Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft engine exhausts

  1. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  2. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  3. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  4. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-02-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  5. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1994-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  6. Engine exhaust characteristics evaluation in support of aircraft acoustic testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.

    1993-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility and NASA Langley Research Center completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Test objectives were (1) to quantify and evaluate subsonic climb-to-cruise noise and (2) to obtain a quality noise database for use in validating the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program. These tests were conducted using aircraft with engines that represent the high nozzle pressure ratio of future transport designs. Test flights were completed at subsonic speeds that exceeded Mach 0.3 using F-18 and F-16XL aircraft. This paper describes the efforts of NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility in this flight test program. Topics discussed include the test aircraft, setup, and matrix. In addition, the engine modeling codes and nozzle exhaust characteristics are described.

  7. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  8. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  9. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  10. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations. PMID:15991667

  11. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... turbojet engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012, July 27, 2011)....

  12. Concepts for reducing exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of the aircraft piston engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption of a general aviation aircraft piston engine by applying known technology. Fourteen promising concepts such as stratified charge combustion chambers, cooling cylinder head improvements, and ignition system changes were evaluated for emission reduction and cost effectiveness. A combination of three concepts, improved fuel injection system, improved cylinder head with exhaust port liners and exhaust air injection was projected as the most cost effective and safe means of meeting the EPA standards for CO, HC and NO. The fuel economy improvement of 4.6% over a typical single engine aircraft flight profile does not though justify the added cost of the three concepts, and significant reductions in fuel consumption must be applied to the cruise mode where most of the fuel is used. The use of exhaust air injection in combination with exhaust port liners reduces exhaust valve stem temperatures which can result in longer valve guide life. The use of exhaust port liners alone can reduce engine cooling air requirements by 11% which is the equivalent of a 1.5% increase in propulsive power. The EPA standards for CO, HC and NO can be met in the IO-520 engine using air injection alone or the Simmonds improved fuel injection system.

  13. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  14. Forecast of jet engine exhaust emissions for future high altitude commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on: (1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the current status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of an emission index, g pollutant/kg fuel. Two sets of engine exhaust emission predictions are presented: the first, based on an independent NASA study and the second, based on the consensus of an ad hoc committee composed of industry, university, and government representatives. The consensus forecasts are in general agreement with the NASA forecasts.

  15. Performance Characteristics of an Aircraft Engine with Exhaust Turbine Supercharger, Special Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, E. M.; Paulson, V. A.

    1941-01-01

    The Pratt and Whitney Aircraft company and the Naval Aircraft Factory of the United States Navy cooperated in a laboratory and flight program of tests on an exhaust turbine supercharger. Two series of dynamometer tests of the engine super-charger combination were completed under simulated altitude conditions. One series of hot gas-chamber tests was conducted by the manufacturer of the supercharger. Flight demonstrations of the supercharger installed in a twin-engine flying boat were terminated by failure of the turbine wheels. The analysis of the results indicated that a two-stage supercharger with the first-stage exhaust turbine driven will deliver rated power for a given indicated power to a higher altitude, will operate more efficiently, and will require simpler controls than a similar engine with the first stage of the supercharger driven from the crankshaft through multispeed gears.

  16. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, C. W.; Holdren, M. W.; Riggin, R. M.; Lyon, T. F.

    1994-10-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi) on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  17. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiol, Mauro; Harrison, Roy M.

    2014-10-01

    Civil aviation is fast-growing (about +5% every year), mainly driven by the developing economies and globalisation. Its impact on the environment is heavily debated, particularly in relation to climate forcing attributed to emissions at cruising altitudes and the noise and the deterioration of air quality at ground-level due to airport operations. This latter environmental issue is of particular interest to the scientific community and policymakers, especially in relation to the breach of limit and target values for many air pollutants, mainly nitrogen oxides and particulate matter, near the busiest airports and the resulting consequences for public health. Despite the increased attention given to aircraft emissions at ground-level and air pollution in the vicinity of airports, many research gaps remain. Sources relevant to air quality include not only engine exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from aircraft, but also emissions from the units providing power to the aircraft on the ground, the traffic due to the airport ground service, maintenance work, heating facilities, fugitive vapours from refuelling operations, kitchens and restaurants for passengers and operators, intermodal transportation systems, and road traffic for transporting people and goods in and out to the airport. Many of these sources have received inadequate attention, despite their high potential for impact on air quality. This review aims to summarise the state-of-the-art research on aircraft and airport emissions and attempts to synthesise the results of studies that have addressed this issue. It also aims to describe the key characteristics of pollution, the impacts upon global and local air quality and to address the future potential of research by highlighting research needs.

  18. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  19. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  20. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-01

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  1. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2011-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  2. Extrapolating Ground-Based Aircraft Engine Exhaust Emissions to Cruise Conditions: Lessons From the 2013 ACCESS Chase Plane Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    Aircraft engine emissions constitute a tiny fraction of the global black carbon mass, but can have a disproportionate climatic impact because they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. Consequently, these particles are likely to strongly influence cirrus and contrail formation by acting as ice nuclei (IN). However, the ice nucleating properties of aircraft exhaust at relevant atmospheric conditions are not well known, and thus, the overall impact of aviation on cloud formation remains very uncertain. While a number of aircraft engine emissions studies have previously been conducted at sea level temperature and pressure (e.g., APEX, AAFEX-1 and 2), it unclear the extent to which exhaust emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions with much lower inlet gas temperatures and pressures. To address this need, the NASA Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) was conducted in February-April, 2013 to examine the aerosol and gas emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different fuel types, engine power, and altitude/meteorological conditions. Two different fuel types were studied: a traditional JP-8 fuel and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based hydro-treated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel. Emissions were sampled using a comprehensive suite of gas- and aerosol-phase instrumentation integrated on an HU-25 Falcon jet that was positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 100-500m distance behind the engines. In addition, a four-hour ground test was carried out with sample probes positioned at 30 m behind each of the inboard engines. Measurements of aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and hygroscopicity were carried out along with trace gas measurements of CO2, NO, NO2, O3, and water vapor. NOx emissions were reconciled by employing the well-established Boeing method for normalizing engine fuel flow rates to STP; however, comparison

  3. Integrated exhaust gas analysis system for aircraft turbine engine component testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, R. L.; Anderson, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    An integrated exhaust gas analysis system was designed and installed in the hot-section facility at the Lewis Research Center. The system is designed to operate either manually or automatically and also to be operated from a remote station. The system measures oxygen, water vapor, total hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and oxides of nitrogen. Two microprocessors control the system and the analyzers, collect data and process them into engineering units, and present the data to the facility computers and the system operator. Within the design of this system there are innovative concepts and procedures that are of general interest and application to other gas analysis tasks.

  4. Nonintrusive optical measurements of aircraft engine exhaust emissions and comparison with standard intrusive techniques.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, K; Heland, J; Lister, D H; Wilson, C W; Howes, R J; Falk, R S; Lindermeir, E; Birk, M; Wagner, G; Haschberger, P; Bernard, M; Legras, O; Wiesen, P; Kurtenbach, R; Brockmann, K J; Kriesche, V; Hilton, M; Bishop, G; Clarke, R; Workman, J; Caola, M; Geatches, R; Burrows, R; Black, J D; Hervé, P; Vally, J

    2000-01-20

    Nonintrusive systems for the measurement on test rigs of aeroengine exhaust emissions required for engine certification (CO, NO(x), total unburned hydrocarbon, and smoke), together with CO(2) and temperature have been developed. These results have been compared with current certified intrusive measurements on an engine test. A spectroscopic database and data-analysis software has been developed to enable Fourier-transform Infrared measurement of concentrations of molecular species. CO(2), CO, and NO data showed agreement with intrusive techniques of approximately ?30%. A narrow-band spectroscopic device was used to measure CO(2) (with deviations of less than ?10% from the intrusive measurement), whereas laser-induced incandescence was used to measure particles. Future improvements to allow for the commercial use of the nonintrusive systems have been identified and the methods are applicable to any measurement of combustion emissions.

  5. Hygroscopic Properties of Aircraft Engine Exhaust Aerosol Produced From Traditional and Alternative Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.; Ziemba, L. D.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Chen, G.; Anderson, B. E.

    2012-12-01

    Aircraft emissions of greenhouse gases and aerosols constitute an important component of anthropogenic climate forcing, of which aerosol-cloud interactions remain poorly understood. It is currently thought that the ability of these aerosols to alter upper tropospheric cirrus cloud properties may produce radiative forcings many times larger than the impact of linear contrails alone and which may partially offset the impact of greenhouse gas emissions from aviation (Burkhardt and Karcher, Nature, 2011). Consequently, it is important to characterize the ability of these engine-emitted aerosol to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) to form clouds. While a number of studies in the literature have examined aerosol-cloud interactions for laboratory-generated soot or from aircraft engines burning traditional fuels, limited attention has been given to how switching to alternative jet fuels impacts the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to form clouds. The key to understanding these changes is the aerosol hygroscopicity. To address this need, the second NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX-II) was conducted in 2011 to examine the aerosol emissions from the NASA DC-8 under a variety of different engine power and fuel type conditions. Five fuel types were considered including traditional JP-8 fuel, synthetic Fischer-Tropsh (FT) fuel , sulfur-doped FT fuel (FTS) , hydrotreated renewable jet (HRJ) fuel, and a 50:50 blend of JP-8 with HRJ. Emissions were sampled from the DC-8 on the airport jetway at a distance of 145 meters downwind of the engine by a comprehensive suite of aerosol instrumentation that provided information on the aerosol concentration, size distribution, soot mass, and CCN activity. Concurrent measurements of carbon dioxide were used to account for plume dilution so that characteristic emissions indices could be determined. It is found that both engine power and fuel type significantly influence the hygroscopic properties of

  6. Subsidence of aircraft engine exhaust in the stratosphere: Implications for calculated ozone depletions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, J. M.; Shia, R.-L.; Ko, M. K. W.; Heisey, C. W.; Weistenstein, D. K.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    The deposition altitude of nitrogen oxides and other exhaust species emitted by stratospheric aircraft is a crucial parameter in determining the impact of these emissions on stratospheric ozone. We have utilized a model for the wake of a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) to estimate the enhancements in water and reductions in ozone in these wakes as a function of time. Radiative calculations indicate differential cooling rates as large as -5K/day at the beginning of the far-wake regime, mostly due to the enhanced water abundance. These cooling rates would imply a net sinking of the wakes of about 1.2 km after three days in the limit of no mixing. Calculated mid-latitude column ozone reductions due to emissions from a Mach 2.4 HSCT would then change from about -1% to -06%. However, more realistic calculations adopting moderate mixing for the wake reduce the net sinking to less than 0.2 km, making the impact of radiative subsidence negligible.

