Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft engine emissions

  1. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  2. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  3. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  4. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  5. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  6. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  7. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  8. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  9. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  10. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information... Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July 17, 1973. \\12\\ U.S. EPA, ``Control of Air Pollution from Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR...

  11. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  12. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  13. Rapid measurement of emissions from military aircraft turbine engines by downstream extractive sampling of aircraft on the ground: Results for C-130 and F-15 aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Chester W.; Holdren, Michael W.; Cowen, Kenneth A.; Joseph, Darrell W.; Satola, Jan; Goodwin, Bradley; Mayfield, Howard; Laskin, Alexander; Lizabeth Alexander, M.; Ortega, John V.; Newburn, Matthew; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    Aircraft emissions affect air quality on scales from local to global. More than 20% of the jet fuel used in the U.S. is consumed by military aircraft, and emissions from this source are facing increasingly stringent environmental regulations, so improved methods for quickly and accurately determining emissions from existing and new engines are needed. This paper reports results of a study to advance the methods used for detailed characterization of military aircraft emissions, and provides emission factors for two aircraft: the F-15 fighter and the C-130 cargo plane. The measurements involved outdoor ground-level sampling downstream behind operational military aircraft. This permits rapid change-out of the aircraft so that engines can be tested quickly on operational aircraft. Measurements were made at throttle settings from idle to afterburner using a simple extractive probe in the dilute exhaust. Emission factors determined using this approach agree very well with those from the traditional method of extractive sampling at the exhaust exit. Emission factors are reported for CO 2, CO, NO, NO x, and more than 60 hazardous and/or reactive organic gases. Particle size, mass and composition also were measured and are being reported separately. Comparison of the emissions of nine hazardous air pollutants from these two engines with emissions from nine other aircraft engines is discussed.

  14. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  15. The impact of emission standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The advent of environmental standards for controlling aircraft gas turbine engine emissions has led to a reevaluation of combustor design techniques. Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  16. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  17. Status of NASA aircraft engine emission reduction and upper atmosphere measurement programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Lezberg, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Advanced emission reduction techniques for five existing aircraft gas turbine engines are evaluated. Progress made toward meeting the 1979 EPA standards in rig tests of combustors for the five engines is reported. Results of fundamental combustion studies suggest the possibility of a new generation of jet engine combustor technology that would reduce oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions far below levels currently demonstrated in the engine-related programs. The Global Air Sampling Program (GAS) is now in full operation and is providing data on constituent measurements of ozone and other minor upper-atmosphere species related to aircraft emissions.

  18. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  19. The impact of emissions standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  20. Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Programs initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate low emission advanced technology combustors for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine pollution are reviewed. Program goals are consistent with urban emission level requirements as specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and with upper atmosphere cruise emission levels as recommended by the U. S. Climatic Impact Assessment Program and National Research Council. Preliminary tests of advanced technology combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft gas turbine engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Preliminary test results from fundamental studies indicate that extremely low emission combustion systems may be possible for future generation jet aircraft. The emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

  1. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  2. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  3. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  4. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  5. Aircraft engine and auxiliary power unit emissions from combusting JP-8 fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, L.T.; Sylvia, D.A.; Gerstle, T.C.; Virag, P.

    1997-12-31

    Due to safety considerations and in an effort to standardize Department of Defense fuels, the US Air Force (USAF) replaced the naptha-based JP-4, MIL-T-5624, with the kerosene-based JP-8, MIL-T-83133, as the standard turbine fuel. Although engine emissions from combustion of JP-4 are well documented for criteria pollutants, little information exists for criteria and hazardous air pollutants from combustion of JP-8 fuel. Due to intrinsic differences between these two raw fuels, their combustion products were expected to differ. As part of a broader engine testing program, the Air Force, through the Human Systems Center at Brooks AFB, TX, has contracted to have the emissions characterized from aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs). Criteria pollutant and targeted HAP emissions of selected USAF aircraft engines were quantified during the test program. Emission test results will be used to develop emission factors for the tested aircraft engines and APUs. The Air Force intends to develop a mathematical relationship, using the data collected during this series of tests and from previous tests, to extrapolate existing JP-4 emission factors to representative JP-8 emission factors for other engines. This paper reports sampling methodologies for the following aircraft engine emissions tests: F110-GE-100, F101-GE-102, TF33-P-102, F108-CF-100, T56-A-15, and T39-GE-1A/C. The UH-60A helicopter engine, T700-GE-700, and the C-5A/B and C-130H auxiliary power units (GTCP165-1 and GTCP85-180, respectively) were also tested. Testing was performed at various engine settings to determine emissions of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, total hydrocarbon, and selected hazardous air pollutants. Ambient monitoring was conducted concurrently to establish background pollutant concentrations for data correction.

  6. Summary of the general aviation manufacturers' position on aircraft piston engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    The General Aviation Manufacturers recommended that the EPA rescind the aircraft piston engine emissions regulations currently on the books. The reason was the very small emission reduction potential and the very poor benefit-cost ratio involved in this form of emission reduction. The limited resources of this industry can far better be devoted to items of much greater benefit to the citizens of this country - reducing noise, improving fuel efficiency (which will incidently reduce exhaust emissions), and improving the safety, operational, and economic aspects of aircraft, all far greater contributions to our total national transportation system.

  7. Reduction of aircraft gas turbine engine pollutant emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diehl, L. A.

    1978-01-01

    To accomplish simultaneous reduction of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and oxides of nitrogen, required major modifications to the combustor. The modification most commonly used was a staged combustion technique. While these designs are more complicated than production combustors, no insurmountable operational difficulties were encountered in either high pressure rig or engine tests which could not be resolved with additional normal development. The emission reduction results indicate that reductions in unburned hydrocarbons were sufficient to satisfy both near and far-termed EPA requirements. Although substantial reductions were observed, the success in achieving the CO and NOx standards was mixed and depended heavily on the engine/engine cycle on which it was employed. Technology for near term CO reduction was satisfactory or marginally satisfactory. Considerable doubt exists if this technology will satisfy all far-term requirements.

  8. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  9. Fine particle and organic vapor emissions from staged tests of an in-use aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, Albert A.; Nguyen, Ngoc T.; Ranjan, Manish; Reeder, Aaron J.; Lipsky, Eric M.; Hennigan, Christopher J.; Miracolo, Marissa A.; Riemer, Daniel D.; Robinson, Allen L.

    2011-07-01

    Staged tests were conducted to measure the particle and vapor emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135T Stratotanker airframe at different engine loads. Exhaust was sampled using a rake inlet installed 1-m downstream of the engine exit plane of a parked and chocked aircraft and a dilution sampler and portable smog chamber were used to investigate the particulate matter (PM) emissions. Total fine PM mass emissions were highest at low (4%) and high (85%) load and lower at intermediate loads (7% and 30%). PM mass emissions at 4% load are dominated by organics, while at 85% load elemental carbon is dominant. Quantifying the primary organic aerosol (POA) emissions is complicated by substantial filter sampling artifacts. Partitioning experiments reveal that the majority of the POA is semivolatile; for example, the POA emission factor changed by a factor of two when the background organic aerosol concentration was increased from 0.7 to 4 μg m -3. Therefore, one cannot define a single non-volatile PM emission factor for aircraft exhaust. The gas- and particle-phase organic emissions were comprehensively characterized by analyzing canister, sorbent and filter samples with gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry. Vapor-phase organic emissions are highest at 4% load and decrease with increasing load. Low-volatility organics (less volatile than a C 12n-alkane) contributed 10-20% of the total organic emissions. The low-volatility organic emissions contain signatures of unburned fuel and aircraft lubricating oil but are dominated by an unresolved complex mixture (UCM) of presumably branched and cyclic alkanes. Emissions at all loads contain more low-volatility organic vapors than POA; thus secondary organic aerosol formation in the aging plume will likely exceed POA emissions.

  10. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  11. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  12. Combustion Dynamics and Control for Ultra Low Emissions in Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Future aircraft engines must provide ultra-low emissions and high efficiency at low cost while maintaining the reliability and operability of present day engines. The demands for increased performance and decreased emissions have resulted in advanced combustor designs that are critically dependent on efficient fuel/air mixing and lean operation. However, all combustors, but most notably lean-burning low-emissions combustors, are susceptible to combustion instabilities. These instabilities are typically caused by the interaction of the fluctuating heat release of the combustion process with naturally occurring acoustic resonances. These interactions can produce large pressure oscillations within the combustor and can reduce component life and potentially lead to premature mechanical failures. Active Combustion Control which consists of feedback-based control of the fuel-air mixing process can provide an approach to achieving acceptable combustor dynamic behavior while minimizing emissions, and thus can provide flexibility during the combustor design process. The NASA Glenn Active Combustion Control Technology activity aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines by providing experiments tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. The intent is to allow the technology maturity of active combustion control to advance to eventual demonstration in an engine environment. Work at NASA Glenn has shown that active combustion control, utilizing advanced algorithms working through high frequency fuel actuation, can effectively suppress instabilities in a combustor which emulates the instabilities found in an aircraft gas turbine engine. Current efforts are aimed at extending these active control technologies to advanced ultra-low-emissions combustors such as those employing multi-point lean direct injection.

  13. Extractive sampling and optical remote sensing of F100 aircraft engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Cowen, Kenneth; Goodwin, Bradley; Joseph, Darrell; Tefend, Matthew; Satola, Jan; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram; Spicer, Chester; Holdren, Michael; Mayfield, Howard

    2009-05-01

    The Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) has initiated several programs to develop and evaluate techniques to characterize emissions from military aircraft to meet increasingly stringent regulatory requirements. This paper describes the results of a recent field study using extractive and optical remote sensing (ORS) techniques to measure emissions from six F-15 fighter aircraft. Testing was performed between November 14 and 16, 2006 on the trim-pad facility at Tyndall Air Force Base in Panama City, FL. Measurements were made on eight different F100 engines, and the engines were tested on-wing of in-use aircraft. A total of 39 test runs were performed at engine power levels that ranged from idle to military power. The approach adopted for these tests involved extractive sampling with collocated ORS measurements at a distance of approximately 20-25 nozzle diameters downstream of the engine exit plane. The emission indices calculated for carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, and several volatile organic compounds showed very good agreement when comparing the extractive and ORS sampling methods. PMID:19583153

  14. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  15. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  16. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Wayson, Roger L; Fleming, Gregg G; Lovinelli, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Today, about one-fourth of U.S. commercial service airports, including 41 of the busiest 50, are either in nonattainment or maintenance areas per the National Ambient Air Quality Standards. U.S. aviation activity is forecasted to triple by 2025, while at the same time, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is evaluating stricter particulate matter (PM) standards on the basis of documented human health and welfare impacts. Stricter federal standards are expected to impede capacity and limit aviation growth if regulatory mandated emission reductions occur as for other non-aviation sources (i.e., automobiles, power plants, etc.). In addition, strong interest exists as to the role aviation emissions play in air quality and climate change issues. These reasons underpin the need to quantify and understand PM emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines, which has led to the need for a methodology to predict these emissions. Standardized sampling techniques to measure volatile and nonvolatile PM emissions from aircraft engines do not exist. As such, a first-order approximation (FOA) was derived to fill this need based on available information. FOA1.0 only allowed prediction of nonvolatile PM. FOA2.0 was a change to include volatile PM emissions on the basis of the ratio of nonvolatile to volatile emissions. Recent collaborative efforts by industry (manufacturers and airlines), research establishments, and regulators have begun to provide further insight into the estimation of the PM emissions. The resultant PM measurement datasets are being analyzed to refine sampling techniques and progress towards standardized PM measurements. These preliminary measurement datasets also support the continued refinement of the FOA methodology. FOA3.0 disaggregated the prediction techniques to allow for independent prediction of nonvolatile and volatile emissions on a more theoretical basis. The Committee for Aviation Environmental Protection of the International Civil

  17. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  18. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  19. Evaluation of an Aircraft Concept With Over-Wing, Hydrogen-Fueled Engines for Reduced Noise and Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guynn, Mark D.; Olson, Erik D.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the analytical modeling and evaluation of an unconventional commercial transport aircraft concept designed to address aircraft noise and emission issues. A strut-braced wing configuration with overwing, ultra-high bypass ratio, hydrogen fueled turbofan engines is considered. Estimated noise and emission characteristics are compared to a conventional configuration designed for the same mission and significant benefits are identified. The design challenges and technology issues which would have to be addressed to make the concept a viable alternative to current aircraft designs are discussed. This concept is one of the "Quiet Green Transport" aircraft concepts studied as part of NASA's Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Program. The RASC Program seeks to develop revolutionary concepts that address strategic objectives of the NASA Enterprises, such as reducing aircraft noise and emissions, and to identify enabling advanced technology requirements for the concepts.

  20. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  1. Determination of PM mass emissions from an aircraft turbine engine using particle effective density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdina, L.; Brem, B. T.; Abegglen, M.; Lobo, P.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.; Hagen, D. E.; Sierau, B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Inventories of particulate matter (PM) emissions from civil aviation and air quality models need to be validated using up-to-date measurement data corrected for sampling artifacts. We compared the measured black carbon (BC) mass and the total PM mass determined from particle size distributions (PSD) and effective density for a commercial turbofan engine CFM56-7B26/3. The effective density was then used to calculate the PM mass losses in the sampling system. The effective density was determined using a differential mobility analyzer and a centrifugal particle mass analyzer, and increased from engine idle to take-off by up to 60%. The determined mass-mobility exponents ranged from 2.37 to 2.64. The mean effective density determined by weighting the effective density distributions by PM volume was within 10% of the unit density (1000 kg/m3) that is widely assumed in aircraft PM studies. We found ratios close to unity between the PM mass determined by the integrated PSD method and the real-time BC mass measurements. The integrated PSD method achieved higher precision at ultra-low PM concentrations at which current mass instruments reach their detection limit. The line loss model predicted ∼60% PM mass loss at engine idle, decreasing to ∼27% at high thrust. Replacing the effective density distributions with unit density lead to comparable estimates that were within 20% and 5% at engine idle and high thrust, respectively. These results could be used for the development of a robust method for sampling loss correction of the future PM emissions database from commercial aircraft engines.

  2. 75 FR 36034 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ... provide comment on the ANPR. DATES: The comment period for the ANPR published April 28, 2010 (75 FR 22440... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 87 RIN 2060-AP79 Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston... Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded Aviation Gasoline (hereinafter...

  3. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Ellermann, Thomas; Massling, Andreas; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Ketzel, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed emission inventory for NOx, particle mass (PM) and particle numbers (PN) for aircraft main engines, APU's and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport (CPH) based on time specific activity data and representative emission factors for the airport. The inventory has a high spatial resolution of 5 m × 5 m in order to be suited for further air quality dispersion calculations. Results are shown for the entire airport and for a section of the airport apron area ("inner apron") in focus. The methodology presented in this paper can be used to quantify the emissions from aircraft main engines, APU and handling equipment in other airports. For the entire airport, aircraft main engines is the largest source of fuel consumption (93%), NOx, (87%), PM (61%) and PN (95%). The calculated fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] shares for APU's and handling equipment are 5% [4%, 8%, 5%] and 2% [9%, 31%, 0%], respectively. At the inner apron area for handling equipment the share of fuel consumption [NOx, PM, PN] are 24% [63%, 75%, 2%], whereas APU and main engines shares are 43% [25%, 19%, 54%], and 33% [11%, 6%, 43%], respectively. The inner apron NOx and PM emission levels are high for handling equipment due to high emission factors for the diesel fuelled handling equipment and small for aircraft main engines due to small idle-power emission factors. Handling equipment is however a small PN source due to the low number based emission factors. Jet fuel sulphur-PM sensitivity calculations made in this study with the ICAO FOA3.0 method suggest that more than half of the PM emissions from aircraft main engines at CPH originate from the sulphur content of the fuel used at the airport. Aircraft main engine PN emissions are very sensitive to the underlying assumptions. Replacing this study's literature based average emission factors with "high" and "low" emission factors from the literature, the aircraft main engine PN emissions were estimated to change with a

  4. Performance Evaluation of Particle Sampling Probes for Emission Measurements of Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Poshin; Chen, Da-Ren; Sanders, Terry (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Considerable attention has been recently received on the impact of aircraft-produced aerosols upon the global climate. Sampling particles directly from jet engines has been performed by different research groups in the U.S. and Europe. However, a large variation has been observed among published data on the conversion efficiency and emission indexes of jet engines. The variation results surely from the differences in test engine types, engine operation conditions, and environmental conditions. The other factor that could result in the observed variation is the performance of sampling probes used. Unfortunately, it is often neglected in the jet engine community. Particle losses during the sampling, transport, and dilution processes are often not discussed/considered in literatures. To address this issue, we evaluated the performance of one sampling probe by challenging it with monodisperse particles. A significant performance difference was observed on the sampling probe evaluated under different temperature conditions. Thermophoretic effect, nonisokinetic sampling and turbulence loss contribute to the loss of particles in sampling probes. The results of this study show that particle loss can be dramatic if the sampling probe is not well designed. Further, the result allows ones to recover the actual size distributions emitted from jet engines.

  5. On the effect of emissions from aircraft engines on the state of the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    1994-05-01

    Emissions from aircraft engines include carbon dioxide, water vapour, nitrogen oxides, sulphur components and various other gases and particles. Such emissions from high-flying global civil subsonic air traffic may cause anthropogenic climate changes by an increase of ozone and cloudiness in the upper troposphere, and by an enhanced greenhouse effect. The absolute emissions by air traffic are small (a few percent of the total) compared to surface emissions. However, the greenhouse effect of emitted water and of nitrogen oxides at cruise altitude is potentially large compared to that of the same emissions near the earth's surface because of relatively large residence times at flight altitudes, low background concentrations, low temperature, and large radiative efficiency. Model computations indicate that emission of nitrogen oxides has doubled the background concentration in the upper troposphere between 40°N and 60°N. Models also indicate that this causes an increase of ozone by about 5-20%. Regionally, the observed annual mean change in cloudiness is 0.4%. It is estimated that the resultant greenhouse effect of changes in ozone and thin cirrus cloud cover causes a climatic surface temperature change of 0.01-0.1 K. These temperature changes are small compared to the natural variability. Recent research indicates that the emissions at cruise altitude may increase the amount of stratospheric aerosols and polar stratospheric clouds and thereby have an impact on the atmospheric environment. Air traffic is increasing about 5-6% per year, fuel consumption by about 3%, hence the effects of the related emissions are expected to grow. This paper surveys the state of knowledge and describes several results from recent and ongoing research.

  6. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...). \\17\\ U.S. EPA, ``Emission Standards and Test Procedures for Aircraft;'' Final Rule, 38 FR 19088, July... Standards and Test Procedures;'' Final Rule, 62 FR 25356, May 8, 1997. While ICAO's standards were not... pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare was so limited, See 62...

  7. Measurement of In-Flight Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokoloski, M.; Arnold, C.; Rider, D.; Beer, R.; Worden, H.; Glavich, T.

    1995-01-01

    Aircraft engine emission and their chemical and physical evolution can be measured in flight using high resolution infrared spectroscopy. The Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES), designed for remote measure- ments of atmosphere emissions from an airborne platform, is an ideal tool for the evaluation of aircraft emissions and their evolution. Capabilities of AES will be discussed. Ground data will be given.

  8. Jet aircraft engine emissions database development: 1992 military, charter, and nonscheduled traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metwally, Munir

    1995-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions database for the military, charter, and non-scheduled traffic for the year 1992 were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report also includes a comparison with a previous emission database for year 1990. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  9. Aircraft gas turbine emissions challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Koff, B.L. )

    1994-07-01

    The new generation of jet powered aircraft faces a significant challenge to reduce pollutant emissions while increasing fuel efficiency. Carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are already very low and continued control of these pollutants is expected as engine temperatures and pressure ratios are increased. In contrast, significant system design improvements are needed to reduce oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) emissions because of their harmful effect on the earth's ozone layer. This paper discusses the prospects and technical approaches for significant NO[sub x] reductions in current and future subsonic and supersonic aircraft.

  10. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to

  11. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Sorokin, A. A.; Buriko, Y. Y.

    The conversion of fuel sulfur to S(VI) (SO3 + H2SO4) in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. Model results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(VI). It is also shown that, for a high sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is kinetically limited by the level of atomic oxygen. This results in a higher oxidation efficiency at lower sulfur loadings. SO3 is the primary S(VI) oxidation product and calculated H2SO4 emission levels were less than 1% of the total fuel sulfur. This source of S(VI) can exceed the S(VI) source due to gas phase oxidation in the exhaust wake.

  12. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  13. Efficient Formation of Stratospheric Aerosol for Climate Engineering by Emission of Condensible Vapor from Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Jeffrey R.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Heckendorn, Patricia; Peter. Thomas; Keith, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analysis suggests that the effectiveness of stratospheric aerosol climate engineering through emission of non-condensable vapors such as SO2 is limited because the slow conversion to H2SO4 tends to produce aerosol particles that are too large; SO2 injection may be so inefficient that it is difficult to counteract the radiative forcing due to a CO2 doubling. Here we describe an alternate method in which aerosol is formed rapidly in the plume following injection of H2SO4, a condensable vapor, from an aircraft. This method gives better control of particle size and can produce larger radiative forcing with lower sulfur loadings than SO2 injection. Relative to SO2 injection, it may reduce some of the adverse effects of geoengineering such as radiative heating of the lower stratosphere. This method does not, however, alter the fact that such a geoengineered radiative forcing can, at best, only partially compensate for the climate changes produced by CO2.

  14. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  15. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  16. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  19. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  20. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  1. Status of Technological Advancements for Reducing Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine Pollutant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Combustor test rig results indicate that substantial reductions from current emission levels of carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbons (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and smoke are achievable by employing varying degrees of technological advancements in combustion systems. Minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustors produced significant reductions in CO and THC emissions at engine low power (idle/taxi) operating conditions but did not effectively reduce NOx at engine full power (takeoff) operating conditions. Staged combusiton techniques were needed to simultaneously reduce the levels of all the emissions over the entire engine operating range (from idle to takeoff). Emission levels that approached or were below the requirements of the 1979 EPA standards were achieved with the staged combustion systems and in some cases with the minor to moderate modifications to existing conventional combustion systems. Results from research programs indicate that an entire new generation of combustor technology with extremely low emission levels may be possible in the future.

  2. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas-Turbine Engines-Experimental Results for an Advanced, Low-Emissions Combustor Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Kopasakis, George; Saus, Joseph R.; Chang, Clarence T.; Wey, Changlie

    2012-01-01

    Lean combustion concepts for aircraft engine combustors are prone to combustion instabilities. Mitigation of instabilities is an enabling technology for these low-emissions combustors. NASA Glenn Research Center s prior activity has demonstrated active control to suppress a high-frequency combustion instability in a combustor rig designed to emulate an actual aircraft engine instability experience with a conventional, rich-front-end combustor. The current effort is developing further understanding of the problem specifically as applied to future lean-burning, very low-emissions combustors. A prototype advanced, low-emissions aircraft engine combustor with a combustion instability has been identified and previous work has characterized the dynamic behavior of that combustor prototype. The combustor exhibits thermoacoustic instabilities that are related to increasing fuel flow and that potentially prevent full-power operation. A simplified, non-linear oscillator model and a more physics-based sectored 1-D dynamic model have been developed to capture the combustor prototype s instability behavior. Utilizing these models, the NASA Adaptive Sliding Phasor Average Control (ASPAC) instability control method has been updated for the low-emissions combustor prototype. Active combustion instability suppression using the ASPAC control method has been demonstrated experimentally with this combustor prototype in a NASA combustion test cell operating at engine pressures, temperatures, and flows. A high-frequency fuel valve was utilized to perturb the combustor fuel flow. Successful instability suppression was shown using a dynamic pressure sensor in the combustor for controller feedback. Instability control was also shown with a pressure feedback sensor in the lower temperature region upstream of the combustor. It was also demonstrated that the controller can prevent the instability from occurring while combustor operation was transitioning from a stable, low-power condition to

  3. Measurement and analysis of aircraft engine PM emissions downwind of an active runway at the Oakland International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of commercial aviation has fueled concerns over air quality around airports and the surrounding communities. Airports must expand their operations to meet the increase in air traffic, but expansion plans have been delayed or canceled due to concerns over local air quality. This paper presents the methodology for real-time measurements of aircraft engine specific Particulate Matter (PM) emissions and analysis of the associated high resolution data acquired during normal Landing and Take-Off (LTO) operations 100-300 m downwind of an active taxi-/runway at the Oakland International Airport. The airframe-engine combinations studied included B737-300 with CFM56-3B engines, B737-700/800 with CFM56-7B engines, A320 with V2500-A5 engines, MD-80 with JT-8D engines, A300 with CF6-80 engines, DC-10 with CF6-50 engines, and CRJ-100/200 with CF34-3B engines. For all engine types studied, the size distributions were typically bimodal in nature with a nucleation mode comprised of freshly nucleated PM and an accumulation mode comprised mostly of PM soot with some condensed volatile material. The PM number-based emission index observed ranged between 7 × 1015-3 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at idle/taxi and between 4 × 1015-2 × 1017 particles kg-1 fuel burned at take-off, and the associated PM mass-based emission index (EIm) ranged between 0.1 and 0.7 g kg-1 fuel burned at both the idle/taxi and take-off conditions. Older technology engines such as the CFM56-3B and JT8D engines were observed to have as much as 3× higher PM EIm values at take-off compared to newer engine technology such as the CFM56-7B engine. The results from this study provide information for better characterizing evolving PM emissions from in-service commercial aircraft under normal LTO operations and assessing their impact on local and regional air quality and health related impacts.

