur et al., 1998; Friedl et al., 1997; IPCC, 1999]. Depending on the model used, projected increases in the global subsonic aircraft fleet from 1992 to 2015 will lead to a 50-100 pptv increase in UT/LS NO. at 12 km (compared to 50-150 pptv background) in northern hemisphere midlatitudes. The corresponding 12-km ozone increase is 7-11 ppbv, or 5-10% (Chapter 4 in IPCC, 1999). Two major sources of uncertainties in model estimates of aviation effects are: (1) the often limited degree to which global models - the scale required to evaluate aircraft emissions - realistically simulate atmospheric transport and other physical processes; (2) limited UT/LS observations of trace gases with which to evaluate model performance. In response to the latter deficiency, a number of airborne campaigns aimed at elucidating the effect of aircraft on atmospheric nitrogen oxides

  7. Development and evaluation of an air quality modeling approach to assess near-field impacts of lead emissions from piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Edward; Lee, Mark; Marin, Kristen; Holder, Christopher; Hoyer, Marion; Pedde, Meredith; Cook, Rich; Touma, Jawad

    2011-10-01

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality modeling approach using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was developed and evaluated for estimating atmospheric concentrations of Pb at and near general aviation airports where leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) is used. These detailed procedures were made to accurately characterize emissions and dispersion leading to improved model performance for a pollutant with concentrations that vary rapidly across short distances. The new aspects of this work included a comprehensive Pb emission inventory that incorporated sub-daily time-in-mode (TIM) activity data for piston-engine aircraft, aircraft-induced wake turbulence, plume rise of the aircraft exhaust, and allocation of approach and climb-out emissions to 50-m increments in altitude. To evaluate the modeling approach used here, ambient Pb concentrations were measured upwind and downwind of the Santa Monica Airport (SMO) and compared to modeled air concentrations. Modeling results paired in both time and space with monitoring data showed excellent overall agreement (absolute fractional bias of 0.29 winter, 0.07 summer). The modeling results on individual days show Pb concentration gradients above the urban background concentration of 10 ng m-3 extending downwind up to 900 m from the airport, with a crosswind extent of 400 m. Three-month average modeled concentrations above the background were found to extend to a maximum distance of approximately 450 m beyond the airport property in summer and fall. Modeling results show aircraft engine “run-up” is the most important source contribution to the maximum Pb concentration. Sensitivity analysis

  8. A comparison of ground-based and aircraft-based methane emission flux estimates in a western oil and natural gas production basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snare, Dustin A.

    Recent increases in oil and gas production from unconventional reservoirs has brought with it an increase of methane emissions. Estimating methane emissions from oil and gas production is complex due to differences in equipment designs, maintenance, and variable product composition. Site access to oil and gas production equipment can be difficult and time consuming, making remote assessment of emissions vital to understanding local point source emissions. This work presents measurements of methane leakage made from a new ground-based mobile laboratory and a research aircraft around oil and gas fields in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Wyoming in 2014. It was recently shown that the application of the Point Source Gaussian (PSG) method, utilizing atmospheric dispersion tables developed by US EPA (Appendix B), is an effective way to accurately measure methane flux from a ground-based location downwind of a source without the use of a tracer (Brantley et al., 2014). Aircraft measurements of methane enhancement regions downwind of oil and natural gas production and Planetary Boundary Layer observations are utilized to obtain a flux for the entire UGRB. Methane emissions are compared to volumes of natural gas produced to derive a leakage rate from production operations for individual production sites and basin-wide production. Ground-based flux estimates derive a leakage rate of 0.14 - 0.78 % (95 % confidence interval) per site with a mass-weighted average (MWA) of 0.20 % for all sites. Aircraft-based flux estimates derive a MWA leakage rate of 0.54 - 0.91 % for the UGRB.

  9. Effects of “Reduced” and “Business-As-Usual” CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Algal Territories of the Damselfish Pomacentrus wardi (Pomacentridae)

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Dorothea; Champ, Connor Michael; Kline, David; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Turf algae are a very important component of coral reefs, featuring high growth and turnover rates, whilst covering large areas of substrate. As food for many organisms, turf algae have an important role in the ecosystem. Farming damselfish can modify the species composition and productivity of such algal assemblages, while defending them against intruders. Like all organisms however, turf algae and damselfishes have the potential to be affected by future changes in seawater (SW) temperature and pCO2. In this study, algal assemblages, in the presence and absence of farming Pomacentrus wardi were exposed to two combinations of SW temperature and pCO2 levels projected for the austral spring of 2100 (the B1 “reduced” and the A1FI “business-as-usual” CO2 emission scenarios) at Heron Island (GBR, Australia). These assemblages were dominated by the presence of red algae and non-epiphytic cyanobacteria, i.e. cyanobacteria that grow attached to the substrate rather than on filamentous algae. The endpoint algal composition was mostly controlled by the presence/absence of farming damselfish, despite a large variability found between the algal assemblages of individual fish. Different scenarios appeared to be responsible for a mild, species specific change in community composition, observable in some brown and green algae, but only in the absence of farming fish. Farming fish appeared unaffected by the conditions to which they were exposed. Algal biomass reductions were found under “reduced” CO2 emission, but not “business-as-usual” scenarios. This suggests that action taken to limit CO2 emissions may, if the majority of algae behave similarly across all seasons, reduce the potential for phase shifts that lead to algal dominated communities. At the same time the availability of food resources to damselfish and other herbivores would be smaller under “reduced” emission scenarios. PMID:26121163

  10. Effects of "Reduced" and "Business-As-Usual" CO2 Emission Scenarios on the Algal Territories of the Damselfish Pomacentrus wardi (Pomacentridae).

    PubMed

    Bender, Dorothea; Champ, Connor Michael; Kline, David; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Turf algae are a very important component of coral reefs, featuring high growth and turnover rates, whilst covering large areas of substrate. As food for many organisms, turf algae have an important role in the ecosystem. Farming damselfish can modify the species composition and productivity of such algal assemblages, while defending them against intruders. Like all organisms however, turf algae and damselfishes have the potential to be affected by future changes in seawater (SW) temperature and pCO2. In this study, algal assemblages, in the presence and absence of farming Pomacentrus wardi were exposed to two combinations of SW temperature and pCO2 levels projected for the austral spring of 2100 (the B1 "reduced" and the A1FI "business-as-usual" CO2 emission scenarios) at Heron Island (GBR, Australia). These assemblages were dominated by the presence of red algae and non-epiphytic cyanobacteria, i.e. cyanobacteria that grow attached to the substrate rather than on filamentous algae. The endpoint algal composition was mostly controlled by the presence/absence of farming damselfish, despite a large variability found between the algal assemblages of individual fish. Different scenarios appeared to be responsible for a mild, species specific change in community composition, observable in some brown and green algae, but only in the absence of farming fish. Farming fish appeared unaffected by the conditions to which they were exposed. Algal biomass reductions were found under "reduced" CO2 emission, but not "business-as-usual" scenarios. This suggests that action taken to limit CO2 emissions may, if the majority of algae behave similarly across all seasons, reduce the potential for phase shifts that lead to algal dominated communities. At the same time the availability of food resources to damselfish and other herbivores would be smaller under "reduced" emission scenarios. PMID:26121163

  11. Characterizing the emission implications of future natural gas production and use in the U.S. and Rocky Mountain region: A scenario-based energy system modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Jeffrey

    The recent increase in U.S. natural gas production made possible through advancements in extraction techniques including hydraulic fracturing has transformed the U.S. energy supply landscape while raising questions regarding the balance of environmental impacts associated with natural gas production and use. Impact areas at issue include emissions of methane and criteria pollutants from natural gas production, alongside changes in emissions from increased use of natural gas in place of coal for electricity generation. In the Rocky Mountain region, these impact areas have been subject to additional scrutiny due to the high level of regional oil and gas production activity and concerns over its links to air quality. Here, the MARKAL (MArket ALlocation) least-cost energy system optimization model in conjunction with the EPA-MARKAL nine-region database has been used to characterize future regional and national emissions of CO 2, CH4, VOC, and NOx attributed to natural gas production and use in several sectors of the economy. The analysis is informed by comparing and contrasting a base case, business-as-usual scenario with scenarios featuring variations in future natural gas supply characteristics, constraints affecting the electricity generation mix, carbon emission reduction strategies and increased demand for natural gas in the transportation sector. Emission trends and their associated sensitivities are identified and contrasted between the Rocky Mountain region and the U.S. as a whole. The modeling results of this study illustrate the resilience of the short term greenhouse gas emission benefits associated with fuel switching from coal to gas in the electric sector, but also call attention to the long term implications of increasing natural gas production and use for emissions of methane and VOCs, especially in the Rocky Mountain region. This analysis can help to inform the broader discussion of the potential environmental impacts of future natural gas production

  12. Sea-level rise and impacts projections under a future scenario with large greenhouse gas emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardaens, A. K.; Lowe, J. A.; Brown, S.; Nicholls, R. J.; de Gusmão, D.

    2011-06-01

    Using projections from two coupled climate models (HadCM3C and HadGEM2-AO), we consider the effect on 21st century sea-level rise (SLR) of mitigation policies relative to a scenario of business-as-usual (BAU). Around a third of the global-mean SLR over the century is avoided by a mitigation scenario under which global-mean near surface air temperature stabilises close to the Copenhagen Accord limit of a 2°C increase. Under BAU (a variant of the A1B scenario) the model-averaged projected SLR for 2090-2099 relative to 1980-1999 is 0.29 m-0.51 m (5%-95% uncertainties from treatment of land-based ice melt); under mitigation (E1 scenario) it is 0.17 m-0.34 m. This reduction is primarily from reduced thermal expansion. The spatial patterns of regional SLR are fairly dissimilar between the models, but are qualitatively similar across scenarios for a particular model. An impacts model suggests that by the end of the 21st century and without upgrade in defences around 55% of the 84 million additional people flooded per year globally under BAU (from SLR alone) could be avoided under such mitigation. The above projections of SLR follow the methodology of the IPCC Fourth Assessment. We have, however, also conducted a sensitivity study of SLR and its impacts where the possibility of accelerated ice sheet dynamics is accounted for.

  13. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A third program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    A third report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP) is presented. Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment showed that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This third report marks the midpoint of the program and presents the status of the ongoing research on the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere as reported at the third annual AESA Program meeting in June 1993. The focus of the program is on predicted atmospheric changes resulting from projected HSCT emissions. Topics reported on cover how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements, and exhaust plume/aircraft wake vortex interactions.

  14. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A third program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Wesoky, H.L.

    1993-11-01

    A third report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP) is presented. Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment showed that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This third report marks the midpoint of the program and presents the status of the ongoing research on the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere as reported at the third annual AESA Program meeting in June 1993. The focus of the program is on predicted atmospheric changes resulting from projected HSCT emissions. Topics reported on cover how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements, and exhaust plume/aircraft wake vortex interactions. Separate abstracts have been indexed for articles from this report.

  15. Environmental Distributions of Benzo[a]pyrene in China: Current and Future Emission Reduction Scenarios Explored Using a Spatially Explicit Multimedia Fate Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ying; Tao, Shu; Price, Oliver R; Shen, Huizhong; Jones, Kevin C; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2015-12-01

    SESAMe v3.0, a spatially explicit multimedia fate model with 50 × 50 km(2) resolution, has been developed for China to predict environmental concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) using an atmospheric emission inventory for 2007. Model predictions are compared with environmental monitoring data obtained from an extensive review of the literature. The model performs well in predicting multimedia concentrations and distributions. Predicted concentrations are compared with guideline values; highest values with some exceedances occur mainly in the North China Plain, Mid Inner Mongolia, and parts of three northeast provinces, Xi'an, Shanghai, and south of Jiangsu province, East Sichuan Basin, middle of Guizhou and Guangzhou. Two potential future scenarios have been assessed using SESAMe v3.0 for 2030 as BaP emission is reduced by (1) technological improvement for coal consumption in energy production and industry sectors in Scenario 1 (Sc1) and (2) technological improvement and control of indoor biomass burning for cooking and indoor space heating and prohibition of open burning of biomass in 2030 in Scenario 2 (Sc2). Sc2 is more efficient in reducing the areas with exceedance of guideline values. Use of SESAMe v3.0 provides insights on future research needs and can inform decision making on options for source reduction. PMID:25942589

  16. In-Flight Chemical Composition Observations of Aircraft Emissions using a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziemba, L. D.; Martin, R.; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Commercial aircraft are an important source of aerosols to the upper troposphere. The microphysical and chemical properties of these emitted aerosols govern their ability to act as ice nuclei, both in near-field contrails and for cirrus formation downstream. During the ACCESS-II (Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions) campaign, NASA DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engine emissions were sampled systematically at a range of cruise-relevant thrust levels and at several altitudes. Sampling was done aboard the NASA HU-25 Falcon aircraft, which was equipped with a suite of aerosol and gas-phase instruments focused on assessing the effects of burning different fuel mixtures on aerosol properties and their associated contrails. Here we present in-flight measurements of particle chemical composition made by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The AMS was able to sufficiently resolve near-field (within 100m) aircraft emissions plumes. Low-sulfur HEFA (hydro-processed esters and fatty-acids) and JetA fuels yielded particles that contained 11 and 8% sulfate, respectively, compared to 30% sulfate contribution for traditional JetA fuel. Each of the fuels produced organic aerosol with similarly low oxygen content. Lubrication oils, which are not a combustion product but result from leaks in the engine, were likely a dominant fraction of the measured organic mass based on mass-spectral marker analysis. These results are compared to similar engine conditions from ground-based testing.