  7. Experimental clean combustor program, phase 1. [aircraft exhaust/gas analysis - gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, R.; Peduzzi, A.; Vitti, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A program of screening three low emission combustors for conventional takeoff and landing, by testing and analyzing thirty-two configurations is presented. Configurations were tested that met the emission goals at idle operating conditions for carbon monoxide and for unburned hydrocarbons (emission index values of 20 and 4, respectively). Configurations were also tested that met a smoke number goal of 15 at sea-level take-off conditions. None of the configurations met the goal for oxides of nitrogen emissions at sea-level take-off conditions. The best configurations demonstrated oxide of nitrogen emission levels that were approximately 61 percent lower than those produced by the JT9D-7 engine, but these levels were still approximately 24 percent above the goal of an emission index level of 10. Additional combustor performance characteristics, including lean blowout, exit temperature pattern factor and radial profile, pressure loss, altitude stability, and altitude relight characteristics were documented. The results indicate the need for significant improvement in the altitude stability and relight characteristics. In addition to the basic program for current aircraft engine combustors, seventeen combustor configurations were evaluated for advanced supersonic technology applications. The configurations were tested at cruise conditions, and a conceptual design was evolved.

  8. Aircraft engine pollution reduction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines. An experimental program designed to develop and demonstrate these and other advanced, low pollution combustor design methods is described. Results that have been obtained to date indicate considerable promise for reducing advanced engine exhaust pollutants to levels significantly below current engines.

  9. Calculations of economy of 18-cylinder radial aircraft engine with exhaust-gas turbine geared to the crankshaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannum, Richard W; Zimmerman, Richard H

    1945-01-01

    Calculations based on dynamometer test-stand data obtained on an 18-cylinder radial engine were made to determine the improvement in fuel consumption that can be obtained at various altitudes by gearing an exhaust-gas turbine to the engine crankshaft in order to increase the engine-shaft work.

  10. 78 FR 63015 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed adopting the gas turbine engine test procedures of the... 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was effective July 18, 2012. On December 31, 2012, the FAA published a final rule with a request for comments (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in...

  11. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  12. Diesel engine exhaust

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Diesel engine exhaust ; CASRN N.A . Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  13. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1993-01-01

    Progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere is documented. A kinetic condensation model was implemented to predict heterogeneous condensation in the plume regime behind an HSCT flying in the lower stratosphere. Simulations were performed to illustrate the parametric dependence of contrail droplet growth on the exhaust condensation nuclei number density and size distribution. Model results indicate that the condensation of water vapor is strongly dependent on the number density of activated CN. Incorporation of estimates for dilution factors into a Lagrangian box model of the far-wake regime with scale-dependent diffusion indicates negligible decrease in ozone and enhancement of water concentrations of 6-13 times background, which decrease rapidly over 1-3 days. Radiative calculations indicate a net differential cooling rate of the plume about 3K/day at the beginning of the wake regime, with a total subsidence ranging between 0.4 and 1 km. Results from the Lagrangian plume model were used to estimate the effect of repeated superposition of aircraft plumes on the concentrations of water and NO(y) along a flight corridor. Results of laboratory studies of heterogeneous chemistry are also described. Kinetics of HCl, N2O5 and ClONO2 uptake on liquid sulfuric acid were measured as a function of composition and temperature. Refined measurements of the thermodynamics of nitric acid hydrates indicate that metastable dihydrate may play a role in the nucleation of more stable trihydrates PSC's.

  14. Spectroscopic remote sensing of aircraft exhausts at airports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefer, Klaus; Sedlmaier, Achim; Jahn, Christoph; Heland, Joerg

    2001-01-01

    Emission indices of aircraft engine exhausts must be known to calculate precisely the emissions of aircraft on airports during different operational scenarios. FTIR emission spectroscopy of exhausts was developed further as a remote sensing multi- component analysis method. Measurements at different aircraft engines were used to develop basically and optimize the measurement and analysis procedure during run up tests at ground level. The measured main engines are GE90-85B and RB211 as well as APUs of the B777 and B747. A temperature stabilized spectrometer in a van collected good quality spectra at 0.2 cm-1 resolution. The FTIR instrument was aligned to the engine nozzle exit with a two axis movable entrance mirror. Setting up the system needs about 10 to 20 minutes, if all systems are running on standby. Total measurement times at one thrust level should be around 5 minutes to obtain reliable results. The FTIR engine measurement results for CO2, CO, and NO have been proven to be in agreement with intrusive measurement data collected during engine runs in a test rig. The deviations were generally in the order of +/- 30 percent, i.e. comparable to the day-to-day variations of the engine emissions.

  15. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  16. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  17. 14 CFR 34.23 - Exhaust Emission Standards for Engines Manufactured on and after July 18, 2012.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.23 Exhaust Emission... emissions from each new aircraft gas turbine engine shall not exceed: (1) For Classes TF, T3 and T8 of...

  18. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  19. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  20. Static test-stand performance of the YF-102 turbofan engine with several exhaust configurations for the Quiet Short-Haul Research Aircraft (QSRA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.; Moore, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of a YF-102 turbofan engine was measured in an outdoor test stand with a bellmouth inlet and seven exhaust-system configurations. The configurations consisted of three separate-flow systems of various fan and core nozzle sizes and four confluent-flow systems of various nozzle sizes and shapes. A computer program provided good estimates of the engine performance and of thrust at maximum rating for each exhaust configuration. The internal performance of two different-shaped core nozzles for confluent-flow configurations was determined to be satisfactory. Pressure and temperature surveys were made with a traversing probe in the exhaust-nozzle flow for some confluent-flow configurations. The survey data at the mixing plane, plus the measured flow rates, were used to calculate the static-pressure variation along the exhaust nozzle length. The computed pressures compared well with experimental wall static-pressure data. External-flow surveys were made, for some confluent-flow configurations, with a large fixed rake at various locations in the exhaust plume.

  1. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  2. Measurements of Aged Aircraft Exhaust in the ACCENT Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedl, R.; Ross, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry of Combustion Emissions Near the Tropopause (ACCENT) mission is a multi-agency sponsored effort to evaluate the roles of aircraft and rocket exhaust in perturbing ozone chemistry and modifying aerosols and clouds.

  3. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  4. Turbocharged engine exhaust gas recirculation system

    SciTech Connect

    Stachowicz, R.W.

    1984-01-24

    Improved exhaust gas recirculation systems for turbocharged gas engines that include an exhaust pipe, a turbocharger connected thereto, and a carburetor connected with a source of gas for the engine. The recirculation system includes an air conduit extending from the turbocharger compressor discharge to a venturi, an exhaust gas conduit that extends from a connection with the exhaust pipe between the engine and the turbocharger to the venturi, a second air conduit that extends from the exhaust pipe to a connection with the first air conduit, and control valves located in the exhaust gas conduit and in the second air conduit. The valves are closed when the engine is being started or idling at no load and open when a load is imposed or when engine rpm's are increased. No pumps, blowers, etc. are needed because the system operates on a differential in pressure created within the system to cause the exhaust gas recirculation.

  5. Abating exhaust noises in jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A noise abating improvement for jet engines including turbojets, turbofans, turboprops, ramjets, scramjets, and hybrid jets is introduced. A provision is made for an apparatus in the primary and/or secondary flow streams of the engines; the apparatus imparts to the exhaust gases a component rotation or swirl about the engine's longitudinal axis. The rotary component in the exhaust gases causes a substantial suppression of sound energy build up normally produced by an axial flow exhaust system.

  6. Probe samples components of rocket engine exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumacher, P. E.

    1965-01-01

    Water-cooled, cantilevered probe samples the exhaust plume of rocket engines to recover particles for examination. The probe withstands the stresses of a rocket exhaust plume environment for a sufficient period to obtain a useful sample of the exhaust components.

  7. Calibration and demonstration of a condensation nuclei counting system for airborne measurements of aircraft exhausted particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Anderson, Bruce E.; Winstead, Edward L.; Bagwell, Donald R.