  4. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  5. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  6. Emissions and new technology programs for conventional spark-ignition aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wintucky, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    A long-range technology plan in support of general aviation engines was formulated and is being implemented at the Lewis Research Center. The overall program was described, and that part of the program that represents the in-house effort at Lewis was presented in detail. Three areas of government and industry effort involving conventional general-aviation piston engines were part of a coordinated overall plan: (1) FAA/NASA joint program, (2) NASA contract exhaust emissions pollution reduction program, and (3) NASA in-house emissions reduction and new technology program.

  7. Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

  8. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  9. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  10. Screening analysis and selection of emission reduction concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust emission reduction concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the emission reduction technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution reduction problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected emission reduction responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.

  11. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  12. Future development programs. [for emission reduction and production of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, L.

    1976-01-01

    A company program was planned which has a main drive to develop those emission reduction concepts that have the promise of earliest success. These programs were proposed in an attempt to enhance existing engine systems, exploiting their potential for emission reduction as far as is compatible with retaining the well established features in them that are well understood and in current production. The intended programs identified in the area of new concepts were: (1) upgrading the TCM fuel system, (2) evaluation of accelerator pump, (3) reduced cooling requirement, and (4) variable spark timing.

  13. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine, supplement A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamping, R. K.; Manning, I.; Myers, D.; Tjoa, B.

    1980-01-01

    Testing was conducted using the basic RC2-75 engine, to which several modifications were incorporated which were designed to reduce the hydrocarbon emissions and reduce the specific fuel consumption. The modifications included close-in surface gap spark plugs, increased compression ratio rotors, and provisions for utilizing either side or peripheral intake ports, or a combination of the two if required. The proposed EPA emissions requirements were met using the normal peripheral porting. The specific fuel economy demonstrated for the modified RC2-75 was 283 g/kW-hr at 75% power and 101 brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) and 272.5 g/kW-hr at 75% power and 111 BMEP. The latter would result from rating the engine for takeoff at 285 hp and 5500 rpm, instead of 6000 rpm.

  14. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  15. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  16. 75 FR 22439 - Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking on Lead Emissions From Piston-Engine Aircraft Using Leaded...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ...EPA is issuing this Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) to describe information currently available and information being collected that will be used by the Administrator to issue a subsequent proposal regarding whether, in the Administrator's judgment, aircraft lead emissions from aircraft using leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) cause or contribute to air pollution which may......

  17. Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, C. C.; Anderson, B. E.; Hudgins, C.; Wey, C.; Li-Jones, X.; Winstead, E.; Thornhill, L. K.; Lobo, P.; Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P.

    2006-01-01

    APEX systematically investigated the gas-phase and particle emissions from a CFM56-2C1 engine on NASA's DC-8 aircraft as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and exhaust plumage. Emissions parameters were measured at 11 engine power, settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 1, 10, and 30 m downstream of the exhaust plane as the aircraft burned three fuels to stress relevant chemistry. Gas-phase emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the ICAO data and predictions provided by GEAE empirical modeling tools. Soot particles emitted by the engine exhibited a log-normal size distribution peaked between 15 and 40 nm, depending on engine power. Samples collected 30 m downstream of the engine exhaust plane exhibited a prominent nucleation mode.

  18. Advanced Low-Emissions Catalytic-Combustor Program, phase 1. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturgess, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Six catalytic combustor concepts were defined, analyzed, and evaluated. Major design considerations included low emissions, performance, safety, durability, installations, operations and development. On the basis of these considerations the two most promising concepts were selected. Refined analysis and preliminary design work was conducted on these two concepts. The selected concepts were required to fit within the combustor chamber dimensions of the reference engine. This is achieved by using a dump diffuser discharging into a plenum chamber between the compressor discharge and the turbine inlet, with the combustors overlaying the prediffuser and the rear of the compressor. To enhance maintainability, the outer combustor case for each concept is designed to translate forward for accessibility to the catalytic reactor, liners and high pressure turbine area. The catalytic reactor is self-contained with air-cooled canning on a resilient mounting. Both selected concepts employed integrated engine-starting approaches to raise the catalytic reactor up to operating conditions. Advanced liner schemes are used to minimize required cooling air. The two selected concepts respectively employ fuel-rich initial thermal reaction followed by rapid quench and subsequent fuel-lean catalytic reaction of carbon monoxide, and, fuel-lean thermal reaction of some fuel in a continuously operating pilot combustor with fuel-lean catalytic reaction of remaining fuel in a radially-staged main combustor.

  19. Influence of Jet Fuel Composition on Aircraft Engine Emissions: A Synthesis of Aerosol Emissions Data from the NASA APEX, AAFEX, and ACCESS Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Corr, C.; Herndon, S. C.; Knighton, W. B.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Winstead, E.; Yu, Z.; Ziemba, L. D.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    We statistically analyze the impact of jet fuel properties on aerosols emitted by the NASA McDonnell Douglas DC-8 CFM56-2-C1 engines burning fifteen different aviation fuels. Data were collected for this single engine type during four different, comprehensive ground tests conducted over the past decade, which allow us to clearly link changes in aerosol emissions to fuel compositional changes. It is found that the volatile aerosol fraction dominates the number and volume emissions indices (EIs) over all engine powers, which are driven by changes in fuel aromatic and sulfur content. Meanwhile, the naphthalenic content of the fuel determines the magnitude of the non-volatile number and volume EI as well as the black carbon mass EI. Linear regression coefficients are reported for each aerosol EI in terms of these properties, engine fuel flow rate, and ambient temperature, and show that reducing both fuel sulfur content and napththalenes to near-zero levels would result in roughly a ten-fold decrease in aerosol number emitted per kg of fuel burn. This work informs future efforts to model aircraft emissions changes as the aviation fleet gradually begins to transition toward low-aromatic, low-sulfur alternative jet fuels from bio-based or Fischer-Tropsch production pathways.

  20. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  1. Air assist fuel nozzle reduces aircraft gas turbine engine emissions at idle operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briehl, D.; Papathakos, L. C.

    1972-01-01

    Reduction in unburned hydrocarbons from jet engine by use of air assist fuel nozzle is discussed. Operation of nozzle for improving combustion efficiency by improving fuel atomization is analyzed. Advantages to be achieved by air assist fuel nozzle are analyzed.

  2. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... turbojet engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012, July 27, 2011). The final rule adopting these proposals was published in the Federal Register on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342... the Department of Transportation (DOT) (44 FR 1134; February 26, 1979) provide that, to the...

  3. Application of automobile emission control technology to light piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, D.; Kittredge, G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibility was evaluated for achieving the EPA Standards for HC and CO emissions through the use of air-fuel ratio enleanment at selected power modes combined with improved air-fuel mixture preparation, and in some cases improved cooling. Air injection was also an effective approach for the reduction of HC and CO, particularly when combined with exhaust heat conservation techniques such as exhaust port liners.

  4. Electron microscopic study of soot particulate matter emissions from aircraft turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Vögtli, Melanie; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Eggenschwiler, Panayotis Dimopoulos; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-16

    The microscopic characteristics of soot particulate matter (PM) in gas turbine exhaust are critical for an accurate assessment of the potential impacts of the aviation industry on the environment and human health. The morphology and internal structure of soot particles emitted from a CFM 56-7B26/3 turbofan engine were analyzed in an electron microscopic study, down to the nanoscale, for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65%, and ∼ 7% static engine thrust as a proxy for takeoff, cruising, and taxiing, respectively. Sampling was performed directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids with a state-of-the-art sampling system designed for nonvolatile particulate matter. The electron microscopy results reveal that ∼ 100% thrust produces the highest amount of soot, the highest soot particle volume, and the largest and most crystalline primary soot particles with the lowest oxidative reactivity. The opposite is the case for soot produced during taxiing, where primary soot particles are smallest and most reactive and the soot amount and volume are lowest. The microscopic characteristics of cruising condition soot resemble the ones of the ∼ 100% thrust conditions, but they are more moderate. Real time online measurements of number and mass concentration show also a clear correlation with engine thrust level, comparable with the TEM study. The results of the present work, in particular the small size of primary soot particles present in the exhaust (modes of 24, 20, and 13 nm in diameter for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65% and ∼ 7% engine thrust, respectively) could be a concern for human health and the environment and merit further study. This work further emphasizes the significance of the detailed morphological characteristics of soot for assessing environmental impacts. PMID:25180674

  5. Emissions of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320-DIAD air cooled light aircraft engine as a function of fuel-air ratio, timing, and air temperature and humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, P. R.; Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted aircraft engine was operated over a range of test conditions to establish the exhaust levels over the EPA seven-mode emissions cycle. Baseline (full rich production limit) exhaust emissions at an induction air temperature of 59 F and near zero relative humidity were 90 percent of the EPA standard for HC, 35 percent for NOx, and 161 percent for CO. Changes in ignition timing around the standard 25 deg BTDC from 30 deg BTDC to 20 deg BTDC had little effect on the exhaust emissions. Retarding the timing to 15 deg BTDC increased both the HC and CO emissions and decreased NOx emissions. HC and CO emissions decreased as the carburetor was leaned out, while NOx emissions increased. The EPA emission standards were marginally achieved at two leanout conditions. Variations in the quantity of cooling air flow over the engine had no effect on exhaust emissions. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased.

  6. Development and evaluation of an air quality modeling approach to assess near-field impacts of lead emissions from piston-engine aircraft operating on leaded aviation gasoline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Edward; Lee, Mark; Marin, Kristen; Holder, Christopher; Hoyer, Marion; Pedde, Meredith; Cook, Rich; Touma, Jawad

    2011-10-01

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality modeling approach using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) was developed and evaluated for estimating atmospheric concentrations of Pb at and near general aviation airports where leaded aviation gasoline (avgas) is used. These detailed procedures were made to accurately characterize emissions and dispersion leading to improved model performance for a pollutant with concentrations that vary rapidly across short distances. The new aspects of this work included a comprehensive Pb emission inventory that incorporated sub-daily time-in-mode (TIM) activity data for piston-engine aircraft, aircraft-induced wake turbulence, plume rise of the aircraft exhaust, and allocation of approach and climb-out emissions to 50-m increments in altitude. To evaluate the modeling approach used here, ambient Pb concentrations were measured upwind and downwind of the Santa Monica Airport (SMO) and compared to modeled air concentrations. Modeling results paired in both time and space with monitoring data showed excellent overall agreement (absolute fractional bias of 0.29 winter, 0.07 summer). The modeling results on individual days show Pb concentration gradients above the urban background concentration of 10 ng m-3 extending downwind up to 900 m from the airport, with a crosswind extent of 400 m. Three-month average modeled concentrations above the background were found to extend to a maximum distance of approximately 450 m beyond the airport property in summer and fall. Modeling results show aircraft engine “run-up” is the most important source contribution to the maximum Pb concentration. Sensitivity analysis

  7. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  8. Torsional vibration of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurenbaum, Karl

    1932-01-01

    Exhaustive torsional-vibration investigations are required to determine the reliability of aircraft engines. A general outline of the methods used for such investigations and of the theoretical and mechanical means now available for this purpose is given, illustrated by example. True vibration diagrams are usually obtained from vibration measurements on the completed engine. Two devices for this purpose and supplementing each other, the D.V.L. torsiograph and the D.V.L. torsion recorder, are described in this report.

  9. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Shia, Run-Lie; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect of supersonic and subsonic aircraft operation in the 2010 atmosphere on stratospheric ozone (O3). The results show that: (1) the calculated O3 response is smaller in the 2010 atmosphere compared to previous calculations performed in the 1980 atmosphere; (2) with the emissions provided, the calculated decrease in O3 column is less than 1 percent; and (3) the effect of model grid resolution on O3 response is small provided that the physics is not modified.

  10. Aircraft emission measurements by remote sensing methodologies at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts from measurements taken under operating conditions, to calculate precisely the emission inventories of airports, are not available up to now. To determine these data, measurement campaigns were performed on idling aircraft at major European airports using non-intrusive spectroscopic methods like Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and differential optical absorption spectroscopy. Emission indices for CO and NO x were calculated and compared to the values given in the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) database. The emission index for CO for 36 different aircraft engine types and for NO x (24 different engine types) were determined. It was shown that for idling aircraft, CO emissions are underestimated using the ICAO database. The emission indices for NO x determined in this work are lower than given in the ICAO database. In addition, a high variance of emission indices in each aircraft family and from engine to engine of the same engine type was found. During the same measurement campaigns, the emission indices for CO and NO of eight different types of auxilliary power units were investigated.

  11. Aircraft engines. III

    SciTech Connect

    Mikkelson, D.C.; Reck, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    Prospective powerplant configuration advancements for tilt-rotor subsonic flight, supersonic commercial flight, and hypersonic flight are speculated upon, with a view to possibilities for the exploitation of novel materials and of such advanced fuels as liquid methane and hydrogen. Attention is given to the foldable tilt-rotor concept, which employs a hydraulic torque converter to engage the fan stage of the high-bypass turbofan engine used in forward flight after the tilt-rotor blades have been stowed, and several advanced cycles and turbomechanical configurations for cruise in the high supersonic regime and beyond, through the hypersonic regime, and into orbital velocity.

  12. Making Ceramic Components For Advanced Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. E.; Ezis, A.

    1994-01-01

    Lightweight, oxidation-resistant silicon nitride components containing intricate internal cooling and hydraulic passages and capable of withstanding high operating temperatures made by ceramic-platelet technology. Used to fabricate silicon nitride test articles of two types: components of methane-cooled regenerator for air turbo ramjet engine and components of bipropellant injector for rocket engine. Procedures for development of more complex and intricate components established. Technology has commercial utility in automotive, aircraft, and environmental industries for manufacture of high-temperature components for use in regeneration of fuels, treatment of emissions, high-temperature combustion devices, and application in which other high-temperature and/or lightweight components needed. Potential use in fabrication of combustors and high-temperature acoustic panels for suppression of noise in future high-speed aircraft.

  13. Effects of engine emissions from high-speed civil transport aircraft: A two-dimensional modeling study, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Weisenstein, Debra K.; Sze, Nein Dak; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Heisey, Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The AER two-dimensional chemistry-transport model is used to study the effect on stratospheric ozone (O3) from operations of supersonic and subsonic aircraft. The study is based on six emission scenarios provided to AER. The study showed that: (1) the O3 response is dominated by the portion of the emitted nitrogen compounds that is entrained in the stratosphere; (2) the entrainment is a sensitive function of the altitude at which the material is injected; (3) the O3 removal efficiency of the emitted material depends on the concentrations of trace gases in the background atmosphere; and (4) evaluation of the impact of fleet operations in the future atmosphere must take into account the expected changes in trace gas concentrations from other activities. Areas for model improvements in future studies are also discussed.

  14. Lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    The application of lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion to aircraft turbine engine systems can result in benefits in terms of superior combustion performance, improved combustor and turbine durability, and environmentally acceptable pollutant emissions. Lean, premixed prevaporized combustion is particularly attractive for reducing the oxides of nitrogen emissions during high altitude cruise. The NASA stratospheric cruise emission reduction program will evolve and demonstrate lean, premixed, prevaporized combustion technology for aircraft engines. This multiphased program is described. In addition, the various elements of the fundamental studies phase of the program are reviewed, and results to date of many of these studies are summarized.

  15. Advanced technology for controlling pollutant emissions from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duerr, R. A.; Diehl, L. A.

    1980-01-01

    Gas turbine engine combustor technology for the reduction of pollutant emissions is summarized. Variations of conventional combustion systems and advanced combustor concepts are discussed. Projected results from far term technology efforts aimed at applying the premixed prevaporized and catalytic combustion techniques to aircraft combustion systems indicate a potential for significant reductions in pollutant emission levels.

  16. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  17. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  18. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  19. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  20. 76 FR 31465 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... engine, in- flight engine shutdown and forced landing, damage to the aeroplane and injury to...

  1. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  2. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  4. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  5. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  6. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after... FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.7 Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft...

  7. Experimental Assessment of the Emissions Control Potential of a Rich/Quench/ Lean Combustor for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacina, Robert R. (Technical Monitor); Rosfjord, T. J.; Padget, F. C.

    2001-01-01

    In support of Pratt & Whitney efforts to define the Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft engine, UTRC conducted a flametube-scale study of the RQL concept. Extensive combustor testing was performed at the Supersonic Cruise (SSC) condition of an HSCT engine cycle. Data obtained from probe traverses near the exit of the mixing section confirmed that the mixing section was the critical component in controlling combustor emissions. Circular-hole configurations, which produced rapidly-, highly-penetrating jets, were most effective in limiting NO(x). The spatial profiles of NO(x) and CO at the mixer exit were not directly interpretable using a simple flow model based on jet penetration, and a greater understanding of the flow and chemical processes in this section are required to optimize it. Neither the rich-combustor equivalence ratio nor its residence time was a direct contributor to the exit NO(x). Based on this study, it was also concluded that: (1) While NO(x) formation in both the mixing section and the lean combustor contribute to the overall emission, the NOx formation in the mixing section dominates. The gas composition exiting the rich combustor can be reasonably represented by the equilibrium composition corresponding to the rich combustor operating condition. Negligible NO(x) exits the rich combustor. (2) At the SSC condition, the oxidation processes occurring in the mixing section consume 99 percent of the CO exiting the rich combustor. Soot formed in the rich combustor is also highly oxidized, with combustor exit SAE Smoke Number <3. (3) Mixing section configurations which demonstrated enhanced emissions control at SSC also performed better at part-power conditions. Data from mixer exit traverses reflected the expected mixing behavior for off-design jet to crossflow momentum-flux ratios. (4) Low power operating conditions require that the RQL combustor operate as a lean-lean combustor to achieve

  8. Experimental Assessment of the Emissions Control Potential of a Rich/Quench/Lean Combustor for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosfjord, T. J.; Padget, F. C.; Tacina, Robert R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In support of Pratt & Whitney efforts to define the Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) combustor for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft engine, UTRC conducted a flametube-scale study of the RQL concept. Extensive combustor testing was performed at the Supersonic Cruise (SSC) condition of a HSCT engine cycle, Data obtained from probe traverses near the exit of the mixing section confirmed that the mixing section was the critical component in controlling combustor emissions. Circular-hole configurations, which produced rapidly-, highly-penetrating jets, were most effective in limiting NOx. The spatial profiles of NOx and CO at the mixer exit were not directly interpretable using a simple flow model based on jet penetration, and a greater understanding of the flow and chemical processes in this section are required to optimize it. Neither the rich-combustor equivalence ratio nor its residence time was a direct contributor to the exit NOx. Based on this study, it was also concluded that (1) While NOx formation in both the mixing section and the lean combustor contribute to the overall emission, the NOx formation in the mixing section dominates. The gas composition exiting the rich combustor can be reasonably represented by the equilibrium composition corresponding to the rich combustor operating condition. Negligible NOx exits the rich combustor. (2) At the SSC condition, the oxidation processes occurring in the mixing section consume 99 percent of the CO exiting the rich combustor. Soot formed in the rich combustor is also highly oxidized, with combustor exit SAE Smoke Number <3. (3) Mixing section configurations which demonstrated enhanced emissions control at SSC also performed better at part-power conditions. Data from mixer exit traverses reflected the expected mixing behavior for off-design jet to crossflow momentum-flux ratios. (4) Low power operating conditions require that the RQL combustor operate as a lean-lean combustor to achieve low CO and

  9. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  10. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34947

  11. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  12. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  13. Propulsion Investigation for Zero and Near-Zero Emissions Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Christopher A.; Berton, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald v.; Dolce, James L.; Dravid, Marayan V.; Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Freeh, Joshua E.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Jones, Scott M.; Kundu, Krishna P.; Marek, Cecil J.; Millis, Marc G.; Murthy, Pappu L.; Roach, Timothy M.; Smith, Timothy D.; Stefko, George L.; Sullivan, Roy M.; Tornabene, Robert T.; Geiselhat, Karl A.; Kascak, Albert F.

    2009-01-01

    As world emissions are further scrutinized to identify areas for improvement, aviation s contribution to the problem can no longer be ignored. Previous studies for zero or near-zero emissions aircraft suggest aircraft and propulsion system sizes that would perform propulsion system and subsystems layout and propellant tankage analyses to verify the weight-scaling relationships. These efforts could be used to identify and guide subsequent work on systems and subsystems to achieve viable aircraft system emissions goals. Previous work quickly focused these efforts on propulsion systems for 70- and 100-passenger aircraft. Propulsion systems modeled included hydrogen-fueled gas turbines and fuel cells; some preliminary estimates combined these two systems. Hydrogen gas-turbine engines, with advanced combustor technology, could realize significant reductions in nitrogen emissions. Hydrogen fuel cell propulsion systems were further laid out, and more detailed analysis identified systems needed and weight goals for a viable overall system weight. Results show significant, necessary reductions in overall weight, predominantly on the fuel cell stack, and power management and distribution subsystems to achieve reasonable overall aircraft sizes and weights. Preliminary conceptual analyses for a combination of gas-turbine and fuel cell systems were also performed, and further studies were recommended. Using gas-turbine engines combined with fuel cell systems can reduce the fuel cell propulsion system weight, but at higher fuel usage than using the fuel cell only.

  14. Measurements of aircraft emissions indices at airports passive remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter J.; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael

    2003-04-01

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts to calculate precisely the emissions inventories of airports are not available up to now from measurements taken under operating conditions. To determine these data no installations nearby or behind the aircraft are possible at airports. That's why measurements by FTIR emission spectrometry were performed by the IMK-IFU with a spectrometer installed in a van and with total measurement time at one thrust level of about 1 minute to determine CO, NO and CO2. The FTIR instrument telescope was aligned to the engine nozzle exit of standing aircraft. A DOAS and a FTIR spectrometer with globar were used for simultaneous open-path measurements of NO, NO2, CO, CO2 and speciated hydrocarbons behind the aircraft by the TUG-VKMB. Measurement results at the airports Frankfurt/Main, London-Heathrow and Vienna are presented. The methods are evaluated by comparing CO emission indices from passive measurements with open-path data. The measured emission indices of CO show slightly higher values than the International Civil Aviation Organisation data sheets but less values for NOx emissions. A fruitful co-operation with the airlines AUA, BA and DLH as well as the airport authorities in Vienna and London-Heathrow supported this work which is financed from EC.

  15. Toward scramjet aircraft. [progress in engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. A.; Huber, P. W.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility for civil, military, and remotely-piloted aviation above Mach 5 is discussed with reference to the scramjet. Actively cooled aircraft structures of low weight are described, together with jet nozzle design and combustion parameters. The scramjet is seen as operating alone or in tandem with ramjet propulsion, which would power an aircraft up to scramjet speeds. Attention is given to the specific impulse of the scramjet engine, with hydrogen as the primary fuel. Applications include: advanced reconnaissance and interceptor aircraft, strategic cruise (both aircraft and missiles), highly-maneuverable interceptor missiles, transports, aircraft-type launch vehicles, first stages for Space Shuttle launching craft, and single-stage-to-orbit vehicles. Research has focused on increasing the propulsion power of the scramjet engine, while reducing drag on the accompanying airframe.

  16. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the procedures used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft by illustrating the procedures for a long haul CTOL transport, a short haul VTOL transport, a long range SST, and a fighter aircraft. For the CTOL transport, it is shown that advances in noise technology and advanced turbine cooling technology will greatly reduce the airplane performance penalties associated with achieving low noise goals. A remote lift fan powered by a turbofan air generator is considered for the VTOL aircraft. In this case, the lift fan pressure ratio which maximizes payload also comes closest to meeting the noise goal. High turbine temperature in three different engines is considered for the SST. Without noise constraints it leads to an appreciable drop in DOC, but with noise constraints the reduction in DOC is very modest. For the fighter aircraft it is shown how specific excess power requirements play the same role in engine selection as noise constraints for commercial airplanes.

  17. Military Aircraft Emissions Research - Case of Hercules Cargo Plane (C-130H) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Harris, B.; Hashmonay, R.; Holdren, M.; Kaganan, R.; Spicer, C.

    2007-01-01

    Tactical airlifter like C-130H has been in use for more than 50 years, and is expected to serve for many years to come. However, the emission characteristics data of the aircraft are scarce. To increase our understanding of turboprop engine emissions, emissions from a military C-130H cargo aircraft were characterized in field conditions in the fall of 2005. Particulate and gaseous pollutants were measured by conventional and advanced instrumentation platforms that were built with in-situ extractive or remote optical sensing technologies. The measurements performed at the C-130H engine exhaust exit showed increased levels of emissions as the engine power setting increased. In contrast, there was no such a relationship found for the C-130H emitted particulate matter (as a function of engine power setting) measured at about 15-m downstream of the engine exhaust plane. The emitted gaseous species measured at both locations were, however, proportional to the engine power setting and comparable (at both locations) when corrected for ambient dilution indicating the lack of particulate emission-power setting relationship at the far field is unique. The result clearly indicates that the aircraft emission factor or index for particulate matter cannot be experimentally determined at a downstream location away from the exhaust exit and has to be determined right at the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices that are needed for air quality modeling will be presented.