  17. Impact of passenger car NOx emissions and NO2 fractions on urban NO2 pollution - Scenario analysis for the city of Antwerp, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degraeuwe, Bart; Thunis, Philippe; Clappier, Alain; Weiss, Martin; Lefebvre, Wouter; Janssen, Stijn; Vranckx, Stijn

    2016-02-01

    The annual NO2 concentrations in many European cities exceed the established air quality standard. This situation is mainly caused by Diesel cars whose NOx emissions are higher on the road than during type approval in the laboratory. Moreover, the fraction of NO2 in the NOx emissions of modern diesel cars appears to have increased as compared to previous models. In this paper, we assess 1) to which level the distance-specific NOx emissions of Diesel cars should be reduced to meet established air quality standards and 2) if it would be useful to introduce a complementary NO2 emissions limit. We develop a NO2 pollution model that accounts in an analysis of 9 emission scenarios for changes in both, the urban background NO2 concentrations and the local NO2 emissions at street level. We apply this model to the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results suggest that a reduction in NOx emissions decreases the regional and urban NO2 background concentration; high NO2 fractions increase the ambient NO2 concentrations only in close spatial proximity to the emission source. In a busy access road to the city centre, the average NO2 concentration can be reduced by 23% if Diesel cars emitted 0.35 g NOx/km instead of the current 0.62 g NOx/km. Reductions of 45% are possible if the NOX emissions of Diesel cars decreased to the level of gasoline cars (0.03 g NOx/km). Our findings suggest that the Real-Driving Emissions (RDE) test procedure can solve the problem of NO2 exceedances in cities if it reduced the on-road NOx emissions of diesel cars to the permissible limit of 0.08 g/km. The implementation of a complementary NO2 emissions limit may then become superfluous. If Diesel cars continue to exceed by several factors their NOx emissions limit on the road, a shift of the vehicle fleet to gasoline cars may be necessary to solve persisting air quality problems.

  18. Decomposing uncertainties in the future terrestrial carbon budget associated with emission scenario, climate projection, and ecosystem simulation using the ISI-MIP result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Falloon, P.; Friend, A. D.; Beerling, D. J.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Kahana, R.; Kato, E.; Lucht, W.; Lomas, M.; Pavlick, R.; Schaphoff, S.; Warszawaski, L.; Yokohata, T.

    2014-10-01

    Changes to global net primary production (NPP), vegetation biomass carbon (VegC), and soil organic carbon (SOC) estimated by six global vegetation models (GVM) obtained from an Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project study were examined. Simulation results were obtained using five global climate models (GCM) forced with four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. To clarify which component (emission scenarios, climate projections, or global vegetation models) contributes the most to uncertainties in projected global terrestrial C cycling by 2100, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and wavelet clustering were applied to 70 projected simulation sets. In the end of simulation period, the changes from the year of 2000 in all three variables considerably varied from net negative to positive values. ANOVA revealed that the main sources of uncertainty are different among variables and depend on the projection period. We determined that in the global VegC, and SOC projections, GVMs dominate uncertainties (60 and 90%, respectively) rather than climate driving scenarios, i.e., RCPs and GCMs. These results suggested that we don't have still enough resolution among each RCP scenario to evaluate climate change impacts on ecosystem conditions in global terrestrial C cycling. In addition, we found that the contributions of each uncertainty source were spatio-temporally heterogeneous and differed among the GVM variables. The dominant uncertainty source for changes in NPP and VegC varies along the climatic gradient. The contribution of GVM to the uncertainty decreases as the climate division gets cooler (from ca. 80% in the equatorial division to 40% in the snow climatic division). To evaluate the effects of climate change on ecosystems with practical resolution in RCP scenarios, GVMs require further improvement to reduce the uncertainties in global C cycling as much as, if not more than, GCMs. Our study suggests that the improvement of GVMs is a priority for

  19. Impact of Aircraft Nox Emissions Simulated With A Coupled Climate-chemistry Model and Sensitivities To Climate-chemistry Feedback, Lightning and Model Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grewe, V.; Dameris, M.; Fichter, C.; Sausen, R.

    The fully coupled climate-chemistry model is applied to investigate the effect of air- craft NOx emissions on the chemical composition of the atmosphere for the time pe- riods 1990 and 2015. The model results show contributions of the aircraft NOx emis- sions to the NOx concentration of 30% and 50% and to the ozone concentration of 3% and 8% in 1990 and 2015, respectively. The pattern of the response will be inter- pretated by using a Lagrangian approach. Additional simulations will be presented to show the sensitivity of the results to the way the chemistry is coupled to the calcu- lation of the meteorology, the description of the lightning NOx emissions, the model resolution, the model domain, and the flight altitude.

  20. Forest carbon response to management scenarios intended to mitigate GHG emissions and reduce fire impacts in the US West Coast region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, T. W.; Law, B. E.; Thornton, P. E.; Luyssaert, S.

    2012-12-01

    US West coast forests are among the most carbon dense biomes in the world and the potential for biomass accumulation in mesic coastal forests is the highest recorded (Waring and Franklin 1979, Hudiburg et al. 2009). Greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies have recently expanded to include forest woody biomass as bioenergy, with the expectation that this will also reduce forest mortality. We examined forest carbon response and life cycle assessment (LCA) of net carbon emissions following varying combinations of bioenergy management scenarios in Pacific Northwest forests for the period from 2010-2100. We use the NCAR CLM4 model combined with a regional atmospheric forcing dataset and account for future environmental change using the IPCC RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5 scenarios. Bioenergy management strategies include a repeated thinning harvest, a repeated clearcut harvest, and a single salvage harvest in areas with projected insect-related mortality. None of the bioenergy management scenarios reduce net emissions to the atmosphere compared to continued business-as-usual harvest (BAU) by the end of the 21st century. Forest regrowth and reduced fire emissions are not large enough to balance the wood removals from harvest. Moreover, the substitution of wood for fossil fuel energy and products is not large enough to offset the wood losses through decomposition and combustion. However, in some ecoregions (Blue Mountains and East Cascades), emissions from the thinning harvests begin to improve over BAU at the end of the century and could lead to net reductions in those ecoregions over a longer time period (> 100 years). For salvage logging, there is no change compared to BAU emissions by the end of the 21st century because the treatment area is minimal compared to the other treatments and only performed once. These results suggest that managing forests for carbon sequestration will need to include a variety of approaches accounting for forest baseline conditions and in some

  1. Aircraft trace gas measurements during the London 2012 Olympics: Air quality and emission fluxes derived from sampling upwind and downwind of a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, G.; O'Shea, S.; Muller, J.; Jones, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Lee, J. D.; Bauguitte, S.; Gallagher, M. W.; Percival, C.; Barratt, B.; McQuaid, J. B.; Illingworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    This study presents airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements recorded during July and August 2012, across the period of the London 2012 Summer Olympics and simultaneous with the Clear air for London (ClearfLo) ground-based measurement and modelling campaign. Through long-term (2-year) and intensive observation periods (Winter 2011 and Summer 2012), the ClearfLo programme aims to better understand emissions, as well as the chemical, dynamical and micro-meteorological processes which modulate air quality in the London urban environment - an important risk factor for both acute and chronic health effects. The work presented here focuses on two contrasting case studies within the summer ClearfLo period: 30 July 2012 and 9 August 2012, representing relatively clean background and polluted background cases, respectively, and characterised by well-mixed Atlantic westerly maritime inflow in the former and stagnant air (high pressure) in the latter. Measurements of CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, O3, HCN, and other gases measured on board the UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 aircraft will be presented and interpreted, with emphasis on observed concentration gradients and tracer-tracer correlations as well as airmass vertical structure and airmass history upwind and downwind of central London in each case. By applying a simple advective model and making use of vertically resolved thermodynamic and composition data, we are able to derive emission strengths for these gases that are representative of the total enclosed surface area. Example emissions for these two cases range between 6x105 kg(C)/hr and 9x105 kg(C)/hr for CO2, and ~0.6x105 kg(C)/hr for CH4. This airborne sampling methodology highlights the unique utility of aircraft measurements to routinely and climatologically characterise emissions from area sources such as cities, and points to future missions to target localised hotspots and distributed point sources.

  2. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.

  3. Non-variable TeV emission from the extended jet of a blazar in the stochastic acceleration scenario: the case of the hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dahai; Zeng, Houdun; Zhang, Li

    2012-08-01

    The detections of X-ray emission from the kiloparsec-scale jets of blazars and radio galaxies could imply the existence of high-energy electrons in these extended jets, and these electrons could produce high-energy emission through the inverse Compton (IC) process. In this paper, we study the non-variable hard TeV emission from a blazar. The multiband emission consists of two components: (i) the traditional synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission from the inner jet; (ii) the emission produced via SSC and IC scattering of cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons (IC/CMB) and extragalactic background light (EBL) photons by relativistic electrons in the extended jet under the stochastic acceleration scenario. Such a model is applied to 1ES 1101-232. The results indicate the following. (i) The non-variable hard TeV emission of 1ES 1101-232, which is dominated by IC/CMB emission from the extended jet, can be reproduced well by using three characteristic values of the Doppler factor (δD = 5, 10 and 15) for the TeV-emitting region in the extended jet. (ii) In the cases of δD = 15 and 10, the physical parameters can achieve equipartition (or quasi-equipartition) between the relativistic electrons and the magnetic field. In contrast, the physical parameters largely deviate from equipartition for the case of δD = 5. Therefore, we conclude that the TeV emission region of 1ES 1101-232 in the extended jet should be moderately or highly beamed.

  4. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    This Final Report summarizes the work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team in Phase 1, which includes the time period of October 2008 through March 2010. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. The team completed the development of a comprehensive future scenario for world-wide commercial aviation, selected baseline and advanced configurations for detailed study, generated technology suites for each configuration, conducted detailed performance analysis, calculated noise and emissions, assessed technology risks, and developed technology roadmaps. Five concepts were evaluated in detail: 2008 baseline, N+3 reference, N+3 high span strut braced wing, N+3 gas turbine battery electric concept, and N+3 hybrid wing body. A wide portfolio of technologies was identified to address the NASA N+3 goals. Significant improvements in air traffic management, aerodynamics, materials and structures, aircraft systems, propulsion, and acoustics are needed. Recommendations for Phase 2 concept and technology projects have been identified.

  5. Effect of Sea Breeze on Air Pollution in the Greater Athens Area. Part II: Analysis of Different Emission Scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossi, Paola; Thunis, Philippe; Martilli, Alberto; Clappier, Alain

    2000-04-01

    The Mediterranean Campaign of Photochemical Tracers-Transport and Chemical Evolution that took place in the greater Athens area from 20 August to 20 September 1994 has confirmed the role of sea-breeze circulation in photochemical smog episodes that had been suggested already by a number of experiments and numerical studies.The meteorological and photochemical modeling of this campaign were discussed in Part I. Part II focuses on the study of the 14 September photochemical smog event associated with a sea-breeze circulation. The objective of the study is to identify and to understand better the nonlinear processes that produce high ozone concentrations. In particular, the effect of land and sea breezes is investigated by isolating the effect of nighttime and daytime emissions on ozone concentrations. The same principle then is used to isolate the effect on ozone concentrations of the two main sources of emissions in the greater Athens area: the industrial area around Elefsis and the Athens urban area. Last, the buildup of ozone from one day to another is investigated.From this study, it comes out that ozone production in the Athens area is mainly a 1-day phenomenon. The increased values of photochemical pollutant (up to 130 ppb at ground level) reached during summertime late afternoons on mountain slopes to the north and northeast of the city are related mainly to the current-day emissions. Nevertheless, the recirculation of old pollutants can have an important effect on ozone concentrations in downtown Athens, the southern part of the peninsula, and over the sea, especially near Aigina Island.

  6. Combining active and passive remote sensing from research aircraft with atmospheric models to evaluate NOx emission fluxes and O3 formation in the Los Angeles Megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baidar, Sunil; Oetjen, Hilke; Senff, Christoph; Alvarez, Raul, II; Hardesty, Michael; Langford, Andrew; Kim, Si-Wan; Trainer, Michael; Volkamer, Rainer

    2013-04-01

    Ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are two important components of air pollution. We have measured vertical column amounts of NO2, and vertical profiles of O3 and wind speed by means of measurements of solar stray light by CU Airborne MAX-DOAS, and active remote sensing using the NOAA TOPAZ lidar, and the University of Leeds Doppler lidar aboard the NOAA Twin Otter research aircraft. A total of 52 flights (up to 4 hours each) were carried out between May 19 and July 19 2010 during the CalNex and CARES field campaigns. These flights cover most of California. The boundary layer height was measured by TOPAZ lidar, and trace gas concentrations of NO2 and O3 were integrated over boundary layer height. These column integrated quantities are then combined with direct wind speed measurements to quantify directly the pollutant flux across the boundary, as defined by the flight track. By tracking the pollution fluxes during transects that are flown upwind and in various distances downwind of a NOx emission source, the NOx emission rate, and the ozone formation rate are quantified. These pollutant fluxes are calculated here for the first time exclusively based on measurements (i.e., without need to infer wind speed from a model). These fluxes provide constraints to quantify localized NOx emissions, and are being compared with WRF-Chem model simulations.

  7. The impact of CO2 emission scenarios and nutrient enrichment on a common coral reef macroalga is modified by temporal effects.