    A system of multiple continuous-flow condensation nuclei counters (CNC) was assembled, calibrated, and demonstrated on a NASA T-39 Sabreliner jet aircraft. The mission was to penetrate the exhaust plumes and/or contrails of other subsonic jet aircraft and determine the concentrations of submicrometer diameter aerosol particles. Mission criteria required rapid response measurements ( ˜ 1 s) at aircraft cruise altitudes (9-12 km). The CNC sampling system was optimized to operate at 160 Torr. Aerosol samples were acquired through an externally mounted probe. Installed downstream of the probe was a critical flow orifice that provided sample to the CNC system. The orifice not only controlled volumetric flow rate, but also dampened probe pressure/flow oscillations encountered in the turbulent aircraft-wake vortex environment. Laboratory calibrations with NaCl particles under representative conditions are reported that indicate small amounts of particle loss and a maximum measurement efficiency of ˜ 75% for particles with diameters ranging from ⩾ 0.01- ⩽ 0.18 μm Data from exhaust/contrail samplings of a NASA B757 and DC-8 at cruise altitude are discussed. Data include exhaust/contrail measurements made during periods in which the B757 port jet engine burned low-sulfur fuel while the starboard engine simultaneously burned specially prepared high-sulfur fuel. The data discussed highlight the CNC systems performance, and introduce new observations pertinent to the behavior of sulfur in aircraft exhaust aerosol chemistry.

  8. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines. 87.23 Section 87.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) §...

  9. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence.

  10. Abatement of an aircraft exhaust plume using aerodynamic baffles.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Michael; Christie, Simon M; Graham, Angus; Garry, Kevin P; Velikov, Stefan; Poll, D Ian; Smith, Malcolm G; Mead, M Iqbal; Popoola, Olalekan A M; Stewart, Gregor B; Jones, Roderic L

    2013-03-01

    The exhaust jet from a departing commercial aircraft will eventually rise buoyantly away from the ground; given the high thrust/power (i.e., momentum/buoyancy) ratio of modern aero-engines, however, this is a slow process, perhaps requiring ∼ 1 min or more. Supported by theoretical and wind tunnel modeling, we have experimented with an array of aerodynamic baffles on the surface behind a set of turbofan engines of 124 kN thrust. Lidar and point sampler measurements show that, as long as the intervention takes place within the zone where the Coanda effect holds the jet to the surface (i.e., within about 70 m in this case), then quite modest surface-mounted baffles can rapidly lift the jet away from the ground. This is of potential benefit in abating both surface concentrations and jet blast downstream. There is also some modest acoustic benefit. By distributing the aerodynamic lift and drag across an array of baffles, each need only be a fraction of the height of a single blast fence. PMID:23343109

  11. Effect of air temperature and relative humidity at various fuel-air ratios on exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis of an Avco Lycoming 0-320 DIAD light aircraft engine. Volume 2: Individual data points

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempke, E. R.

    1976-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions included carburetor lean-out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature-humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel-air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity. Volume II contains the data taken at each of the individual test points.

  12. Effect of Air Temperature and Relative Humidity at Various Fuel-Air Ratios on Exhaust Emissions on a Per-Mode Basis of an AVCO Lycoming 0-320 Diad Light Aircraft Engine: Volume 1: Results and Plotted Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skorobatckyi, M.; Cosgrove, D. V.; Meng, P. R.; Kempe, E. E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A carbureted four cylinder air cooled 0-320 DIAD Lycoming aircraft engine was tested to establish the effects of air temperature and humidity at various fuel-air ratios on the exhaust emissions on a per-mode basis. The test conditions include carburetor lean out at air temperatures of 50, 59, 80, and 100 F at relative humidities of 0, 30, 60, and 80 percent. Temperature humidity effects at the higher values of air temperature and relative humidity tested indicated that the HC and CO emissions increased significantly, while the NOx emissions decreased. Even at a fixed fuel air ratio, the HC emissions increase and the NOx emissions decrease at the higher values of air temperature and humidity.

  13. Apparatus for totally recycling engine exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, N.

    1986-05-13

    A method is described of burning fuel in the combustion chamber of an engine using an apparatus of the type which comprises an electrostatic precipitator connected to the exhaust manifold of the engine; a dissociation chamber connected to the electrostatic precipitator and to the intake manifold of the engine and including a dissociated gas control reservoir connected to the dissociation chamber and to the engine intake manifold; and a cyclone drum connected to the electrostatic precipitator for removing particles from the exhaust gases in the electrostatic precipitator. The method consists of: dissociating the molecules of the exhaust gas from the engine in the dissociation chamber into monomolecules by subjecting the exhaust gas to the effects of a corona discharge in the dissociation chamber; removing carbon and other particulate matter from the exhaust in the electrostatic precipitator and cyclone drum to dedust the exhaust gas; and igniting a mixture of fuel and the dedusted exhaust gas in the combustion chamber of the engine, whereby fuel is initially oxidized solely by an oxygen component of the dissociated exhaust gas.

  14. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  15. An Experimental Investigation of an Exhaust-gas-to-air Heat Exchanger for Use on Jet-stack-equipped Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalder, Jackson R; Spies, Ray J , Jr

    1948-01-01

    Tests were made to determine the loss in exhaust-jet thrust and engine power resulting from the insertion of an exhaust-gas-to-air heat exchanger in a jet-type exhaust stack of an aircraft engine. The thermal performance of the heat exchanger was also determined.

  16. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... directive (AD) for various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine. This AD...; phone: +43 7246 601 0; fax: +43 7246 601 9130; Internet: http://www.rotax-aircraft-engines.com . You...

  17. Alternative general-aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomazic, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    The most promising alternative engine (or engines) for application to general aircraft in the post-1985 time period was defined, and the level of technology was cited to the point where confident development of a new engine can begin early in the 1980's. Low emissions, multifuel capability, and fuel economy were emphasized. Six alternative propulsion concepts were considered to be viable candidates for future general-aircraft application: the advanced spark-ignition piston, rotary combustion, two- and four-stroke diesel, Stirling, and gas turbine engines.

  18. Workshop on Jet Exhaust Noise Reduction for Tactical Aircraft - NASA Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.; Henderson, Brenda S.

    2007-01-01

    Jet noise from supersonic, high performance aircraft is a significant problem for takeoff and landing operations near air bases and aircraft carriers. As newer aircraft with higher thrust and performance are introduced, the noise tends to increase due to higher jet exhaust velocities. Jet noise has been a subject of research for over 55 years. Commercial subsonic aircraft benefit from changes to the engine cycle that reduce the exhaust velocities and result in significant noise reduction. Most of the research programs over the past few decades have concentrated on commercial aircraft. Progress has been made by introducing new engines with design features that reduce the noise. NASA has recently started a new program called "Fundamental Aeronautics" where three projects (subsonic fixed wing, subsonic rotary wing, and supersonics) address aircraft noise. For the supersonics project, a primary goal is to understand the underlying physics associated with jet noise so that improved noise prediction tools and noise reduction methods can be developed for a wide range of applications. Highlights from the supersonics project are presented including prediction methods for broadband shock noise, flow measurement methods, and noise reduction methods. Realistic expectations are presented based on past history that indicates significant jet noise reduction cannot be achieved without major changes to the engine cycle. NASA s past experience shows a few EPNdB (effective perceived noise level in decibels) can be achieved using low noise design features such as chevron nozzles. Minimal thrust loss can be expected with these nozzles (< 0.5%) and they may be retrofitted on existing engines. In the long term, it is desirable to use variable cycle engines that can be optimized for lower jet noise during takeoff operations and higher thrust for operational performance. It is also suggested that noise experts be included early in the design process for engine nozzle systems to participate

  19. Two phase exhaust for internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk, Carl T.

    2011-11-29

    An internal combustion engine having a reciprocating multi cylinder internal combustion engine with multiple valves. At least a pair of exhaust valves are provided and each supply a separate power extraction device. The first exhaust valves connect to a power turbine used to provide additional power to the engine either mechanically or electrically. The flow path from these exhaust valves is smaller in area and volume than a second flow path which is used to deliver products of combustion to a turbocharger turbine. The timing of the exhaust valve events is controlled to produce a higher grade of energy to the power turbine and enhance the ability to extract power from the combustion process.

  20. Eye and respiratory irritants in jet engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Y

    1986-11-01

    It has been noted that eye and respiratory irritation frequently occurred in the ground crews and pilots working on the field behind an aircraft with a low smoke combustor (LSC) engine. This study was attempted to analyze the exhaust sampled at about 50 m behind the LSC J79 engines at idle power setting by means of a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. Nine kinds of lower aliphatic carbonyl compound (seven aldehydes and two ketones) were identified. The concentration of formaldehyde was the highest among them, showing the value above the threshold reported by previous investigators. Concentration of NOx was simultaneously measured by a gas detector tube in the same sample. The exhaust of a conventional J79 engine, which has rarely caused irritation, was also analyzed by the same technique and the results were compared. It was concluded that formaldehyde plays a major role in causing irritation. PMID:3790031

  1. First direct sulfuric acid detection in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Sierau, B.; Arnold, F.; Baumann, R.; Busen, R.; Schulte, P.; Schumann, U.

    Sulfuric acid (SA) was for the first time directly detected in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight. The measurements were made by a novel aircraft-based VACA (Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer) instrument of MPI-K Heidelberg while the research aircraft Falcon was chasing another research aircraft ATTAS. The VACA measures the total SA in the gas and in volatile submicron aerosol particles. During the chase the engines of the ATTAS alternatively burned sulfur-poor and sulfur-rich fuel. In the sulfur-rich plume very marked enhancements of total SA were observed of up to 1300 pptv which were closely correlated with ΔCO2 and ΔT and were far above the local ambient atmospheric background-level of typically 15-50 pptv. Our observations indicate a lower limit for the efficiency ɛ for fuel-sulfur conversion to SA of 0.34 %.

  2. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... various aircraft equipped with Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine. This AD results from mandatory... Rotax Aircraft Engines BRP has issued Alert Service Bulletin ASB- 912-059 and ASB-914-042...

  3. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal... 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may obtain further information by examining...