  18. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  19. Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grote, Matt; Williams, Ian; Preston, John

    2014-10-01

    Global airlines consume over 5 million barrels of oil per day, and the resulting carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted by aircraft engines is of concern. This article provides a contemporary review of the literature associated with the measures available to the civil aviation industry for mitigating CO2 emissions from aircraft. The measures are addressed under two categories - policy and legal-related measures, and technological and operational measures. Results of the review are used to develop several insights into the challenges faced. The analysis shows that forecasts for strong growth in air-traffic will result in civil aviation becoming an increasingly significant contributor to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Some mitigation-measures can be left to market-forces as the key-driver for implementation because they directly reduce airlines' fuel consumption, and their impact on reducing fuel-costs will be welcomed by the industry. Other mitigation-measures cannot be left to market-forces. Speed of implementation and stringency of these measures will not be satisfactorily resolved unattended, and the current global regulatory-framework does not provide the necessary strength of stewardship. A global regulator with ‘teeth' needs to be established, but investing such a body with the appropriate level of authority requires securing an international agreement which history would suggest is going to be very difficult. If all mitigation-measures are successfully implemented, it is still likely that traffic growth-rates will continue to out-pace emissions reduction-rates. Therefore, to achieve an overall reduction in CO2 emissions, behaviour change will be necessary to reduce demand for air-travel. However, reducing demand will be strongly resisted by all stakeholders in the industry; and the ticket price-increases necessary to induce the required reduction in traffic growth-rates place a monetary-value on CO2 emissions of approximately 7-100 times greater than other common

  20. Gas Emissions Acquired during the Aircraft Particle Emission Experiment (APEX) Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Changlie, Wey; Chowen, Chou Wey

    2007-01-01

    NASA, in collaboration with other US federal agencies, engine/airframe manufacturers, airlines, and airport authorities, recently sponsored a series of 3 ground-based field investigations to examine the particle and gas emissions from a variety of in-use commercial aircraft. Emissions parameters were measured at multiple engine power settings, ranging from idle to maximum thrust, in samples collected at 3 different down stream locations of the exhaust. Sampling rakes at nominally 1 meter down stream contained multiple probes to facilitate a study of the spatial variation of emissions across the engine exhaust plane. Emission indices measured at 1 m were in good agreement with the engine certification data as well as predictions provided by the engine company. However at low power settings, trace species emissions were observed to be highly dependent on ambient conditions and engine temperature.

  1. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  2. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  3. Analytical Studies of Prompt NO(x) Emissions from Aircraft Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Langhoff, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from aircraft gas turbines is a vital part of the NASA High Speed Research Program (HSRP). Emissions reduction studies are critical to the feasibility of future civil aircraft operating at supersonic speeds in the stratosphere. It is believed that large fleets of supersonic aircraft using conventional gas turbine engines would emit levels of NO(x) that are harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer.

  4. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  5. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  6. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  7. Inlet distortion in engines on VSTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, Choon S.; Greitzer, Edward M.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a research program on inlet distortion in engines on VSTOL aircraft carried out at the MIT Gas Turbine Laboratory during the period Oct. 1989 - Dec. 1993. The program focused on the development of three dimensional flow computational methodology for predicting the effects of nonuniform flow on the performance of aircraft engines in VSTOL aircraft, the development of a three dimensional instability analysis of flow in multistage axial compressors, and the preliminary applications of these newly developed methodologies for elucidating the effects of flow three dimensionality. The accomplishments of the program are brought out when the current status of predictive capabilities for three dimensional flow instabilities in compressors is assessed against that in 1989.

  8. Aircraft engine soot as contrail nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popovicheva, O. B.; Persiantseva, N. M.; Lukhovitskaya, E. E.; Shonija, N. K.; Zubareva, N. A.; Demirdjian, B.; Ferry, D.; Suzanne, J.

    2004-06-01

    The physico-chemical properties of aircraft engine soot are characterized with respect to their ability to act as CCN. Comparison with laboratory-generated kerosene soot shows a significant influence of combustion conditions on the morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, surface nature, and hygroscopicity of soot. Engine soot particles separate into two components based on composition and structural heterogeneities: a main soot fraction and a fraction of impurities containing an appreciable amount of metal and sulfur. The high concentration of soluble sulfates, of inorganics and of organics in the fraction that contains impurities, explains the engine soot hygroscopicity and its ability to act as CCN at threshold conditions for contrail formation. Laboratory-generated kerosene soot is not able to reproduce the hygroscopicity of engine soot, but we show that it is a good surrogate for the insoluble black carbon fraction of aircraft soot in the upper troposphere.

  9. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  10. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  11. Aircraft Engineering Conference 1934 - Full Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Gathered together in the only facility big enough to hold them, attendees at Langleys 1934 aircraft Engineering Conference pose in the Full Scale Wind Tunnel underneath a Boeing P-26A Peashooter. Present, among other notables, were Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Howard Hughes.

  12. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  13. Commercial Aircraft Emission Scenario for 2020: Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.; Wey, Chowen C. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel use and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the commercial aircraft fleet projected to 2020. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 2020 are compared to global totals from previous aircraft emission scenario calculations.

  14. High-speed Civil Transport Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, Richard C.; Matulaitis, J. A.; Krause, F. H.; Dodds, Willard J.; Albers, Martin; Hourmouziadis, J.; Hasel, K. L.; Lohmann, R. P.; Stander, C.; Gerstle, John H.

    1992-01-01

    Estimates are given for the emissions from a proposed high speed civil transport (HSCT). This advanced technology supersonic aircraft would fly in the lower stratosphere at a speed of roughly Mach 1.6 to 3.2 (470 to 950 m/sec or 920 to 1850 knots). Because it would fly in the stratosphere at an altitude in the range of 15 to 23 km commensurate with its design speed, its exhaust effluents could perturb the chemical balance in the upper atmosphere. The first step in determining the nature and magnitude of any chemical changes in the atmosphere resulting from these proposed aircraft is to identify and quantify the chemically important species they emit. Relevant earlier work is summarized, dating back to the Climatic Impact Assessment Program of the early 1970s and current propulsion research efforts. Estimates are provided of the chemical composition of an HSCT's exhaust, and these emission indices are presented. Other aircraft emissions that are not due to combustion processes are also summarized; these emissions are found to be much smaller than the exhaust emissions. Future advances in propulsion technology, in experimental measurement techniques, and in understanding upper atmospheric chemistry may affect these estimates of the amounts of trace exhaust species or their relative importance.

  15. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Engine model Aeromot-Industria Mecanico AMT-200 912 A2. Metalurgica ltda. Diamond Aircraft...

  16. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic... Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industrial Mecanico AMT-200......... 912 A2 Metalurgica tda.....

  17. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  18. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  19. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  20. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  1. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate must subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an...

  2. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  3. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  4. Investigation of aerosol formation and sulfur speciation in subsonic jet aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durlak, Susan Kaye

    1997-12-01

    Combustion-related atmospheric pollutants, both gaseous and particulate, can contribute to short-term health risks, as well as long-term climate change. While aircraft engine emissions may present short-term health risks near airports, aircraft are uniquely able to impact long-term climate change due to their insertion of anthropogenic pollutants in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Aircraft emissions can impact the climate either directly, via emissions of light- scattering particulates, or indirectly, via emission of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) particulates which influence cloud formation, or through heterogeneous reactions in the atmosphere. Carbonaceous aerosol emissions from aircraft engines can directly impact the climate, whereas speciation of sulfur emissions from aircraft engines can indirectly impact the climate by forming submicron, sulfuric acid particles which then form CCN. The number, size and composition of carbonaceous aerosol, and speciation of sulfur in the exhaust, are the main parameters influencing these emissions' fate in the environment and impact on the climate. However, little is understood about the formation of these pollutants within aircraft engines, due in part to the complexity and cost involved in testing these highly engineered machines. This study examines the feasibility of using a miniature working jet aircraft engine (Sophia J450 Model Jet Engine) to perform lab-scale, controlled tests to explore the formation of aircraft engine emissions. The miniature engine was run at a variety of power levels, and emissions were sampled at the exhaust. Two types of jet fuel (JP-5 and Jet A) and one other fuel (White Gas, or Coleman Fuel) were combusted in the engine. Engine performance is characterized and exhaust carbonaceous aerosol size distribution measurements are compared to full-scale turbojet engines. Measurements were made of sulfur speciation in the exhaust of the miniature jet engine burning Jet A and JP-5 with

  5. Technology for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen from supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, G. M.; Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Various experiments are sponsored and conducted by NASA to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling aircraft engine emissions into the upper atmosphere. Of particular concern are the oxide of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  6. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  7. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  8. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  9. A Comprehensive Program for Measurement of Military Aircraft Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn

    2009-11-01

    Emissions of gases and particulate matter by military aircraft were characterized inplume by 'extractive' and 'optical remote-sensing (ORS)' technologies. Non-volatile particle size distribution, number and mass concentrations were measured with good precision and reproducibly. Time-integrated particulate filter samples were collected and analyzed for smoke number, elemental composition, carbon contents, and sulfate. Observed at EEP the geometric mean diameter (as measured by the mobility diameter) generally increased as the engine power setting increased, which is consistent with downstream observations. The modal diameters at the downstream locations are larger than that at EEP at the same engine power level. The results indicate that engine particles were processed by condensation, for example, leading to particle growth in-plume. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present in the exhaust, while most of the exhaust materials in the particulate phase were carbon and sulfate (in the JP-8 fuel). CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, HCHO, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were measured. The last five species were most noticeable under engine idle condition. The levels of hydrocarbons emitted at high engine power level were generally below the detection limits. ORS techniques yielded real-time gaseous measurement, but the same techniques could not be extended directly to ultrafine particles found in all engine exhausts. The results validated sampling methodology and measurement techniques used for non-volatile particulate aircraft emissions, which also highlighted the needs for further research on sampling and measurement for volatile particulate matter and semi-volatile species in the engine exhaust especially at the low engine power setting.

  10. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  11. Nitric oxide emissions from the high-temperature viscous boundary layers of hypersonic aircraft within the stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, S.B.; Lewis, M.J.; Dickerson, R.R.

    1993-09-20

    The authors study the nitric oxide emission characteristics of supersonic aircraft resulting from heating of viscous boundary layers along the skin of the aircraft. Previous study has concentrated on nitric oxide emissions coming from combustion products from the scramjet engines. This work shows that above mach 8, emissions from viscous heating become a significant factor in total emission of nitric oxide. Above mach 16 it becomes the dominant source of emission.

  12. Optical remote sensing of aircraft emissions with the K300

    SciTech Connect

    Bittner, H.; Klein, V.; Eisenmann, T.; Engler, F.; Resch, M.; Mosebach, H.; Erhard, M.; Rippel, H. )

    1993-01-01

    The K300 Double Pendulum Interferometer is a compact high resolution Fourier Transform spectrometer designed for outdoor optical remote sensing in the infrared spectral region. Apart from the known atmospheric pollution monitoring by long-path measurements and smoke stack remote sensing at power plants, the remote diagnostic of hot aircraft engine emissions is a very interesting application of the infrared spectroscopy. First results of such measurements performed with the Kayser-Threde Double Pendulum Interferometer K300 at the DLR airport, Oberpfaffenhofen on January 15, 1992 are presented and discussed.

  13. Aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, W. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Bahr, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced aircraft turbine engine combustor technology was used to reduce low-power emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons to levels significantly lower than those which were achieved with current technology. Three combustor design concepts, which were designated as the hot-wall liner concept, the recuperative-cooled liner concept, and the catalyst converter concept, were evaluated in a series of CF6-50 engine size 40 degree-sector combustor rig tests. Twenty-one configurations were tested at operating conditions spanning the design condition which was an inlet temperature and pressure of 422 K and 304 kPa, a reference velocity of 23 m/s and a fuel-air-ration of 10.5 g/kg. At the design condition typical of aircraft turbine engine ground idle operation, the best configurations of all three concepts met the stringent emission goals which were 10, 1, and 4 g/kg for CO, HC, and Nox, respectively.

  14. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  15. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  16. Predicting Noise From Aircraft Turbine-Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P.; Mani, R.; Salamah, S.; Coffin, R.; Mehta, Jayesh

    2005-01-01

    COMBUSTOR and CNOISE are computer codes that predict far-field noise that originates in the combustors of modern aircraft turbine engines -- especially modern, low-gaseous-emission engines, the combustors of which sometimes generate several decibels more noise than do the combustors of older turbine engines. COMBUSTOR implements an empirical model of combustor noise derived from correlations between engine-noise data and operational and geometric parameters, and was developed from databases of measurements of acoustic emissions of engines. CNOISE implements an analytical and computational model of the propagation of combustor temperature fluctuations (hot spots) through downstream turbine stages. Such hot spots are known to give rise to far-field noise. CNOISE is expected to be helpful in determining why low-emission combustors are sometimes noisier than older ones, to provide guidance for refining the empirical correlation model embodied in the COMBUSTOR code, and to provide insight on how to vary downstream turbinestage geometry to reduce the contribution of hot spots to far-field noise.

  17. Advanced combustion techniques for controlling NO sub x emissions of high altitude cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Reck, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    An array of experiments designed to explore the potential of advanced combustion techniques for controlling the emissions of aircraft into the upper atmosphere was discussed. Of particular concern are the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions into the stratosphere. The experiments utilize a wide variety of approaches varying from advanced combustor concepts to fundamental flame tube experiments. Results are presented which indicate that substantial reductions in cruise NOx emissions should be achievable in future aircraft engines. A major NASA program is described which focuses the many fundamental experiments into a planned evolution and demonstration of the prevaporized-premixed combustion technique in a full-scale engine.

  18. Review of jet engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    A review of the emission characteristics of jet engines is presented. The sources and concentrations of the various constituents in the engine exhaust and the influence of engine operating conditions on emissions are discussed. Cruise emissions to be expected from supersonic engines are compared with emissions from subsonic engines. The basic operating principles of the gas turbine combustor are reviewed together with the effects of combustor operating conditions on emissions. The performance criteria that determine the design of gas turbine combustors are discussed. Combustor design techniques are considered that may be used to reduce emissions.

  19. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The proposed EPA regulations covering emissions of gas turbine engines will require extensive combustor development. The NASA is working to develop technology to meet these goals through a wide variety of combustor research programs conducted in-house, by contract, and by university grant. In-house efforts using the swirl-can modular combustor have demonstrated sizable reduction in NO emission levels. Testing to reduce idle pollutants has included the modification of duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and an exploration of the potential improvements possible with combustors using fuel staging and variable geometry. The Experimental Clean Combustor Program, a large contracted effort, is devoted to the testing and development of combustor concepts designed to achieve a large reduction in the levels of all emissions. This effort is planned to be conducted in three phases with the final phase to be an engine demonstration of the best reduced emission concepts.

  20. Remote sensing of temperature and concentration profiles of a gas jet by coupling infrared emission spectroscopy and LIDAR for characterization of aircraft engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offret, J.-P.; Lebedinsky, J.; Navello, L.; Pina, V.; Serio, B.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature data play an important role in the combustion chamber since it determines both the efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission of engines. Air pollution problem concerns the emissions of gases such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and also aerosols, soot and volatile organic compounds. Flame combustion occurs in hostile environments where temperature and concentration profiles are often not easy to measure. In this study, a temperature and CO2 concentration profiles optical measurement method, suitable for combustion analysis, is discussed and presented. The proposed optical metrology method presents numerous advantages when compared to intrusive methods. The experimental setup comprises a passive radiative emission measurement method combined with an active laser-measurement method. The passive method is based on the use of gas emission spectroscopy. The experimental spectrometer device is coupled with an active method. The active method is used to investigate and correct complex flame profiles. This method similar to a LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) device is based on the measurement of Rayleigh scattering of a short laser pulse recorded using a high-speed streak camera. The whole experimental system of this new method is presented. Results obtained on a small-scale turbojet are shown and discussed in order to illustrate the potentials deliver by the sophisticated method. Both temperature and concentration profiles of the gas jet are presented and discussed.

  1. Airborne Observations of Aerosol Emissions from F-16 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Cofer, W. R.; McDougal, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    We presented results from the SASS Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment which was conducted during May and June 1997 in collaboration with the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard Units. The project objectives were to quantify the fraction of fuel sulfur converted to S(VI) species by jet engines and to gain a better understanding of particle formation and growth processes within aircraft wakes. Size and volatility segregated aerosol measurements along with sulfur species measurements were recorded in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft equipped with F-100 engines burning fuels with a range of fuel S concentrations at different altitudes and engine power settings. A total of 10 missions were flown in which F-16 exhaust plumes were sampled by an instrumented T-39 Sabreliner aircraft. On six of the flights, measurements were obtained behind the same two aircraft, one burning standard JP-8 fuel and the other either approximately 28 ppm or 1100 ppm S fuel or an equal mixture of the two (approximately 560 ppm S). A pair of flights was conducted for each fuel mixture, one at 30,000 ft altitude and the other starting at 35,000 ft and climbing to higher altitudes if contrail conditions were not encountered at the initial flight level. In each flight, the F-16s were operated at two power settings, approx. 80% and full military power. Exhaust emissions were sampled behind both aircraft at each flight level, power setting, and fuel S concentration at an initial aircraft separation of 30 m, gradually widening to about 3 km. Analyses of the aerosol data in the cases where fuel S was varied suggest results were consistent with observations from project SUCCESS, i.e., a significant fraction of the fuel S was oxidized to form S(VI) species and volatile particle emission indices (EIs) in comparably aged plumes exhibited a nonlinear dependence upon the fuel S concentration. For the high sulfur fuel, volatile particle EIs in 10-second-old-plumes were 2 to 3 x 10 (exp 17

  2. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... General Note 6, HTSUS, as a civil aircraft, aircraft engine, or ground flight simulator, or their parts... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  3. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and subassemblies. 10.183 Section 10.183 Customs... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components,...

  4. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate must subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an acceptable...) The test runs required by paragraph (a) of this section may be made with the engine...

  6. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate must subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to an acceptable...) The test runs required by paragraph (a) of this section may be made with the engine...

  7. Sensitivity of stratospheric ozone to present and possible future aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Kinnison, D.E.

    1990-08-01

    The aircraft industry is showing renewed interest in the development of supersonic, high flying aircraft for intercontinental passenger flights. There appears to be confidence that such high-speed civil transports can be designed, and that aircraft will be economically viable as long as they are also environmentally acceptable. As such, it is important to establish the potential for such environmental problems early in the aircraft design. Initial studies with LLNL models of global atmospheric chemical, radiative, and transport processes have indicated that substantial decreases in stratospheric ozone concentrations could result from emissions of NO{sub x} from aircraft flying the stratosphere, depending on the fleet size and magnitude of the engine emissions. The purpose of this study is to build on previous analyses of potential aircraft emission effects on ozone in order to better define the sensitivity of ozone to such emissions. In addition to NO{sub x}, the effects of potential emissions of carbon monoxide and water vapor are also examined. More realistic scenarios for the emissions as a function of altitude, latitude, and season are examined in comparison to prior analyses. These studies indicate that the effects on ozone are sensitive to the altitude and latitude, as well as the magnitude, of the emissions.

  8. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  9. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Several combustor concepts were designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the hot wall combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners; the recuperative cooling combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber; and the catalytic converter combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultralow levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved.

  10. Combustor concepts for aircraft gas turbine low-power emissions reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Gleason, C. C.; Dodds, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Three combustor concepts have been designed and tested to demonstrate significant reductions in aircraft engine idle pollutant emissions. Each concept used a different approach for pollutant reductions: the Hot Wall Combustor employs a thermal barrier coating and impingement cooled liners, the Recuperative Cooling Combustor preheats the air before entering the combustion chamber, and the Catalytic Converter Combustor is composed of a conventional primary zone followed by a catalytic bed for pollutant cleanup. The designs are discussed in detail and test results are presented for a range of aircraft engine idle conditions. The results indicate that ultra-low levels of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emissions can be achieved with this technology.

  11. Potential Climate Impacts of Engine Particle Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. Randy

    1999-01-01

    Solid (soot) and liquid (presumed sulfate) particle emissions from aircraft engines may have serious impacts on the atmosphere. While the direct radiative impact of these particles is expected to be small relative to those from natural sources (Atmospheric Effects of Subsonic Aircraft: Interim Assessment of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program, NASA Ref. Pub. 1400, 1997), their indirect effects on atmospheric chemistry and cloud formation may have a significant impact. The potential impacts of primary concern are the increase of sulfate surface area and accelerated heterogeneous chemical reactions, and the potential for either modified soot or sulfate particles to serve as cloud nuclei which would change the frequency or radiative characteristics of clouds. Volatile (sulfate) particle concentrations measured behind the Concorde aircraft in flight in the stratosphere were much higher than expected from near-field model calculations of particle formation and growth. Global model calculations constrained by these data calculate a greater level of stratospheric ozone depletion from the proposed High speed Civil Transport (HSCT) fleet than those without particle emission. Soot particles have also been proposed as important in heterogeneous chemistry but this remains to be substantiated. Aircraft volatile particle production in the troposphere has been shown by measurements to depend strongly on fuel sulfur content. Sulfate particles of sufficient size are known to provide a good nucleating surface for cloud growth. Although pure carbon soot is hydrophobic, the solid particle surface may incorporate more suitable nucleating sites. The non-volatile (soot) particles also tend to occupy the large end of aircraft particle size spectra. Quantitative connection between aircraft particle emissions and cloud modification has not been established yet, however, even small changes in cloud amount or properties could have a significant effect on the radiative balance of the

  12. Characterization of particulate matter and gaseous emissions of a C-130H aircraft.

    PubMed

    Corporan, Edwin; Quick, Adam; DeWitt, Matthew J

    2008-04-01

    The gaseous and nonvolatile particulate matter (PM) emissions of two T56-A-15 turboprop engines of a C-130H aircraft stationed at the 123rd Airlift Wing in the Kentucky Air National Guard were characterized. The emissions campaign supports the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) project WP-1401 to determine emissions factors from military aircraft. The purpose of the project is to develop a comprehensive emissions measurement program using both conventional and advanced techniques to determine emissions factors of pollutants, and to investigate the spatial and temporal evolutions of the exhaust plumes from fixed and rotating wing military aircraft. Standard practices for the measurement of gaseous emissions from aircraft have been well established; however, there is no certified methodology for the measurement of aircraft PM emissions. In this study, several conventional instruments were used to physically characterize and quantify the PM emissions from the two turboprop engines. Emissions samples were extracted from the engine exit plane and transported to the analytical instrumentation via heated lines. Multiple sampling probes were used to assess the spatial variation and obtain a representative average of the engine emissions. Particle concentrations, size distributions, and mass emissions were measured using commercially available aerosol instruments. Engine smoke numbers were determined using established Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) practices, and gaseous species were quantified via a Fourier-transform infrared-based gas analyzer. The engines were tested at five power settings, from idle to take-off power, to cover a wide range of operating conditions. Average corrected particle numbers (PNs) of (6.4-14.3) x 10(7) particles per cm3 and PN emission indices (EI) from 3.5 x 10(15) to 10.0 x 10(15) particles per kg-fuel were observed. The highest PN EI were observed for the idle power conditions. The mean particle diameter

  13. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  14. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  15. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft... ARTICLES CONDITIONALLY FREE, SUBJECT TO A REDUCED RATE, ETC. General Provisions Civil Aircraft § 10.183 Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components,...

  16. Particulate Emissions Hazards Associated with Fueling Heat Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2010-01-01

    All hydrocarbon- (HC-) fueled heat engine exhaust (tailpipe) emissions (<10 to 140 nm) contribute as health hazards, including emissions from transportation vehicles (e.g., aircraft) and other HC-fueled power systems. CO2 emissions are tracked, and when mapped, show outlines of major transportation routes and cities. Particulate pollution affects living tissue and is found to be detrimental to cardiovascular and respiratory systems where ultrafine particulates directly translocate to promote vascular system diseases potentially detectable as organic vapors. This paper discusses aviation emissions, fueling, and certification issues, including heat engine emissions hazards, detection at low levels and tracking of emissions, and alternate energy sources for general aviation.

  17. Heterogeneous reactions in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lukachko, S. P.; Waitz, I. A.

    2002-05-01

    One-dimensional flow models and unity probability heterogeneous rate parameters are used to estimate the maximum effect of heterogeneous reactions on trace species evolution in aircraft gas turbines. The analysis includes reactions on soot particulates and turbine/nozzle material surfaces. Results for a representative advanced subsonic engine indicate the net change in reactant mixing ratios due to heterogeneous reactions is <10-6 for O2, CO2, and H2O, and <10-10 for minor combustion products such as SO2 and NO2. The change in the mixing ratios relative to the initial values is <0.01%. Since these estimates are based on heterogeneous reaction probabilities of unity, the actual changes will be even lower. Thus, heterogeneous chemistry within the engine cannot explain the high conversion of SO2 to SO3 which some wake models require to explain the observed levels of volatile aerosols. Furthermore, turbine heterogeneous processes will not effect exhaust NOx or NOy levels.