    PubMed

    Bender, Dorothea; Diaz-Pulido, Guillermo; Dove, Sophie

    2014-02-01

    Future coral reefs are expected to be subject to higher pCO2 and temperature due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. Such global stressors are often paired with local stressors thereby potentially modifying the response of organisms. Benthic macroalgae are strong competitors to corals and are assumed to do well under future conditions. The present study aimed to assess the impact of past and future CO2 emission scenarios as well as nutrient enrichment on the growth, productivity, pigment, and tissue nutrient content of the common tropical brown alga Chnoospora implexa. Two experiments were conducted to assess the differential impacts of the manipulated conditions in winter and spring. Chnoospora implexa's growth rate averaged over winter and spring declined with increasing pCO2 and temperature. Furthermore, nutrient enrichment did not affect growth. Highest growth was observed under spring pre-industrial (PI) conditions, while slightly reduced growth was observed under winter A1FI ("business-as-usual") scenarios. Productivity was not a good proxy for growth, as net O2 flux increased under A1FI conditions. Nutrient enrichment, whilst not affecting growth, led to luxury nutrient uptake that was greater in winter than in spring. The findings suggest that in contrast with previous work, C. implexa is not likely to show enhanced growth under future conditions in isolation or in conjunction with nutrient enrichment. Instead, the results suggest that greatest growth rates for this species appear to be a feature of the PI past, with A1FI winter conditions leading to potential decreases in the abundance of this species from present day levels. PMID:26988019

  8. Ship emissions measurement in the Arctic by plume intercepts of the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen from the Polar 6 aircraft platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliabadi, Amir A.; Thomas, Jennie L.; Herber, Andreas B.; Staebler, Ralf M.; Leaitch, W. Richard; Schulz, Hannes; Law, Kathy S.; Marelle, Louis; Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan D.; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter M.; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Levasseur, Maurice; Abbatt, Jonathan P. D.

    2016-06-01

    Decreasing sea ice and increasing marine navigability in northern latitudes have changed Arctic ship traffic patterns in recent years and are predicted to increase annual ship traffic in the Arctic in the future. Development of effective regulations to manage environmental impacts of shipping requires an understanding of ship emissions and atmospheric processing in the Arctic environment. As part of the summer 2014 NETCARE (Network on Climate and Aerosols) campaign, the plume dispersion and gas and particle emission factors of effluents originating from the Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker Amundsen operating near Resolute Bay, NU, Canada, were investigated. The Amundsen burned distillate fuel with 1.5 wt % sulfur. Emissions were studied via plume intercepts using the Polar 6 aircraft measurements, an analytical plume dispersion model, and using the FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian particle dispersion model. The first plume intercept by the research aircraft was carried out on 19 July 2014 during the operation of the Amundsen in the open water. The second and third plume intercepts were carried out on 20 and 21 July 2014 when the Amundsen had reached the ice edge and operated under ice-breaking conditions. Typical of Arctic marine navigation, the engine load was low compared to cruising conditions for all of the plume intercepts. The measured species included mixing ratios of CO2, NOx, CO, SO2, particle number concentration (CN), refractory black carbon (rBC), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The results were compared to similar experimental studies in mid-latitudes. Plume expansion rates (γ) were calculated using the analytical model and found to be γ = 0.75 ± 0.81, 0.93 ± 0.37, and 1.19 ± 0.39 for plumes 1, 2, and 3, respectively. These rates were smaller than prior studies conducted at mid-latitudes, likely due to polar boundary layer dynamics, including reduced turbulent mixing compared to mid-latitudes. All emission factors were in agreement with prior

  9. Decomposing uncertainties in the future terrestrial carbon budget associated with emission scenarios, climate projections, and ecosystem simulations using the ISI-MIP results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishina, K.; Ito, A.; Falloon, P.; Friend, A. D.; Beerling, D. J.; Ciais, P.; Clark, D. B.; Kahana, R.; Kato, E.; Lucht, W.; Lomas, M.; Pavlick, R.; Schaphoff, S.; Warszawaski, L.; Yokohata, T.

    2015-07-01

    We examined the changes to global net primary production (NPP), vegetation biomass carbon (VegC), and soil organic carbon (SOC) estimated by six global vegetation models (GVMs) obtained from the Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project. Simulation results were obtained using five global climate models (GCMs) forced with four representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios. To clarify which component (i.e., emission scenarios, climate projections, or global vegetation models) contributes the most to uncertainties in projected global terrestrial C cycling by 2100, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and wavelet clustering were applied to 70 projected simulation sets. At the end of the simulation period, changes from the year 2000 in all three variables varied considerably from net negative to positive values. ANOVA revealed that the main sources of uncertainty are different among variables and depend on the projection period. We determined that in the global VegC and SOC projections, GVMs are the main influence on uncertainties (60 % and 90 %, respectively) rather than climate-driving scenarios (RCPs and GCMs). Moreover, the divergence of changes in vegetation carbon residence times is dominated by GVM uncertainty, particularly in the latter half of the 21st century. In addition, we found that the contribution of each uncertainty source is spatiotemporally heterogeneous and it differs among the GVM variables. The dominant uncertainty source for changes in NPP and VegC varies along the climatic gradient. The contribution of GVM to the uncertainty decreases as the climate division becomes cooler (from ca. 80 % in the equatorial division to 40 % in the snow division). Our results suggest that to assess climate change impacts on global ecosystem C cycling among each RCP scenario, the long-term C dynamics within the ecosystems (i.e., vegetation turnover and soil decomposition) are more critical factors than photosynthetic processes. The different trends in the

  10. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  11. In-flight fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense) system for the real time detection, localization, and classification of damage in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Connie; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic emission sensing is a leading structural health monitoring technique use for the early warning detection of structural damage associated with impacts, cracks, fracture, and delaminations in advanced materials. Current AE systems based on electronic PZT transducers suffer from various limitations that prevent its wide dynamic use in practical avionics and aerospace applications where weight, size and power are critical for operation. This paper describes progress towards the development of a wireless in-flight distributed fiber optic acoustic emission monitoring system (FAESense™) suitable for the onboard-unattended detection, localization, and classification of damage in avionics and aerospace structures. Fiber optic AE sensors offer significant advantages over its counterpart electronic AE sensors by using a high-density array of micron-size AE transducers distributed and multiplex over long lengths of a standard single mode optical fiber. Immediate SHM applications are found in commercial and military aircraft, helicopters, spacecraft, wind mil turbine blades, and in next generation weapon systems, as well as in the petrochemical and aerospace industries, civil structures, power utilities, and a wide spectrum of other applications.

  12. In Situ Observations and Sampling of Volcanic Emissions with Unmanned Aircraft: A NASA/UCR Case Study at Turrialba Volcano, Costa Rica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pieri, David; Diaz, Jorge Andres; Bland, Geoffrey; Fladeland, Matthew; Madrigal, Yetty; Corrales, Ernesto; Alan, Alfredo; Alegria, Oscar; Realmuto, Vincent; Miles, Ted

    2011-01-01

    Burgeoning new technology in the design and development of robotic aircraft-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)-presents unprecedented opportunities for the volcanology community to observe, measure, and sample eruption plumes and drifting volcanic clouds in situ. While manned aircraft can sample dilute parts of such emissions, demonstrated hazards to air breathing, and most particularly turbine, engines preclude penetration of the zones of highest ash concentrations. Such areas within plumes are often of highest interest with respect to boundary conditions of applicable mass-loading retrieval models, as well as Lagrangian, Eulerian, and hybrid transport models used by hazard responders to predict plume trajectories, particularly in the context of airborne hazards. Before the 2010 Ejyafyallajokull eruption in Iceland, ICAO zero-ash-tolerance rules were typically followed, particularly for relatively uncrowded Pacific Rim airspace, and over North and South America, where often diversion of aircraft around ash plumes and clouds was practical. The 2010 eruption in Iceland radically changed the paradigm, in that critical airspace over continental Europe and the United Kingdom were summarily shut by local civil aviation authorities and EURO CONTROL. A strong desire emerged for better real-time knowledge of ash cloud characteristics, particularly ash concentrations, and especially for validation of orbital multispectral imaging. UAV platforms appear to provide a viable adjunct, if not a primary source, of such in situ data for volcanic plumes and drifting volcanic clouds from explosive eruptions, with prompt and comprehensive application to aviation safety and to the basic science of volcanology. Current work is underway in Costa Rica at Turrialba volcano by the authors, with the goal of developing and testing new small, economical UAV platforms, with miniaturized instrument payloads, within a volcanic plume. We are underway with bi-monthly deployments of tethered SO2-sondes

  13. Determination of the Emissions from an Aircraft Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK APU were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuels Experiment using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements...

  14. MAMAP - a new spectrometer system for column-averaged methane and carbon dioxide observations from aircraft: retrieval algorithm and first inversions for point source emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krings, T.; Gerilowski, K.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Tretner, A.; Erzinger, J.; Heinze, D.; Burrows, J. P.; Bovensmann, H.

    2011-04-01

    MAMAP is an airborne passive remote sensing instrument designed for measuring columns of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The MAMAP instrument consists of two optical grating spectrometers: One in the short wave infrared band (SWIR) at 1590-1690 nm to measure CO2 and CH4 absorptions and another one in the near infrared (NIR) at 757-768 nm to measure O2 absorptions for reference purposes. MAMAP can be operated in both nadir and zenith geometry during the flight. Mounted on an airplane MAMAP can effectively survey areas on regional to local scales with a ground pixel resolution of about 29 m × 33 m for a typical aircraft altitude of 1250 m and a velocity of 200 km h-1. The retrieval precision of the measured column relative to background is typically ≲ 1% (1σ). MAMAP can be used to close the gap between satellite data exhibiting global coverage but with a rather coarse resolution on the one hand and highly accurate in situ measurements with sparse coverage on the other hand. In July 2007 test flights were performed over two coal-fired powerplants operated by Vattenfall Europe Generation AG: Jänschwalde (27.4 Mt CO2 yr-1) and Schwarze Pumpe (11.9 Mt CO2 yr-1), about 100 km southeast of Berlin, Germany. By using two different inversion approaches, one based on an optimal estimation scheme to fit Gaussian plume models from multiple sources to the data, and another using a simple Gaussian integral method, the emission rates can be determined and compared with emissions as stated by Vattenfall Europe. An extensive error analysis for the retrieval's dry column results (XCO2 and XCH4) and for the two inversion methods has been performed. Both methods - the Gaussian plume model fit and the Gaussian integral method - are capable of delivering reliable estimates for strong point source emission rates, given appropriate flight patterns and detailed knowledge of wind conditions.

  15. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  16. Cocoa Intensification Scenarios and Their Predicted Impact on CO2 Emissions, Biodiversity Conservation, and Rural Livelihoods in the Guinea Rain Forest of West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gockowski, Jim; Sonwa, Denis

    2011-08-01

    The Guinean rain forest (GRF) of West Africa, identified over 20 years ago as a global biodiversity hotspot, had reduced to 113,000 km2 at the start of the new millennium which was 18% of its original area. The principal driver of this environmental change has been the expansion of extensive smallholder agriculture. From 1988 to 2007, the area harvested in the GRF by smallholders of cocoa, cassava, and oil palm increased by 68,000 km2. Field results suggest a high potential for significantly increasing crop yields through increased application of seed-fertilizer technologies. Analyzing land-use change scenarios, it was estimated that had intensified cocoa technology, already developed in the 1960s, been pursued in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon that over 21,000 km2 of deforestation and forest degradation could have been avoided along with the emission of nearly 1.4 billion t of CO2. Addressing the low productivity of agriculture in the GRF should be one of the principal objectives of REDD climate mitigation programs.

  17. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  18. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  19. Determination of the emissions from an aircraft auxiliary power unit (APU) during the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX).

    PubMed

    Kinsey, John S; Timko, Michael T; Herndon, Scott C; Wood, Ezra C; Yu, Zhenhong; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Lobo, Prem; Whitefield, Philip; Hagen, Donald; Wey, Changlie; Anderson, Bruce E; Beyersdorf, Andreas J; Hudgins, Charles H; Thornhill, K Lee; Winstead, Edward; Howard, Robert; Bulzan, Dan I; Tacina, Kathleen B; Knighton, W Berk

    2012-04-01

    The emissions from a Garrett-AiResearch (now Honeywell) Model GTCP85-98CK auxiliary power unit (APU) were determined as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) using both JP-8 and a coal-derived Fischer Tropsch fuel (FT-2). Measurements were conducted by multiple research organizations for sulfur dioxide (SO2, total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), speciated gas-phase emissions, particulate matter (PM) mass and number, black carbon, and speciated PM. In addition, particle size distribution (PSD), number-based geometric mean particle diameter (GMD), and smoke number were also determined from the data collected. The results of the research showed PM mass emission indices (EIs) in the range of 20 to 700 mg/kg fuel and PM number EIs ranging from 0.5 x 10(15) to 5 x 10(15) particles/kg fuel depending on engine load and fuel type. In addition, significant reductions in both the SO2 and PM EIs were observed for the use of the FT fuel. These reductions were on the order of approximately 90% for SO2 and particle mass EIs and approximately 60% for the particle number EI, with similar decreases observed for black carbon. Also, the size of the particles generated by JP-8 combustion are noticeably larger than those emitted by the APU burning the FT fuel with the geometric mean diameters ranging from 20 to 50 nm depending on engine load and fuel type. Finally, both particle-bound sulfate and organics were reduced during FT-2 combustion. The PM sulfate was reduced by nearly 100% due to lack of sulfur in the fuel, with the PM organics reduced by a factor of approximately 5 as compared with JP-8. PMID:22616284

  20. Experimental Assessment of the Emissions Control Potential of a Rich/Quench/ Lean Combustor for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R. (Technical Monitor); Rosfjord, T. J.; Padget, F. C.