  4. Speciation and chemical evolution of nitrogen oxides in aircraft exhaust near airports.

    PubMed

    Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Timko, Michael T; Yelvington, Paul E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    Measurements of nitrogen oxides from a variety of commercial aircraft engines as part of the JETS-APEX2 and APEX3 campaigns show that NOx (NOx [triple bond] NO + NO2) is emitted primarily in the form of NO2 at idle thrust and NO at high thrust. A chemical kinetics combustion model reproduces the observed NO2 and NOx trends with engine power and sheds light on the relevant chemical mechanisms. Experimental evidence is presented of rapid conversion of NO to NO2 in the exhaust plume from engines at low thrust. The rapid conversion and the high NO2/NOx emission ratios observed are unrelated to ozone chemistry. NO2 emissions from a CFM56-3B1 engine account for approximately 25% of the NOx emitted below 3000 feet (916 m) and 50% of NOx emitted below 500 feet (153 m) during a standard ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization) landing-takeoff cycle. Nitrous acid (HONO) accounts for 0.5% to 7% of NOy emissions from aircraft exhaust depending on thrust and engine type. Implications for photochemistry near airports resulting from aircraft emissions are discussed.

  5. Measurements of nitrous acid in commercial aircraft exhaust at the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ben H; Santoni, Gregory W; Wood, Ezra C; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Wofsy, Steven C; Munger, J William

    2011-09-15

    The Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX), conducted in January of 2009 in Palmdale, California, quantified aerosol and gaseous emissions from a DC-8 aircraft equipped with CFM56-2C1 engines using both traditional and synthetic fuels. This study examines the emissions of nitrous acid (HONO) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x) = NO + NO(2)) measured 145 m behind the grounded aircraft. The fuel-based emission index (EI) for HONO increases approximately 6-fold from idle to takeoff conditions but plateaus between 65 and 100% of maximum rated engine thrust, while the EI for NO(x) increases continuously. At high engine power, NO(x) EI is greater when combusting traditional (JP-8) rather than Fischer-Tropsch fuels, while HONO exhibits the opposite trend. Additionally, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was identified in exhaust plumes emitted only during engine idle. Chemical reactions responsible for emissions and comparison to previous measurement studies are discussed.

  6. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ikenoya, Y.; Otani, J.

    1982-10-19

    An exhaust system for an engine of a motorcycle is disclosed having catalytic and silencing mufflers arranged in adjacent side -by-side series flow relationship, the catalytic muffler extending rearwardly of the motorcycle, and, adjacent its rear end, being interconnected with the silencing muffler, the silencing muffler including plural expansion chambers which are interconnected in flow reversal relationship for gases to be exhausted rearwardly of the motorcycle.

  7. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  8. Ice Prevention on Aircraft by Means of Engine Exhaust Heat and a Technical Study of Heat Transmission from a Clark Y Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodorsen, Theodore; Clay, William C

    1933-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to study the practicability of employing heat as a means of preventing the formation of ice on airplane wings. The report relates essentially to technical problems regarding the extraction of heat from the exhaust gases and its proper distribution over the exposed surfaces. In this connection a separate study has been made to determine the variation of the coefficient of heat transmission along the chord of a Clark Y airfoil. Experiments on ice prevention both in the laboratory and in flight show conclusively that it is necessary to heat only the front portion of the wing surface to effect complete prevention. Experiments in flight show that a vapor-heating system which extracts heat from the exhaust and distributes it to the wings is an entirely practical and efficient method for preventing ice formation.

  9. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particle Formation in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Howard, S. D.; Vay, S.; Kinne, S. A.; Baumgardner, D.; Dermott, P.; Kreidenweis, S.; Goodman, J.; Gore, Waren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A combination of CN counts, Ames wire impactor size analyses and optical particle counter data in aircraft exhaust results in a continuous particle size distribution between 0.01 micrometer and 1 micrometer particle radius sampled in the exhaust of a Boeing 757 research aircraft. The two orders of magnitude size range covered by the measurements correspond to 6-7 orders of magnitude particle concentration. CN counts and small particle wire impactor data determine a nucleation mode, composed of aircraft-emitted sulfuric acid aerosol, that contributes between 62% and 85% to the total aerosol surface area and between 31% and 34% to its volume. Soot aerosol comprises 0.5% of the surface area of the sulfuric acid aerosol. Emission indices are: EIH2SO4 = 0.05 g/kgFUEL and (0.2-0.5) g/kgFUEL (for 75 ppmm and 675 ppmm fuel-S, respectively), 2.5E4

  10. 46 CFR 119.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 119.425 Section 119.425 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical dry exhaust pipes are permissible...

  11. Monitoring Engine Vibrations And Spectrum Of Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, Carol L.; Randall, Michael R.; Reinert, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Real-time computation of intensities of peaks in visible-light emission spectrum of exhaust combined with real-time spectrum analysis of vibrations into developmental monitoring technique providing up-to-the-second information on conditions of critical bearings in engine. Conceived to monitor conditions of bearings in turbopump suppling oxygen to Space Shuttle main engine, based on observations that both vibrations in bearings and intensities of visible light emitted at specific wavelengths by exhaust plume of engine indicate wear and incipient failure of bearings. Applicable to monitoring "health" of other machinery via spectra of vibrations and electromagnetic emissions from exhausts. Concept related to one described in "Monitoring Bearing Vibrations For Signs Of Damage", (MFS-29734).

  12. In situ observations in aircraft exhaust plumes in the lower stratosphere at midlatitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, D. W.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Gao, R. S.; Boering, K. A.; Daube, B. C.; Wofsy, S. C.; Lohmann, R. P.; Hintsa, E. J.; Dessler, A. E.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumentation on the NASA ER-2 high-altitude aircraft has been used to observe engine exhaust from the same aircraft while operating in the lower stratosphere. Encounters with the exhaust plume occurred approximately 10 min after emission with spatial scales near 2 km and durations of up to 10 s. Measurements include total reactive nitrogen, NO(y), the component species NO and NO2, CO2, H2O, CO, N2O, condensation nuclei, and meteorological parameters. The integrated amounts of CO2 and H2O during the encounters are consistent with the stoichiometry of fuel combustion (1:1 molar). Emission indices (EI) for NO(x) (= NO + NO2), CO, and N2O are calculated using simultaneous measurements of CO2. EI values for NO(x) near 4 g/(kg fuel) are in good agreement with values scaled from limited ground-based tests of the ER-2 engine. Non-NO(x) species comprise less than about 20% of emitted reactive nitrogen, consistent with model evaluations. In addition to demonstrating the feasibility of aircraft plume detection, these results increase confidence in the projection of emissions from current and proposed supersonic aircraft fleets and hence in the assessment of potential long-term changes in the atmosphere.

  13. Prediction of subsonic aircraft flows with jet exhaust interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, D. W.

    1981-01-01

    A numerical procedure to calculate the flow fields resulting from the viscous inviscid interactions that occur when a strong jet exhaust and aircraft flow field coupling exists was developed. The approach divides the interaction region into zones which are either predominantly viscous or inviscid. The flow in the inviscid zone, which surrounds most of the aircraft, is calculated using an existing potential flow code. The viscous flow zone, which encompasses the jet plume, is modeled using a parabolized Navier-Stokes code. The procedure features the coupling of the zonal solutions such that sufficient information is transferred between the zones to preserve the effects of the interactions. The zonal boundaries overlap and the boundary conditions are the information link between zones. An iteration scheme iterates the coupled analysis until convergence has been obtained.

  14. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N 27811, certificated in any category: ] Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Industria...

  15. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... certificated in the United States. However, the Model 912 A series engine installed in various aircraft does not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You...

  16. Computation of wake/exhaust mixing downstream of advanced transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quackenbush, Todd R.; Teske, Milton E.; Bilanin, Alan J.

    1993-01-01

    The mixing of engine exhaust with the vortical wake of high speed aircraft operating in the stratosphere can play an important role in the formation of chemical products that deplete atmospheric ozone. An accurate analysis of this type of interaction is therefore necessary as a part of the assessment of the impact of proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) designs on atmospheric chemistry. This paper describes modifications to the parabolic Navier-Stokes flow field analysis in the UNIWAKE unified aircraft wake model to accommodate the computation of wake/exhaust mixing and the simulation of reacting flow. The present implementation uses a passive chemistry model in which the reacting species are convected and diffused by the fluid dynamic solution but in which the evolution of the species does not affect the flow field. The resulting analysis, UNIWAKE/PCHEM (Passive CHEMistry) has been applied to the analysis of wake/exhaust flows downstream of representative HSCT configurations. The major elements of the flow field model are described, as are the results of sample calculations illustrating the behavior of the thermal exhaust plume and the production of species important to the modeling of condensation in the wake. Appropriate steps for further development of the UNIWAKE/PCHEM model are also outlined.

  17. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  18. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Arnold, D R

    1975-04-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer.

  19. Exhaust gas turbocharger for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Regar, K.N.

    1982-01-26

    An exhaust gas turbocharger is described for a diesel engine, the turbocharger including a compressor, an exhaust gas turbine, and a shaft joining the compressor and turbine. A flywheel is mounted on another shaft, and a device, such as a freewheel, alternatively couples and uncouples the flywheel shaft and turbocharger shaft. The flywheel shaft is in two sections, and a summation mechanism, such as a planetary gear arrangement, is between the two shaft sections. The summation mechanism is controlled by a hydrostatic device and/or an electronic device. A brake is provided for selectively preventing rotation of the flywheel shaft section between the summation mechanism and the turbocharger shaft.