  18. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  19. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  20. State variable modeling of the integrated engine and aircraft dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Sprinţu, Iuliana

    2014-12-01

    This study explores the dynamic characteristics of the combined aircraft-engine system, based on the general theory of the state variables for linear and nonlinear systems, with details leading first to the separate formulation of the longitudinal and the lateral directional state variable models, followed by the merging of the aircraft and engine models into a single state variable model. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form and the engine dynamics was included in terms of variation of thrust following a deflection of the throttle. The linear model of the shaft dynamics for a two-spool jet engine was derived by extending the one-spool model. The results include the discussion of the thrust effect upon the aircraft response when the thrust force associated with the engine has a sizable moment arm with respect to the aircraft center of gravity for creating a compensating moment.

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  2. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  3. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a technical amendment published on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39623). In that... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that technical... Administration 14 CFR Part 33 RIN 2120-AF57 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft...

  4. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  5. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  6. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  7. Gas and Particulate Aircraft Emissions Measurements: Impacts on local air quality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayne, J. T.; Onasch, T.; Northway, M.; Canagaratna, M.; Worsnop, D.; Timko, M.; Wood, E.; Miake-Lye, R.; Herndon, S.; Knighton, B.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Anderson, B.

    2007-12-01

    Air travel and freight shipping by air are becoming increasingly important and are expected to continue to expand. The resulting increases in the local concentrations of pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrogen oxides (NOX), can have negative impacts on regional air quality, human health and can impact climate change. In order to construct valid emission inventories, accurate measurements of aircraft emissions are needed. These measurements must be done both at the engine exit plane (certification) and downwind following the rapid cooling, dilution and initial atmospheric processing of the exhaust plume. We present here results from multiple field experiments which include the Experiment to Characterize Volatile Aerosol and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) and the four Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiments (APEX- 1/Atlanta/2/3) which characterized gas and particle emissions from both stationary or in-use aircraft. Emission indices (EIs) for NOx and VOCs and for particle number concentration, refractory PM (black carbon soot) and volatile PM (primarily sulfate and organic) particles are reported. Measurements were made at the engine exit plane and at several downstream locations (10 and 30 meters) for a number of different engine types and engine thrust settings. A significant fraction of organic particle mass is composed of low volatility oil-related compounds and is not combustion related, potentially emitted by vents or heated surfaces within aircraft engines. Advected plumes measurements from in-use aircraft show that the practice of reduced thrust take-offs has a significant effect on total NOx and soot emitted in the vicinity of the airport. The measurements reported here represent a first observation of this effect and new insights have been gained with respect to the chemical processing of gases and particulates important to the urban airshed.

  8. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; technical amendment.... ] DATES: This amendment becomes effective July 5, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For...

  9. The Altitude Laboratory for the Test of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, H C; Boutell, H G

    1920-01-01

    Report presents descriptions, schematics, and photographs of the altitude laboratory for the testing of aircraft engines constructed at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  10. Experimental Measurements of the Effects of Photo-chemical Oxidation on Aerosol Emissions in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miracolo, M. A.; Presto, A. A.; Hennigan, C. J.; Nguyen, N.; Ranjan, M.; Reeder, A.; Lipsky, E.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2009-12-01

    Many military and commercial airfields are located in non-attainment areas for particulate matter (PM2.5), but the contribution of emissions from in-use aircraft to local and regional PM2.5 concentrations is uncertain. In collaboration with the Pennsylvania Air National Guard 171st Air Refueling Wing, the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Mobile Laboratory was deployed to measure fresh and aged emissions from a CFM56-2B1 gas-turbine engine mounted on a KC-135 Stratotanker airframe. The CFM-56 family of engine powers many different types of military and civilian aircraft, including the Boeing 737 and several Airbus models. It is one of the most widely deployed models of engines in the world. The goal of this work was to measure the gas-particle partitioning of the fresh emissions at atmospherically relevant conditions and to investigate the effect of atmospheric oxidation on aerosol loadings as the emissions age. Emissions were sampled from an inlet installed one meter downstream of the engine exit plane and transferred into a portable smog chamber via a heated inlet line. Separate experiments were conducted at different engine loads ranging from ground idle to take-off rated thrust. During each experiment, some diluted exhaust was added to the chamber and the volatility of the fresh emissions was then characterized using a thermodenuder. After this characterization, the chamber was exposed to either ambient sunlight or UV lights to initiate photochemical oxidation, which produced secondary aerosol and ozone. A suite of gas and particle-phase instrumentation was used to characterize the evolution of the gas and particle-phase emissions, including an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure particle size and composition distributions. Fresh emissions of fine particles varied with engine load with peak emission factors at low and high loads. At high engine loads, the fresh emissions were dominated by black carbon; at low loads volatile organic carbon emissions were

  11. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  12. A Roadmap for Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2001-01-01

    The concept of Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control is introduced. A brief description of the tradeoffs between performance and engine life are first explained. The overall goal of the life extending controller is to reduce the engine operating cost by extending the on-wing engine life while improving operational safety. The research results for NASA's Rocket Engine life extending control program are also briefly described. Major building blocks of the Engine Life Extending Control architecture are examined. These blocks include: life prediction models, engine operation models, stress and thermal analysis tools, control schemes, and intelligent control systems. The technology areas that would likely impact the successful implementation of an aircraft engine life extending control are also briefly described. Near, intermediate, and long term goals of NASA's activities are also presented.

  13. Supersonic through-flow fan engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1978-01-01

    Engine performance, weight and mission studies were carried out for supersonic through flow fan engine concepts. The mission used was a Mach 2.32 cruise mission. The advantages of supersonic through flow fan engines were evaluated in terms of mission range comparisons between the supersonic through flow fan engines and a more conventional turbofan engine. The specific fuel consumption of the supersonic through flow fan engines was 12 percent lower than the more conventional turbofan. The aircraft mission range was increased by 20 percent with the supersonic fan engines compared to the conventional turbofan.

  14. Probing Emissions of Military Cargo Aircraft: Description of a Joint Field Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Spicer, C.; Holdren, M.; Cowen, K.; Harris, B.; Shores, R.; Hashmonay, R.; Kaganan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Direct emissions of NOx, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter (PM) by aircraft contribute to the pollutant levels found in the atmosphere. Aircraft emissions can be injected at the ground level or directly at the high altitude in flight. Conversion of the precursor gases into secondary PM is one of the pathways for the increased atmospheric PM. Atmospheric PM interacts with solar radiation altering atmospheric radiation balance and potentially contributing to global and regional climate changes. Also, direct emissions of air toxics, ozone precursors and PM from aircraft in and around civilian airports and military air bases can worsen local air quality in non-attainment and/or maintenance areas. These emissions need to be quantified. However, the current EPA methods for particle emission measurements from such sources, modified Method 5 and Conditional Test Method 039, are gravimetric-based, and it is anticipated that these methods will not be suitable for current and future generations of aircraft turbine engines, whose particle mass emissions are low. To evaluate measurement approaches for military aircraft emissions, two complementary projects were initiated in 2005. A joint field campaign between these two programs was executed during the first week of October 2005 at the Kentucky Air National Guard (KYANG) base in Louisville, KY. This campaign represented the first in a series of field studies for each program funded by the DoD Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) and provided the basis for cross-comparison of the sampling approaches and measurement techniques employed by the respective program teams. This paper describes the overall programmatic of the multi-year SERDP aircraft emissions research and presents a summary of the results from the joint field campaign.

  15. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  16. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  17. Assessing the Impact of Aircraft Emissions on the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawa, S. R.; Anderson, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the NASA Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) has been the U.S. focal point for research on aircraft effects. In conjunction with U.S. basic research programs, AEAP and concurrent European research programs have driven remarkable progress reports released in 1999 [IPCC, 1999; Kawa et al., 1999]. The former report primarily focuses on aircraft effects in the upper troposphere, with some discussion on stratospheric impacts. The latter report focuses entirely on the stratosphere. The current status of research regarding aviation effects on stratospheric ozone and climate, as embodied by the findings of these reports, is reviewed. The following topics are addressed: Aircraft Emissions, Pollution Transport, Atmospheric Chemistry, Polar Processes, Climate Impacts of Supersonic Aircraft, Subsonic Aircraft Effect on the Stratosphere, Calculations of the Supersonic Impact on Ozone and Sensitivity to Input Conditions.

  18. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  19. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  20. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  1. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  2. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  3. Condensed data on the aircraft engines of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliedner, C S

    1929-01-01

    This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.

  4. Estimation of glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    McCready, D.

    1998-12-31

    Ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG)-based fluids (collectively referred to as glycol) are recognized as effective in removing and preventing snow and ice contamination on aircraft before take-off. Although much work has been done to develop an understanding of the potential impact of spent fluid run-off to water bodies, little attention has been paid to the potential environmental impact, if any, due to air emissions. In order to determine potential impact from air emissions, it is necessary to develop a protocol for estimating the glycol emissions during deicing operations. This paper presents two approaches for estimating glycol air emissions from aircraft deicing fluids (ADF) and aircraft anti-icing fluids (AAF). The first simple approach is based on emission factors and the quantity of fluid applied. The second approach estimates emissions for a typical deicing event based on site-specific parameters. Sample calculations are presented. The predicted glycol evaporation rates are quite low. Calculated emissions from ethylene glycol-based fluids are lower than emissions from PG-based fluids. The calculated air emissions for a typical event are less than a pound for EG-based fluids. The emission rate from PG-based fluids can be two times greater.

  5. Analyses of Scenarios for Past and Possible Future Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Rahmes, Tim

    1997-01-01

    This project contains several components to work with the NASA AEAP program in better definition of scenarios for aircraft emissions and in determining the sensitivity of the atmosphere to such emissions. Under this project, Don Wuebbles continues as chair of the Operations and Emissions Scenarios Committee for AEAP. We are also coordinating with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) to ensure the highest quality possible in the emissions scenarios promoted by the Emissions Scenarios committee. We continue to help coordination of NASA AEAP with international activities. This includes work with ICAO towards international analysis of aircraft emissions inventories; performing analyses to compare and evaluate databases of aircraft emissions developed for NASA and by various international groups and from these analyses, develop guidelines for future emissions scenarios development. Special sensitivity analyses, using our two-dimensional chemical-transport model of the global troposphere and stratosphere, have been used to determine potential sensitivity of further enhancements that could be made to emissions scenarios development. The latter studies are to be used in prioritizing further emissions scenario development.

  6. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  7. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acceptance of aircraft engines and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Acceptance of Aircraft Engines, Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An...

  8. Development and Evaluation of an Air Quality Modeling Approach to Assess Near-Field Impacts of Lead Emissions from Piston-Engine Aircraft Operating on Leaded Aviation Gasoline

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since aviation gasoline is now the largest remaining source of lead (Pb) emissions to the air in the United States, there is increased interest by regulatory agencies and the public in assessing the impacts on residents living in close proximity to these sources. An air quality m...

  9. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  10. 77 FR 13488 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... (75 FR 32253, June 8, 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2010-11-09R1 Thielert Aircraft Engines... IBR on July 13, 2010 (75 FR 32253, June 8, 2010). (i) Thielert Aircraft Engines (TAE) GmbH, TAE SB No... 13, 2010 (75 FR 32253, June 8, 2010). ADDRESSES: For service information identified in this...

  11. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  12. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  13. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  14. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  15. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  16. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard, as described in § 87.60. The tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions... the NOX emission standards. (a) New turboprop aircraft engines with rated output at or above 1,000... excepted without request from the otherwise applicable Tier 6 NOX emission standard. To be eligible...

  17. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  18. Civil aircraft. [composite materials for airframes and engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1974-01-01

    This study deals with aircraft material and structural requirements, advantages of composites, airframe and engine applications, design procedures, problem areas, and future trends in civil aircraft. The selection of materials and design of structure for any given component or part must be made not only on the basis of the mechanical and structural functions, but must also consider the operational and cost parameters for civil aircraft. Composites have caused the orientation to shift from a metal-based philosophy for design, where only incremental improvements could be anticipated, to one where substantial changes in design approaches are possible. Future designs are likely to include a combination of new approaches and composite materials.

  19. Effects of Fuel Aromatic Content on Nonvolatile Particulate Emissions of an In-Production Aircraft Gas Turbine.

    PubMed

    Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Siegerist, Frithjof; Beyerle, Peter; Bruderer, Kevin; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Rocci-Denis, Sara; Andac, M Gurhan; Zelina, Joseph; Penanhoat, Olivier; Wang, Jing

    2015-11-17

    Aircraft engines emit particulate matter (PM) that affects the air quality in the vicinity of airports and contributes to climate change. Nonvolatile PM (nvPM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines depend on fuel aromatic content, which varies globally by several percent. It is uncertain how this variability will affect future nvPM emission regulations and emission inventories. Here, we present black carbon (BC) mass and nvPM number emission indices (EIs) as a function of fuel aromatic content and thrust for an in-production aircraft gas turbine engine. The aromatics content was varied from 17.8% (v/v) in the neat fuel (Jet A-1) to up to 23.6% (v/v) by injecting two aromatic solvents into the engine fuel supply line. Fuel normalized BC mass and nvPM number EIs increased by up to 60% with increasing fuel aromatics content and decreasing engine thrust. The EIs also increased when fuel naphthalenes were changed from 0.78% (v/v) to 1.18% (v/v) while keeping the total aromatics constant. The EIs correlated best with fuel hydrogen mass content, leading to a simple model that could be used for correcting fuel effects in emission inventories and in future aircraft engine nvPM emission standards. PMID:26495879

  20. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  1. Aircraft emissions, plume chemistry, and alternative fuels: results from the APEX, AAFEX, and MDW-2009 campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Yu, Z.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Lee, B. H.; Santoni, G.; Munger, J. W.; Wofsy, S.; Anderson, B.; Knighton, W. B.

    2009-12-01

    We describe observations of aircraft emissions from the APEX, JETS-APEX2, APEX3, MDW-2009 and AAFEX campaigns. Direct emissions of HOx precursors are important for understanding exhaust plume chemistry due to their role in determining HOx concentrations. Nitrous acid (HONO) and formaldehyde are crucial HOx precursors and thus drivers of plume chemistry. At idle power, aircraft engine exhaust is unique among fossil fuel combustion sources due to the speciation of both NOx and VOCs. The impacts of emissions of HOx precursors on plume chemistry at low power are demonstrated with empirical observations of rapid NO to NO2 conversion, indicative of rapid HOx chemistry. The impacts of alternative fuels (derived from biomass, coal, and natural gas) on emissions of NOx, CO, and speciated VOCs are discussed.

  2. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  3. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  5. 76 FR 72087 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industries, Model DA-40NG; Electronic Engine Control (EEC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    .... A47CE to include the new model DA- 40NG with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 Aircraft Diesel Engine (ADE...-tail airplane with the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 diesel engine and an increased maximum takeoff gross... Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine. 1. Electronic Engine Control a. For electronic...

  6. Small engine technology payoffs for future commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaehler, H.; Schneider, W.

    1986-01-01

    High payoff technologies for a year 2000 regenerative cycle turboprop engine were identified for a 19 passenger commuter aircraft application. A series of engines incorporating eight levels of advanced technologies were studied and their impact on aircraft performance was evaluated. Four advanced technologies are recommended to achieve a potential reduction in fuel burn of 38.3 percent. At $1.00 per gallon fuel price, a potential direct operating cost (DOC) benefit of 12.5 percent is obtained. At $2.00 per gallon, the potential DOC benefit increases to 17.0 percent.

  7. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  8. Determination of major combustion products in aircraft exhausts by FTIR emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heland, J.; Schäfer, K.

    The results of ground-based FTIR emission measurements of major combustion products such as CO 2, H 2O, CO, NO, and N 2O of in-service aircraft engines are reported and compared to values published in recent literature. About 25% differences in the NO and CO emission indices at several power settings were found for two military bypass engines of the same type. In addition the measured CO emission index of (51.8±4.6) g kg -1 at idle power of a CFM56-3 engine was about 27% lower than the value given by Spicer et al. (1984, 1994)for this engine type and about 27-48% higher than the ICAO data ( ICAO, 1995) for the whole span of CFM56-3 engines. The CO emission index measured at idle power of a CFM56-5C2 engine of AN Airbus A340 was (24±4) g kg -1 and can be compared to the ICAO value of 34 g kg -1. The N 2O mixing ratios measured at a higher power setting of this engine was found to be 4 ppm and is in the range of reported literature values. Since the NO and CO emissions are strongly connected to the combustion process/efficiency and thus to the state of engine maintainance and/or the engine age, it can be concluded that there are significant engine-to-engine (of the same type) and possibly day-to-day variations in the emission characteristics of aero engines which cannot be neglected for the estimation of the overall air-traffic emissions.

  9. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The use of turbofan engines as lift units for VTOL aircraft poses new engine control problems. At low flight speeds, the lift units must provide the fast thrust response needed for aircraft attitude and height control. The results are presented of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and methods are proposed for meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed. Both methods are shown to have thrust response near the required levels.

  10. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of modifications in hydrocarbon jet fuels specifications on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel system performance is discussed. Specific topics covered include: specific fuel consumption; ignition at relight limits; exhaust emissions; combustor liner temperatures; carbon deposition; gum formation in fuel nozzles, erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes; deposits in fuel system heat exchangers; and pumpability and flowability of the fuel. Data that evaluate the ability of current technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  11. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  12. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  13. Modelling the impact of aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Lowenberg, M. H.; Shallcross, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    Emissions of the trace gases CO2, CO, H2O, HC, NOx, and SOx that have the potential to perturb large scale atmospheric composition are accumulating in the atmosphere at an unprecedented rate as the demand for air traffic continues to grow. We investigate the global and regional effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere and climate using mathematical modelling, sensitivity simulations, and perturbation simulations and present historical and spatial distribution evolution of the global and regional number of departures, fuel burn and emissions. A comprehensive aircraft movement database spanning years 2005 - 2012, covering 225 countries and over 223 million departures on approximately 41000 unique routes serves as a basis for our investigation. We combine air traffic data with output from an aircraft performance model (fuel burn and emissions) including 80 distinct aircraft types, representing 216 of all the aircraft flown in the world in 2005 - 2012. This accounts for fuel burn and emissions for 99.5% of the total number of departures during that time. Simulations are being performed using a state of the art 3D Lagrangian global chemical transport model (CTM) CRI-STOCHEM for simulation of tropospheric chemistry. The model is applied with the CRI (Common Representative Intermediates) chemistry scheme with 220 chemical species, and 609 reactions. This allows us to study in detail the chemical cycles driven by NOx, governing the rate of formation of O3 which controls the production of OH and indirectly determines the lifetime of other greenhouse gases. We also investigate the impact of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption on the European air traffic and present a model response to the perturbation of NOx emissions that followed.

  14. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  15. A unified model for ultrafine aircraft particle emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kärcher, B.; Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.; Danilin, M. Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Busen, R.

    2000-12-01

    To predict the environmental impacts of commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. An analytic parameterization is presented that explains most of the observational variance. It is shown that the observed scatter in emission indices of volatile particles is due mainly to variations of plume age, the detection threshold size of the particle counters, and condensable organic emissions. The principle trend of the volatile particle concentrations with fuel sulfur content can be explained with conversion fractions of sulfur into particulate sulfuric acid at emission within the range 0.5 to 5%. A novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a future supersonic aircraft fleet confirms previous estimates and puts these simulations on a sounder physical basis.

  16. Ground-based aircraft exhaust measurements of a Lufthansa Airbus A340 using FTIR emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Heland, Joerg

    1999-01-01

    The emission inventories of aircraft emissions are being set up using flight routing data and test rig measurements of the engine manufacturers for certification purposes which have to be extrapolated with respect to the actual parameters at cruise altitude. Precise data from in-service engines are not existing. FTIR-emission-spectroscopy as a remote sensing multi-component exhaust gas analysis method has been further developed to specify the traceable molecules in aircraft exhausts, to determine the detection limits, and to obtain reliable statements concerning its accuracy. The first measurement with the Airbus A340 engine CFM56-5C2 during run up tests at ground level showed the overall ability of the FTIR-emission system to analyze the exhausts of modern gas turbines with high bypass ratio and mixing of fan air into the exhausts before the nozzle exit. Good quality spectra were measured and analyzed with respect to the mixing rations of CO2, H2O, CO, NO, and N2O, and the emission indices of CO, NO, and N2O. Total measurement times at one thrust level should be about 15 minutes to obtain reliable result which can be compared to the ICAO data of this engine.

  17. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  18. Hydrocarbon emissions from in-use commercial aircraft during airport operations.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Rogers, Todd; Dunlea, Edward J; Jayne, John T; Miake-Lye, Richard; Knighton, Berk

    2006-07-15

    The emissions of selected hydrocarbons from in-use commercial aircraft at a major airport in the United States were characterized using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and tunable infrared differential absorption spectroscopy (TILDAS) to probe the composition of diluted exhaust plumes downwind. The emission indices for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, and toluene, as well as other hydrocarbon species, were determined through analysis of 45 intercepted plumes identified as being associated with specific aircraft. As would have been predicted for high bypass turbine engines, the hydrocarbon emission index was greater in idle and taxiway acceleration plumes relative to approach and takeoff plumes. The opposite was seen in total NOy emission index, which increased from idle to takeoff. Within the idle plumes sampled in this study, the median emission index for formaldehyde was 1.1 g of HCHO per kg of fuel. For the subset of hydrocarbons measured in this work, the idle emissions levels relative to formaldehyde agree well with those of previous studies. The projected total unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) deduced from the range of in-use idle plumes analyzed in this work is greater than a plausible range of engine types using the defined idle condition (7% of rated engine thrust) in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank reference. PMID:16903278

  19. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  20. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  1. 40 CFR 87.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.71 Compliance with gaseous emission standards. Compliance with each gaseous emission standard by an aircraft engine shall...

  2. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  3. Emissions Measured in the Exhaust of a CFM-56 Engine on a DC-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Changlie; Penko, Paul F.

    2005-01-01

    A very extensive set of gaseous- and particulate-emissions data from an in service commercial aircraft engine was obtained by a team of researchers from NASA, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the Department of Defense. The program was led and organized by Dr. Chowen Wey of the UEET Project Office at the NASA Glenn Research Center and was dubbed the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). Testing was done at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The main object of APEX was to identify particulate emissions from commercial-aircraft engines.

  4. The Power of Aircraft Engines at Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragazzi, Paolo

    1939-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is confined to the investigations and methods employed by the Fiat company in their studies on the altitude performance of an air-cooled engine of the production type. The experimental set-up as well as test engine data are provided.

  5. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  6. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  7. Soot in the stratosphere: The impact of current and HSCT aircraft emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, A.D.A. ); Pueschel, R.F.; Snetsinger, K.G. . Ames Research Center)

    1991-08-01

    One of the trace components of emissions from aircraft engines and other combustion sources are soot particles. These particles are strongly absorbing in the visible and IR spectra, may act as condensation nuclei, and may provide a large surface area for the catalytic promotion of gas-phase chemical reactions. Soot if found throughout the troposphere, even at remote locations, and also in the stratosphere. Present techniques do not allow an unambiguous identification of the sources. This paper discusses the emission of soot from existing and proposed aircraft and the contribution of this soot to concentrations observed in the troposphere and stratosphere. We consider the implications of these emissions for issues in stratospheric physics and chemistry. 11 refs.

  8. Lean burn combustor technology at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, Willard J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes progress to date at GE Aircraft Engines in demonstration of a lean combustion system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). These efforts were supported primarily by NASA contracts, with the exception of initial size and weight estimates and development of advanced diagnostics which were conducted under GE Independent Research and Development projects. Key accomplishments to date are summarized below.

  9. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  10. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  11. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, A.; Mariocchi, A.; Wortman, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micrometer (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than uncoated components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however, a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without any TBC.

  12. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  13. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricocchi, A.; Bartz, A.; Wortman, D.

    1997-06-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reli-ability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher per-formance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 μm (0.005 in.) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating tem-peratures of 56 to 83 °C (100 to 150 °F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed that TBCs are susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area ; however, a significant temperature reduc-tion was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  14. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  15. Modelling the impact of aircraft emissions on atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuk, D. K.; Shallcross, D. E.; Lowenberg, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    Emissions of the trace gases CO2, CO, H2O, HC, NOx, and SOx that have the potential to perturb large scale atmospheric composition are accumulating in the atmosphere at an unprecedented rate as the demand for air traffic continues to grow. We investigate the global, regional and local effects of aircraft emissions on the atmosphere and climate using mathematical modelling, sensitivity simulations, and perturbation simulations. The approach is to gather results for the three main industrialised regions in the Northern Hemisphere, focusing on the 40°N - 60°N latitude belt where the majority of aircraft movements take place. A comprehensive aircraft movement database spanning years 2005 - 2012, covering 225 countries and over 223 million departures on approx. 41000 unique routes serves as a basis for our investigation. We combine air traffic data with output from an aircraft performance model including 80 distinct aircraft types, representing 216 of all the aircraft flown in the world in 2005 - 2012. This accounts for fuel burn and emissions for 99.5% of the total number of departures during that time. Simulations are being performed using a state of the art 3D Lagrangian global chemical transport model (CTM) CRI-STOCHEM for simulation of tropospheric chemistry. The model will be applied with two chemistry schemes, namely the Common Representative Intermediates (CRI) reduced chemistry scheme (220 chemical species, 609 reactions) and the near explicit Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) chemistry scheme (5900 chemical species, 13500 reactions). This will allow us to study in detail the chemical cycles driven by NOx, governing the rate of formation of O3 which controls the production of OH and indirectly determines the lifetime of other greenhouse gases.