    2001-01-01

    In support of Pratt & Whitney efforts to define the Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft engine, UTRC conducted a flametube-scale study of the RQL concept. Extensive combustor testing was performed at the Supersonic Cruise (SSC) condition of an HSCT engine cycle. Data obtained from probe traverses near the exit of the mixing section confirmed that the mixing section was the critical component in controlling combustor emissions. Circular-hole configurations, which produced rapidly-, highly-penetrating jets, were most effective in limiting NO(x). The spatial profiles of NO(x) and CO at the mixer exit were not directly interpretable using a simple flow model based on jet penetration, and a greater understanding of the flow and chemical processes in this section are required to optimize it. Neither the rich-combustor equivalence ratio nor its residence time was a direct contributor to the exit NO(x). Based on this study, it was also concluded that: (1) While NO(x) formation in both the mixing section and the lean combustor contribute to the overall emission, the NOx formation in the mixing section dominates. The gas composition exiting the rich combustor can be reasonably represented by the equilibrium composition corresponding to the rich combustor operating condition. Negligible NO(x) exits the rich combustor. (2) At the SSC condition, the oxidation processes occurring in the mixing section consume 99 percent of the CO exiting the rich combustor. Soot formed in the rich combustor is also highly oxidized, with combustor exit SAE Smoke Number <3. (3) Mixing section configurations which demonstrated enhanced emissions control at SSC also performed better at part-power conditions. Data from mixer exit traverses reflected the expected mixing behavior for off-design jet to crossflow momentum-flux ratios. (4) Low power operating conditions require that the RQL combustor operate as a lean-lean combustor to achieve

  1. Experimental Assessment of the Emissions Control Potential of a Rich/Quench/Lean Combustor for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Padget, F. C.; Tacina, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In support of Pratt & Whitney efforts to define the Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft engine, UTRC conducted a flametube-scale study of the RQL concept. Extensive combustor testing was performed at the Supersonic Cruise (SSC) condition of a HSCT engine cycle, Data obtained from probe traverses near the exit of the mixing section confirmed that the mixing section was the critical component in controlling combustor emissions. Circular-hole configurations, which produced rapidly-, highly-penetrating jets, were most effective in limiting NOx. The spatial profiles of NOx and CO at the mixer exit were not directly interpretable using a simple flow model based on jet penetration, and a greater understanding of the flow and chemical processes in this section are required to optimize it. Neither the rich-combustor equivalence ratio nor its residence time was a direct contributor to the exit NOx. Based on this study, it was also concluded that (1) While NOx formation in both the mixing section and the lean combustor contribute to the overall emission, the NOx formation in the mixing section dominates. The gas composition exiting the rich combustor can be reasonably represented by the equilibrium composition corresponding to the rich combustor operating condition. Negligible NOx exits the rich combustor. (2) At the SSC condition, the oxidation processes occurring in the mixing section consume 99 percent of the CO exiting the rich combustor. Soot formed in the rich combustor is also highly oxidized, with combustor exit SAE Smoke Number <3. (3) Mixing section configurations which demonstrated enhanced emissions control at SSC also performed better at part-power conditions. Data from mixer exit traverses reflected the expected mixing behavior for off-design jet to crossflow momentum-flux ratios. (4) Low power operating conditions require that the RQL combustor operate as a lean-lean combustor to achieve low CO and

  2. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  3. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  4. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  5. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  6. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  7. Future changes in climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling simulated for a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario until year 4000 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmittner, Andreas; Oschlies, Andreas; Matthews, H. Damon; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2008-03-01

    A new model of global climate, ocean circulation, ecosystems, and biogeochemical cycling, including a fully coupled carbon cycle, is presented and evaluated. The model is consistent with multiple observational data sets from the past 50 years as well as with the observed warming of global surface air and sea temperatures during the last 150 years. It is applied to a simulation of the coming two millennia following a business-as-usual scenario of anthropogenic CO2 emissions (SRES A2 until year 2100 and subsequent linear decrease to zero until year 2300, corresponding to a total release of 5100 GtC). Atmospheric CO2 increases to a peak of more than 2000 ppmv near year 2300 (that is an airborne fraction of 72% of the emissions) followed by a gradual decline to ˜1700 ppmv at year 4000 (airborne fraction of 56%). Forty-four percent of the additional atmospheric CO2 at year 4000 is due to positive carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Global surface air warms by ˜10°C, sea ice melts back to 10% of its current area, and the circulation of the abyssal ocean collapses. Subsurface oxygen concentrations decrease, tripling the volume of suboxic water and quadrupling the global water column denitrification. We estimate 60 ppb increase in atmospheric N2O concentrations owing to doubling of its oceanic production, leading to a weak positive feedback and contributing about 0.24°C warming at year 4000. Global ocean primary production almost doubles by year 4000. Planktonic biomass increases at high latitudes and in the subtropics whereas it decreases at midlatitudes and in the tropics. In our model, which does not account for possible direct impacts of acidification on ocean biology, production of calcium carbonate in the surface ocean doubles, further increasing surface ocean and atmospheric pCO2. This represents a new positive feedback mechanism and leads to a strengthening of the positive interaction between climate change and the carbon cycle on a multicentennial to millennial

  8. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  9. Jet aircraft hydrocarbon fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    A broad specification, referee fuel was proposed for research and development. This fuel has a lower, closely specified hydrogen content and higher final boiling point and freezing point than ASTM Jet A. The workshop recommended various priority items for fuel research and development. Key items include prediction of tradeoffs among fuel refining, distribution, and aircraft operating costs; combustor liner temperature and emissions studies; and practical simulator investigations of the effect of high freezing point and low thermal stability fuels on aircraft fuel systems.

  10. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor); Wofsy, Steven C.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Grose, William L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT's, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  11. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft: A fourth program report

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Wesoky, H.L.; Wofsy, S.C.; Ravishankara, A.R.; Rodriguez, J.M.; Grose, W.L.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the fourth report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA`s High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent AESA interim assessment report and a review of that report have shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA has been designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This fourth report comes after the interim assessment and sets forth directions for the 1995 assessment at the end of AESA Phase 1. It also sets forth the goals and directions for AESA Phase 2, as reported at the 1994 Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) annual meeting held in June. The focus of the Phase 2 effort is to obtain the best possible closure on the outstanding problems identified in the interim assessment and NASA/NRC review. Topics discussed in this report include how high-speed civil transports (HSCT) might affect stratospheric ozone, emissions scenarios and databases to assess potential atmospheric effects from HSCT`s, calculated results from 2-D zonal mean models using emissions data, engine trace constituent measurements.

  12. Measuring Workload Differences Between Short-term Memory and Long-term Memory Scenarios in a Simulated Flight Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    Four highly experienced Air Force pilots each flew four simulated flight scenarios. Two scenarios required a great deal of aircraft maneuvering. The other two scenarios involved less maneuvering, but required remembering a number of items. All scenarios were designed to be equaly challenging. Pilot's Subjective Ratings for Activity-level, Complexity, Difficulty, Stress, and Workload were higher for the manuevering scenarios than the memory scenarios. At a moderate workload level, keeping the pilots active resulted in better aircraft control. When required to monitor and remember items, aircraft control tended to decrease. Pilots tended to weigh information about the spatial positioning and performance of their aircraft more heavily than other items.

  13. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  14. Optimization in fractional aircraft ownership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septiani, R. D.; Pasaribu, H. M.; Soewono, E.; Fayalita, R. A.

    2012-05-01

    Fractional Aircraft Ownership is a new concept in flight ownership management system where each individual or corporation may own a fraction of an aircraft. In this system, the owners have privilege to schedule their flight according to their needs. Fractional management companies (FMC) manages all aspects of aircraft operations, including utilization of FMC's aircraft in combination of outsourced aircrafts. This gives the owners the right to enjoy the benefits of private aviations. However, FMC may have complicated business requirements that neither commercial airlines nor charter airlines faces. Here, optimization models are constructed to minimize the number of aircrafts in order to maximize the profit and to minimize the daily operating cost. In this paper, three kinds of demand scenarios are made to represent different flight operations from different types of fractional owners. The problems are formulated as an optimization of profit and a daily operational cost to find the optimum flight assignments satisfying the weekly and daily demand respectively from the owners. Numerical results are obtained by Genetic Algorithm method.

  15. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  16. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  17. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  18. Collection and Analysis of Aircraft Emitted Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, James Charles

    1999-01-01

    The University of Denver Aerosol Group proposed to adapt an impactor system for the collection of particles emitted by aircraft. The collection substrates were electron microscope grids which were analyzed by Dr. Pat Sheridan using a transmission electron microscope. The impactor was flown in the SNIFF behind aircraft and engine emissions were sampled. This report details the results of that work.

  19. 14 CFR 34.6 - Aircraft safety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Consistent with 40 CFR 87.6, if the FAA Administrator determines that any emission control regulation in this... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aircraft safety. 34.6 Section 34.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING...

  20. Pb isotopic investigation of aircraft-sampled emissions from the Horne smelter (Rouyn, Québec): Implications for atmospheric pollution in northeastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonetti, Antonio; Gariépy, Clément; Banic, Catharine M.; Tanabe, Richard; Wong, Henry K.

    2004-08-01

    This study reports metal abundances and Pb isotope ratios of emissions from the Horne copper smelter, and ambient (ground level) atmosphere at Rouyn, Québec retrieved during 2-week field studies in the winter and summer seasons of 2000. Plume aerosols were sampled during horizontal and vertical passes using a DHC-6 Twin Otter aircraft, which typically tracked the plume up to 30 km from the stack. Samples of the 'background' atmospheric conditions were taken simultaneously from a ground site meteorological station located 2.5 km in the predominant upwind direction from the stack. Overall, metal concentrations (ng/m 3 of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Se, Zn) for the in-plume samples are elevated by one or more orders of magnitude over those measured in the ground site samples. The Pb isotope compositions for the in-plume samples are extremely variable ( 206Pb/ 207Pb range from ˜1.120 to ˜1.170) but define well-constrained linear arrays in conventional Pb-Pb isotope plots. Correlations between metal concentrations (e.g. As/Pb, Cu/Pb, Zn/Pb) and the Pb isotope data are indicative of binary mixing between two anthropogenic end members; most probably imported industrial Pb found in recycled materials, and nonradiogenic Pb derived from Archean sulfide ore deposits. Pb isotope data from the winter ground site ('background') samples indicate that the ground level atmosphere at Rouyn contains a mixture of Pb emitted from the Horne smelter and long-range anthropogenic Pb transported from Eurasian pollution sources. Compared to the Pb isotope composition of epiphytic lichens, snowpack, and precipitations collected in 1990 to 1999 from adjacent geographic regions, the Pb isotope results obtained here suggest that aerosols emitted from the Horne smelter are dispersed into northeastern North America. However, future studies dealing with point source apportionment for this region of the globe will be rendered difficult due to the processing at the Horne smelter of recycled material

  1. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  2. From "farm to fork" strawberry system: current realities and potential innovative scenarios from life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and green house gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Baudino, Claudio; Tecco, Nadia

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we analysed the environmental profile of the strawberry industry in Northern Italy. The analysis was conducted using two scenarios as reference systems: strawberry crops grown in unheated plastic tunnels using currently existing cultivation techniques, post-harvest management practices and consumption patterns (scenario 1) and the same strawberry cultivation chain in which some of the materials used were replaced with bio-based materials (scenario 2). In numerous studies, biodegradable polymers have been shown to be environmentally friendly, thus potentially reducing environmental impacts. These materials can be recycled into carbon dioxide and water through composting. Many materials, such as Mater-BI® and PLA®, are also derived from renewable resources. The methodology chosen for the environmental analysis was a life cycle assessment (LCA) based on a consequential approach developed to assess a product's overall environmental impact from the production system to its usage and disposal. In the field stage, a traditional mulching film (non-biodegradable) could be replaced with a biodegradable product. This change would result in waste production of 0 kg/ha for the bio-based product compared to 260 kg/ha of waste for polyethylene (PE). In the post-harvest stage, the issue addressed was the use and disposal of packaging materials. The innovative scenario evaluated herein pertains to the use of new packaging materials that increase the shelf life of strawberries, thereby decreasing product losses while increasing waste management efficiency at the level of a distribution platform and/or sales outlet. In the event of product deterioration or non-sale of the product, the packaging and its contents could be collected together as organic waste without any additional processes because the packaging is compostable according to EN13432. Scenario 2 would achieve reductions of 20% in the global warming potential and non-renewable energy impact categories. PMID

  3. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fire worthiness of air transport interiors was evaluated. The effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire is addressed. Modification of aircraft interior subsystem components which provide improvements in aircraft fire safety are examined. Three specific subsystem components, interior panels, seats and windows, offer the most immediate and highest payoff by modifying interior materials of existing aircrafts. It is shown that the new materials modifications reduce the fire hazards because of significant reduction in their characteristic flame spread, heat release, and smoke and toxic gas emissions.

  4. Aircraft-type dependency of contrail evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unterstrasser, S.; Görsch, N.