  20. Determination of sulfur trioxide in engine exhaust.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D R

    1975-01-01

    Sulfur trioxide in the exhaust gas of an internal combustion engine is removed and concentrated by absorption in a solution of 80% isopropyl alcohol, which quantitatively absorbs it and inhibits the oxidation of any sulfur dioxide which may be absorbed. The absorbed sulfur trioxide (sulfuric acid) is determined by an absorption titration by using barium chloride as the titrant and thorin as the indicator. The sulfur dioxide content of the exhaust is measured continuously by means of a DuPont Model 411 ultraviolet photoanalyzer. PMID:50930

  1. Flight-determined engine exhaust characteristics of an F404 engine in an F-18 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ennix, Kimberly A.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Webb, Lannie D.

    1993-01-01

    Personnel at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-Langley) and the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) recently completed a joint acoustic flight test program. Several types of aircraft with high nozzle pressure ratio engines were flown to satisfy a twofold objective. First, assessments were made of subsonic climb-to-cruise noise from flights conducted at varying altitudes in a Mach 0.30 to 0.90 range. Second, using data from flights conducted at constant altitude in a Mach 0.30 to 0.95 range, engineers obtained a high quality noise database. This database was desired to validate the Aircraft Noise Prediction Program and other system noise prediction codes. NASA-Dryden personnel analyzed the engine data from several aircraft that were flown in the test program to determine the exhaust characteristics. The analysis of the exhaust characteristics from the F-18 aircraft are reported. An overview of the flight test planning, instrumentation, test procedures, data analysis, engine modeling codes, and results are presented.

  2. Exhaust gas recirculation in a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine

    DOEpatents

    Duffy, Kevin P.; Kieser, Andrew J.; Rodman, Anthony; Liechty, Michael P.; Hergart, Carl-Anders; Hardy, William L.

    2008-05-27

    A homogeneous charge compression ignition engine operates by injecting liquid fuel directly in a combustion chamber, and mixing the fuel with recirculated exhaust and fresh air through an auto ignition condition of the fuel. The engine includes at least one turbocharger for extracting energy from the engine exhaust and using that energy to boost intake pressure of recirculated exhaust gas and fresh air. Elevated proportions of exhaust gas recirculated to the engine are attained by throttling the fresh air inlet supply. These elevated exhaust gas recirculation rates allow the HCCI engine to be operated at higher speeds and loads rendering the HCCI engine a more viable alternative to a conventional diesel engine.

  3. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2003-04-22

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle and imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure thereby adjusting flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  4. Two stroke engine exhaust emissions separator

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Raterman, Kevin T.

    2002-01-01

    A separator for substantially resolving at least one component of a process stream, such as from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. The separator includes a body defining a chamber therein. A nozzle housing is located proximate the chamber. An exhaust inlet is in communication with the nozzle housing and the chamber. A nozzle assembly is positioned in the nozzle housing and includes a nozzle moveable within and relative to the nozzle housing. The nozzle includes at least one passage formed therethrough such that a process stream entering the exhaust inlet connection passes through the passage formed in the nozzle, which imparts a substantially rotational flow to the process stream as it enters the chamber. A positioning member is configured to position the nozzle relative to the nozzle housing in response to changes in process stream pressure to adjust flowrate of said process stream entering into the chamber.

  5. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  6. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  7. Chemical characterization of freshly emitted particulate matter from aircraft exhaust using single particle mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Brem, B. T.; Ellenrieder, M.; Durdina, L.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Wang, J.; Lohmann, U.; Sierau, B.

    2016-06-01

    Non-volatile aircraft engine emissions are an important anthropogenic source of soot particles in the upper troposphere and in the vicinity of airports. They influence climate and contribute to global warming. In addition, they impact air quality and thus human health and the environment. The chemical composition of non-volatile particulate matter emission from aircraft engines was investigated using single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The exhaust from three different aircraft engines was sampled and analyzed. The soot particulate matter was sampled directly behind the turbine in a test cell at Zurich Airport. Single particle analyses will focus on metallic compounds. The particles analyzed herein represent a subset of the emissions composed of the largest particles with a mobility diameter >100 nm due to instrumental restrictions. A vast majority of the analyzed particles was shown to contain elemental carbon, and depending on the engine and the applied thrust the elemental carbon to total carbon ratio ranged from 83% to 99%. The detected metallic compounds were all internally mixed with the soot particles. The most abundant metals in the exhaust were Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ca and Al; V, Ba, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mg, Mn, Si, Ti and Zr were also detected. We further investigated potential sources of the ATOFMS-detected metallic compounds using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The potential sources considered were kerosene, engine lubrication oil and abrasion from engine wearing components. An unambiguous source apportionment was not possible because most metallic compounds were detected in several of the analyzed sources.

  8. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  9. Exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-05-21

    An exhaust gas recirculation system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger having a low pressure turbine outlet in fluid communication with an exhaust gas conduit. The turbocharger also includes a low pressure compressor intake and a high pressure compressor outlet in communication with an intake air conduit. An exhaust gas recirculation conduit fluidly communicates with the exhaust gas conduit to divert a portion of exhaust gas to a low pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extending between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and an engine intake system for delivery of exhaust gas thereto. A high pressure exhaust gas recirculation branch extends between the exhaust gas recirculation conduit and the compressor intake and delivers exhaust gas to the compressor for mixing with a compressed intake charge for delivery to the intake system.

  10. Power-dependent speciation of volatile organic compounds in aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Thornhill, K. Lee; Winstead, Edward L.; Ziemba, Luke D.; Blake, Donald R.; Timko, Michael T.; Anderson, Bruce E.

    2012-12-01

    As part of the third NASA Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX-3, November 2005), whole air samples were collected to determine the emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from aircraft equipped with three different gas-turbine engines (an Allison Engine 3007-A1E, a Pratt-Whitney 4158, and a Rolls-Royce RB211-535E4B). Samples were collected 1 m behind the engine exhaust plane of the engines while they were operated at powers ranging from idle up to 30% of maximum rated thrust. Exhaust emission indices (mass emitted per kilogram of fuel used) for CO and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were calculated based on enhancements over background relative to CO2. Emissions of all NMHCs were greatest at low power with values decreasing by an order of magnitude with increasing power. Previous studies have shown that scaling idle hydrocarbon emissions to formaldehyde or ethene (which are typically emitted at a ratio of 1-to-1 at idle) reduces variability amongst engine types. NMHC emissions were found to scale at low power, with alkenes contributing over 50% of measured NMHCs. However, as the power increases hydrocarbon emissions no longer scale to ethene, as the aromatics become the dominant species emitted. This may be due in part to a shift in combustion processes from thermal cracking (producing predominantly alkenes) to production of new molecules (producing proportionally more aromatics) as power increases. The formation of these aromatics is an intermediate step in the production of soot, which also increases with increasing power. The increase in aromatics relative to alkenes additionally results in a decrease in the hydroxyl radical reactivity and ozone formation potential of aircraft exhaust. Samples collected 30 m downwind of the engine were also analyzed for NMHCs and carbonyl compounds (acetone, 2-butanone and C1-C9 aldehydes). Formaldehyde was the predominant carbonyl emitted; however, the ratio of ethene-to-formaldehyde varied between the

  11. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  12. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future. PMID:16194561

  13. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... prevent backflow of water from reaching engine exhaust ports under normal conditions. (d) Pipes used...

  14. Internal combustion engine with an exhaust gas turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Hiereth, H.; Withalm, G.

    1981-06-09

    An internal combustion engine with an exhaust-gas turbocharger, particularly a mixture-compressing internal combustion engine, is disclosed in which a bleeder valve is provided which during the operation of the internal combustion engine in the partial load range conducts the exhaust gases in bypassing relationship to the turbine of the exhaust gas turbocharger.

  15. Stratospheric aircraft exhaust plume and wake chemistry studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Brown, R. C.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Zahniser, M. S.; Robinson, G. N.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Ko, M. K. W.; Shia, R-L.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents progress to date in an ongoing study to analyze and model emissions leaving a proposed High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) from when the exhaust gases leave the engine until they are deposited at atmospheric scales in the stratosphere. Estimates are given for the emissions, summarizing relevant earlier work (CIAP) and reviewing current propulsion research efforts. The chemical evolution and the mixing and vortical motion of the exhaust are analyzed to track the exhaust and its speciation as the emissions are mixed to atmospheric scales. The species tracked include those that could be heterogeneously reactive on the surfaces of the condensed solid water (ice) particles and on exhaust soot particle surfaces. Dispersion and reaction of chemical constituents in the far wake are studied with a Lagrangian air parcel model, in conjunction with a radiation code to calculate the net heating/cooling. Laboratory measurements of heterogeneous chemistry of aqueous sulfuric acid and nitric acid hydrates are also described. Results include the solubility of HCl in sulfuric acid which is a key parameter for modeling stratospheric processing. We also report initial results for condensation of nitric acid trihydrate from gas phase H2O and HNO3.

  16. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States (HTSUS) by meeting the following requirements: (1) The aircraft, aircraft engines,...

  17. Remote sensing of temperature and concentration profiles of a gas jet by coupling infrared emission spectroscopy and LIDAR for characterization of aircraft engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Offret, J.-P.; Lebedinsky, J.; Navello, L.; Pina, V.; Serio, B.; Bailly, Y.; Hervé, P.