  16. A process for the quantification of aircraft noise and emissions interdependencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis, Jorge

    The main purpose of this dissertation is to develop a process to improve actual policy-making procedures in terms of aviation environmental effects. This research work expands current practices with physics based publicly available models. The current method uses solely information provided by industry members, and this information is usually proprietary, and not physically intuitive. The process herein proposed provides information regarding the interdependencies between the environmental effects of aircraft. These interdependencies are also tied to the actual physical parameters of the aircraft and the engine, making it more intuitive for decision-makers to understand the impacts to the vehicle due to different policy scenarios. These scenarios involve the use of fleet analysis tools in which the existing aircraft are used to predict the environmental effects of imposing new stringency levels. The aircraft used are reduced to a series of coefficients that represent their performance, in terms of flight characteristics, fuel burn, noise, and emissions. These coefficients are then utilized to model flight operations and calculate what the environmental impacts of those aircraft are. If a particular aircraft does not meet the stringency to be analyzed, a technology response is applied to it, in order to meet that stringency. Depending on the level of reduction needed, this technology response can have an effect on the fuel burn characteristic of the aircraft. Another important point of the current stringency analysis process is that it does not take into account both noise and emissions concurrently, but instead, it considers them separately, one at a time. This assumes that the interdependencies between the two do not exists, which is not realistic. The latest stringency process delineated in 2004 imposed a 2% fuel burn penalty for any required improvements on NOx, no matter the type of aircraft or engine, assuming that no company had the ability to produce a

  17. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Combustor research programs are described whose purpose is to demonstrate significantly lower exhaust emission levels. The proposed EPA regulations covering the allowable levels of emissions will require a major technological effort if these levels are to be met by 1979. Pollution reduction technology is being pursued by NASA through a combination of in-house research, contracted progams, and university grants. In-house research with the swirl-can modular combustor and the double-annular combustor has demonstrated significant reduction in the level of NO(x) emissions. The work is continuing in an attempt to further reduce these levels by improvements in module design and in air-fuel scheduling. Research on the reduction of idle emissions has included the conversion of conventional duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and exploration of the potential improvements possible with fuel staging and variable combustor geometry.

  18. Triple Oxygen Isotope Measurement of Nitrate to Analyze Impact of Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sharleen

    With 4.9% of total anthropogenic radiative forcing attributed to aircraft emissions, jet engines combust copious amounts of fuel producing gases including: NOx (NO + NO2), SOx, VOC's and fine particles [IPCC (1999), IPCC (2007), Lee et al., 2009]. The tropospheric non-linear relationships between NOx, OH and O3 contribute uncertainties in the ozone budget amplified by poor understanding of the NOx cycle. In a polluted urban environment, interaction of gases and particles produce various new compounds that are difficult to measure with analytical tools available today [Thiemens, 2006]. Using oxygen triple isotopic measurement of NO3 to investigate gas to particle formation and chemical transformation in the ambient atmosphere, this study presents data obtained from aerosols sampled at NASA's Dryden Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, CA during January and February, 2009 and Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) during Fall 2009, Winter 2010, and Spring 2010. The aerosols collected from jet aircraft exhaust in Palmdale exhibit an oxygen isotope anomaly (Delta17O =delta 17O -0.52 delta18O) increase with photochemical age of particles (-0.22 to 26.41‰) while NO3 concentration decreases from 53.76 - 5.35ppm with a radial distance from the jet dependency. Bulk aerosol samples from LAX exhibit seasonal variation with Delta17 O and NO3 concentration peaking in winter suggesting multiple sources and increased fossil fuel burning. Using oxygen triple isotopes of NO3, we are able to distinguish primary and secondary nitrate by aircraft emissions allowing new insight into a portion of the global nitrogen cycle. This represents a new and potentially important means to uniquely identify aircraft emissions on the basis of the unique isotopic composition of jet aircraft emissions.

  19. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails & Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage raft empennage.

  20. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  1. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  2. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  3. CO2, NOx, and particle emissions from aircraft and support activities at a regional airport.

    PubMed

    Klapmeyer, Michael E; Marr, Linsey C

    2012-10-16

    The goal of this research was to quantify emissions of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), particle number, and black carbon (BC) from in-use aircraft and related activity at a regional airport. Pollutant concentrations were measured adjacent to the airfield and passenger terminal at the Roanoke Regional Airport in Virginia. Observed NO(x) emission indices (EIs) for jet-powered, commuter aircraft were generally lower than those contained in the International Civil Aviation Organization databank for both taxi (same as idle) and takeoff engine settings. NO(x) EIs ranged from 1.9 to 3.7 g (kg fuel)(-1) across five types of aircraft during taxiing, whereas EIs were consistently higher, 8.8-20.6 g (kg fuel)(-1), during takeoff. Particle number EIs ranged from 1.4 × 10(16) to 7.1 × 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) and were slightly higher in taxi mode than in takeoff mode for four of the five types of aircraft. Diurnal patterns in CO(2) and NO(x) concentrations were influenced mainly by atmospheric conditions, while patterns in particle number concentrations were attributable mainly to patterns in aircraft activity. CO(2) and NO(x) fluxes measured by eddy covariance were higher at the terminal than at the airfield and were lower than found in urban areas. PMID:22963581

  4. Review of measurement and testing problems. [of aircraft emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Good instrumentation was required to obtain reliable and repeatable baseline data. Problems that were encountered in developing such a total system were: (1) accurate airflow measurement, (2) precise fuel flow measurement, and (3) the instrumentation used for pollutant measurement was susceptible to frequent malfunctions. Span gas quality had a significant effect on emissions test results. The Spindt method was used in the piston aircraft emissions program. The Spindt method provided a comparative computational procedure for fuel/air ratio based on measured emissions concentrations.

  5. Year 2015 Aircraft Emission Scenario for Scheduled Air Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Sutkus, Donald J.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional scenario of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons)for projected year 2015 scheduled air traffic. These emission inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxides, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  6. Aircraft measurements of microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilheit, T.; Nordberg, W.; Blinn, J.; Campbell, W.; Edgerton, A.

    1971-01-01

    Measurements of the microwave emission from Arctic Sea ice were made with aircraft at 8 wavelengths ranging from 0.510 to 2.81 cm. The expected contrast in emissivities between ice and water was observed at all wavelengths. Distributions of sea ice and open water were mapped from altitudes up to 11 km in the presence of dense cloud cover. Different forms of ice also exhibited strong contrasts in emissivity. Emissivity differences of up to 0.2 were observed between two types of ice at the 0.811-cm wavelength. The higher emissivity ice type is tentatively identified as having been formed more recently than the lower emissivity ice. ?? 1971.

  7. Methods for reducing pollutant emissions from jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butze, H. F.

    1971-01-01

    Pollutant emissions from jet aircraft and combustion research aimed at reducing these emissions are defined. The problem of smoke formation and results achieved in smoke reduction from commercial combustors are discussed. Expermental results of parametric tests performed on both conventional and experimental combustors over a range of combustor-inlet conditions are presented. Combustor design techniques for reducing pollutant emissions are discussed. Improved fuel atomization resulting from the use of air-assist fuel nozzles has brought about significant reductions in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at idle. Diffuser tests have shown that the combustor-inlet airflow profile can be controlled through the use of diffuser-wall bleed and that it may thus be possible to reduce emissions by controlling combustor airflow distribution. Emissions of nitric oxide from a shortlength annular swirl-can combustor were significantly lower than those from a conventional combustor operating at similar conditions.

  8. 14 CFR 34.48 - Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes. 34.48 Section 34.48 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED...

  9. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  10. 14 CFR 34.48 - Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Derivative engines for emissions certification purposes. 34.48 Section 34.48 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED...

  11. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  12. Components for digitally controlled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Control system components suitable for use in digital electronic control systems are defined. Compressor geometry actuation concepts and fuel handling system concepts suitable for use in large high performance turbofan/turbojet engines are included. Eight conceptual system designs were formulated for the actuation of the compressor geometry. Six conceptual system designs were formulated for the engine fuel handling system. Assessment criteria and weighting factors were established and trade studies performed on their candidate systems to establish the relative merits of the various concepts. Fuel pumping and metering systems for small turboshaft engines were also studied. Seven conceptual designs were formulated, and trade studies performed. A simplified bypassing fuel metering scheme was selected and a preliminary design defined.

  13. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  14. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  15. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  16. HSCT noise reduction technology development at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majjigi, Rudramuni K.

    1992-04-01

    The topics covered include the following: High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle design approaches; GE aircraft engine (GEAE) HSCT acoustics research; 2DCD non-IVP suppressor ejector; key sensitivities from reference aircraft; acoustic experiments; aero-mixing experimental set-up; fluid shield nozzle; HSCT Mach 2.4 flade nozzle; noise prediction; nozzle concept for GE/Boeing joint test; scale model hot core flow path modified to prevent hub-choking CFL3-D solution; HSCT exhaust nozzle status; and key acoustic technology issues for HSCT's.

  17. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  18. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  19. Control of turbofan lift engines for VTOL aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Szuch, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analytical study of the dynamics and control of turbofan lift engines, and proposes methods of meeting the response requirements imposed by the VTOL aircraft application. Two types of lift fan engines are discussed: the integral and remote. The integral engine is a conventional two-spool, high bypass ratio turbofan designed for low noise and short length. The remote engine employs a gas generator and a lift fan which are separated by a duct, and which need not be coaxial. For the integral engine, a control system design is presented which satisfies the VTOL response requirements. For the remote engine, two unconventional methods of control involving flow transfer between lift units are discussed.

  20. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho

    2012-12-01

    The emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants from aircraft in the boundary layer at four major international airports in Korea over a two-year period (2009-2010) were estimated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) (i.e. activity-based (Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle) methodology). Both domestic and international LTOs and ground support equipment at the airports were considered. The average annual emissions of GHGs (CO2, N2O, CH4 and H2O) at all four airports during the study period were 1.11 × 103, 1.76 × 10-2, -1.85 × 10-3 and 3.84 × 108 kt yr-1, respectively. The emissions of air pollutants (NOx, CO, VOCs and particulate matter) were 5.20, 4.12, 7.46 × 10-1 and 3.37 × 10-2 kt yr-1, respectively. The negative CH4 emission indicates the consumption of atmospheric CH4 in the engine. The monthly and daily emissions of GHGs and air pollutants showed no significant variations at all airports examined. The emissions of GHGs and air pollutants for each aircraft operational mode differed considerably, with the largest emission observed in taxi-out mode.

  1. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  2. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  3. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  4. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  5. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  6. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.; Alsworth, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of small turbofan engines to general aviation aircraft is discussed. The engine and engine/airplane performance, weight, size, and cost interrelationships are examined. The effects of specific engine noise constraints are evaluated. The factors inhibiting the use of turbofan engines in general aviation aircraft are identified.

  7. Sealing technology for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental evaluation under simulated engine conditions revealed that conventional mainshaft seals have disadvantages of high gas leakage rates and wear. An advanced seal concept, the self-acting face seal, has a much lower gas leakage rate and greater pressure and speed capability. In endurance tests (150 hr) to 43,200 rpm the self-acting seal wear was not measurable, indicating that noncontact sealing operation was maintained even at this high rotative speed. A review of published data revealed that the leakage through gas path seals has a significant effect on thrust specific fuel consumption, stall margin, and engine maintenance. Reducing leakages by reducing seal clearances results in rubbing contact, and then the seal thermal response and wear determines the final seal clearances.

  8. Sealing technology for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P.; Johnson, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental evaluation under simulated engine conditions revealed that conventional mainshaft seals have disadvantages of high gas leakage rates and wear. An advanced seal concept, the self-acting face seal, has a much lower gas leakage rate and greater pressure and speed capability. In endurance tests (150 hr) to 43 200 rpm the self-acting seal wear was not measurable, indicating noncontact sealing operation was maintained even at this high rotative speed. A review of published data revealed that the leakage through gas path seals has a significant effect on TSFC, stall margin and engine maintenance. Reducing leakages by reducing seal clearances results in rubbing contact, and then the seal thermal response and wear determines the final seal clearances. The control of clearances requires a material with the proper combination of rub tolerance (abradability) and erosion resistance. Increased rub tolerance is usually gained at the expense of reduced erosion resistance and vice versa.

  9. Low emission internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Karaba, Albert M.

    1979-01-01

    A low emission, internal combustion compression ignition engine having a cylinder, a piston movable in the cylinder and a pre-combustion chamber communicating with the cylinder near the top thereof and in which low emissions of NO.sub.x are achieved by constructing the pre-combustion chamber to have a volume of between 70% and 85% of the combined pre-chamber and main combustion chamber volume when the piston is at top dead center and by variably controlling the initiation of fuel injection into the pre-combustion chamber.

  10. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  11. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26...-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...... HK 36 R...

  12. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  13. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  14. The spark-ignition aircraft piston engine of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    Areas of advanced technology appropriate to the design of a spark-ignition aircraft piston engine for the late 1980 time period were investigated and defined. Results of the study show that significant improvements in fuel economy, weight and size, safety, reliability, durability and performance may be achieved with a high degree of success, predicated on the continued development of advances in combustion systems, electronics, materials and control systems.

  15. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  16. Particulate sizing and emission indices for a jet engine exhaust sampled at cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, D.; Whitefield, P.; Paladino, J.; Trueblood, M.; Lilenfeld, H.

    Particle size and emission indices measurements for jet engines, primarily the Rolls Royce RB211 engines on a NASA 757 aircraft are reported. These data were used to estimate the fraction of fuel sulfur that was converted to particulates. These measurements were made in-situ with the sampling aircraft several kilometers behind the source. Some complimentary ground measurements on the same source aircraft and engines are also reported. Significant differences are seen between the ground observations and the in-situ observations, indicating that plume processes are changing the aerosol's characteristics.

  17. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND... to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  18. Low-order nonlinear dynamic model of IC engine-variable pitch propeller system for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Jacques C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of an internal combustion engine coupled to a variable pitch propeller. The low-order, nonlinear time-dependent model is useful for simulating the propulsion system of general aviation single-engine light aircraft. This model is suitable for investigating engine diagnostics and monitoring and for control design and development. Furthermore, the model may be extended to provide a tool for the study of engine emissions, fuel economy, component effects, alternative fuels, alternative engine cycles, flight simulators, sensors, and actuators. Results show that the model provides a reasonable representation of the propulsion system dynamics from zero to 10 Hertz.

  19. Detailed modeling of soot size distribution evolution and pollutant formation inside aircraft and diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moniruzzaman, Chowdhury G.

    Combustion emission of soot and pollutant gas species contributes to poor regional air quality near emission sources and to climate change. It is important to understand the formation mechanism and time evolution of these pollutants inside the combustion engine, through detailed modeling of combustion chemistry and microphysics as well as comparison with observation. In this thesis, two multi-zone gas parcel combustion engine models, one for aircraft engines and another for diesel engines, have been developed to study soot size distribution evolution and pollutant formation inside the engines as well as emissions. The models take into account size-resolved (sectional) soot aerosol dynamics (nucleation, growth, and coagulation) and detailed combustion chemistry of jet and diesel fuel. For the aircraft engine, the model considers 362 chemical species, 2657 reversible reactions and 75 aerosol size bins. The model was applied to a CFM56-2-C1 aircraft engine for idle operating conditions. This is the first model to simulate soot size distribution evolution inside an aircraft engine (to our knowledge). The simulated values for major species are generally consistent with measurements. Model simulation shows that, for idle operating conditions, concentrations of most key combustion products don't change significantly in the post-combustor, however, HONO, H2SO4, and HO 2 concentrations change by more than a factor of 10. The sulfur oxidation efficiency (SOE), ([SO3]+[H2SO4])/([SO 2]+[SO3] +[H2SO4]), was found to be 2.1% at the engine exit. For the diesel engine, the multi-zone gas parcel model has been further enhanced by including fuel injection, droplet break-up, fuel evaporation and air entrainment rate. The model considers 283 chemical species, 2137 reversible reactions, and 75 aerosol size bins. The developed model calculates the time evolution of concentrations of these chemical species and soot size distributions inside a diesel engine. This is the first model to

  20. Modeling Aircraft Emissions for Regional-scale Air Quality: Adapting a New Global Aircraft Emissions Database for the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Baek, B. H.; Vennam, P. L.; Woody, M. C.; Omary, M.; Binkowski, F.; Fleming, G.

    2012-12-01

    Commercial aircraft emit substantial amounts of pollutants during their complete activity cycle that ranges from landing-and-takeoff (LTO) at airports to cruising in upper elevations of the atmosphere, and affect both air quality and climate. Since these emissions are not uniformly emitted over the earth, and have substantial temporal and spatial variability, it is vital to accurately evaluate and quantify the relative impacts of aviation emissions on ambient air quality. Regional-scale air quality modeling applications do not routinely include these aircraft emissions from all cycles. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has developed the Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT), a software system that dynamically models aircraft performance in space and time to calculate fuel burn and emissions from gate-to-gate for all commercial aviation activity from all airports globally. To process in-flight aircraft emissions and to provide a realistic representation of these for treatment in grid-based air quality models, we have developed an interface processor called AEDTproc that accurately distributes full-flight chorded emissions in time and space to create gridded, hourly model-ready emissions input data. Unlike the traditional emissions modeling approach of treating aviation emissions as ground-level sources or processing emissions only from the LTO cycles in regional-scale air quality studies, AEDTproc distributes chorded inventories of aircraft emissions during LTO cycles and cruise activities into a time-variant 3-D gridded structure. We will present results of processed 2006 global emissions from AEDT over a continental U.S. modeling domain to support a national-scale air quality assessment of the incremental impacts of aircraft emissions on surface air quality. This includes about 13.6 million flights within the U.S. out of 31.2 million flights globally. We will focus on assessing spatio-temporal variability of these commercial aircraft emissions, and

  1. The impact of nitrogen oxides emissions from aircraft upon the atmosphere at flight altitudes—results from the aeronox project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, U.

    The AERONOX project investigated the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x) from aircraft engines and global air traffic at cruising altitudes, the resultant increase in NO x concentrations, and the effects on the composition of the atmosphere, in particular with respect to ozone formation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The project was structured into three subprojects: Engine exhaust emissions, physics and chemistry in the aircraft wake, and global atmospheric model simulations. A complementary program of work by aviation experts has provided detailed information on air traffic data which was combined with data on aircraft performance and emissions to produce a global emissions inventory. This summary gives an overview of the results of this project. Further details are given in the following papers of this issue and the final project report of 1995. The work resulted in improved predictive equations to determine NO x emissions at cruise conditions based on available data for aircraft/engine combinations, and NO x emission measurements on two engines in cruise conditions. This information was combined with a traffic database to provide a new global NO x emissions inventory. It was found that only minor chemical changes occur during the vortex regime of the emission plume; however, this result does not exclude the possibility of further changes in the dispersion phase. A variety of global models was set up to investigate the changes in NO x concentrations and photochemistry. Although aviation contributes only a small proportion (about 3%) of the total global NO x from all anthropogenic sources, the models show that aviation contributes a large fraction to the concentrations of NOX in the upper troposphere, in particular north of 30°N.

  2. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Chen, Philip; Jaw, Link

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. The purpose of life-extending-control (LEC) is to study the relationship between control action and engine component life usage, and to design an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper trade-offs between performance and engine life usage. The benefit of this approach is that it is expected to maintain safety while minimizing the overall operating costs. With the advances of computer technology, engine operation models, and damage physics, it is necessary to reevaluate the control strategy fro overall operating cost consideration. This paper uses the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can drastically reduce the engine life usage with minimum sacrifice in performance. A Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to evaluate the likely engine damage accumulation under various operating conditions. The simulation results show that an optimized acceleration schedule can provide a significant life saving in selected engine components.

  3. Fiber Optics For Aircraft Engine/Inlet Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of NASA programs which focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control is presented. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible, eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. For engine/inlet control applications, fiber optic cables and cornectors will be subjected to nacelle air temperatures. These temperatures range between -55°C to 260°C. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle type connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cable and optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically-switched actuators that operate at 250°C is also described.

  4. Composition and morphology of particle emissions from in-use aircraft during takeoff and landing.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mandana; Bostrom, Thor E; Johnson, Graham R; Morawska, Lidia

    2013-05-21

    In order to provide realistic data for air pollution inventories and source apportionment at airports, the morphology and composition of ultrafine particles (UFP) in aircraft engine exhaust were measured and characterized. For this purpose, two independent measurement techniques were employed to collect emissions during normal takeoff and landing operations at Brisbane Airport, Australia. PM1 emissions in the airfield were collected on filters and analyzed using the particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Morphological and compositional analyses of individual ultrafine particles in aircraft plumes were performed on silicon nitride membrane grids using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX). TEM results showed that the deposited particles were in the range of 5-100 nm in diameter, had semisolid spherical shapes and were dominant in the nucleation mode (18-20 nm). The EDX analysis showed the main elements in the nucleation particles were C, O, S, and Cl. The PIXE analysis of the airfield samples was generally in agreement with the EDX in detecting S, Cl, K, Fe, and Si in the particles. The results of this study provide important scientific information on the toxicity of aircraft exhaust and their impact on local air quality. PMID:23618073

  5. 77 FR 44429 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect... engine operation, engine misfire, in-flight engine shutdown, and forced landing. We are issuing this AD... shutdown and forced landing, damage to the aeroplane and injury to occupants. To address this...

  6. Analytical and experimental evaluations of the effect of broad property fuels on combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The impacts of broad property fuels on the design, performance, durability, emissions, and operational characteristics of current and advanced combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines were studied. The effect of fuel thermal stability on engine and airframe fuel system was evaluated. Tradeoffs between fuel properties, exhaust emissions, and combustor life were also investigated. Results indicate major impacts of broad property fuels on allowable metal temperatures in fuel manifolds and injector support, combustor cyclic durability, and somewhat lesser impacts on starting characteristics, lightoff, emissions, and smoke.

  7. Analytical and experimental evaluations of the effect of broad property fuels on combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical and experimental studies were conducted in three contract activities funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lewis Research Center, to assess the impacts of broad property fuels on the design, performance, durability, emissions and operational characteristics of current and advanced combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines. The effect of fuel thermal stability on engine and airframe fuel system was evaluated. Trade-offs between fuel properties, exhaust emissions and combustor life were also investigated. Results indicate major impacts of broad property fuels on allowable metal temperatures in fuel manifolds and injector support, combustor cyclic durability and somewhat lesser impacts on starting characteristics, lightoff, emissions and smoke.

  8. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  9. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  10. Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weir, Don (Editor)

    2008-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Aerospace, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International, Inc., documenting work performed during the period December 2004 through August 2007 for the NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Revolutionary Aero-Space Engine Research (RASER) Program, Contract No. NAS3-01136, Task Order 8, Engine Validation of Noise and Emission Reduction Technology Phase I. The NASA Task Manager was Dr. Joe Grady of the NASA Glenn Research Center. The NASA Contract Officer was Mr. Albert Spence of the NASA Glenn Research Center. This report is for a test program in which NASA funded engine validations of integrated technologies that reduce aircraft engine noise. These technologies address the reduction of engine fan and jet noise, and noise associated with propulsion/airframe integration. The results of these tests will be used by NASA to identify the engineering tradeoffs associated with the technologies that are needed to enable advanced engine systems to meet stringent goals for the reduction of noise. The objectives of this program are to (1) conduct system engineering and integration efforts to define the engine test-bed configuration; (2) develop selected noise reduction technologies to a technical maturity sufficient to enable engine testing and validation of those technologies in the FY06-07 time frame; (3) conduct engine tests designed to gain insight into the sources, mechanisms and characteristics of noise in the engines; and (4) establish baseline engine noise measurements for subsequent use in the evaluation of noise reduction.

  11. Design and evaluation of combustors for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Grobman, J.

    1973-01-01

    Efforts in reducing exhaust emissions from turbine engines are reported. Various techniques employed and the results of testing are briefly described and referenced for detail. The experimental approaches taken to reduce oxides of nitrogen emissions include the use of: (1) multizone combustors incorporating reduced dwell times, (2) fuel-air premixing, (3) air atomization, (4) fuel prevaporization, and (5) gaseous fuel. Since emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are caused by poor combustion efficiency at engine idle, the studies of fuel staging in multizone combustors and air assist fuel nozzles have indicated that large reductions in these emissions can be achieved. Also, the effect of inlet-air humidity on oxides of nitrogen was studied as well as the very effective technique of direct water injection. The emission characteristics of natural gas and propane fuels were measured and compared with those of ASTM-Al kerosene fuel.

  12. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  13. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  14. Trajectory modeling of emissions from lower stratospheric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparling, Lynn C.; Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Newman, Paul A.; Lait, Leslie R.