    2014-12-01

    The impact of aircraft type on contrail evolution is assessed using a large eddy simulation model with Lagrangian ice microphysics. Six different aircraft ranging from the small regional airliner Bombardier CRJ to the largest aircraft Airbus A380 are taken into account. Differences in wake vortex properties and fuel flow lead to considerable variations in the early contrail geometric depth and ice crystal number. Larger aircraft produce contrails with more ice crystals (assuming that the number of initially generated ice crystals per kilogram fuel is constant). These initial differences are reduced in the first minutes, as the ice crystal loss during the vortex phase is stronger for larger aircraft. In supersaturated air, contrails of large aircraft are much deeper after 5 min than those of small aircraft. A parameterization for the final vertical displacement of the wake vortex system is provided, depending only on the initial vortex circulation and stratification. Cloud resolving simulations are used to examine whether the aircraft-induced initial differences have a long-lasting mark. These simulations suggest that the synoptic scenario controls the contrail cirrus evolution qualitatively. However, quantitative differences between the contrail cirrus properties of the various aircraft remain over the total simulation period of 6 h. The total extinctions of A380-produced contrails are about 1.5 to 2.5 times higher than those from contrails of a Bombardier CRJ.

  5. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  6. Aircraft Optimization for Minimum Environmental Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoine, Nicolas; Kroo, Ilan M.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the tradeoff between operating cost and environmental acceptability of commercial aircraft. This involves optimizing the aircraft design and mission to minimize operating cost while constraining exterior noise and emissions. Growth in air traffic and airport neighboring communities has resulted in increased pressure to severely penalize airlines that do not meet strict local noise and emissions requirements. As a result, environmental concerns have become potent driving forces in commercial aviation. Traditionally, aircraft have been first designed to meet performance and cost goals, and adjusted to satisfy the environmental requirements at given airports. The focus of the present study is to determine the feasibility of including noise and emissions constraints in the early design of the aircraft and mission. This paper introduces the design tool and results from a case study involving a 250-passenger airliner.

  7. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  8. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  9. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  10. Photochemical model evaluation of the ground-level ozone impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health in the Alberta oil sands region: Using present and future emission scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Cho, Sunny; Morris, Ralph; Spink, David; Jung, Jaegun; Pauls, Ron; Duffett, Katherine

    2016-09-01

    One of the potential environmental issues associated with oil sands development is increased ozone formation resulting from NOX and volatile organic compound emissions from bitumen extraction, processing and upgrading. To manage this issue in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in northeast Alberta, a regional multi-stakeholder group, the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA), developed an Ozone Management Framework that includes a modelling based assessment component. In this paper, we describe how the Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to assess potential ground-level ozone formation and impacts on ambient air quality and vegetation health for three different ozone precursor cases in the AOSR. Statistical analysis methods were applied, and the CMAQ performance results met the U.S. EPA model performance goal at all sites. The modelled 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average ozone concentrations in the base and two future year scenarios did not exceed the Canada-wide standard of 65 ppb or the newer Canadian Ambient Air Quality Standards of 63 ppb in 2015 and 62 ppb in 2020. Modelled maximum 1-h ozone concentrations in the study were well below the Alberta Ambient Air Quality Objective of 82 ppb in all three cases. Several ozone vegetation exposure metrics were also evaluated to investigate the potential impact of ground-level ozone on vegetation. The chronic 3-months SUM60 exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline range (0-2000 ppb-hr) everywhere in the AOSR. The AOT40 ozone exposure metric predicted by CMAQ did not exceed the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UN/ECE) threshold of concern of 3000 ppb-hr in any of the cases but is just below the threshold in high-end future emissions scenario. In all three emission scenarios, the CMAQ predicted W126 ozone exposure metric is within the CEMA baseline threshold of 4000 ppb-hr. This study outlines the use of photochemical modelling of the impact of an industry (oil

  11. Alternate Fuels for Use in Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Walther, Rainer; Corporan, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    The engine and aircraft Research and Development (R&D) communities have been investigating alternative fueling in near-term, midterm, and far-term aircraft. A drop in jet fuel replacement, consisting of a kerosene (Jet-A) and synthetic fuel blend, will be possible for use in existing and near-term aircraft. Future midterm aircraft may use a biojet and synthetic fuel blend in ultra-efficient airplane designs. Future far-term engines and aircraft in 50-plus years may be specifically designed to use a low- or zero-carbon fuel. Synthetic jet fuels from coal, natural gas, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks are very similar in performance to conventional jet fuel, yet the additional CO2 produced during the manufacturing needs to be permanently sequestered. Biojet fuels need to be developed specifically for jet aircraft without displacing food production. Envisioned as midterm aircraft fuel, if the performance and cost liabilities can be overcome, biofuel blends with synthetic jet or Jet-A fuels have near-term potential in terms of global climatic concerns. Long-term solutions address dramatic emissions reductions through use of alternate aircraft fuels such as liquid hydrogen or liquid methane. Either of these new aircraft fuels will require an enormous change in infrastructure and thus engine and airplane design. Life-cycle environmental questions need to be addressed.

  12. Traffic scenario generation technique for piloted simulation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David H.; Wells, Douglas C.

    1985-01-01

    Piloted simulation studies of cockpit traffic display concepts require the development of representative traffic scenarios. With the exception of specific aircraft interaction issues, most research questions can be addressed using traffic scenarios consisting of prerecorded aircraft movements merged together to form a desired traffic pattern. Prerecorded traffic scenarios have distinct research advantages, allowing control of traffic encounters with repeatability of scenarios between different test subjects. A technique is described for generation of prerecorded jet transport traffic scenarios suitable for use in piloted simulation studies. Individual flight profiles for the aircraft in the scenario are created interactively with a computer program designed specifically for this purpose. The profiles are then time-correlated and merged into a complete scenario. This technique was used to create traffic scenarios for the Denver, Colorado area with operations centered at Stapleton International Airport. Traffic scenarios for other areas may also be created using this technique, with appropriate modifications made to the navigation fix locations contained in the flight profile generation program.

  13. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 87.31... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from...

  14. Sensitivity of future continental United States water deficit projections to general circulation models, the evapotranspiration estimation method, and the greenhouse gas emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seungwoo; Graham, Wendy D.; Hwang, Syewoon; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2016-08-01

    Projecting water deficit under various possible future climate scenarios depends on the choice of general circulation model (GCM), reference evapotranspiration (ET0) estimation method, and Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) trajectory. The relative contribution of each of these factors must be evaluated in order to choose an appropriate ensemble of future scenarios for water resources planning. In this study variance-based global sensitivity analysis and Monte Carlo filtering were used to evaluate the relative sensitivity of projected changes in precipitation (P), ET0, and water deficit (defined here as P-ET0) to choice of GCM, ET0 estimation method, and RCP trajectory over the continental United States (US) for two distinct future periods: 2030-2060 (future period 1) and 2070-2100 (future period 2). A total of 9 GCMs, 10 ET0 methods, and 3 RCP trajectories were used to quantify the range of future projections and estimate the relative sensitivity of future projections to each of these factors. In general, for all regions of the continental US, changes in future precipitation are most sensitive to the choice of GCM, while changes in future ET0 are most sensitive to the choice of ET0 estimation method. For changes in future water deficit, the choice of GCM is the most influential factor in the cool season (December-March), and the choice of ET0 estimation method is most important in the warm season (May-October) for all regions except the Southeast US, where GCMs and ET0 have approximately equal influence throughout most of the year. Although the choice of RCP trajectory is generally less important than the choice of GCM or ET0 method, the impact of RCP trajectory increases in future period 2 over future period 1 for all factors. Monte Carlo filtering results indicate that particular GCMs and ET0 methods drive the projection of wetter or drier future conditions much more than RCP trajectory; however, the set of GCMs and ET0 methods that produce wetter or

  15. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  16. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  17. Fireworthiness of transport aircraft interior systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The key materials question is addressed concerning the effect of interior systems on the survival of passengers and crew in the case of an uncontrolled transport aircraft fire. Technical opportunities are examined which are available through the modification of aircraft interior subsystem components, modifications that may reasonably be expected to provide improvements in aircraft fire safety. Subsystem components discussed are interior panels, seats, and windows. By virtue of their role in real fire situations and as indicated by the results of large scale simulation tests, these components appear to offer the most immediate and highest payoff possible by modifying interior materials of existing aircraft. These modifications have the potential of reducing the rate of fire growth, with a consequent reduction of heat, toxic gas, and smoke emission throughout the habitable interior of an aircraft, whatever the initial source of the fire.

  18. Evaluation of a Mobile Phone for Aircraft GPS Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.

    2004-01-01

    Measurements of spurious emissions from a mobile phone are conducted in a reverberation chamber for the Global Positioning System (GPS) radio frequency band. This phone model was previously determined to have caused interference to several aircraft GPS receivers. Interference path loss (IPL) factors are applied to the emission data, and the outcome compared against GPS receiver susceptibility. The resulting negative safety margins indicate there are risks to aircraft GPS systems. The maximum emission level from the phone is also shown to be comparable with some laptop computer's emissions, implying that laptop computers can provide similar risks to aircraft GPS receivers.

  19. DISENTANGLING HADRONIC AND LEPTONIC CASCADE SCENARIOS FROM THE VERY-HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION OF DISTANT HARD-SPECTRUM BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Takami, Hajime; Murase, Kohta; Dermer, Charles D. E-mail: murase@ias.edu

    2013-07-10

    Recent data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope have revealed about a dozen distant hard-spectrum blazars that have very-high-energy (VHE; {approx}> 100 GeV) photons associated with them, but most of them have not yet been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Most of these high-energy gamma-ray spectra, like those of other extreme high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects, can be well explained either by gamma rays emitted at the source or by cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, as we show specifically for KUV 00311-1938. We consider the prospects for detection of the VHE sources by the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) and show how it can distinguish the two scenarios by measuring the integrated flux above {approx}500 GeV (depending on source redshift) for several luminous sources with z {approx}< 1 in the sample. Strong evidence for the origin of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays could be obtained from VHE observations with CTA. Depending on redshift, if the often quoted redshift of KUV 00311-1938 (z = 0.61) is believed, then preliminary H.E.S.S. data favor cascades induced by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. Accurate redshift measurements of hard-spectrum blazars are essential for this study.

  20. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  1. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  2. Ion recombination in aircraft exhaust plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A.; Mirabel, P.

    In this article, a model which examines the evolution of ion concentrations in a hot aircraft exhaust plume on the ground is proposed. The model includes plume dilution and ion-ion recombination with coefficients which vary with temperature. A comparison of the model is made with the available ground-based experimental data obtained on the ATTAS research aircraft engines. From this comparison, an ion emission index of the order of 8 1016 ions/kg(fuel) inferred.

  3. Evaluation of Space-Based Constraints on Global Nitrogen Oxide Emissions with Regional Aircraft Measurements over and Downwind of Eastern North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Randall V.; Sioris, Christopher E.; Chance, Kelly; Ryerson, Thomas B.; Flocke, Frank M.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Wooldridge, Paul J.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Neuman, J. Andy; Swanson, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    We retrieve tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) columns for May 2004 to April 2005 from the SCIAMACHY satellite instrument to derive top-down emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO2) via inverse modeling with a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). Simulated NO 2 vertical profiles used in the retrieval are evaluated with airborne measurements over and downwind of North America (ICARTT); a northern midlatitude lightning source of 1.6 Tg N/yr minimizes bias in the retrieval. Retrieved NO2 columns are validated (r2 = 0.60, slope = 0.82) with coincident airborne in situ measurements. The top-down emissions are combined with a priori information from a bottom-up emission inventory with error weighting to achieve an improved a posteriori estimate of the global distribution of surface NOx emissions. Our a posteriori NOx emission inventory for land surface NOx emissions (46.1 Tg N/yr) is 22% larger than the GEIA-based a priori bottom-up inventory for 1998, a difference that reflects rising anthropogenic emissions, especially from East Asia A posteriori NOx emissions for East Asia (9.8 Tg N/yr) exceed those from other continents. The a posteriori inventory improves the GEOS-Chem simulation of NOx, peroxyacetylnitrate, and nitric acid with respect to airborne in situ measurements over and downwind of New York City. The a posteriori is 7% larger than the EDGAR 3.2FT2000 global inventory, 3% larger than the NEI99 inventory for the United States, and 68% larger than a regional inventory for 2000 for eastern Asia. SCIAMACHY NO2 columns over the North Atlantic show a weak plume from lightning NO(x).

  4. Aircraft towing feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Energy costs and availability are major concerns in most parts of the world. Many ways of increasing energy supply and reducing consumption are being proposed and investigated. One that holds considerable promise is the extended towing of aircraft between airport runways and terminal gate areas with engines shut down. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the constraints on and feasibility of extended aircraft towing. Past aircraft towing experience and the state-of-the-art in towing equipment are reviewed. Safety and operational concerns associated with aircraft towing are identified, and the benefits and costs of implementing aircraft towing at 20 major US airports are analyzed. It was concluded that extended aircraft towing is technically feasible and that substantial reductions in aircraft fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions can be achieved through its implementation. It was also concluded that, although capital and operating costs associated with towing would be increased, net savings could generally be attained at these airports. Because of the lack of past experience and the necessity of proving the cost effectiveness of the towing concept, a demonstration of the feasibility of large-scale aircraft towing is necessary. The study evaluates the suitability of the 20 study airports as potential demonstration sites and makes recommendations for the first demonstration project.