    2015-05-01

    Temperature data play an important role in the combustion chamber since it determines both the efficiency and the rate of pollutants emission of engines. Air pollution problem concerns the emissions of gases such as CO, CO2, NO, NO2, SO2 and also aerosols, soot and volatile organic compounds. Flame combustion occurs in hostile environments where temperature and concentration profiles are often not easy to measure. In this study, a temperature and CO2 concentration profiles optical measurement method, suitable for combustion analysis, is discussed and presented. The proposed optical metrology method presents numerous advantages when compared to intrusive methods. The experimental setup comprises a passive radiative emission measurement method combined with an active laser-measurement method. The passive method is based on the use of gas emission spectroscopy. The experimental spectrometer device is coupled with an active method. The active method is used to investigate and correct complex flame profiles. This method similar to a LIDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) device is based on the measurement of Rayleigh scattering of a short laser pulse recorded using a high-speed streak camera. The whole experimental system of this new method is presented. Results obtained on a small-scale turbojet are shown and discussed in order to illustrate the potentials deliver by the sophisticated method. Both temperature and concentration profiles of the gas jet are presented and discussed.

  18. Energy Efficient Engine Exhaust Mixer Model Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Larkin, M.

    1981-01-01

    An exhaust mixer test program was conducted to define the technology required for the Energy Efficient Engine Program. The model configurations of 1/10 scale were tested in two phases. A parametric study of mixer design options, the impact of residual low pressure turbine swirl, and integration of the mixer with the structural pylon of the nacelle were investigated. The improvement of the mixer itself was also studied. Nozzle performance characteristics were obtained along with exit profiles and oil smear photographs. The sensitivity of nozzle performance to tailpipe length, lobe number, mixer penetration, and mixer modifications like scalloping and cutbacks were established. Residual turbine swirl was found detrimental to exhaust system performance and the low pressure turbine system for Energy Efficient Engine was designed so that no swirl would enter the mixer. The impact of mixer/plug gap was also established, along with importance of scalloping, cutbacks, hoods, and plug angles on high penetration mixers.

  19. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silcox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  20. Jet Engine Exhaust Nozzle Flow Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Silox, Richard J. (Inventor); Buehrle, Ralph D. (Inventor); Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Cabell, Randolph H. (Inventor); Hilton, George C. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A jet engine exhaust nozzle flow effector is a chevron formed with a radius of curvature with surfaces of the flow effector being defined and opposing one another. At least one shape memory alloy (SMA) member is embedded in the chevron closer to one of the chevron's opposing surfaces and substantially spanning from at least a portion of the chevron's root to the chevron's tip.

  1. Small- and medium-scale effects of high-flying aircraft exhausts on the atmospheric composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karol, I. L.; Ozolin, Y. E.

    1994-10-01

    Following numerous model studies of the global impacts of sub- and supersonic aircraft on the atmosphere, this paper assesses the separate aircraft engine exhaust effects of the 45°N cruise flight and at the 10- and 18-km levels of the July atmosphere. A box diffusion photochemical model in the cross-section plane of the flight trajectory is used to compute the effects of gas-phase and heterogeneous reactions on the condensation trail particles in the troposphere, and on the sulphate aerosols in the stratosphere. The enhanced horizontal dispersion of the exhaust plume is considered in the model. A significant but short term depletion of ozone is predicted, which is 99% restored in about 1 h in the wide plume with enhanced horizontal dispersion, but requires more than 24 h in the narrow plume without it. The oxidation rate of NO and NO2 into the HNO3 depends on the OH content in the exhausts and varies in all the cases. The heterogeneous photochemistry has only a small influence on the initial evolution of N2O5 and HO2 in the plume.

  2. The Further Development of Heat-Resistant Materials for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bollenrath, Franz

    1946-01-01

    The present report deals with the problems involved in the greater utilization and development of aircraft engine materials, and specifically; piston materials, cylinder heads, exhaust valves, and exhaust gas turbine blading. The blades of the exhaust gas turbine are likely to be the highest stressed components of modern power plants from a thermal-mechanical and chemical standpoint, even though the requirements on exhaust valves of engines with gasoline injection are in general no less stringent. For the fire plate in Diesel engines the specifications for mechanical strength and design are not so stringent, and the question of heat resistance, which under these circumstances is easier obtainable, predominates.

  3. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... separate engine driven pump. (2) Water for cooling the exhaust pipe, other than a vertical exhaust, must be... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS... otherwise provided in this paragraph, all engine exhaust pipes must be water cooled. (1) Vertical...

  4. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all exhaust systems must ensure minimum risk of injury to personnel. Protection must be provided in...

  5. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions. (d) Pipes used for wet exhaust lines must be Schedule 80 or corrosion-resistant material and... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust...

  6. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., combustible material. (2) Be provided with noncombustible hangers and blocks for support. (h) An exhaust pipe... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of...

  7. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  8. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  9. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  10. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  11. 14 CFR 25.941 - Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inlet, engine, and exhaust compatibility. 25.941 Section 25.941 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., engine, and exhaust compatibility. For airplanes using variable inlet or exhaust system geometry, or...

  12. Remote measurement of the plume shape of aircraft exhausts at airports by passive FTIR spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schafer, Klaus; Jahn, Carsten; Utzig, Selina; Flores-Jardines, Edgar; Harig, Roland; Rusch, Peter

    2004-11-01

    Information about the interaction between the exhaust plume of an aircraft jet engine and ambient air is required for the application of small-scale chemistry-transport models to investigate airport air quality. This interaction is not well understood. In order to study the interaction, spatial information about the plume is required. FTIR emission spectroscopy may be applied to analyze the aircraft exhausts. In order to characterize the plumes spatially, a scanning imaging FTIR system (SIGIS) has been improved. SIGIS is comprised of an interferometer (Bruker OPAG), an azimuth-elevation-scanning mirror, a data acquisition and control system with digital signal processors (DSP), an infrared camera and a personal computer. With this instrumentation it is possible to visualise the plume and to obtain information about the temperature distribution within the plume. Measurements are performed at low spectral resolution, because the dynamic environment of these measurements limits the measurement time to about 2 minutes. Measurements of the plume shapes of an APU and of main engines were performed.

  13. Variable stream control engine concept for advanced supersonic aircraft: Features and benefits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howlett, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The Variable Stream Control Engine is studied for advanced supersonic cruise aircraft. Significant environmental and performance improvements relative to first generation supersonic turbojet engines are cited. Two separate flow streams, each with independent burner and nozzle systems are incorporated within the engine. By unique control of the exhaust temperatures and velocities in two coannular streams, significant reduction in jet noise is obtained.

  14. Heavy duty diesel engine exhaust aerosol particle and ion measurements.

    PubMed

    Lähde, Tero; Rönkkö, Topi; Virtanen, Annele; Schuck, Tanja J; Pirjola, Liisa; Hämeri, Kaarle; Kulmala, Markku; Arnold, Frank; Rothe, Dieter; Keskinen, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    Heavy duty EURO 4 diesel engine exhaust particle and ion size distributions were measured atthetailpipe using dynamometer testing. Measurements of particle volatility and electrical charge were undertaken to clarify diesel exhaust nucleation mode characteristics with different exhaust after-treatment systems. Nucleation mode particle volatility and charging probability were dependent on exhaust after-treatment particles were volatile and uncharged when the engine was equipped with diesel particulate filter and partly volatile and partly charged in exhaust without any after-treatment or with an oxidation catalyst only. The absence of charged particles in the nucleation mode of diesel particulate filtered exhaust excludes the ion mediated process as a nucleation particle formation mechanism.

  15. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  16. 40 CFR 90.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exhaust emission compliance over the full range of air inlet filter systems and exhaust muffler systems. (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must....407 Section 90.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  17. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  18. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  19. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  20. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive maintenance... Administrator, may approve an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part...

  2. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Definitions. Exhaust Emissions (In-Use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8... in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF and of rated output of 129 kilonewtons thrust...

  3. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  4. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  5. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines. Previously announced in STAR as N83-34947

  6. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  7. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time.

  8. Advanced materials for aircraft engine applications.

    PubMed

    Backman, D G; Williams, J C

    1992-02-28

    A review of advances for aircraft engine structural materials and processes is presented. Improved materials, such as superalloys, and the processes for making turbine disks and blades have had a major impact on the capability of modern gas turbine engines. New structural materials, notably composites and intermetallic materials, are emerging that will eventually further enhance engine performance, reduce engine weight, and thereby enable new aircraft systems. In the future, successful aerospace manufacturers will combine product design and materials excellence with improved manufacturing methods to increase production efficiency, enhance product quality, and decrease the engine development cycle time. PMID:17817782

  9. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  10. Catalyst for purifying diesel engine exhaust gases

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Ueda, K.; Ikeda, Y.; Ono, T.

    1986-10-14

    This patent describes a catalyst for purifying a diesel engine exhaust gas. The catalyst comprises a refractory three-dimensional structure having a gas filter function, a porous inorganic carrier supported on it, and (a) vanadium oxide and (b) at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum, rhodium and palladium supported on the carrier. The amount of component (a) is in the range of 0.2 to 40.0 g as V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ per liter of the structure and the amount of component (b) is in the range of 0.1 to 4.0 g as metal liter of the structure, wherein the mole ratio of component (a) to component (b) deposited as 1-90:1.

  11. 14 CFR 34.21 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.21 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each new aircraft gas turbine engine of class T8 manufactured on or after February 1,...

  12. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  13. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  14. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Exhaust Emissions (In-use Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974,...

  15. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  16. Lightweight Exhaust Manifold and Exhaust Pipe Ducting for Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Northam, G. Burton (Inventor); Ransone, Philip O. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An improved exhaust system for an internal combustion gasoline-and/or diesel-fueled engine includes an engine exhaust manifold which has been fabricated from carbon- carbon composite materials in operative association with an exhaust pipe ducting which has been fabricated from carbon-carbon composite materials. When compared to conventional steel. cast iron. or ceramic-lined iron paris. the use of carbon-carbon composite exhaust-gas manifolds and exhaust pipe ducting reduces the overall weight of the engine. which allows for improved acceleration and fuel efficiency: permits operation at higher temperatures without a loss of strength: reduces the "through-the wall" heat loss, which increases engine cycle and turbocharger efficiency and ensures faster "light-off" of catalytic converters: and, with an optional thermal reactor, reduces emission of major pollutants, i.e. hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  17. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  18. Engine Would Recover Exhaust Energy More Efficiently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimpelfeld, Philip M.