    1995-01-01

    A series of isentropic trajectory calculations has been performed for emissions by stratospheric aircraft moving across the northern midlatitude oceanic flight corridors. Emission of exhaust is simulated by the daily initialization of air parcels along a flight path on the 500 K isentropic surface. Parcels are tracked during the first three weeks of each January from 1980 to 1994 in order to determine the interannual variability in the spatial distribution of the exhaust and the likelihood of exposure to cold temperatures. Few parcels emitted along these flight paths at this time of year were found to have experienced nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) formation temperatures, except for the particularly cold Januarys 1986, 1987, and 1992. We also find that large zonal fluctuations in the distribution of the emissions are typical for this time of year and are strongly dependent on flight path. An extended 6-month (January-June) run in which parcels were released daily along the New York-London route shows that emissions in the flight corridor increase at a time-averaged rate which is nearly twice the rate at which the zonal average increases. In addition, local fluctuations of pollutant density can be several times higher than the zonal average and can persist for several weeks. A study of seasonal variability also shows a rapid buildup of emissions during the summer months. These elevated emission levels must be considered in the interpretation of environmental impact assessments based on two-dimensional transport models.

  15. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  16. Study of air emissions related to aircraft deicing

    SciTech Connect

    Zarubiak, D.C.Z.; DeToro, J.A.; Menon, R.P.

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines the results of a study that was conducted by Trinity Consultants Incorporated (Trinity) to estimate the airborne emissions of glycol from Type 1 Deicer fluid and potential exposure of ground personnel during routine deicing of aircraft. The study involved the experimental measurement of Type 1 Deicer fluid vapor emissions by Southern Research Institute (SRI, Research Triangle Park, NC). An open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique developed by SRI was used during a simulated airplane deicing event. The emissions measurement data are analyzed to obtain appropriate emission rates for an atmospheric dispersion modeling analysis. The modeled gaseous Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations are determined from calculated emission rates and selected meteorological conditions. A propylene glycol (PG)-based Type 1 Deicer fluid was used. In order to examine the effects of the assumptions that are made for the development of the emission quantification and dispersion modeling methodologies, various scenarios are evaluated. A parametric analysis evaluates the effect of variations in the following parameters on the results of the study: glycol concentrations in deicing fluids, error limits of emission measurements, emission source heights, evaporation rate for various wind speeds, wind directions over typical physical layouts, and background (ambient) Type 1 Deicer fluid concentrations. The emissions for an EG based Type 1 Deicing fluid are expected to be between 80 and 85% of the reported data. In general, the model shows the region of maximum concentrations is located between 20 and 50 meters downwind from the trailing edge of the wing. This range is consistent with experimental findings. Depending on the specific modeled scenarios, maximum glycol concentrations are found to generally range between 50 and 500 milligrams per cubic meter.

  17. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  18. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  19. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-06-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  20. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  1. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  2. Novel Sampling Techniques for Measurement of Turbine Engine Total Particulate Matter Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the first progress report of a study to evaluate two different condensation devices for the measurement of the total (volatile + non-volatile) particulate matter (PM) emissions from aircraft turbine engines by direct sampling at the engine exit. The characteristics of th...

  3. Aircraft sulfur emissions and the formation of visible contrails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. C.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Anderson, M. R.; Kolb, C. E.

    Contrail formation in the exhaust plume of the ATTAS aircraft engine burning fuels with 2 ppmm and 266 ppmm sulfur has been studied using an aerosol dynamics model coupled to a 2-dimensional, axisymmetric flow code. For both the low and high sulfur fuels, the model predicted approximately 35% of the available water condenses within 200 m downstream of the exhaust exit. However, particle size distributions for the low sulfur plume are broader and extend to larger sizes. Model results indicate that, for the engine and flight conditions treated, sulfuric acid is a viable soot activating agent when the fuel sulfur mass loading is reduced to 2 ppmm and that differences in the contrail particle size distribution for sulfur mass loadings between 2 ppmm and 266 ppmm would be difficult to detect.

  4. Costs of mitigating CO2 emissions from passenger aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Andreas W.; Evans, Antony D.; Reynolds, Tom G.; Dray, Lynnette

    2016-04-01

    In response to strong growth in air transportation CO2 emissions, governments and industry began to explore and implement mitigation measures and targets in the early 2000s. However, in the absence of rigorous analyses assessing the costs for mitigating CO2 emissions, these policies could be economically wasteful. Here we identify the cost-effectiveness of CO2 emission reductions from narrow-body aircraft, the workhorse of passenger air transportation. We find that in the US, a combination of fuel burn reduction strategies could reduce the 2012 level of life cycle CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre by around 2% per year to mid-century. These intensity reductions would occur at zero marginal costs for oil prices between US$50-100 per barrel. Even larger reductions are possible, but could impose extra costs and require the adoption of biomass-based synthetic fuels. The extent to which these intensity reductions will translate into absolute emissions reductions will depend on fleet growth.

  5. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  6. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  7. Nanocatalysts for Diesel Engine Emissions Remediation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop durable zeolite nanocatalysts with broad temperature operating windows to treat diesel engine emissions, thus enabling diesel engine equipment and vehicles to meet regulatory requirements.

  8. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  9. Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of

  10. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  11. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  12. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines. [YF 102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  13. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 1. [aircraft exhaust/gas analysis - gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Vitti, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A program of screening three low emission combustors for conventional takeoff and landing, by testing and analyzing thirty-two configurations is presented. Configurations were tested that met the emission goals at idle operating conditions for carbon monoxide and for unburned hydrocarbons (emission index values of 20 and 4, respectively). Configurations were also tested that met a smoke number goal of 15 at sea-level take-off conditions. None of the configurations met the goal for oxides of nitrogen emissions at sea-level take-off conditions. The best configurations demonstrated oxide of nitrogen emission levels that were approximately 61 percent lower than those produced by the JT9D-7 engine, but these levels were still approximately 24 percent above the goal of an emission index level of 10. Additional combustor performance characteristics, including lean blowout, exit temperature pattern factor and radial profile, pressure loss, altitude stability, and altitude relight characteristics were documented. The results indicate the need for significant improvement in the altitude stability and relight characteristics. In addition to the basic program for current aircraft engine combustors, seventeen combustor configurations were evaluated for advanced supersonic technology applications. The configurations were tested at cruise conditions, and a conceptual design was evolved.

  14. 76 FR 82110 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...-16236 (75 FR 12439, March 16, 2010). (c) Applicability This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH..., Amendment 39-16236 (75 FR 12439, March 16, 2010). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2011 (76 FR 64285). That NPRM proposed to require...

  15. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... (76 FR 17757, March 31, 2011), and adding the following new AD: 2012-26-13 Thielert Aircraft Engines... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 2011-07-09, Amendment 39-16646 (76 FR 17757, March... September 17, 2012 (77 FR 57041). That NPRM proposed to require removing all software mapping versions...

  16. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) was established At Hampton University in June of 1996. In addition, the FM&AL jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2.5 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). The goals of the FM&AL programs are two fold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. This project already benefits NASA and HU because: First, the innovation, testing, and further development of new techniques for advanced propulsion systems are necessary for the successful attainment of the NASA Long Term Goals in Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) including Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, Access to Space, R&D Services, and the economic competitiveness of the US Aircraft Industry in the 2 1 st century. Secondly, the joint

  17. Progressive fabrication processes in aircraft-engine production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobei, V. V.

    The papers presented in this volume provide an overview of some advanced fabrication processes that are currently used in the production of aircraft engines. In particular, attention is given to an analytical study of the bulk-abrasive machining of screw-shaped parts, exoemission diagnostics of the surface layer of gas turbine engine components following ion treatment, and calculation of the profile of a film deposited in a magnetron spraying system of the plane annular type. The discussion also covers an automated method for monitoring the shape and position of parts of complex configurations, automated measurement of shape deviations, and problems in the hardware and software support of computerized balancing. (For individual items see A93-31127 to A93-31139)

  18. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: history and directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1997-03-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to TBC use for component life extension and more re-cently as an integral part of airfoil design. Development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing, corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been sup-ported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors that have led to the selection of current state-of-the-art plasma-sprayed and physical-vapor-deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlX TBCs are emphasized, as are observations fundamentally related to their behav-ior. Current directions in research into TBCs and recent progress at NASA are also noted.

  19. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  20. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In the last decade, Government/Industry programs have advanced powder metallurgy-near-net-shape technology to permit the use of hot isostatic pressed (HIP) turbine disks in the commercial aircraft fleet. These disks offer a 30% savings of input weight and an 8% savings in cost compared in cast-and-wrought disks. Similar savings were demonstrated for other rotating engine components. A compressor rotor fabricated from hot-die-forged-HIP superalloy billets revealed input weight savings of 54% and cost savings of 35% compared to cast-and-wrought parts. Engine components can be produced from compositions such as Rene 95 and Astroloy by conventional casting and forging, by forging of HIP powder billets, or by direct consolidation of powder by HIP. However, each process produces differences in microstructure or introduces different defects in the parts. As a result, their mechanical properties are not necessarily identical. Acceptance methods should be developed which recognize and account for the differences.

  1. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: metal oxidation at the ceramic-metal interface, ceramic-metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, ceramic-metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and interface roughness, material properties and mechanical behavior, temperature gradients, component design features and object impact damage. TBC spalling life analytical models are proposed based on observations of TBC spalling and plausible failure theories. TBC spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic-metal interface). TBC failure knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimental evidence and analytical understanding are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC failure trends.

  2. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  3. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  4. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  5. Impact of future fuel properties on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Grobman, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    From current projections of the availability of high-quality petroleum crude oils, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the specifications for hydrocarbon jet fuels may have to be modified. The problems that are most likely to be encountered as a result of these modifications relate to engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance. The effect on engine performance will be associated with changes in specific fuel consumption, ignition at relight limits, at exhaust emissions. Durability and maintenance will be affected by increases in combustor liner temperatures, carbon deposition, gum formation in fuel nozzles, and erosion and corrosion of turbine blades and vanes. Aircraft fuel-system performance will be affected by increased deposits in fuel-system heat exchangers and changes in the pumpability and flowability of the fuel. The severity of the potential problems is described in terms of the fuel characteristics most likely to change in the future. Recent data that evaluate the ability of current-technology aircraft to accept fuel specification changes are presented, and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the problems are described and discussed.

  6. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  7. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  8. Comparison of remote sensing techniques for measurements of aircraft emissions indices at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus P.; Jahn, Carsten; Sturm, Peter J.; Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael; Gostomczyk, Adam; Kabarowska, Barbara; Zalewski, Leszec; Dahl, Guenter

    2004-02-01

    The emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts were measured at airports non-intrusively by FTIR emission spectrometry at the engine nozzle exit as well as by FTIR absorption spectrometry and DOAS (Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometry) behind the aircraft. Two measurement campaigns were performed to compare these different measurement methods. A kerosene powered burner was operated in that way that the different methods were applied for the exhaust gas investigations during the same time and at nearly the same exhaust gas volume. The burner was built with a nozzle exit diameter of 37 cm and a power of about 150 kW. Fresh air was pumped into the burner tube by a fan. Calibration gases as pure CO and NO were added in different amounts to vary the concentration of these gases in the exhaust. The sampling probe of an intrusive measurement system was installed in the centre of the exhaust stream near the exhaust exit for measurements of these gases and CO2 as well as NO2, UHC, SO2 and O2. An APU (GTCP36-300) in a test bed was used in the same way. CO was mixed into the exhausts near the nozzle exit. The passive FTIR instrument was operated in the test bed using special noise and vibration isolation. The open-path instruments were installed at the chimney exit on the roof of the test bed building. The deviations between the different measurement methods were in the order of +/-10 up to +/-20 %.

  9. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  10. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    SciTech Connect

    Batterton, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  11. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  12. RFID Transponders' RF Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen Sandra V.; Fersch, Mariatheresa S.

    2008-01-01

    Radiated emission data in aircraft communication and navigation bands are presented for several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design, operation and transmitting frequencies. The process for measuring the tags emissions in a reverberation chamber is discussed. Measurement issues dealing with tag interrogation, low level measurement in the presence of strong transmissions, and tags low duty factors are discussed. The results show strong emissions, far exceeding aircraft emission limits and can be of potential interference risks.

  13. A Lagrangian Simulation of Subsonic Aircraft Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, M. R.; Morris, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    To estimate the effect of subsonic and supersonic aircraft exhaust on the stratospheric concentration of NO(y), we employ a trajectory model initialized with air parcels based on the standard release scenarios. The supersonic exhaust simulations are in good agreement with 2D and 3D model results and show a perturbation of about 1-2 ppbv of NO(y) in the stratosphere. The subsonic simulations show that subsonic emissions are almost entirely trapped below the 380 K potential temperature surface. Our subsonic results contradict results from most other models, which show exhaust products penetrating above 380 K, as summarized. The disagreement can likely be attributed to an excessive vertical diffusion in most models of the strong vertical gradient in NO(y) that forms at the boundary between the emission zone and the stratosphere above 380 K. Our results suggest that previous assessments of the impact of subsonic exhaust emission on the stratospheric region above 380 K should be considered to be an upper bound.

  14. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  15. Impact of aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Isaksen, I. S. A.; Sundet, J. K.; Zhou, Xiuji; Ma, Jianzhong

    2003-07-01

    A three-dimensional global chemistry transport model (OSLO CTM2) is used to investigate the impact of subsonic aircraft NO x emission on NO x and ozone over China in terms of a year 2000 scenario of subsonic aircraft NO x emission. The results show that subsonic aircraft NO x emission significantly affects northern China, which makes NO x at 250 hPa increase by about 50 pptv with the highest percentage of 60% in January, and leading to an ozone increase of 8 ppbv with 5% relative change in April. The NO x increase is mainly attributed to the transport process, but ozone increase is produced by the chemical process. The NO x increases by less than 10 pptv by virtue of subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China, and ozone changes less than 0.4 ppbv. When subsonic aircraft NO x emission over China is doubled, its influence is still relatively small.

  16. Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile Aerosol and Trace-Species Emissions (EXCAVATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Branham, H.-S.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Miller, T. M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Blake, D. R.; Boudries, H.; Canagaratna, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) was conducted at Langley Research Center (LaRC) in January 2002 and focused upon assaying the production of aerosols and aerosol precursors by a modern commercial aircraft, the Langley B757, during ground-based operation. Remaining uncertainty in the postcombustion fate of jet fuel sulfur contaminants, the need for data to test new theories of particle formation and growth within engine exhaust plumes, and the need for observations to develop air quality models for predicting pollution levels in airport terminal areas were the primary factors motivating the experiment. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) and the Ultra Effect Engine Technology (UEET) Program sponsored the experiment which had the specific objectives of determining ion densities; the fraction of fuel S converted from S(IV) to S(VI); the concentration and speciation of volatile aerosols and black carbon; and gas-phase concentrations of long-chain hydrocarbon and PAH species, all as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and plume age.

  17. A candidate V/STOL research aircraft design concept using an S-3A aircraft and 2 Pegasus 11 engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    A candidate V/STOL research aircraft concept which uses an S-3A airframe and two Pegasus 11 engines was studied to identify a feasible V/STOL national flight facility that could be obtained at the lowest possible cost for the demonstration of V/STOL technology, inflight simulation, and flight research. The rationale for choosing the configuration, a description of the configuration, and the capability of a fully developed aircraft are discussed.

  18. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  19. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  20. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test...

  1. High-Temperature, Lightweight, Self-Healing Ceramic Composites for Aircraft Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raj, Sai V.; Bhatt, Ramkrishna

    2013-01-01

    The use of reliable, high-temperature, lightweight materials in the manufacture of aircraft engines is expected to result in lower fossil and biofuel consumption, thereby leading to cost savings and lower carbon emissions due to air travel. Although nickel-based superalloy blades and vanes have been successfully used in aircraft engines for several decades, there has been an increased effort to develop high-temperature, lightweight, creep-resistant substitute materials under various NASA programs over the last two decades. As a result, there has been a great deal of interest in developing SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) due to their higher damage tolerance compared to monolithic ceramics. Current-generation SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites rely almost entirely on the SiC fibers to carry the load, owing to the premature cracking of the matrix during loading. Thus, the high-temperature usefulness of these CMCs falls well below their theoretical capabilities. The objective of this work is to develop a new class of high-temperature, lightweight, self-healing, SiC fiber-reinforced, engineered matrix ceramic composites.

  2. Detection of very large ions in aircraft gas turbine engine combustor exhaust: charged small soot particles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, S.; Haverkamp, H.; Sorokin, A.; Arnold, F.

    Small electrically charged soot particles (CSP) present in the exhaust of a jet aircraft engine combustor have been detected by a Large Ion Mass Spectrometer and quantitatively measured by an Ion Mobility Analyzer. The size and concentration measurements which took place at an aircraft gas-turbine engine combustor test-rig at the ground covered different combustor conditions (fuel flow=FF, fuel sulphur content=FSC). At the high-pressure turbine stage of the engine, CSP-diameters were mostly around 6 nm and CSP-concentrations reached up to 4.8×10 7 cm -3 (positive and negative) corresponding to a CSP-emission index ECSP=2.5×10 15 CSP kg -1 fuel burnt. The ECSP increased with FF but did not increase with FSC. The latter indicates that sulphur was not a major component of the large ions. Possible CSP-sources and CSP-sinks as well as CSP-roles are discussed.

  3. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  4. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  5. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  6. An Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions Inventory Methodology by Comparisons with Reported Airline Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D. L.; Sutkus, D. J.; DuBois, D. P.; Baughcum, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides results of work done to evaluate the calculation methodology used in generating aircraft emissions inventories. Results from the inventory calculation methodology are compared to actual fuel consumption data. Results are also presented that show the sensitivity of calculated emissions to aircraft payload factors. Comparisons of departures made, ground track miles flown and total fuel consumed by selected air carriers were made between U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) Form 41 data reported for 1992 and results of simplified aircraft emissions inventory calculations. These comparisons provide an indication of the magnitude of error that may be present in aircraft emissions inventories. To determine some of the factors responsible for the errors quantified in the DOT Form 41 analysis, a comparative study of in-flight fuel flow data for a specific operator's 747-400 fleet was conducted. Fuel consumption differences between the studied aircraft and the inventory calculation results may be attributable to several factors. Among these are longer flight times, greater actual aircraft weight and performance deterioration effects for the in-service aircraft. Results of a parametric study on the variation in fuel use and NOx emissions as a function of aircraft payload for different aircraft types are also presented.

  7. Scheduled civil aircraft emission inventories for 1992: Database development and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Tritz, Terrance G.; Henderson, Stephen C.; Pickett, David C.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from scheduled commercial aircraft for each month of 1992. The seasonal variation in aircraft emissions was calculated for selected regions (global, North America, Europe, North Atlantic, and North Pacific). A series of parametric calculations were done to quantify the possible errors introduced from making approximations necessary to calculate the global emission inventory. The effects of wind, temperature, load factor, payload, and fuel tankering on fuel burn were evaluated to identify how they might affect the accuracy of aircraft emission inventories. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as N02), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  8. Aircraft Emissions Deposited in the Stratosphere and Within the Arctic Polar Vortex. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baughcum, S.L.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes an analysis of the quantity of emissions (water vapor, NO(x)) projected to be deposited directly within the Arctic polar vortex by projected fleets of Mach 2.4 high speed civil transports (HSCT`s). It also evaluates the amount of emissions from subsonic aircraft which are emitted into the lower stratosphere using aircraft emission inventories developed earlier for May 1990 as representative of the annual average.

  9. Engine Performance and Knock Rating of Fuels for High-output Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothbrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1938-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained on a single-cylinder test engine with aircraft-engine fuels varying from a fuel of 87 octane number to one 100 octane number plus 1 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5-inch by 5.75-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.50 to 8.75. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 120 to 280 F. and the inlet-air pressure from 30 inches of mercury absolute to the highest permissible. The limiting factors for the increase in compression ratio and in inlet-air pressure was the occurrence of either audible or incipient knock. The data are correlated to show that, for any one fuel,there is a definite relationship between the limiting conditions of inlet-air temperature and density at any compression ratio. This relationship is dependent on the combustion-gas temperature and density relationship that causes knock. The report presents a suggested method of rating aircraft-engine fuels based on this relationship. It is concluded that aircraft-engine fuels cannot be satisfactorily rated by any single factor, such as octane number, highest useful compression ratio, or allowable boost pressure. The fuels should be rated by a curve that expresses the limitations of the fuel over a variety of engine conditions.

  10. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  11. Cermet Filters for Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter Chuen Sun

    2001-08-01

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.

  12. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissley, D. M.

    1997-03-01

    Analytical models for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas tur-bine engines are presented. Electron beam/physical vapor-deposited and plasma-sprayed TBC systems are discussed. An overview of the following TBC spalling mechanisms is presented: (1) metal oxidation at the ceramic/metal interface, (2) ceramic/metal interface stresses caused by radius of curvature and inter-face roughness, (3) material properties and mechanical behavior, (4) component design features, (5) tem-perature gradients, (6) ceramic/metal interface stress singularities at edges and corners, and (7) object impact damage. Analytical models for TBC spalling life are proposed based on observations of TBC spall-ing and plausible failure theories. Spalling was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceed the material strength (at or near the ceramic/metal interface). Knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimen-tal evidence and analytical understanding of TBC failure are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC spalling failure trends.

  13. Thermal barrier coating life modeling in aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nissley, D. M.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical models useful for predicting ceramic thermal barrier coating (TBC) spalling life in aircraft gas turbine engines are presented. Electron beam-physical vapor deposited (EB-PVD) and plasma sprayed TBC systems are discussed. TBC spalling was attributed to a combination of mechanisms such as metal oxidation at the ceramic-metal interface, ceramic-metal interface stress concentrations at free surfaces due to dissimilar materials, ceramic-metal interface stresses caused by local radius of curvature and interface roughness, material properties and mechanical behavior, transient temperature gradients across the ceramic layer and component design features. TBC spalling life analytical models were developed based on observations of TBC failure modes and plausible failure theories. TBC failure was assumed to occur when the imposed stresses exceeded the material strength (at or near the ceramic-metal interface). TBC failure knowledge gaps caused by lack of experimental evidence and analytical understanding are noted. The analytical models are considered initial engineering approaches that capture observed TBC failure trends.

  14. Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heland, J; Schäfer, K

    1997-07-20

    Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

  15. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  16. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  17. Preferential concentration of certain elements in smaller aerosols emitted from aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, R. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Buckle, D. C.; Thornton, W. B.; Aceto, H., Jr.; Singh, J. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols from aircraft engines were collected with an eight-stage cascade sampler for a period of 24 h. The aerosol samples from each stage were analyzed for their elemental composition using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Seventeen elements (Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Nb, Sn, and Pb) were positively identified and quantitated at each stage. Six elements (S, Ca, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Pb) showed a fractional concentration increase with decreasing aerosol size. Similar, but less well-defined, trends were also observed for V and Ni. Silicon and chlorine, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend. Neutron-activation analysis of bulk aerosol samples collected every 2 h over the same period showed a correlation between concentration of Si, Ca, V, Ti, Zn, Br, and Sn and the density of air traffic at the airport. Analysis of the aviation-fuel samples by PIXE indicates that major fractions of Pb, Sn, Br, Zn, Ni, Fe, V, Ca, and S observed in these aerosol studies come from the aircraft engine exhaust.

  18. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  19. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  20. Thrust and wing loading requirements for short haul aircraft constrained by engine noise and field length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, J. V.; Waters, M. H.; Galloway, T. L.

    1976-01-01

    Propulsion system and wing loading requirements are determined for a mechanical flap and an externally blown flap aircraft for various engine noise levels and two engine cycles. Both aircraft are sized to operate from a 914m (3000 ft) runway and perform the same mission. For each aircraft concept, propulsion system sizing is demonstrated for two different engine cycles - one having a fan pressure ratio of 1.5 and a bypass ratio of 9, and the other having a fan pressure ratio of 1.25 and a bypass ratio of 17.8. The results presented include the required thrust-to-weight ratio, wing loading, resulting gross weight, and direct operating costs, as functions of the engine noise level, for each combination of engine cycle and aircraft concept.

  1. Correlating Engine NOx Emission with Biodiesel Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeyaseelan, Thangaraja; Mehta, Pramod Shankar

    2016-06-01

    Biodiesel composition comprising of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters has a significant influence on its properties and hence the engine performance and emission characteristics. This paper proposes a comprehensive approach for composition-property-NOx emission analysis for biodiesel fuels and highlights the pathways responsible for such a relationship. Finally, a procedure and a predictor equation are developed for the assessment of biodiesel NOx emission from its composition details.

  2. [Aviation fuels and aircraft emissions. A risk characterization for airport neighbors using Hamburg Airport as an example].

    PubMed

    Tesseraux, I; Mach, B; Koss, G

    1998-06-01

    Aviation fuels are well characterised regarding their physical and chemical properties. Health effects of fuel vapours and of liquid fuel are described after occupational exposure and in animal studies. Exposure of the general population (airport visitors and people living in the vicinity of airports) may occur during fuel supply particularly in warm summers (odour). Aircraft emissions vary with the engine type and the kind of fuel. Combustion of aviation fuel results in CO2, H2O, CO, C, NOx and a great number of organic compounds. Among the emitted polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) no compound characteristic for jet engines (tracer) could be detected so far. Hardly any data exist on the toxicology of jet engine emissions. According to analyses of their chemical composition, however, they contain various toxicologically relevant compounds including carcinogenic substances. Measurements in ambient air around the Hamburg Airport show no elevated pollutant levels. However, no such data exist on aldehydes, black smoke or fine particles. Annoying odours have been stated in some areas around the airport, which were mainly attributed to the aircraft engine emissions rather than to fuel vapours. PMID:9686444

  3. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  4. Aircraft Emission Scenarios Projected in Year 2015 for the NASA Technology Concept Aircraft (TCA) High Speed Civil Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baughcum, Steven L.; Henderson, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (fuel burned, NOx, CO, and hydrocarbons) from projected fleets of high speed civil transports (HSCTs) on a universal airline network. Inventories for 500 and 1000 HSCT fleets, as well as the concurrent subsonic fleets, were calculated. The HSCT scenarios are calculated using the NASA technology concept airplane (TCA) and update an earlier report. These emissions inventories are available for use by atmospheric scientists conducting the Atmospheric Effects of Stratospheric Aircraft (AESA) modeling studies. Fuel burned and emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO2), carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons have been calculated on a 1 degree latitude x 1 degree longitude x 1 kilometer pressure altitude grid and delivered to NASA as electronic files.