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrared Signature Suppression of Aircraft Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Qiang; Kwon, Oh Joon

    During typical supersonic cruising, the temperature of the aircraft skin rises above 300 K due to aerodynamic heating. In this situation, aircraft-skin infrared (IR) suppression, used to minimize the radiation contrast from the background is a crucial survival technology. In the present study, a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of IR suppression of aircraft skin is proposed. For this purpose, a synthetic procedure based on numerical simulations has been developed. In this procedure, the thermal status of aircraft skin is obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for complex aircraft geometries. An IR signature model is proposed using a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The detection range and the IR contrast are adopted as the performance indicators for the evaluation of the aircraft IR suppression. The influence of these factors related to the aircraft-skin radiation, such as aircraft-skin emissivity, surface temperature distribution and flight speed, on the IR contrast and the detection range is also studied. As a test case, the effectiveness of various IR suppression schemes was analyzed for a typical air combat situation. Then, the method is applied to clarify the contribution of each aircraft component to the IR suppression of the overall IR radiation. The results show that aircraft-skin temperature control and emissivity control are effective means to reduce the IR radiation and to achieve lower detection. The results can be used as a practical guide for designing future stealth aircraft.

  6. Climate Change Projections for Sri Lanka for the mid-twentieth Century from CMIP5 Simulations under a High Emissions Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubair, L.; Agalawatte, P.

    2014-12-01

    Under the Agricultural Model Inter-Comparison program (AgMIP), climate change projections for Sri Lanka were undertaken from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project (CMIP5) archives for five locations covering Sri Lanka. These datasets were first quality checked after removing questionable data entries. The gaps in data were filled using AgMERRA data set for the specific location developed by Alex Ruane and Sonali McDermid at NASA- GISS after applying the necessary bias corrections. Future climate projections for 2040- 2070 are based on projections for high Carbon Dioxide emissions (RCP8.5). Analysis was undertaken on the outputs of 20 General Circulation Models (GCMs). Observed climate datasets (for the period 1980- 2010) for each location were used to generate downscaled future predictions. Future projections for maximum temperature, minimum temperature and rainfall were generated while holding solar radiation constant and changing the CO2 value up to 499 ppm. Results for 5 GCMs that simulate the monsoon region best were then selected for further analysis. These are CCSM4, GFDL-ESM2M, HadGEM2-ES, MIROC5, MPI-ESM-MR. All 20 GCM outputs predicted that both minimum and maximum temperature shall rise by around 2 ⁰C throughout the year. This result is consistent across all 5 locations and the uncertainty associated with this prediction was observed to be low compared to that of rainfall. In the case of the rainfall, majority (80- 95%) of GCMs predicted an increment in the annual rainfall by around 0.5 mm/day. Rainfall during September- October- November was predicted to have a high increment (around 2- 7 mm/day) and during February- March a decrement of around 1- 2 mm/day was predicted. The uncertainty of this prediction based on outputs of all 20 GCMs were observed to be high. These results are consistent with the Fourth Assessment Report by the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change.

  7. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  8. Remote sensing of temperature and concentration profiles of a gas jet by coupling infrared emission spectroscopy and LIDAR for characterization of aircraft engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offret, J.-P.; Lebedinsky, J.; Navello, L.; Pina, V.; Serio, B.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature data play an important role in the combustion chamber since it determines both the efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission of engines. Air pollution problem concerns the emissions of gases such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and also aerosols, soot and volatile organic compounds. Flame combustion occurs in hostile environments where temperature and concentration profiles are often not easy to measure. In this study, a temperature and CO2 concentration profiles optical measurement method, suitable for combustion analysis, is discussed and presented. The proposed optical metrology method presents numerous advantages when compared to intrusive methods. The experimental setup comprises a passive radiative emission measurement method combined with an active laser-measurement method. The passive method is based on the use of gas emission spectroscopy. The experimental spectrometer device is coupled with an active method. The active method is used to investigate and correct complex flame profiles. This method similar to a LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) device is based on the measurement of Rayleigh scattering of a short laser pulse recorded using a high-speed streak camera. The whole experimental system of this new method is presented. Results obtained on a small-scale turbojet are shown and discussed in order to illustrate the potentials deliver by the sophisticated method. Both temperature and concentration profiles of the gas jet are presented and discussed.

  9. Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach to Assess Near-Field Impacts of Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality m...

  10. Aircraft Lightning Electromagnetic Environment Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines a NASA project plan for demonstrating a prototype lightning strike measurement system that is suitable for installation onto research aircraft that already operate in thunderstorms. This work builds upon past data from the NASA F106, FAA CV-580, and Transall C-180 flight projects, SAE ARP5412, and the European ILDAS Program. The primary focus is to capture airframe current waveforms during attachment, but may also consider pre and post-attachment current, electric field, and radiated field phenomena. New sensor technologies are being developed for this system, including a fiber-optic Faraday polarization sensor that measures lightning current waveforms from DC to over several Megahertz, and has dynamic range covering hundreds-of-volts to tens-of-thousands-of-volts. A study of the electromagnetic emission spectrum of lightning (including radio wave, microwave, optical, X-Rays and Gamma-Rays), and a compilation of aircraft transfer-function data (including composite aircraft) are included, to aid in the development of other new lightning environment sensors, their placement on-board research aircraft, and triggering of the onboard instrumentation system. The instrumentation system will leverage recent advances in high-speed, high dynamic range, deep memory data acquisition equipment, and fiber-optic interconnect.

  11. The distribution of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals in the lower stratosphere: Implications for changes in O3 due to emission of NO(y) from supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; We-Nnberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained in the lower statosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model that assimilates measurements of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 agree well with measured concentrations of NO and ClO, but concentrations of HO2 and OH are underestimated by 10 to 25%, concentrations of NO2 are overestimated by 10 to 30%, and concentrations of HCl are overestimated by a factor of 2. Discrepancies for (OH) and (HO2) are reduced if we allow for higher yields of O((1)D) from O2 photolysis and for heterogeneous production of HNO2. The data suggest more efficent catalytic removal of O3 by hydrogen and halogen radicals relative to nitrogen oxide radicals than predicted by models using recommendend rates and cross sections. Increased in (O3) in the lower stratosphere may be larger in response to inputs of NO(y) from supersonic aircraft than estimated by current assessment models.

  12. The Distribution of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals in the Lower Stratosphere: Implications for Changes in O3 due to Emission of NO(y) from Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, P.; Kohn, D. W.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Pfister, L.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Yue, G. K.; Wilson, J. C.; Brock, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained in the lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) are compared to results from a photochemical model that assimilates measurements of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 agree well with measured concentrations of NO and ClO, but concentrations of HO2 and OH are underestimated by 10 to 25%, concentrations of NO2 are overestimated by 10 to 30%, and concentrations of HCl are overestimated by a factor of 2. Discrepancies for [OH] and [HO2] are reduced if we allow for higher yields of O(sup 1)D) from 03 photolysis and for heterogeneous production of HNO2. The data suggest more efficient catalytic removal of O3 by hydrogen and halogen radicals relative to nitrogen oxide radicals than predicted by models using recommended rates and cross sections. Increases in [O3] in the lower stratosphere may be larger in response to inputs of NO(sub y) from supersonic aircraft than estimated by current assessment models.

  13. Influence of Ohio River Valley Emissions on Fine Particle Sulfate Measured from Aircraft over Large Regions of the Eastern United States and Canada during INTEX-NA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hennigan, Christopher J.; Sandholm, Scott; Kim, Saewung; Stickel, Robert E.; Huey, L. Gregory; Weber, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft measurements of fine inorganic aerosol composition were made with a particle-into-liquid sampler coupled to dual ion chromatographs (PILS-IC) as part of the NASA INTEX-NA study. The sampling campaign, which lasted from 1 July to 14 August 2004, centered over the eastern United States and Canada and showed that sulfate was the dominant inorganic species measured. The highest sulfate concentrations were observed at altitudes below 2 km, and back trajectory analyses showed a distinct difference between air masses that had or had not intercepted the Ohio River valley (ORV) region. Air masses encountered below 2 km with a history over the ORV had sulfate concentrations that were higher by a factor of 3.2 and total sulfur (S) concentrations higher by 2.5. The study's highest sulfate concentrations were found in these air masses. The sulfur of the ORV air masses was also more processed with a mean sulfate to total sulfur molar ratio of 0.5 compared to 0.3 in non-ORV measurements. Results from a second, independent trajectory model agreed well with those from the primary analysis. These ORV-influenced air masses were encountered on multiple days and were widely spread across the eastern United States and western Atlantic region.

  14. Wireless Phone Threat Assessment for Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyens, T. X.; Koppen, S. V.; Smith, L. J.; Williams, R. A.; Salud, M. T.

    2005-01-01

    Emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured for the latest generation of wireless phones. The two wireless technologies considered, GSM/GPRS and CDMA2000, are the latest available to general consumers in the U.S. A base-station simulator is used to control the phones. The measurements are conducted using reverberation chambers, and the results are compared against FCC and aircraft installed equipment emission limits. The results are also compared against baseline emissions from laptop computers and personal digital assistant devices that are currently allowed to operate on aircraft.

  15. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  16. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8... in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust...

  17. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  18. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  19. Generating Scenarios When Data Are Missing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan

    2007-01-01

    The Hypothetical Scenario Generator (HSG) is being developed in conjunction with other components of artificial-intelligence systems for automated diagnosis and prognosis of faults in spacecraft, aircraft, and other complex engineering systems. The HSG accepts, as input, possibly incomplete data on the current state of a system (see figure). The HSG models a potential fault scenario as an ordered disjunctive tree of conjunctive consequences, wherein the ordering is based upon the likelihood that a particular conjunctive path will be taken for the given set of inputs. The computation of likelihood is based partly on a numerical ranking of the degree of completeness of data with respect to satisfaction of the antecedent conditions of prognostic rules. The results from the HSG are then used by a model-based artificial- intelligence subsystem to predict realistic scenarios and states.

  20. Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossi, Richard H.; Criswell, Thomas L.; Ikegami, Roy; Nelson, James; Normand, Eugene; Rutherford, Paul S.; Shrader, John E.

    1995-07-01

    Monitoring aging aircraft for hidden corrosion is a significant problem for both military and civilian aircraft. Under a Wright Laboratory sponsored program, Boeing Defense & Space Group is investigating three novel methods for detecting and monitoring hidden corrosion: (1) atmospheric neutron radiography, (2) 14 MeV neutron activation analysis and (3) fiber optic corrosion sensors. Atmospheric neutron radiography utilizes the presence of neutrons in the upper atmosphere as a source for interrogation of the aircraft structure. Passive track-etch neutron detectors, which have been previously placed on the aircraft, are evaluated during maintenance checks to assess the presence of corrosion. Neutrons generated by an accelerator are used via activation analysis to assess the presence of distinctive elements in corrosion products, particularly oxygen. By using fast (14 MeV) neutrons for the activation, portable, high intensity sources can be employed for field testing of aircraft. The third novel method uses fiber optics as part of a smart structure technology for corrosion detection and monitoring. Fiber optic corrosion sensors are placed in the aircraft at locations known to be susceptible to corrosion. Periodic monitoring of the sensors is used to alert maintenance personnel to the presence and degree of corrosion at specific locations on the aircraft. During the atmospheric neutron experimentation, we identified a fourth method referred to as secondary emission radiography (SER). This paper discusses the development of these methods.

  1. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Wilkerson, J T; Naiman, A D; Lele, S K

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the 20-year impacts of emissions from all commercial aircraft flights worldwide on climate, cloudiness, and atmospheric composition. Aircraft emissions from each individual flight worldwide were modeled to evolve from the subgrid to grid scale with the global model described and evaluated in Part I of this study. Simulations with and without aircraft emissions were run for 20 years. Aircraft emissions were found to be responsible for -6% of Arctic surface global warming to date, -1.3% of total surface global warming, and -4% of global upper tropospheric warming. Arctic warming due to aircraft slightly decreased Arctic sea ice area. Longer simulations should result in more warming due to the further increase in CO2. Aircraft increased atmospheric stability below cruise altitude and decreased it above cruise altitude. The increase in stability decreased cumulus convection in favor of increased stratiform cloudiness. Aircraft increased total cloud fraction on average. Aircraft increased surface and upper tropospheric ozone by -0.4% and -2.5%, respectively and surface and upper-tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) by -0.1% and -5%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased tropospheric OH, decreasing column CO and CH4 by -1.7% and -0.9%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased human mortality worldwide by -620 (-240 to 4770) deaths per year, with half due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5). PMID:24601012

  2. Emerging nondestructive inspection methods for aging aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A; Dahlke, L; Gieske, J

    1994-01-01

    This report identifies and describes emerging nondestructive inspection (NDI) methods that can potentially be used to inspect commercial transport and commuter aircraft for structural damage. The nine categories of emerging NDI techniques are: acoustic emission, x-ray computed tomography, backscatter radiation, reverse geometry x-ray, advanced electromagnetics, including magnetooptic imaging and advanced eddy current techniques, coherent optics, advanced ultrasonics, advanced visual, and infrared thermography. The physical principles, generalized performance characteristics, and typical applications associated with each method are described. In addition, aircraft inspection applications are discussed along with the associated technical considerations. Finally, the status of each technique is presented, with a discussion on when it may be available for use in actual aircraft maintenance programs. It should be noted that this is a companion document to DOT/FAA/CT-91/5, Current Nondestructive Inspection Methods for Aging Aircraft.