    1993-01-01

    Exhaust energy used for supercharging and extra shaft power. Flow of exhaust apportioned by waste gate to meet demand of turbocharger, and portion not fed to turbocharger sent to power-recovery turbine. Expected to increase fuel efficiency.

  19. 40 CFR 91.407 - Engine inlet and exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (b) The air inlet filter system and exhaust muffler system combination used on the test engine must... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine inlet and exhaust systems. 91.407 Section 91.407 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR...

  20. 46 CFR 182.425 - Engine exhaust cooling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 175.600) will be considered as meeting the requirements... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Engine exhaust cooling. 182.425 Section 182.425 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.425 Engine exhaust cooling. (a) Except...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  2. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  3. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  4. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize..., intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity. (f)...

  5. 40 CFR 1065.130 - Engine exhaust.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS... exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize... balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity....

  6. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  7. Exhaust gas recirculation method for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Kimura, K.; Asakura, M.; Shiina, T.

    1988-07-19

    This patent describes a method of controlling exhaust gas recirculation in an internal combustion engine having an exhaust passage, an intake passage, an exhaust gas recirculating passage communicating the exhaust passage with the intake passage, and exhaust gas recirculating valve; and a transmission having a shift lever. The valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve is controlled in response to operating conditions of the engine so as to regulate the amount of exhaust gas recirculation to values appropriate to the operating conditions of the engine. The method comprising the steps of (1) determining whether or not the engine is in at least one of a predetermined accelerating condition and a predetermined decelerating condition; (2) varying the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve by a predetermined value when the engine is determined to be in at least one of the predetermined accelerating condition and the predetermined decelerating condition; (3) detecting a position of the shift lever of the transmission; and (4) correcting the predetermined value in accordance with the detected position of the shift lever so as to increase the valve opening of the exhaust gas recirculating valve as the shift lever of the transmission is set to a higher speed position.

  8. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  9. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  10. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  11. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... engines, and propellers. 21.6 Section 21.6 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, no person may manufacture a new aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller based...

  13. Exhaust Nozzle for a Multitube Detonative Combustion Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bratkovich, Thomas E.; Williams, Kevin E.; Bussing, Thomas R. A.; Lidstone, Gary L.; Hinkey, John B.

    2004-01-01

    An improved type of exhaust nozzle has been invented to help optimize the performances of multitube detonative combustion engines. The invention is applicable to both air-breathing and rocket engines used to propel some aircraft and spacecraft, respectively. In a detonative combustion engine, thrust is generated through the expulsion of combustion products from a detonation process in which combustion takes place in a reaction zone coupled to a shock wave. The combustion releases energy to sustain the shock wave, while the shock wave enhances the combustion in the reaction zone. The coupled shockwave/reaction zone, commonly referred to as a detonation, propagates through the reactants at very high speed . typically of the order of several thousands of feet per second (of the order of 1 km/s). The very high speed of the detonation forces combustion to occur very rapidly, thereby contributing to high thermodynamic efficiency. A detonative combustion engine of the type to which the present invention applies includes multiple parallel cylindrical combustion tubes, each closed at the front end and open at the rear end. Each tube is filled with a fuel/oxidizer mixture, and then a detonation wave is initiated at the closed end. The wave propagates rapidly through the fuel/oxidizer mixture, producing very high pressure due to the rapid combustion. The high pressure acting on the closed end of the tube contributes to forward thrust. When the detonation wave reaches the open end of the tube, it produces a blast wave, behind which the high-pressure combustion products are expelled from the tube. The process of filling each combustion tube with a detonable fuel/oxidizer mixture and then producing a detonation repeated rapidly to obtain repeated pulses of thrust. Moreover, the multiple combustion tubes are filled and fired in a repeating sequence. Hence, the pressure at the outlet of each combustion tube varies cyclically. A nozzle of the present invention channels the

  14. The chemistry and diffusion of aircraft exhausts in the lower stratosphere during the first few hours after fly-by. [with attention to ozone depletion by SST exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilst, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the hydrogen-nitrogen-oxygen reaction systems in the lower stratosphere as they are initially perturbed by individual aircraft engine exhaust plumes was conducted in order to determine whether any significant chemical reactions occur, either among exhaust chemical species, or between these species and the environmental ozone, while the exhaust products are confined to intact plume segments at relatively high concentrations. The joint effects of diffusive mixing and chemical kinetics on the reactions were also studied, using the techniques of second-order closure diffusion/chemistry models. The focus of the study was on the larger problem of the potential depletion of ozone by supersonic transport aircraft exhaust materials emitted into the lower stratosphere.

  15. The Evolution of Hono Emissions In An Aircraft Engine Turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miake-Lye, R. C.; Yam, C. K.; Han, S.; Lukachko, S. P.; Waitz, I. A.; Wormhoudt, J.; Brown, R. C.; Zhang, J.; Clague, A. R.; Brundish, K. D.

    Measurements and chemical kinetic modeling of NOy species have been performed for exhaust species passing through an aircraft engine turbine. The measurements of NO, NO2, and HONO were made at the exit of a combustor in a sector test rig and at the engine exit of the DERA (QinetiQ) TRACE engine using the same combustor technology. Simulations of the fluid flow and chemistry through the post combustor sections of the engine were made using the CNEWT code. Significant increases in HONO concentrations are observed in the measurements and are corroborated by the numerical simulations, with the latter indicating that OH driven oxidation of NO is the primary HONO chemical production mechanism. Reasonable quantitative agreement between the measurements and model at the combustor exit was achieved, despite significant uncertainties in model initialization of radical species.

  16. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  17. Prediction of transient exhaust soot for a turbocharged diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoping, B.; Shu, H.

    1995-12-31

    A generalized computer model for prediction of transient exhaust soot and response of turbocharged diesel engines is developed. It includes detailed thermodynamic and dynamic processes. This model utilizes a multi-zone combustion submodel that emphasizes simple and economical calculations for combustion behavior and zonal soot, so overall transient exhaust soot can be predicted. This model is applied to a turbocharged diesel engine. The steady state exhaust soot and performance are calculated and validated, and on the basis, the exhaust soot and response under three classes of transient operating conditions are predicted. The parametric study is carried out by using this model. The effects of valve overlap period, exhaust manifold volume, turbocharger inertia and ambient pressure are predicted. Applications of this model have proved that it is a convenient analytical tool in the study for turbocharged diesel engines. 18 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heland, J; Schäfer, K

    1997-07-20

    Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO.

  19. Analysis of aircraft exhausts with Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Heland, J; Schäfer, K

    1997-07-20

    Because of the worldwide growth in air traffic and its increasing effects on the atmospheric environment, it is necessary to quantify the direct aircraft emissions at all altitudes. In this study Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy as a remote-sensing multi-component-analyzing technique for aircraft exhausts was investigated at ground level with a double pendulum interferometer and a line-by-line computer algorithm that was applied to a multilayer radiative transfer problem. Initial measurements were made to specify the spectral windows for traceable compounds, to test the sensitivity of the system, and to develop calibration and continuum handling procedures. To obtain information about the radial temperature and concentration profiles, we developed an algorithm for the analysis of an axial-symmetric multilayered plume by use of the CO(2) hot band at approximately 2400 cm(-1). Measurements were made with several in-service engines. Effects that were due to engine aging were detected but have to be analyzed systematically in the near future. Validation measurements were carried out with a conventional propane gas burner to compare the results with those obtained with standard measurement equipment. These measurements showed good agreement to within +/-20% for the CO and NO(x) results. The overall accuracy of the system was found to be +/-30%. The detection limits of the system for a typical engine plume (380 degrees C, ? = 50 cm) are below 0.1% for CO(2), ~0.7% for H(2)O, ~20 ppmv (parts per million by volume) for CO, and ~90 ppmv for NO. PMID:18259296

  20. Improved Exhaust Diffuser for Jet-Engine Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parikh, P. G.; Sarohia, V. S.

    1985-01-01

    High-altitude simulator reduced power requirements. Test cell uses its exhaust-capture duct only to remove gases from engine; cooling air evacuated through separate path by auxiliary suction system. This way, capture duct cross-sectional area kept close to exhaust jet area, leading to greatly improved recovery performance.

  1. Aircraft Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Captured in this scene is a series of aircraft contrails in a high traffic region over the northern Gulf of Mexico (27.0N, 85.5W). Contrails are caused by the hot engine exhaust of high flying aircraft interacting with moisture in the cold upper atmosphere and are common occurrances of high flying aircraft.

  2. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  3. Measurements of HONO, NO, NOy and SO2 in aircraft exhaust plumes at cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkat, T.; Voigt, C.; Arnold, F.; Schlager, H.; Kleffmann, J.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schäuble, D.; Schaefer, M.; Schumann, U.