  5. Preliminary study of advanced turboprop and turboshaft engines for light aircraft. [cost effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knip, G.; Plencner, R. M.; Eisenberg, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of engine configuration, advanced component technology, compressor pressure ratio and turbine rotor-inlet temperature on such figures of merit as vehicle gross weight, mission fuel, aircraft acquisition cost, operating, cost and life cycle cost are determined for three fixed- and two rotary-wing aircraft. Compared with a current production turboprop, an advanced technology (1988) engine results in a 23 percent decrease in specific fuel consumption. Depending on the figure of merit and the mission, turbine engine cost reductions required to achieve aircraft cost parity with a current spark ignition reciprocating (SIR) engine vary from 0 to 60 percent and from 6 to 74 percent with a hypothetical advanced SIR engine. Compared with a hypothetical turboshaft using currently available technology (1978), an advanced technology (1988) engine installed in a light twin-engine helicopter results in a 16 percent reduction in mission fuel and about 11 percent in most of the other figures of merit.

  6. Methane fueled engine performance and emissions characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, M.R.; Adt, R.R.; Bedsworth, K.; Maxwell, R.; Pappas, J.M.; Swain, M.N.

    1983-08-01

    A 1983 Ford 3.8 liter V-6 engine was fueled with methane and tested on an engine dynamometer in order to begin to generate a data base that could be used to estimate emission levels and fuel economy for a driving cycle from a 3-point mini map method. The results showed that, with the proper control of pertinent engine variables, the engine would probably meet the current State of California Emission Standards that have been formulated to account for methane as an unburned hydrocarbon, without having to resort to a catalytic converter, and with Joules fuel consumption comparable, if not better than that for a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Unburned fuel in the exhaust was found to be comprised of between 87 and 96% methane. MBTH total aldehyde emissions were found to vary between 27 and 67 molar ppm.

  7. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports

    SciTech Connect

    Kurniawan, Jermanto S. Khardi, S.

    2011-04-15

    Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions.

  8. Development potential of Intermittent Combustion (I.C.) aircraft engines for commuter transport applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An update on general aviation (g/a) and commuter aircraft propulsion research effort is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: on several advanced intermittent combustion engines emphasizing lightweight diesels and rotary stratified charge engines. The current state-of-the-art is evaluated for lightweight, aircraft suitable versions of each engine. This information is used to project the engine characteristics that can be expected on near-term and long-term time horizons. The key enabling technology requirements are identified for each engine on the long-term time horizon.

  9. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data is described. The method estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag.

  10. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  11. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. A user oriented description of the program input requirements, program output, deck setup, and operating instructions is presented.

  12. 78 FR 50317 - Special Conditions: Cessna Aircraft Company, Model J182T; Diesel Cycle Engine Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Federal Register on May 16, 2013 (78 FR 28719). One comment was received from Cessna Aircraft Company... cantilever high wing, with the SMA SR305- 230E-C1 diesel cycle engine and associated systems installed....

  13. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  14. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  15. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  16. NO(y) from sub-sonic aircraft emissions - A global three-dimensional model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasibhatla, Prasad S.

    1993-08-01

    The 11-level Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global chemical transport model (GCTM), which explicitly treats NO(x), HNO3, and PAN as transported species, has been used to assess the impact of sub-sonic aircraft emissions on the distribution of reactive nitrogen compounds (NO(y)) in the atmosphere. A 3D aircraft source inventory compiled by Boeing and McDonnell Douglas has been used, in conjunction with previously compiled surface-based fossil-fuel combustion and stratospheric source inventories. Consistent with previous 2D model calculations, we find that aircraft emissions have a significant impact on upper tropospheric NO(x) and HNO3 budgets in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The relative impact of the aircraft source on upper tropospheric NO(x) levels at mid- and high northern latitudes varies longitudinally, and that in certain regions the aircraft source dominates the total NO(x) budget. Aircraft emissions appear to only minimally impact the NO(y) budget in the Northern Hemisphere lower troposphere, and in much of the Southern Hemisphere. Comparisons of model results with NO(y) measurements at Mauna Loa, Hawaii, and over western Alaska suggest that sources other than surface-based fossil-fuel combustion, stratospheric NO(x) production, and aircraft emissions, are significant in determining the free tropospheric NO(y) budget in these regions.

  17. Minimizing diesel engine emissions by catalysis

    SciTech Connect

    Doane, E.P.; Lee, F.H.; Haskew, J.W.; Campbell, J.A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Emissions of particulates, unburned hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and carbon monoxide (CO) from diesel engines are of concern in mines, particularly underground mines. All these undesirable products except NO{sub x} are the result of incomplete combustion in the cylinders. Various approaches to achieving more complete combustion in diesel engines have included different fuel compositions, use of catalysts, fuel additives, engine modifications, and oxygen-enriched intake air. The present study shows that injecting minute quantities of primarily platinum group metal catalysts into the intake air of a Deutz/MWM D916-6 mine diesel engine substantially reduces emissions in the exhaust. The catalyst injection system, which was developed by National Fuelsaver Corporation, transfers catalyst compounds in solution to a stream of air bubbles by a process called Bubble Fractionation. The amounts are so minute that concentrations in the engine exhaust should be well below OSHA/NIOSH Time Weighted Average (TWA) exposure limits at steady state, a fact that was confirmed by analysis of collected particulates in the exhaust. When the catalyst injection was used along with a pleated paper filter to remove exhaust particulates, the filter operating life was shortened greatly. Therefore, this system is not recommended for use on diesel engines equipped with a water scrubber and a filter. It does offer a practical and relatively economical way of reducing exhaust emissions from other diesel engines, such as those in outby mine service.

  18. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 1: gaseous and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Prem; Rye, Lucas; Williams, Paul I; Christie, Simon; Uryga-Bugajska, Ilona; Wilson, Christopher W; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Blakey, Simon; Coe, Hugh; Raper, David; Pourkashanian, Mohamed

    2012-10-01

    Growing concern over emissions from increased airport operations has resulted in a need to assess the impact of aviation related activities on local air quality in and around airports, and to develop strategies to mitigate these effects. One such strategy being investigated is the use of alternative fuels in aircraft engines and auxiliary power units (APUs) as a means to diversify fuel supplies and reduce emissions. This paper summarizes the results of a study to characterize the emissions of an APU, a small gas turbine engine, burning conventional Jet A-1, a fully synthetic jet fuel, and other alternative fuels with varying compositions. Gas phase emissions were measured at the engine exit plane while PM emissions were recorded at the exit plane as well as 10 m downstream of the engine. Five percent reduction in NO(x) emissions and 5-10% reduction in CO emissions were observed for the alternative fuels. Significant reductions in PM emissions at the engine exit plane were achieved with the alternative fuels. However, as the exhaust plume expanded and cooled, organic species were found to condense on the PM. This increase in organic PM elevated the PM mass but had little impact on PM number. PMID:22913288

  19. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  20. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Tracking Control Using Engine Differential Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Xidong; Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft model that incorporates independently adjustable engine throttles and ailerons is employed to develop an adaptive control scheme in the presence of actuator failures. This model captures the key features of aircraft flight dynamics when in the engine differential mode. Based on this model an adaptive feedback control scheme for asymptotic state tracking is developed and applied to a transport aircraft model in the presence of two types of failures during operation, rudder failure and aileron failure. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  1. Scheduled Civil Aircraft Emission Inventories for 1999: Database Development and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutkus, Donald J., Jr.; Baughcum, Steven L.; DuBois, Douglas P.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the development of a three-dimensional database of aircraft fuel burn and emissions (NO(x), CO, and hydrocarbons) for the scheduled commercial aircraft fleet for each month of 1999. Global totals of emissions and fuel burn for 1999 are compared to global totals from 1992 and 2015 databases. 1999 fuel burn, departure and distance totals for selected airlines are compared to data reported on DOT Form 41 to evaluate the accuracy of the calculations. DOT Form T-100 data were used to determine typical payloads for freighter aircraft and this information was used to model freighter aircraft more accurately by using more realistic payloads. Differences in the calculation methodology used to create the 1999 fuel burn and emissions database from the methodology used in previous work are described and evaluated.

  2. Impact on Climate due to Changes in Radiative Forcing from Stratospheric Aircraft Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, M.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Herman, R.; Baughcum, S. L.

    2004-05-01

    Aircraft emissions can affect climate both directly and indirectly. The 1999 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Aviation and The Global Atmosphere estimated that emissions from a fleet of one thousand High Speed Civil Transport aircraft (flying at Mach 2.4) could produce a non-negligible impact on the radiative forcing driving changes in climate. In this study we reexamine the radiative forcing from fleets of aircraft flying at stratospheric altitudes and predominantly in the northern hemisphere mid-latitude regions. We use our narrowband radiative transfer model in these studies, along with model calculations of calculated changes in ozone and water vapor from our zonally-averaged model of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. The radiative transfer model has higher resolution in the tropopause and lower stratosphere region than the models used in the 1999 IPCC assessment. Our results suggest that the radiative forcing for the water vapor emissions from aircraft was overestimated previously.

  3. RFID Transponders' Radio Frequency Emissions in Aircraft Communication and Navigation Radio Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Williams, Reuben A.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Salud, Maria Theresa P.

    2006-01-01

    Radiated emissions in aircraft communication and navigation bands are measured from several active radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. The individual tags are different in design and operations. They may also operate in different frequency bands. The process for measuring the emissions is discussed, and includes tag interrogation, reverberation chamber testing, and instrument settings selection. The measurement results are described and compared against aircraft emission limits. In addition, interference path loss for the cargo bays of passenger aircraft is measured. Cargo bay path loss is more appropriate for RFID tags than passenger cabin path loss. The path loss data are reported for several aircraft radio systems on a Boeing 747 and an Airbus A320.

  4. In situ observations and model calculations of black carbon emission by aircraft at cruise altitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petzold, A.; DöPelheuer, A.; Brock, C. A.; Schröder, F.

    1999-09-01

    The exhaust aerosol of two aircraft at cruise was extensively characterized in the size range from 0.003 to 2 μm for plume ages ≤2 s. The black carbon (BC) exhaust aerosol of an older technology engine (Rolls-Royce/Snecma M45H Mk501) consisted of a primary BC mode with a modal diameter of 0.035 μm and a mode of coagulated BC particles with a peak near 0.15-0.16 μm in diameter. The total number density at the nozzle exit plane was 3×107 cm-3. In contrast, a modern technology engine (CFM International CFM56-3B1) emitted far smaller BC particles with a primary mode at 0.025 μm and a coagulated mode at 0.15 μm, as well as fewer particles by number with a concentration of 9×106 cm-3. The single-scattering albedo of the jet exhaust aerosol was 0.035 ± 0.02 inside the plume, indicating a dominant contribution of ultrafine (D<0.1 μm) BC particles to light extinction. Black carbon number emission indices EI(N) varied from 3.5×1014 (CFM56-3B1) to 1.7×1015 kg-1 (M45H Mk501) with corresponding mass emission indices EI(BC) of 0.011 and 0.1 g kg-1. Previously reported corresponding values for a CF6-80C2A2 engine were 6×1014 kg-1 and 0.023 g kg-1, respectively. A comparison between EI(BC) values calculated by a new correlation method and measured data shows an excellent agreement, with deviations <10% at cruise conditions. By extending the EI(BC) calculation method to a globally operating aircraft fleet, a fleet-averaged emission index EI(BC) = 0.038 g kg-1 is calculated.

  5. Assessing the environmental impacts of aircraft noise and emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahashabde, Anuja; Wolfe, Philip; Ashok, Akshay; Dorbian, Christopher; He, Qinxian; Fan, Alice; Lukachko, Stephen; Mozdzanowska, Aleksandra; Wollersheim, Christoph; Barrett, Steven R. H.; Locke, Maryalice; Waitz, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    With the projected growth in demand for commercial aviation, many anticipate increased environmental impacts associated with noise, air quality, and climate change. Therefore, decision-makers and stakeholders are seeking policies, technologies, and operational procedures that balance environmental and economic interests. The main objective of this paper is to address shortcomings in current decision-making practices for aviation environmental policies. We review knowledge of the noise, air quality, and climate impacts of aviation, and demonstrate how including environmental impact assessment and quantifying uncertainties can enable a more comprehensive evaluation of aviation environmental policies. A comparison is presented between the cost-effectiveness analysis currently used for aviation environmental policy decision-making and an illustrative cost-benefit analysis. We focus on assessing a subset of the engine NO X emissions certification stringency options considered at the eighth meeting of the International Civil Aviation Organization’s Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection. The FAA Aviation environmental Portfolio Management Tool (APMT) is employed to conduct the policy assessments. We show that different conclusions may be drawn about the same policy options depending on whether benefits and interdependencies are estimated in terms of health and welfare impacts versus changes in NO X emissions inventories as is the typical practice. We also show that these conclusions are sensitive to a variety of modeling uncertainties. While our more comprehensive analysis makes the best policy option less clear, it represents a more accurate characterization of the scientific and economic uncertainties underlying impacts and the policy choices.

  6. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  7. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh

  8. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  9. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may effect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are explored; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are examined. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel specification changes is assessed and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  10. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi; Yasui, Hisako

    The Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine with pitch/yaw thrust vectoring is described. Of the two IFPC functions the aircraft maneuver control utilizes the thrust vectoring based on aerodynamic control surfaces/thrust vectoring control allocation specified by the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) of a FADEC (Full Authority Digital Electronic Control) system. On the other hand in the Performance Seeking Control (PSC) the ICU identifies engine's various characteristic changes, optimizes manipulated variables and finally adjusts engine control parameters in cooperation with the Engine Control Unit (ECU). It is shown by hardware-in-the-loop simulation that the thrust vectoring can enhance aircraft maneuverability/agility and that the PSC can improve engine performance parameters such as SFC (specific fuel consumption), thrust and gas temperature.

  11. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  12. Nonroad engine and vehicle emission: Study report and appendixes. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The study quantifies the contributions of emissions from nonroad engines and vehicles to the air quality problem. EPA considered over 80 different types of nonroad equipment in this analysis. The equipment types include; lawn and garden equipment, airport service, recreational, recreational marine, light commercial, industrial, construction, agricultural, logging, and commercial marine vessels. Aircraft and locomotives were not included. Emission inventories, (detailed listings of amounts of pollutants to account for emissions from various sources) were developed and analyzed for categories of nonroad equipment. The study does not attempt to make a determination of the significance of emissions from nonroad sources. The report also contains appendixes which provide background information.

  13. Turbulence in the air tubes of radiators for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, S R

    1921-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the characteristics of flow in the air passages of aircraft radiators. The work was done by the National Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

  14. Global contrail coverage simulated by CAM5 with the inventory of 2006 global aircraft emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chih-Chieh; Gettelman, Andrew; Craig, Cheryl; Minnis, Patrick; Duda, David P.

    2012-02-01

    This paper documents the incorporation of an inventory of the AEDT (Aviation Environmental Design Tool) global commercial aircraft emissions for the year of 2006 into the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Earth System Model (CESM) version 1. The original dataset reports aircraft emission mass of ten species on an hourly basis which is converted to monthly emission mixing ratio tendencies as the released version of the dataset. We also describe how the released aircraft emission dataset is incorporated into CESM. A contrail parameterization is implemented in the CESM in which it is assumed that persistent contrails initially form when aircraft water vapor emissions experience a favorable atmospheric environment. Both aircraft emissions and ambient humidity are attributed to the formation of contrails. The ice water content of contrails is assumed to follow an empirical function of atmospheric temperature which determines the cloud fraction associated with contrails. Our modeling study indicates that the simulated global contrail coverage is sensitive to the vertical resolution of the GCMs in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere because of model assumptions about the vertical overlap structure of clouds. Furthermore, the extent of global contrail coverage simulated by CESM exhibits a seasonal cycle which is in broad agreement with observations.

  15. [Air pollutant emissions of aircraft in China in recent 30 years].

    PubMed

    He, Ji-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Although aircrafts are of great importance in transportation in China, there has been rare study on air pollutant emissions of aircrafts until now. Based on the annually statistical data collected by the Statistic Center of Civil Aviation of China, using the emission factor method derived from fuel consumption, the air pollutant emissions of aircrafts during 1980-2009 were calculated, and their emission intensities and dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The results show that the emissions of SO2, CO, NO(x) and HC from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation increased from 0.31 thousand, 1.89 thousand, 2.25 thousand and 3.14 thousand tons in 1980 to 11.83 thousand, 72.98 thousand, 87.05 thousand and 121.59 thousand tons in 2009, indicating a increase of 0.397 thousand, 2.45 thousand, 2.92 thousand and 4.08 thousand tons per year, respectively. The emission intensities of SO2, CO, NO(x) and HC decreased significantly from 0.624, 3.806, 4.53 and 6.322 g x (t x km)(-1) in 1980 to 0.275, 1.697, 2.025 and 2.828 g x (t x km)(-1) in 2009, respectively. SO2, CO, NO(x) emissions of aircrafts of China Civil Aviation accounted very little of each total emissions in China, and the air pollutant emissions from aircrafts of China Civil Aviation was less than those from other industries in China. PMID:22452180

  16. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  17. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  18. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  19. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  20. Nitric acid emission from the F100 jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, T. M.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Hunton, D. E.; Viggiano, A. A.; Wey, C. C.; Anderson, B. E.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) from the Air Force Research Laboratory at Hanscom AFB was used to measure levels of HNO3 in the exhaust stream of the F100 jet engine both in a test cell at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) at simulated altitudes 3-17 km and in flight behind F-16 aircraft at 9-11 km altitude. The HNO3 concentrations have been expressed as emission indices (EI) by normalizing to engine-produced CO2 measured by GRC instruments in the test cell and NASA-Langley Research Center instruments in flight. The test cell data showed that EI(HNO3) is independent of fuel sulfur level, and is highly dependent upon altitude for altitudes at which most commercial aircraft fly (below 12 km), mainly because the emission is a strong function of combustor inlet temperature, which is lower at high altitudes. EI(HNO3) at military power was 0.003 g NO2 kg-1 fuel at low altitude (˜3 km), and increased to 0.02 g kg-1 for altitudes above 11 km. Operating the engine at 85% maximum turbine speed increased the figures above by a factor of about 2.5. At engine idle, EI(HNO3) was typically 0.14 g kg-1. The decrease in EI(HNO3) with combustor inlet temperature is attributed to the temperature dependence of the NO2 + OH reaction producing HNO3. Comparing HNO3 emission indices with those measured at GRC for NO and NOx allowed us to determine the fraction of NO2 which is converted into HNO3 in the combustion process as a function of inlet temperature. Conversion of NO2 to HNO3 is 0.9% at military power for altitudes ≥11 km, and twice that at 85% maximum turbine speed. The conversion fraction changes dramatically in the 8-11 km altitude range, and is only 0.02% at 3 km altitude, for military power, or 0.2% at 85% maximum turbine speed. At engine idle, this fraction was about 8% at all altitudes. The accuracy of the (average) figures quoted above is ±25%. The in situ data, obtained on 10 flights during the NASA Subsonic Near-Interaction Field (SNIF) experiment, are

  1. New potentials for conventional aircraft when powered by hydrogen-enriched gasoline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menard, W. A.; Moynihan, P. I.; Rupe, J. H.

    1976-01-01

    Hydrogen enrichment for aircraft piston engines is studied. The feasibility is examined of inflight injection of hydrogen in general aviation aircraft engines to reduce fuel consumption and to lower emission levels. Results are summarized.

  2. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure...

  3. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure...

  4. Exploring Low Emission Lubricants for Diesel Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, J. M.

    2000-07-06

    A workshop to explore the technological issues involved with the removal of sulfur from lubricants and the development of low emission diesel engine oils was held in Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 through February 1, 2000. It presented an overview of the current technology by means of panel discussions and technical presentations from industry, government, and academia.

  5. 40 CFR 94.217 - Emission data engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission data engine selection. 94.217... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.217 Emission data engine selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each engine family,...

  6. 40 CFR 94.217 - Emission data engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission data engine selection. 94.217... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.217 Emission data engine selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each engine family,...

  7. 40 CFR 94.217 - Emission data engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission data engine selection. 94.217... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.217 Emission data engine selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each engine family,...

  8. 40 CFR 94.217 - Emission data engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Emission data engine selection. 94.217... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.217 Emission data engine selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each engine family,...

  9. 40 CFR 94.217 - Emission data engine selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission data engine selection. 94.217... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Certification Provisions § 94.217 Emission data engine selection. (a) The manufacturer must select for testing, from each engine family,...

  10. Cermet Filters To Reduce Diesel Engine Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, Peter

    2001-08-05

    Pollution from diesel engines is a significant part of our nation's air-quality problem. Even under the more stringent standards for heavy-duty engines set to take effect in 2004, these engines will continue to emit large amounts of nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, both of which affect public health. To address this problem, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) invented a self-cleaning, high temperature, cermet filter that reduces heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. The main advantage of the INEEL cermet filter, compared to current technology, is its ability to destroy carbon particles and NOx in diesel engine exhaust. As a result, this technology is expected to improve our nation's environmental quality by meeting the need for heavy-duty diesel engine emissions control. This paper describes the cermet filter technology and the initial research and development effort.Diesel engines currently emit soot and NOx that pollute our air. It is expected that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will begin tightening the regulatory requirements to control these emissions. The INEEL's self-cleaning, high temperature cermet filter provides a technology to clean heavy-duty diesel engine emissions. Under high engine exhaust temperatures, the cermet filter simultaneously removes carbon particles and NOx from the exhaust gas. The cermet filter is made from inexpensive starting materials, via net shape bulk forming and a single-step combustion synthesis process, and can be brazed to existing structures. It is self-cleaning, lightweight, mechanically strong, thermal shock resistant, and has a high melting temperature, high heat capacity, and controllable thermal expansion coefficient. The filter's porosity is controlled to provide high removal efficiency for carbon particulate. It can be made catalytic to oxidize CO, H2, and hydrocarbons, and reduce NOx. When activated by engine exhaust, the filter produces NH3 and light hydrocarbon

  11. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8... in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust...

  12. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  13. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  14. Analysis of a topping-cycle, aircraft, gas-turbine-engine system which uses cryogenic fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1984-01-01

    A topping-cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel was investigated. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine that is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop, which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping-cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping-cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping-cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping-cycle engine is comparable with that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  15. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  16. Minimum time acceleration of aircraft turbofan engines by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum time accelerations of aircraft turbofan engines are presented. The calculation of these accelerations was made by using a piecewise linear engine model, and an algorithm based on nonlinear programming. Use of this model and algorithm allows such trajectories to be readily calculated on a digital computer with a minimal expenditure of computer time.

  17. Engineering problems in ensuring the strength and reliability of the new generation of aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Boguslaev, V.A.

    1995-11-01

    The {open_quotes}Motor Sich{close_quotes} plant - formerly the Zaporozh`e Engine Plant - has been a major contributor to the genesis and development of the domestic aviation industry. More than 20,000 engines made at the plant are currently operating in 18 domestic models of airplanes and helicopters, while roughly 4000 of the factory`s engines are in use abroad. Also, 998 mobile gas-turbine power plants of the PAES-2500 type are presently in service in and outside the CIS. Successes such as these are the result of the tremendous effort put forth by plant personnel and close collaboration with aircraft designers and buyers and scientific-research institutes on engine manufacture, operation, and servicing. Their contributions have made it possible to improve the strength and reliability of engines AI-20, AI-241 AI-25, AI-25TL, and TVZ-117. These models are renowned most of all for their durability, surpassing comparable foreign makes with respect to length of service. Engines AI-20, AI-24, and AI-25 have an average service life of 200,000 h, versus the 50,000 h life of foreign counterparts {open_quotes}Tyne,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}Dart,{close_quotes} and TE.731. At present, engine model D-18T is still not the equal of comparable foreign-made engines in terms of reliability and service life. This can be attributed to both to the problems associated with designing high-thrust engines and to the lack of adequate diagnostic systems. After several problems are resolved, new-generation engines D-36, D-136, and D-18 will provide new levels of reliability and durability. The durability of the D-36 is presently limited by the life of the casing of the combustor (6053 cycles) and the disks of the low- and high-pressure compressors (6500-7000 cycles). The life of the D-18T is restricted mainly by the life of the rotor blades in the high-pressure turbine, defects in the disks of the high-pressure compressor, and other problems.