  3. Studies of aircraft wake chemistry and dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Farlow, N. H.; Anderson, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Use of aerospace technology to study aircraft wakes is reviewed. It is shown how aerospace vehicles can be used to provide data for increased understanding of the atmosphere and of aircraft exhaust trails where knowledge is inadequate to evaluate fully the potential impact of the engine emissions. Models of aircraft near-field exhaust wakes are characterized by jet, vortex, and dispersion regimes. Wake growth in the jet regime is self-determined and rapid, whereas further spreading is inhibited in the vortex regime because of circulating vortex motion. Wake diffusion in the dispersion regime is initially influenced by aircraft induced turbulence but is dominated later by small-scale atmospheric turbulence. Computed fluid mechanical results show the importance of effects such as wake buoyancy, wind shear, turbulence, and traffic corridor exhaust buildup on dispersion of the wake. In the jet regime the exhaust characteristics and thermochemistry serve to illustrate initial chemical changes involving potential pollutant species.

  4. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  5. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  6. Potential impact of combined NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions from future high speed civil transport aircraft on stratospheric aerosols and ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Bekki, S.; Pyle, J.A.

    1993-02-01

    A two-dimensional sulfate aerosol model is used to assess the impact of combined NO[sub x] and SO[sub x] emissions from future High Speed Civil Transports on stratospheric aerosols and ozone. The model predicts that SO[sub x] emitted by this fleet of supersonics may double the aerosol surface area and the number of optically active particles below 20 km in the northern lower stratosphere. When the heterogeneous conversion of N[sub 2]O[sub 5] to HNO[sub 3] on sulfate aerosols is taken into account, the predicted ozone changes due to future HSCTs emissions are smaller than those calculated when SO[sub x] and the subsequent increase in aerosol loading are neglected. It is worth noting that the doubling of the aerosol surface area may lead not only to a reduction in predicted ozone sensitivity to NO[sub x], but also to an enhancement in ozone sensitivity to chlorine in the lower stratosphere. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  7. Heterogeneous Chemistry Related to Stratospheric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    Emissions from stratospheric aircraft that may directly or indirectly affect ozone include NO(y), H2O, soot and sulfuric acid. To fully assess the impact of such emissions, it is necessary to have a full understanding of both the homogeneous and heterogeneous transformations that may occur in the stratosphere. Heterogeneous reactions on stratospheric particles play a key role in partitioning ozone-destroying species between their active and reservoir forms. In particular, heterogeneous reactions tend to activate odd chlorine while deactivating odd nitrogen. Accurate modeling of the net atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft requires a thorough understanding of the competing effects of this activation/deactivation. In addition, a full understanding of the potential aircraft impacts requires that the abundance, composition and formation mechanisms of the particles themselves be established. Over the last three years with support from the High Speed Research Program, we have performed laboratory experiments to determine the chemical composition, formation mechanism, and reactivity of stratospheric aerosols.

  8. Outdoor sound propagation effects on aircraft detection through passive phased-array acoustic antennas: 3D numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roselli, Ivan; Testa, Pierluigi; Caronna, Gaetano; Barbagelata, Andrea; Ferrando, Alessandro

    2005-09-01

    The present paper describes some of the main acoustic issues connected with the SAFE-AIRPORT European Project for the development of an innovative acoustic system for the improvement of air traffic management. The system sensors are two rotating passive phased-array antennas with 512 microphones each. In particular, this study focused on the propagation of sound waves in the atmosphere and its influence on the system detection efficiency. The effects of air temperature and wind gradients on aircraft tracking were analyzed. Algorithms were implemented to correct output data errors on aircraft location due to acoustic ray deviation in 3D environment. Numerical simulations were performed using several temperature and wind profiles according to common and critical meteorological conditions. Aircraft location was predicted through 3D acoustic ray triangulation methods, taking into account variation in speed of sound waves along rays path toward each antenna. The system range was also assessed considering aircraft noise spectral emission. Since the speed of common airplanes is not negligible with respect to sound speed during typical airport operations such as takeoff and approach, the influence of the Doppler effect on range calculation was also considered and most critical scenarios were simulated.

  9. A Turbo-Brayton Cryocooler for Aircraft Superconducting Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietz, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid turboelectric aircraft-with gas turbines driving electric generators connected to electric propulsion motors-have the potential to transform aircraft design. Decoupling power generation from propulsion enables innovative aircraft designs, such as blended-wing bodies, with distributed propulsion. These hybrid turboelectric aircraft have the potential to significantly reduce emissions, decrease fuel burn, and reduce noise, all of which are required to make air transportation growth projections sustainable. The power density requirements for these electric machines can only be achieved with superconductors, which in turn require lightweight, high-capacity cryocoolers.

  10. Aircraft vulnerability analysis by modeling and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willers, Cornelius J.; Willers, Maria S.; de Waal, Alta

    2014-10-01

    Infrared missiles pose a significant threat to civilian and military aviation. ManPADS missiles are especially dangerous in the hands of rogue and undisciplined forces. Yet, not all the launched missiles hit their targets; the miss being either attributable to misuse of the weapon or to missile performance restrictions. This paper analyses some of the factors affecting aircraft vulnerability and demonstrates a structured analysis of the risk and aircraft vulnerability problem. The aircraft-missile engagement is a complex series of events, many of which are only partially understood. Aircraft and missile designers focus on the optimal design and performance of their respective systems, often testing only in a limited set of scenarios. Most missiles react to the contrast intensity, but the variability of the background is rarely considered. Finally, the vulnerability of the aircraft depends jointly on the missile's performance and the doctrine governing the missile's launch. These factors are considered in a holistic investigation. The view direction, altitude, time of day, sun position, latitude/longitude and terrain determine the background against which the aircraft is observed. Especially high gradients in sky radiance occur around the sun and on the horizon. This paper considers uncluttered background scenes (uniform terrain and clear sky) and presents examples of background radiance at all view angles across a sphere around the sensor. A detailed geometrical and spatially distributed radiometric model is used to model the aircraft. This model provides the signature at all possible view angles across the sphere around the aircraft. The signature is determined in absolute terms (no background) and in contrast terms (with background). It is shown that the background significantly affects the contrast signature as observed by the missile sensor. A simplified missile model is constructed by defining the thrust and mass profiles, maximum seeker tracking rate, maximum

  11. Study of materials performance model for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leary, K.; Skratt, J.

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration version of an aircraft interior materials computer data library was developed and contains information on selected materials applicable to aircraft seats and wall panels, including materials for the following: panel face sheets, bond plies, honeycomb, foam, decorative film systems, seat cushions, adhesives, cushion reinforcements, fire blocking layers, slipcovers, decorative fabrics and thermoplastic parts. The information obtained for each material pertains to the material's performance in a fire scenario, selected material properties and several measures of processability.

  12. The 1995 scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Stolarski, R.S.; Baughcum, S.L.; Brune, W.H.; Douglass, A.R.; Fahey, D.W.; Friedl, R.R.; Liu, S.C.; Plumb, R.A.; Poole, L.R.; Wesoky, H.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report provides a scientific assessment of present knowledge concerning the impact of proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft on the atmosphere. It comes at the end of Phase 1 of the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft element of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The fundamental problem with stratospheric flight is that pollutant residence times are long because the stratosphere is a region of permanent temperature inversion with stable stratification. Using improved two-dimensional assessment models and detailed fleet emissions scenarios, the assessment examines the possible impact of the range of effluents from aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the effects of NO(x) and H2O on the atmospheric ozone content. Measurements in the plume of an in-flight Concorde supersonic transport indicated a large number of small particles. These measurements, coupled with model sensitivity studies, point out the importance of obtaining a more detailed understanding of the fate of sulfur in the HSCT exhaust. Uncertainties in the current understanding of the processes important for determining the overall effects of HSCT`s on the atmosphere are discussed and partially quantified. Research directions are identified to improve the quantification of uncertainties and to reduce their magnitude.

  13. The 1995 scientific assessment of the atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S.; Baughcum, Steven L.; Brune, William H.; Douglass, Anne R.; Fahey, David W.; Friedl, Randall R.; Liu, Shaw C.; Plumb, R. Alan; Poole, Lamont R.; Wesoky, Howard L.

    1995-01-01

    This report provides a scientific assessment of our knowledge concerning the impact of proposed high-speed civil transport (HSCT) aircraft on the atmosphere. It comes at the end of Phase 1 of the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft element of the NASA High-Speed Research Program. The fundamental problem with stratospheric flight is that pollutant residence times are long because the stratosphere is a region of permanent temperature inversion with stable stratification. Using improved two-dimensional assessment models and detailed fleet emissions scenarios, the assessment examines the possible impact of the range of effluents from aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the effects of NO(x) and H2O on the atmospheric ozone content. Measurements in the plume of an in-flight Concorde supersonic transport indicated a large number of small particles. These measurements, coupled with model sensitivity studies, point out the importance of obtaining a more detailed understanding of the fate of sulfur in the HSCT exhaust. Uncertainties in the current understanding of the processes important for determining the overall effects of HSCT's on the atmosphere are discussed and partially quantified. Research directions are identified to improve the quantification of uncertainties and to reduce their magnitude.

  14. Simulating the ARES Aircraft in the Mars Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenney, P. Sean; Croom, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA Langley proposed the Aerial Regional-scale Environmental Survey (ARES) of Mars science mission in response to the NASA Office of Space Science 2002 Mars Scout Opportunity. The science-driven mission proposal began with trade studies and determined that a rocket powered aircraft was the best suited platform to complete the ARES science objectives. A high fidelity six degree of freedom flight simulation was required to provide credible evidence that the aircraft design fulfilled mission objectives and to support the aircraft design process by providing performance evaluations. The aircraft was initially modeled using the aero, propulsion, and flight control system components of other aircraft models. As the proposed aircraft design evolved, the borrowed components were replaced with new models. This allowed performance evaluations to be performed as the design was maturing. Basic autopilot features were also developed for the ARES aircraft model. Altitude hold and track hold modes allowed different mission scenarios to be evaluated for both science merit and aircraft performance. Platform stability and data rate requirements were identified for each of the instruments and the aircraft performance was evaluated against those requirements. The results of the simulation evaluations indicate that the ARES design and mission profiles are sound and meet the science objectives.

  15. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and Airborne Emission Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavich, T.; Beer, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) is an instrument being developed for the NASA Earth Observing System Chemistry Platform. TES will measure the distribution of ozone and its precursors in the lower atmosphere. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES) is an aircraft precursor to TES. Applicable descriptions are given of instrument design, technology challenges, implementation and operations for both.

  16. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  17. Center for interdisciplinary remotely-piloted aircraft studies (CIRPAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Bluth, R.T.; Durkee, P.A.; Seinfield, J.H.; Flagen, R.C.

    1996-10-01

    A remotely-piloted aircraft research facility is described that will provide new capabilities for atmospheric and oceanographic measurements. The aircraft can fly up to 24 hours over remote ocean regions, at low altitude, and in various other challenging mission scenarios. The aircraft will fly research missions at speeds of 40 m/s and provide high spatial resolution measurements. Whether flying with an onboard pilot or in remote-pilot mode, data will be transmitted in real-time to a ground station for analysis and decision making purposes. The facility will expand the opportunities for universities to participate in field measurement programs. 3 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  18. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  19. Brominated flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.

    PubMed

    Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke

    2014-12-01

    The use of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group. PMID:24745557

  20. The atmospheric effects of stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolarski, Richard S. (Editor); Wesoky, Howard L. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High-Speed Research Program (HSRP). This document presents a second report from the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) component of NASA's High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Market and technology considerations continue to provide an impetus for high-speed civil transport research. A recent United Nations Environment Program scientific assessment has shown that considerable uncertainty still exists about the possible impact of aircraft on the atmosphere. The AESA was designed to develop the body of scientific knowledge necessary for the evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on the atmosphere. The first Program report presented the basic objectives and plans for AESA. This second report presents the status of the ongoing research as reported by the principal investigators at the second annual AESA Program meeting in May 1992: Laboratory studies are probing the mechanism responsible for many of the heterogeneous reactions that occur on stratospheric particles. Understanding how the atmosphere redistributes aircraft exhaust is critical to our knowing where the perturbed air will go and for how long it will remain in the stratosphere. The assessment of fleet effects is dependent on the ability to develop scenarios which correctly simulate fleet operations.

  1. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  2. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. The project used a QF-106 interceptor aircraft to simulate a future orbiter, which would be towed to a high altitude and released to fire its own engines and carry a payload into space. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  3. Applications of advanced transport aircraft in developing countries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gobetz, F. W.; Assarabowski, R. J.; Leshane, A. A.

    1978-01-01

    Four representative market scenarios were studied to evaluate the relative performance of air-and surface-based transportation systems in meeting the needs of two developing contries, Brazil and Indonesia, which were selected for detailed case studies. The market scenarios were: remote mining, low-density transport, tropical forestry, and large cargo aircraft serving processing centers in resource-rich, remote areas. The long-term potential of various aircraft types, together with fleet requirements and necessary technology advances, is determined for each application.

  4. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  5. Infrared recordings for characterizing an aircraft plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retief, S. J. P.; Dreyer, M. M.; Brink, C.

    2014-06-01

    Some key electro-optical measurements required to characterize an aircraft plume for automated recognition are shown, as well as some aspects of the processing and use of these measurements. Plume measurements with Short Wavelength Infrared (1.1 - 2.5 um), Mid-Wavelength Infrared (2.5 - 7 um) and Long Wavelength Infrared (7 - 15 um) cameras are presented, as well as spectroradiometer measurements covering the whole Mid-Wavelength, Long Wavelength and upper part of the Short Wavelength Infrared bands. The two limiting factors for the detection of the plume, i.e. the atmospheric transmission bands and the plume emission bands, are discussed, and it is shown how a micro turbine engine can assist in aircraft plume studies. One such a study, regarding the differentiation between an aircraft plume and a blackbody emitter using subbands in the Mid-Wavelength Infrared, is presented. The factors influencing aircraft plume emission are discussed, and the measurements required to characterize an aircraft plume for the purpose of constructing a mathematical plume model are indicated. Since the required measurements are prescribed by the plume model requirements, a brief overview of the plume model, that can be used to simulate the results of the plume's emission under different conditions and observation configurations, is given. Such a model can be used to test the robustness of algorithms, like the mentioned subband method, for identifying aircraft plumes. Such a model furthermore enables the simulation of measurements that would be obtained by an electro-optical system, like an infrared seekerhead of a missile, of a plume for the purpose of algorithm training under various simulated environmental conditions.

  6. Constraining CO2 tower measurements in an inhomogeneous area with anthropogenic emissions using a combination of car-mounted instrument campaigns, aircraft profiles, transport modeling and neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, A.; Rella, C.; Conley, S. A.; Goeckede, M.; Law, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    The NOAA CO2 observation network in Oregon has been enhanced by 3 new towers in 2012. The tallest tower in the network (270 m), located in Silverton in the Willamette Valley is affected by anthropogenic emissions from Oregon's busiest traffic routes and urban centers. In summer 2012, we conducted a measurement campaign using a car-mounted PICARRO CRDS CO2/CO analyzer. Over 3 days, the instrument was driven over 1000 miles throughout the northwestern portion of Oregon measuring the CO/ CO2 ratios on main highways, back roads in forests, agricultural sites, and Oregon's biggest urban centers. By geospatial analyses we obtained ratios of CO/ CO2 over distinct land cover types divided into 10 classes represented in the study area. Using the coupled WRF-STILT transport model we calculated the footprints of nearby CO/ CO2 observation towers for the corresponding days of mobile road measurements. Spatiotemporally assigned source areas in combination with the land use classification were then used to calculate specific ratios of CO (anthropogenic origins) and CO2 to separate the anthropogenic portion of CO2 from the mixing ratio time series measured at the tower in Silverton. The WRF modeled boundary layer heights used in out study showed some differences compared to the boundary layer heights derived from profile data of wind, temperature, and humidity measured with an airplane in August, September, and November 2012, repeatedly over 5 tower locations. A Bayesian Regularized Artificial Neural Network (BRANN) was used to correct the boundary layer height calculated with WRF with a temporal resolution of 20 minutes and a horizontal resolution of 4 km. For that purpose the BRANN was trained using height profile data from the flight campaigns and spatiotemporally corresponding meteorological data from WRF. Our analyses provide information needed to run inverse modeling of CO2 exchange in an area that is affected by sources that cannot easily be considered by biospheric models

  7. Portable Wireless Device Threat Assessment for Aircraft Navigation Radios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Smith, Laura J.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the concern for Wireless Local Area Network devices and two-way radios to cause electromagnetic interference to aircraft navigation radio systems. Spurious radiated emissions from various IEEE 802.11a, 802.11b, and Bluetooth devices are characterized using reverberation chambers. The results are compared with baseline emissions from standard laptop computer and personal digital assistants (PDAs) that are currently allowed for use on aircraft. The results indicate that the WLAN devices tested are not more of a threat to aircraft navigation radios than standard laptop computers and PDAs in most aircraft bands. In addition, spurious radiated emission data from seven pairs of two-way radios are provided. These two-way radios emit at much higher levels in the bands considered. A description of the measurement process, device modes of operation and the measurement results are reported.

  8. Measuring Wildfires From Aircraft And Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Meyers, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite systems yield wide-area views, providing total coverage of affected areas. System developed for use aboard aircraft includes digital scanner that records data in 12 channels. Transmits data to ground station for immediate use in fighting fires. Enables researchers to estimate gaseous and particulate emissions from fires. Provides information on temperatures of flame fronts and soils, intensities and rate of spread of fires, characteristics of fuels and smoke plumes, energy-release rates, and concentrations and movements of trace gases. Data relates to heating and cooling of soils, loss of nutrients, and effects on atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic systems.

  9. Millimeter-Wave Localizers for Aircraft-to-Aircraft Approach Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Adrian J.

    2013-01-01

    Aerial refueling technology for both manned and unmanned aircraft is critical for operations where extended aircraft flight time is required. Existing refueling assets are typically manned aircraft, which couple to a second aircraft through the use of a refueling boom. Alignment and mating of the two aircraft continues to rely on human control with use of high-resolution cameras. With the recent advances in unmanned aircraft, it would be highly advantageous to remove/reduce human control from the refueling process, simplifying the amount of remote mission management and enabling new operational scenarios. Existing aerial refueling uses a camera, making it non-autonomous and prone to human error. Existing commercial localizer technology has proven robust and reliable, but not suited for aircraft-to-aircraft approaches like in aerial refueling scenarios since the resolution is too coarse (approximately one meter). A localizer approach system for aircraft-to-aircraft docking can be constructed using the same modulation with a millimeterwave carrier to provide high resolution. One technology used to remotely align commercial aircraft on approach to a runway are ILS (instrument landing systems). ILS have been in service within the U.S. for almost 50 years. In a commercial ILS, two partially overlapping beams of UHF (109 to 126 MHz) are broadcast from an antenna array so that their overlapping region defines the centerline of the runway. This is called a localizer system and is responsible for horizontal alignment of the approach. One beam is modulated with a 150-Hz tone, while the other with a 90-Hz tone. Through comparison of the modulation depths of both tones, an autopilot system aligns the approaching aircraft with the runway centerline. A similar system called a glide-slope (GS) exists in the 320-to-330MHz band for vertical alignment of the approach. While this technology has been proven reliable for millions of commercial flights annually, its UHF nature limits

  10. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  11. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research: Phase 2. Volume 2; Hybrid Electric Design Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes the hybrid electric concept design, analysis, and modeling work accomplished by the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team, consisting of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech.Performance and sizing tasks were conducted for hybrid electric versions of a conventional tube-and-wing aircraft and a hybrid wing body. The high wing Truss Braced Wing (TBW) SUGAR Volt was updated based on results from the TBW work (documented separately) and new engine performance models. Energy cost and acoustic analyses were conducted and technology roadmaps were updated for hybrid electric and battery technology. NOx emissions were calculated for landing and takeoff (LTO) and cruise. NPSS models were developed for hybrid electric components and tested using an integrated analysis of superconducting and non-superconducting hybrid electric engines. The hybrid electric SUGAR Volt was shown to produce significant emissions and fuel burn reductions beyond those achieved by the conventionally powered SUGAR High and was able to meet the NASA goals for fuel burn. Total energy utilization was not decreased but reduced energy cost can be achieved for some scenarios. The team was not able to identify a technology development path to meet NASA's noise goals

  12. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  13. Assessing and controlling the effect of aircraft on the environment: Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppoff, I. G.; Grobman, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The air pollution created by aircraft engines around airports and the global atmospheric problem of supersonic aircraft operating in the stratosphere are discussed. Methods for assessing the air pollution impact are proposed. The use of atmospheric models to determine the air pollution extent is described. Methods for controlling the emissions of aircraft engines are examined. Diagrams of the atmospheric composition resulting from exhaust gas emissions are developed.

  14. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  15. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  16. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  17. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  18. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  19. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  20. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  1. Mars base buildup scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blacic, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Two Mars surface based build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second senario, Earth development of an infrastructure to exploit the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first in this scenario relative to the first, but once begun develops rapidly, aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  2. Mars base buildup scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Blacic, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Two surface base build-up scenarios are presented in order to help visualize the mission and to serve as a basis for trade studies. In the first scenario, direct manned landings on the Martian surface occur early in the missions and scientific investigation is the main driver and rationale. In the second scenario, early development of an infrastructure to exploite the volatile resources of the Martian moons for economic purposes is emphasized. Scientific exploration of the surface is delayed at first, but once begun develops rapidly aided by the presence of a permanently manned orbital station.

  3. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  4. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  5. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  6. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  7. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  8. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  9. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  10. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  11. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  12. Feedback Linearized Aircraft Control Using Dynamic Cell Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    A Dynamic Cell Structure (DCS ) Neural Network was developed which learns a topology representing network (TRN) of F-15 aircraft aerodynamic stability and control derivatives. The network is combined with a feedback linearized tracking controller to produce a robust control architecture capable of handling multiple accident and off-nominal flight scenarios. This paper describes network and its performance for accident scenarios including differential stabilator lock, soft sensor failure, control, stability derivative variation, and turbulence.

  13. GLOBAL ALTERNATIVE FUTURE SCENARIOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    One way to examine possible future outcomes for environmental protection is through the development and analysis of alternative future scenarios. This type of assessment postulates two or more different paths that social and environmental development might take, using correspond...

  14. Alternate aircraft fuels: Prospects and operational implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    The potential use of coal-derived aviation fuels was assessed. The studies addressed the prices and thermal efficiencies associated with the production of coal-derived aviation kerosene, liquid methane and liquid hydrogen and the air terminal requirements and subsonic transport performance when utilizing liquid hydrogen. The fuel production studies indicated that liquid methane can be produced at a lower price and with a higher thermal efficiency than aviation kerosene or liquid hydrogen. Ground facilities of liquefaction, storage, distribution and refueling of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft at airports appear technically feasibile. The aircraft studies indicate modest onboard energy savings for hydrogen compared to conventional fuels. Liquid hydrogen was found to be superior to both aviation kerosene and liquid methane from the standpoint of aircraft engine emissions.

  15. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  16. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  17. View of QF-106 aircraft cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of the cockpit and instrument panel of the QF-106 airplane used in the Eclipse project. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  18. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows one of the QF-106s used in the Eclipse project in flight. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  19. Eclipse program C-141A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photograph shows the Air Force C-141A that was used in the Eclipse project as a tow vehicle. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wind loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  20. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  1. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  2. Combustion and emissions technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Anderson, D. N.; Diehl, L. A.; Niedzwiecki, R. W.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor development is discussed as it relates to emissions reduction. The nature of the aircraft pollution problem is examined along with the aircraft pollution standards that have been established by the Environmental Protection Agency. The effect of engine operating conditions on pollutant formation levels is shown, as well as how close present-day engines are to meeting the established standards. The magnitude of the emissions reductions required to meet these standards is indicated. The progress that has been made in evolving the needed emissions reduction technology is the main topic.

  3. Detecting aircraft with a low-resolution infrared sensor.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Jérémie; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Maire, Florian; Moulines, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Existing computer simulations of aircraft infrared signature (IRS) do not account for dispersion induced by uncertainty on input data, such as aircraft aspect angles and meteorological conditions. As a result, they are of little use to estimate the detection performance of IR optronic systems; in this case, the scenario encompasses a lot of possible situations that must be indeed addressed, but cannot be singly simulated. In this paper, we focus on low-resolution infrared sensors and we propose a methodological approach for predicting simulated IRS dispersion of poorly known aircraft and performing aircraft detection on the resulting set of low-resolution infrared images. It is based on a sensitivity analysis, which identifies inputs that have negligible influence on the computed IRS and can be set at a constant value, on a quasi-Monte Carlo survey of the code output dispersion, and on a new detection test taking advantage of level sets estimation. This method is illustrated in a typical scenario, i.e., a daylight air-to-ground full-frontal attack by a generic combat aircraft flying at low altitude, over a database of 90,000 simulated aircraft images. Assuming a white noise or a fractional Brownian background model, detection performances are very promising. PMID:22588114

  4. Lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion to aircraft turbine engine systems can result in benefits in terms of superior combustion performance, improved combustor and turbine durability, and environmentally acceptable pollutant emissions. Lean, premixed prevaporized combustion is particularly attractive for reducing the oxides of nitrogen emissions during high altitude cruise. The NASA stratospheric cruise emission reduction program will evolve and demonstrate lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion technology for aircraft engines. This multiphased program is described. In addition, the various elements of the fundamental studies phase of the program are reviewed, and results to date of many of these studies are summarized.

  5. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  6. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  7. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  8. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  9. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  10. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  11. Scenarios for gluino coannihilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, John; Evans, Jason L.; Luo, Feng; Olive, Keith A.

    2016-02-01

    We study supersymmetric scenarios in which the gluino is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), with a mass sufficiently close to that of the lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) that gluino coannihilation becomes important. One of these scenarios is the MSSM with soft supersymmetry-breaking squark and slepton masses that are universal at an input GUT renormalization scale, but with non-universal gaugino masses. The other scenario is an extension of the MSSM to include vector-like supermultiplets. In both scenarios, we identify the regions of parameter space where gluino coannihilation is important, and discuss their relations to other regions of parameter space where other mechanisms bring the dark matter density into the range allowed by cosmology. In the case of the non-universal MSSM scenario, we find that the allowed range of parameter space is constrained by the requirement of electroweak symmetry breaking, the avoidance of a charged LSP and the measured mass of the Higgs boson, in particular, as well as the appearance of other dark matter (co)annihilation processes. Nevertheless, LSP masses m χ ≲ 8 TeV with the correct dark matter density are quite possible. In the case of pure gravity mediation with additional vector-like supermultiplets, changes to the anomaly- mediated gluino mass and the threshold effects associated with these states can make the gluino almost degenerate with the LSP, and we find a similar upper bound.

  12. BCube Ocean Scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, Mattia; Schofield, Oscar; Pearlman, Jay; Nativi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    To address complex Earth system issues such as climate change and water resources, geoscientists must work across disciplinary boundaries; this requires them to access data outside of their fields. Scientists are being called upon to find, access, and use diverse and voluminous data types