  18. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  19. Mobile Laboratory Characterization of Nitrogen Oxide Emissions from Motor Vehicles and Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, C. E.; Herndon, S. C.; Shorter, J. H.; Nelson, D. D.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Wormhoudt, J. C.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2004-12-01

    Nitrogen oxide emissions from mobile sources can strongly influence photochemical oxidant and secondary particulate nitrate formation in the troposphere. Quantification of the impact of mobile NOx sources requires accurate characterization of mobile source emissions under real world operating conditions. We have developed a mobile laboratory equipped with fast response trace gas sensors that has been deployed to quantifyon-road NOx fleet average emissions, NOx emissions from individual on-road vehicles, and aircraft NOx emissions at airports during taxi, take-off, and tarmac operations. Measurement strategies and instrumentation will be described and results of NOx emissions from a range of on-road vehicles, urban traffic mixes, and commercial aircraft will be presented.

  20. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for exhaust emissions. 87.31... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from...

  1. Analysis of the impact of the use of broad specification fuels on combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Lehmann, R. P.; Smith, A. L.

    1979-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to assess the impact of the use of broad specification fuels with reduced hydrogen content on the design, performance, durability, emissions and operational characteristics of combustors for commercial aircraft gas turbine engines. The study was directed at defining necessary design revisions to combustors designed for use of Jet A when such are operated on ERBS (Experimental Referee Broad Specification Fuel) which has a nominal hydrogen content of 12.8 percent as opposed to 13.7 percent in current Jet A. The results indicate that improvements in combustor liner cooling, and/or materials, and methods of fuel atomization will be required if the hydrogen content of aircraft gas turbine fuel is decreased.

  2. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  3. Design study: A 186 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an aircraft engine capable of developing 186 kW shaft power at a 7620 m altitude is described. The 186 kW design takes into account expected new developments in aircraft designs resulting in a reassessment of the power requirements at the cruise mode operation. Based on the results of this analysis a three phase technology development program is projected resulting in production dates of 1985, 1992, and 2000.

  4. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  5. Chemistry in plumes of high-flying aircraft with H 2 combustion engines: a modelling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weibring, G.; Zellner, R.

    1994-05-01

    . Recent discussions on high-speed civil transport (HSCT) systems have renewed the interest in the chemistry of supersonic-aircraft plumes. The engines of these aircraft emit large concentrations of radicals like O, H, OH, and NO. In order to study the effect of these species on the composition of the atmosphere, the detailed chemistry of an expanding and cooling plume is examined for different expansion models.

  6. Aircraft-Based Measurements of Point Source Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale Basin.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Tegan N; Shepson, Paul B; Cambaliza, Maria O L; Stirm, Brian H; Karion, Anna; Sweeney, Colm; Yacovitch, Tara I; Herndon, Scott C; Lan, Xin; Lyon, David

    2015-07-01

    We report measurements of methane (CH4) emission rates observed at eight different high-emitting point sources in the Barnett Shale, Texas, using aircraft-based methods performed as part of the Barnett Coordinated Campaign. We quantified CH4 emission rates from four gas processing plants, one compressor station, and three landfills during five flights conducted in October 2013. Results are compared to other aircraft- and surface-based measurements of the same facilities, and to estimates based on a national study of gathering and processing facilities emissions and 2013 annual average emissions reported to the U.S. EPA Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP). For the eight sources, CH4 emission measurements from the aircraft-based mass balance approach were a factor of 3.2-5.8 greater than the GHGRP-based estimates. Summed emissions totaled 7022 ± 2000 kg hr(-1), roughly 9% of the entire basin-wide CH4 emissions estimated from regional mass balance flights during the campaign. Emission measurements from five natural gas management facilities were 1.2-4.6 times larger than emissions based on the national study. Results from this study were used to represent "super-emitters" in a newly formulated Barnett Shale Inventory, demonstrating the importance of targeted sampling of "super-emitters" that may be missed by random sampling of a subset of the total. PMID:26148549

  7. Impact of Aircraft Emissions on NO(x) in the Lowermost Stratosphere at Northern Midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Ikeda, H.; Anderson, B. E.; Brunke, K. E.; Zhao, Y.; Kita, K.; Sugita, T.; Singh, H. B.; Liu, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Airborne measurements of NO(x) total reactive nitrogen (NO(y)), O3 and condensation nuclei (CN) were made within air traffic corridors over the U.S. and North Atlantic regions (35-60 deg N) in the fall of 1997. NO(x) and NO(y) data obtained in the lowermost stratosphere (LS) were examined using the calculated increase in NO(y) ((delta)NO(y)) along five-day back trajectories as a parameter to identify possible effects of aircraft on reactive nitrogen. It is very likely that aircraft emissions had a significant impact on the NO(x) levels in the LS inasmuch as the NO(s), mixing ratios at 8.5-12 km were significantly correlated with the independent parameters of aircraft emissions, i.e., (delta)NO(y) levels and CN values. In order to estimate quantitatively the impact of aircraft emissions on NO(x), and CN, the background levels of CN and NO(x) at O3 = 100-200 ppbv were derived from the correlations of these quantities with (delta)NO(y)). On average, the aircraft emissions are estimated to have increased the NO(x) and CN values by 130 pptv and 400 STP,cc, respectively, which corresponds to 70 -/+ 30 % and 30 -/+ 20 % of the observed median values.

  8. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted. Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions. Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  9. Particulate emissions from diesel engines: correlation between engine technology and emissions.

    PubMed

    Fiebig, Michael; Wiartalla, Andreas; Holderbaum, Bastian; Kiesow, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    In the last 30 years, diesel engines have made rapid progress to increased efficiency, environmental protection and comfort for both light- and heavy-duty applications. The technical developments include all issues from fuel to combustion process to exhaust gas aftertreatment. This paper provides a comprehensive summary of the available literature regarding technical developments and their impact on the reduction of pollutant emission. This includes emission legislation, fuel quality, diesel engine- and exhaust gas aftertreatment technologies, as well as particulate composition, with a focus on the mass-related particulate emission of on-road vehicle applications. Diesel engine technologies representative of real-world on-road applications will be highlighted.Internal engine modifications now make it possible to minimize particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions with nearly no reduction in power. Among these modifications are cooled exhaust gas recirculation, optimized injections systems, adapted charging systems and optimized combustion processes with high turbulence. With introduction and optimization of exhaust gas aftertreatment systems, such as the diesel oxidation catalyst and the diesel particulate trap, as well as NOx-reduction systems, pollutant emissions have been significantly decreased. Today, sulfur poisoning of diesel oxidation catalysts is no longer considered a problem due to the low-sulfur fuel used in Europe. In the future, there will be an increased use of bio-fuels, which generally have a positive impact on the particulate emissions and do not increase the particle number emissions.Since the introduction of the EU emissions legislation, all emission limits have been reduced by over 90%. Further steps can be expected in the future. Retrospectively, the particulate emissions of modern diesel engines with respect to quality and quantity cannot be compared with those of older engines. Internal engine modifications lead to a clear reduction of the

  10. The ANCAT/EC global inventory of NO x emissions from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, R. M.; Adams, K.; Cook, T.; Deidewig, F.; Ernedal, S.; Falk, R.; Fleuti, E.; Herms, E.; Johnson, C. E.; Lecht, M.; Lee, D. S.; Leech, M.; Lister, D.; Massé, B.; Metcalfe, M.; Newton, P.; Schmitt, A.; Vandenbergh, C.; van Drimmelen, R.

    A three dimensional global emissions inventory for NO, from civil and military aviation has been formulated by a joint European Civil Aviation Conference/European Commission working group in support of the AERONOX project " The Impact of NO x Emissions from Aircraft Upon the Atmosphere at Flight Altitudes 8-15 km". The inventory was compiled on a resolution of 2.8 by 2.8° by 1 km in altitude for a 12 month period spanning mid-1991 to mid-1992. Traffic movement data were compiled from Air Traffic Control recorded movements and timetables for January, April, July and October and combined with an airframe emissions performance model. The global emission of aircraft NO x was estimated to be 2.78 Tg NO 2 yr -1 and the overall emission index for NO x in g NO x kg -1 fuel burnt was 16.8. The estimated NO x emissions are higher than the most comparable inventory (NASA, 1990) by a factor of almost 2. The vertical distribution shows that 60% of the global NO x is emitted at cruise altitudes of 10-12 km. There is a pronounced latitudinal bias with 93 % of the global emissions being in the Northern Hemisphere and 70% between 30 and 60°N The spatial distributions of NO x emissions show some seasonality. Emissions of CO 2 H 2O and SO 2 have also been estimated at 528, 216 and 0.165 Tg yr -1, respectively. Although not quantified, the uncertainties in the emissions estimate of NO x from aircraft are discussed and a small overestimation in the traffic movement data base was identified. However, the uncertainties are probably smaller than those for natural sources of NO x which are injected into the top of the troposphere. More work is required to refine emission inventories from aircraft.

  11. Emission control apparatus for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Strachan, J. B.

    1980-02-26

    Apparatus for controlling the emission of exhaust gases from a diesel engine used in mining operations consists of a purifier chamber within a water jacketed adaptor and having an inlet for connection to the outlet from the exhaust manifold of the engine. The purifier chamber contains a catalytic purifier for the reduction of carbon monoxide passing from the inlet of the purifier chamber to its outlet, which is connected to a water scrubber for the reduction of the temperature of exhaust gases, the removal of some of the products of combustion, and for quenching exhaust flames.

  12. Development and Deployment of an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) Compliant Measurement System for nvPM Certification Measurements of Aircraft Engines - Current Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitefield, P. D.; Hagen, D. E.; Lobo, P.; Miake-Lye, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Aircraft Exhaust Emissions Measurement Committee (E-31) has published an Aerospace Information Report (AIR) 6241 detailing the sampling system for the measurement of non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) from aircraft engines (SAE 2013). The system is designed to operate in parallel with existing International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Annex 16 compliant combustion gas sampling systems used for emissions certification from aircraft engines captured by conventional (Annex 16) gas sampling rakes (ICAO, 2008). The SAE E-31 committee is also working to ballot an Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) that will provide the methodology and system specification to measure nvPM from aircraft engines. The ARP is currently in preparation and is expected to be ready for ballot in 2015. A prototype AIR-compliant nvPM measurement system - The North American Reference System (NARS) has been built and evaluated at the MSTCOE under the joint sponsorship of the FAA, EPA and Transport Canada. It has been used to validate the performance characteristics of OEM AIR-compliant systems and is being used in engine certification type testing at OEM facilities to obtain data from a set of representative engines in the fleet. The data collected during these tests will be used by ICAO/CAEP/WG3/PMTG to develop a metric on which on the regulation for nvPM emissions will be based. This paper will review the salient features of the NARS including: (1) emissions sample transport from probe tip to the key diagnostic tools, (2) the mass and number-based diagnostic tools for nvPM mass and number concentration measurement and (3) methods employed to assess the extent of nvPM loss throughout the sampling system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of the recent results from inter-comparison studies conducted with other US - based systems that gives credence to the ARP's readiness for ballot.

  13. Emissions characteristics of Military Helicopter Engines Fueled with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Corporan, E.; DeWitt, M.; Klingshirn, Christopher D; Striebich, Richard; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth in aviation activities and more stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulations have increased concerns regarding aircraft emissions, due to their harmful health and environmental impacts, especially in the vicinity of airports and military bases. In this study, the gaseous and particulate-matter emissions of two General Electric T701C engines and one T700 engine were evaluated. The T700 series engines power the U.S. Army's Black Hawk and Apache helicopters. The engines were fueled with standard military JP-8 fuel and were tested at three power settings. In addition, one of the T701C engines was operated on a natural-gas-derived Fischer-Tropsch synthetic paraffinic kerosene jet fuel. Test results show that the T701C engine emits significantly lower particulate-matter emissions than the T700 for all conditions tested. Particulate-matter mass emission indices ranged from 0.2-1.4 g/kg fuel for the T700 and 0.2-0.6 g/kg fuel for the T701C. Slightly higher NOx and lower CO emissions were observed for the T701C compared with the T700. Operation of the T701C with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel rendered dramatic reductions in soot emissions relative to operation on JP-8, due primarily to the lack of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuel. The Fischer-Tropsch fuel also produced smaller particles and slight reductions in CO emissions.

  14. An Object-oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA s NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc. that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300- passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case. Keywords: NASA, aircraft engine, weight, object-oriented

  15. Probing emissions of military cargo aircraft: description of a joint field measurement Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Meng-Dawn; Corporan, Edwin; DeWitt, Matthew J; Spicer, Chester W; Holdren, Michael W; Cowen, Kenneth A; Laskin, Alex; Harris, David B; Shores, Richard C; Kagann, Robert; Hashmonay, Ram

    2008-06-01

    To develop effective air quality control strategies for military air bases, there is a need to accurately quantify these emissions. In support of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program project, the particulate matter (PM) and gaseous emissions from two T56 engines on a parked C-130 aircraft were characterized at the Kentucky Air National Guard base in Louisville, KY. Conventional and research-grade instrumentation and methodology were used in the field campaign during the first week of October 2005. Particulate emissions were sampled at the engine exit plane and at 15 m downstream. In addition, remote sensing of the gaseous species was performed via spectroscopic techniques at 5 and 15 m downstream of the engine exit. It was found that PM mass and number concentrations measured at 15-m downstream locations, after dilution-correction generally agreed well with those measured at the engine exhaust plane; however, higher variations were observed in the far-field after natural dilution of the downstream measurements was accounted for. Using carbon dioxide-normalized data we demonstrated that gas species measurements by extractive and remote sensing techniques agreed reasonably well. PMID:18581808

  16. A Sensitivity Study of Commercial Aircraft Engine Response for Emergency Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the details of a sensitivity study in which the variation in a commercial aircraft engine's outputs is observed for perturbations in its operating condition inputs or control parameters. This study seeks to determine the extent to which various controller limits can be modified to improve engine performance, while capturing the increased risk that results from the changes. In an emergency, the engine may be required to produce additional thrust, respond faster, or both, to improve the survivability of the aircraft. The objective of this paper is to propose changes to the engine controller and determine the costs and benefits of the additional capabilities produced by the engine. This study indicates that the aircraft engine is capable of producing additional thrust, but at the cost of an increased risk of an engine failure due to higher turbine temperatures and rotor speeds. The engine can also respond more quickly to transient commands, but this action reduces the remaining stall margin to possibly dangerous levels. To improve transient response in landing scenarios, a control mode known as High Speed Idle is proposed that increases the responsiveness of the engine and conserves stall margin

  17. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  18. The horsepower of aircraft engines and their maximum frontal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Precoul, Michel

    1936-01-01

    This adaptation of a Russian report reveals the effect of maximum cross section of an engine as well as the interest attaching to a choice not solely based on horsepower. The tabulation gives a comparison between different engines restored at 5,000 meters. Radial versus inverted in-line engines are also compared.

  19. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  20. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  1. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 3: Library of maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. The use of two data base files to represent the engine and the inlet/nozzle/aftbody performance characteristics is discussed. The existing library of performance characteristics for inlets and nozzle/aftbodies and an example of the 1000 series of engine data tables is presented.

  2. Probing Aircraft Flight Test Hazard Mitigation for the Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Research Team . Volume 2; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) Project Integration Manager requested in July 2012 that the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) form a team to independently assess aircraft structural failure hazards associated with the ACCESS experiment and to identify potential flight test hazard mitigations to ensure flight safety. The ACCESS Project Integration Manager subsequently requested that the assessment scope be focused predominantly on structural failure risks to the aircraft empennage (horizontal and vertical tail). This report contains the Appendices to Volume I.

  3. Inlet, engine, airframe controls integration development for supercruising aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houchard, J. H.; Carlin, C. M.; Tjonneland, E.

    1983-01-01

    In connection with a consideration of advanced military aircraft systems, attention is given to research for improving the technology of the design of supersonic cruise aircraft. Syberg et al. (1981) have shown that an analytic design method is now available to accurately predict the flow characteristics of axisymmetric supersonic inlets, including off-design angle of attack operation. On the basis of information regarding the inlet flow characteristics, the control system designer can begin the inlet design and development, before wind tunnel testing has begun. The present investigation is concerned with details and status of inlet control technology. A detailed representation of a supersonic propulsion system is developed. This development demonstrates the feasibility of the selected hybrid computational concept.

  4. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  5. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  6. Polymer, metal and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdanels, D. L.; Serafini, T. T.; Dicarlo, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis is being focused on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  7. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  8. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  9. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-01

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  10. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  11. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  12. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  13. Description and Laboratory Tests of a Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden

    1926-01-01

    This report describes a roots type aircraft engine supercharger and presents the results of some tests made with it at the Langley Field Laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The supercharger used in these tests was constructed largely of aluminum, weighed 88 pounds and was arranged to be operated from the rear of a standard aircraft engine at a speed of 1 1/2 engine crankshaft speed. The rotors of the supercharger were cycloidal in form and were 11 inches long and 9 1/2 inches in diameter. The displacement of the supercharger was 0.51 cubic feet of air per revolution of the rotors. The supercharger was tested in the laboratory, independently and in combination with a Liberty-12 aircraft engine, under simulated altitude pressure conditions in order to obtain information on its operation and performance. From these tests it seems evident that the Roots blower compares favorably with other compressor types used as aircraft engine superchargers and that it has several features that make it particularly attractive for such use.

  14. Laser beam propagation through a full scale aircraft turboprop engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Markus; Gustafsson, Ove; Sjöqvist, Lars; Seiffer, Dirk; Wendelstein, Norbert

    2010-10-01

    The exhaust from engines introduces zones of extreme turbulence levels in local environments around aircraft. This may disturb the performance of aircraft mounted optical and laser systems. The turbulence distortion will be especially devastating for optical missile warning and laser based DIRCM systems used to protect manoeuvring aircraft against missile attacks, situations where the optical propagation path may come close to the engine exhaust. To study the extent of the turbulence zones caused by the engine exhaust and the strength of the effects on optical propagation through these zones a joint trial between Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom was performed using a medium sized military turboprop transport aircraft tethered to the ground at an airfield. This follows on earlier trials performed on a down-scaled jet-engine test rig. Laser beams were propagated along the axis of the aircraft at different distances relative to the engine exhaust and the spatial beam profiles and intensity scintillations were recorded with cameras and photodiodes. A second laser beam path was directed from underneath the loading ramp diagonally past one of the engines. The laser wavelengths used were 1.5 and 3.6 μm. In addition to spatial beam profile distortions temporal effects were investigated. Measurements were performed at different propeller speeds and at different distances from exhaust nozzle to the laser path. Significant increases in laser beam wander and long term beam radius were observed with the engine running. Corresponding increases were also registered in the scintillation index and the temporal fluctuations of the instantaneous power collected by the detector.

  15. Altitude and airspeed effects on the optimum synchrophase angles for a four-engine propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunt, David M.

    2014-08-01

    Noise and vibration is a serious problem in all types of aircraft. Any techniques that lower cabin noise and vibration levels by even a few decibels with little or no weight or performance penalties are worth pursuing. Propeller synchrophasing is one such technique that has shown potential in aircraft with two or more propellers; however this technique is not being used to its full potential because the synchrophase angles are typically fixed. This paper provides a detailed examination of how the optimum synchrophase angles in a typical four-engine propeller aircraft vary with different altitudes and airspeeds, and how this information could lead to the design of new adaptive propeller synchrophasing systems and potentially yield improvements to other active noise control measures in propeller aircraft.

  16. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  17. A grade-life fuzzy inference fusion prognostic model for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xuewen; Niu, Yongguo; Yang, Yun; Yin, Shuyue; Hong, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) technologies for potential application on aircraft have been maturing rapidly recently since it can ensure safety, equipment reliability, and reduction of costs. The service life prediction of aircraft engine is vital part of PHM technology. Research on practical and verifiable prediction methods for service life of bearing plays a critical role in improving the reliability and safety of aircraft engines. In the paper, the concept of Grade-Life (GL) is introduced to describe the service life of the bearing. A grade-life prognostic model of aircraft engine bearing, which is based on the fuzzy logic inference, is proposed. Firstly, the mathematical model is discussed, which is used to predict the physics-based GL (PGL). Then, the diagnostic estimation model based on SVM is given in details, which is exploited to predict the empirical GL (EPL). Thirdly, a fuzzy logic inference method is adopted to fuse two GL predicted results. Finally, the grade-life prognostic model is verified by the run-to-failure data acquired from accelerated life test of an aircraft bearing. The results accredit that this model provides for a more practical and reliable prediction for service life of bearings.

  18. The influence of engine technology advancements on aircraft economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witherspoon, J. W.; Gaffin, W. O.

    1973-01-01

    A technology advancement in a new powerplant has both favorable and unfavorable effects. Increased bypass ratio and compression ratio, coupled with high turbine temperatures, improve performance but also increase engine price and maintenance cost. The factors that should be evaluated in choosing an engine for airline use are discussed. These factors are compared for two engines that might be considered for future 150 to 200 passenger airplanes: an all-new turbofan and a quiet derivative of an existing first generation turbofan. The results of the performance and cost evaluations of the example engines are reduced to common units so they can be combined.

  19. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  20. Aircraft gas-turbine engines: Noise reduction and vibration control. (Latest citations from Information Services in Mechanical Engineering data base). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and analysis of aircraft gas turbine engines with respect to noise and vibration control. Included are studies regarding the measurement and reduction of noise at its source, within the aircraft, and on the ground. Inlet, nozzle and core aerodynamic studies are cited. Propfan, turbofan, turboprop engines, and applications in short take-off and landing (STOL) aircraft are included. (Contains a minimum of 202 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  2. Effect of NACA Injection Impeller on Mixture Distribution of Double-Row Radial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Frank E; Ritter, William K; Miller, Mahlon A

    1945-01-01

    The NACA injection impeller was developed to improve the mixture distribution of aircraft engines by discharging the fuel from a centrifugal supercharger impeller and thus to promote a thorough mixing of fuel and charge air. Experiments with a double-row radial aircraft engine indicated that for the normal range of engine power the NACA injection impeller provided marked improvement in mixture distribution over the standard spray-bar injection system used in the same engine. The mixture distribution at cruising conditions was excellent; at 1200, 1500, and 1700 brake horsepower, the differences between the fuel-air ratios of the richest and the leanest cylinders were reduced to approximately one-third their former values.

  3. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The weight and major envelope dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines are estimated. The computerized method, called WATE-S (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines-Small) is a derivative of the WATE-2 computer code. WATE-S determines the weight of each major component in the engine including compressors, burners, turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, propellers, and accessories. A preliminary design approach is used where the stress levels, maximum pressures and temperatures, material properties, geometry, stage loading, hub/tip radius ratio, and mechanical overspeed are used to determine the component weights and dimensions. The accuracy of the method is generally better than + or - 10 percent as verified by analysis of four small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines.

  4. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  5. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  6. Thermophysical problems of the application freezing fuels for the aircraft gas-turbine engines (AGTE)

    SciTech Connect

    Janovsky, L.S.; Mitin, M.B.; Antonov, A.N.; Abashina, L.W.

    1996-12-31

    Authors of this paper analyzed results of mathematical researches of thermophysical problems of freezing and cryogenic fuels application for the aircraft gas-turbine engines (AGTE). These fuels are derived from hydrogen, propane, natural gas (methane) and oil gas (freezing mixture of hydrocarbons C{sub 2}-C{sub 10}). At present use of alternative fuels in AGTE is of great interest.

  7. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  8. An Object-Oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA's NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc., that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300-passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case.

  9. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  10. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  11. 14 CFR 34.71 - Compliance with gaseous emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  12. Radiative forcing caused by rocket engine emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Martin N.; Sheaffer, Patti M.

    2014-04-01

    Space transportation plays an important and growing role in Earth's economic system. Rockets uniquely emit gases and particles directly into the middle and upper atmosphere where exhaust from hundreds of launches accumulates, changing atmospheric radiation patterns. The instantaneous radiative forcing (RF) caused by major rocket engine emissions CO2, H2O, black carbon (BC), and Al2O3 (alumina) is estimated. Rocket CO2 and H2O emissions do not produce significant RF. BC and alumina emissions, under some scenarios, have the potential to produce significant RF. Absorption of solar flux by BC is likely the main RF source from rocket launches. In a new finding, alumina particles, previously thought to cool the Earth by scattering solar flux back to space, absorb outgoing terrestrial longwave radiation, resulting in net positive RF. With the caveat that BC and alumina microphysics are poorly constrained, we find that the present-day RF from rocket launches equals 16 ± 8 mW m-2. The relative contributions from BC, alumina, and H2O are 70%, 28%, and 2%. respectively. The pace of rocket launches is predicted to grow and space transport RF could become comparable to global aviation RF in coming decades. Improved understanding of rocket emission RF requires more sophisticated modeling and improved data describing particle microphysics.

  13. Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer: Engineering Flight Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, William R.; Hook, Simon J.; Shoen, Steven S.; Eng, Bjorn T.

    2013-01-01

    The Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) successfully completed its first set of engineering test flights. HyTES was developed in support of the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). HyspIRI is one of the Tier II Decadal Survey missions. HyTES currently provides both high spectral resolution (17 nm) and high spatial resolution (2-5m) data in the thermal infrared (7.5-12 micron) part of the electromagnetic spectrum. HyTES data will be used to help determine the optimum band positions for the HyspIRI Thermal Infrared (TIR) sensor and provide antecedent data for HyspIRI related studies.

  14. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...

  15. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  16. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  17. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  18. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  19. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  20. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...