    2011-05-01

    Measurements of gaseous nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions in young aircraft exhaust plumes give insight into chemical oxidation processes inside aircraft engines. Particularly, the OH-induced formation of nitrous acid (HONO) from nitrogen oxide (NO) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) from sulfur dioxide (SO2) inside the turbine which is highly uncertain, need detailed analysis to address the climate impact of aviation. We report on airborne in situ measurements at cruise altitudes of HONO, NO, NOy, and SO2 in 9 wakes of 8 different types of modern jet airliners, including for the first time also an A380. Measurements of HONO and SO2 were made with an ITCIMS (Ion Trap Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer) using a new ion-reaction scheme involving SF5- reagent ions. The measured molar ratios HONO/NO and HONO/NOy with averages of 0.038 ± 0.010 and 0.027 ± 0.005 were found to decrease systematically with increasing NOx emission-index (EI NOx). We calculate an average EI HONO of 0.31 ± 0.12 g NO2 kg-1. Using reliable measurements of HONO and NOy, which are less adhesive than H2SO4 to the inlet walls, we derive the OH-induced conversion fraction of fuel sulfur to sulfuric acid $\\varepsilon$ with an average of 2.2 ± 0.5 %. $\\varepsilon$ also tends to decrease with increasing EI NOx, consistent with earlier model simulations. The lowest HONO/NO, HONO/NOy and $\\varepsilon$ was observed for the largest passenger aircraft A380.

  4. Acoustics and Thrust of Separate Flow Exhaust Nozzles With Mixing Devices Investigated for High Bypass Ratio Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saiyed, Naseem H.

    2000-01-01

    Typical installed separate-flow exhaust nozzle system. The jet noise from modern turbofan engines is a major contributor to the overall noise from commercial aircraft. Many of these engines use separate nozzles for exhausting core and fan streams. As a part of NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program, the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field led an experimental investigation using model-scale nozzles in Glenn s Aero-Acoustic Propulsion Laboratory. The goal of the investigation was to develop technology for reducing the jet noise by 3 EPNdB. Teams of engineers from Glenn, the NASA Langley Research Center, Pratt & Whitney, United Technologies Research Corporation, the Boeing Company, GE Aircraft Engines, Allison Engine Company, and Aero Systems Engineering contributed to the planning and implementation of the test.

  5. Shape memory alloy actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle for jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing (Inventor); Ma, Ning (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The proposed adaptive exhaust nozzle features an innovative use of the shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actively control of the opening area of the exhaust nozzle for jet engines. The SMA actuators remotely control the opening area of the exhaust nozzle through a set of mechanism. An important advantage of using SMA actuators is the reduction of weight of the actuator system for variable area exhaust nozzle. Another advantage is that the SMA actuator can be activated using the heat from the exhaust and eliminate the need of other energy source. A prototype has been designed and fabricated. The functionality of the proposed SMA actuated adaptive exhaust nozzle is verified in the open-loop tests.

  6. Exhaust gas purification system for lean burn engine

    DOEpatents

    Haines, Leland Milburn

    2002-02-19

    An exhaust gas purification system for a lean burn engine includes a thermal mass unit and a NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit downstream of the thermal mass unit. The NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit includes at least one catalyst section. Each catalyst section includes a catalytic layer for converting NO.sub.x coupled to a heat exchanger. The heat exchanger portion of the catalyst section acts to maintain the catalytic layer substantially at a desired temperature and cools the exhaust gas flowing from the catalytic layer into the next catalytic section in the series. In a further aspect of the invention, the exhaust gas purification system includes a dual length exhaust pipe upstream of the NO.sub.x conversion catalyst unit. The dual length exhaust pipe includes a second heat exchanger which functions to maintain the temperature of the exhaust gas flowing into the thermal mass downstream near a desired average temperature.

  7. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  8. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  9. 14 CFR 34.64 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.64 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring gaseous exhaust emissions....

  10. Aircraft Engineering Conference 1934 - Full Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Gathered together in the only facility big enough to hold them, attendees at Langleys 1934 aircraft Engineering Conference pose in the Full Scale Wind Tunnel underneath a Boeing P-26A Peashooter. Present, among other notables, were Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Howard Hughes.

  11. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  12. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  13. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  14. 40 CFR 87.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.31 Standards for exhaust emissions. (a) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed: Smoke number of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of class TF...

  15. Sulfuric Acid and Soot Particles in Aircraft Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, Rudolf F.; Verma, S.; Ferry, G. V.; Goodman, J.; Strawa, A. W.; Gore, Warren J. Y. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft have become the fastest, fairly convenient and, in most cases of long-distance travel, most economical mode of travel. This is reflected in the increase of commercial air traffic at a rate of 6% per year since 1978. Future annual growth rates of passenger miles of 4% for domestic and 6% for international routes are projected. A still larger annual increase of 8.5% is expected for the Asia/Pacific region. To meet that growth, Boeing predicts the addition of 15,900 new aircraft to the world's fleets, valued at more than $1.1 trillion, within the next 20 years. The largest concern of environmental consequences of aircraft emissions deals with ozone (O3), because: (1) the O3 layer protects the blaspheme from short-ultraviolet radiation that can cause damage to human, animal and plant life, and possibly affect agricultural production and the marine food chain; (2) O3 is important for the production of the hydroxyl radical (OH) which, in turn, is responsible for the destruction of other greenhouse gases, e.g., methane (CH4) and for the removal of other pollutants, and (3) O3 is a greenhouse gas. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  17. Capture of Heat Energy from Diesel Engine Exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Chuen-Sen Lin

    2008-12-31

    Diesel generators produce waste heat as well as electrical power. About one-third of the fuel energy is released from the exhaust manifolds of the diesel engines and normally is not captured for useful applications. This project studied different waste heat applications that may effectively use the heat released from exhaust of Alaskan village diesel generators, selected the most desirable application, designed and fabricated a prototype for performance measurements, and evaluated the feasibility and economic impact of the selected application. Exhaust flow rate, composition, and temperature may affect the heat recovery system design and the amount of heat that is recoverable. In comparison with the other two parameters, the effect of exhaust composition may be less important due to the large air/fuel ratio for diesel engines. This project also compared heat content and qualities (i.e., temperatures) of exhaust for three types of fuel: conventional diesel, a synthetic diesel, and conventional diesel with a small amount of hydrogen. Another task of this project was the development of a computer-aided design tool for the economic analysis of selected exhaust heat recovery applications to any Alaskan village diesel generator set. The exhaust heat recovery application selected from this study was for heating. An exhaust heat recovery system was fabricated, and 350 hours of testing was conducted. Based on testing data, the exhaust heat recovery heating system showed insignificant effects on engine performance and maintenance requirements. From measurements, it was determined that the amount of heat recovered from the system was about 50% of the heat energy contained in the exhaust (heat contained in exhaust was evaluated based on environment temperature). The estimated payback time for 100% use of recovered heat would be less than 3 years at a fuel price of $3.50 per gallon, an interest rate of 10%, and an engine operation of 8 hours per day. Based on experimental data

  18. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address the problems of Aircraft Engine Technology, Airframe Technology, and Rotorcraft Technology. In addition, several applied problems for domestic industry are also studied using knowledge and experience from Aerospace Sciences. The reduction of aircraft noise is a significant driver in the success of the NASA AST and HSR programs as they attempt to meet stringent international environment regulations on noise for commercial aircraft. In accordance with the project fulfillment under this NASA grant the (Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory) FM&AL investigates novel and promising concepts for reduction of noise and improvement of propulsion efficiency in jet exhaust nozzles and fans.

  19. Effects of motion on jet exhaust noise from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, K. S.; Berman, C. H.; Cowan, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    The various problems involved in the evaluation of the jet noise field prevailing between an observer on the ground and an aircraft in flight in a typical takeoff or landing approach pattern were studied. Areas examined include: (1) literature survey and preliminary investigation, (2) propagation effects, (3) source alteration effects, and (4) investigation of verification techniques. Sixteen problem areas were identified and studied. Six follow-up programs were recommended for further work. The results and the proposed follow-on programs provide a practical general technique for predicting flyover jet noise for conventional jet nozzles.

  20. Exhaust cloud rise and growth for Apollo Saturn engines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, M.; Kaufman, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Empirical and analytical results have been reduced from time-lapse photographs of exhaust clouds during the launch of Apollo 10, 14, 15, and 16 from the Kennedy Space Center. Theoretical predictions of the buoyant cloud rise and growth compare very favorably to actual measurements. The mathematical model predicts with engineering accuracy the terminal altitude and size of the clouds. A principal input to MSFC's multilayer diffusion model is top height of the exhaust cloud. It is this characteristic dimension that is the main subject of this report. An interesting occurrence during launch is the formation of bimodal exhaust cloud which is due to the north-south oriented flame trench directly beneath the base of the vehicle. This study has added considerable information on engine exhaust cloud rise and growth which is essential to the study of atmospheric dispersal in time and space.

  1. Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

  2. Removal of particulates from diesel engine exhaust gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, W.R.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus is disclosed for periodically oxidizing particulate matter trapped in and on an exhaust gas purifying device used in conjunction with a diesel engine. Fuel normally delivered to selected combustion chambers is diverted to a fuel burning device associated with the purifying device. The diversion deactivates the combustion process in the selected chambers. The diverted fuel is then burned by the burning device to increase the exhaust gas temperature flowing through the purifying device and effect oxidation of collected particles.

  3. Investigation of NO(x) Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of NO can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  4. Mixed exhaust flow supersonic jet engine and method

    SciTech Connect

    Klees, G.W.

    1993-06-08

    A method of operating a supersonic jet engine installation is described comprising (a) providing an engine having a variable area air inlet means and an outlet to discharge engine exhaust; (b) providing a secondary air passageway means; (c) receiving ambient air in the air inlet means and providing the ambient air as primary air to the engine inlet and secondary air to the secondary air passageway means; (d) providing a mixing section having an inlet portion and an exit portion, utilizing the mixing section in directing the exhaust from the engine to primary convergent/divergent exit passageway segments, where the exhaust is discharged at supersonic velocity as primary flow components, and directing secondary air flow from the secondary air passageway means to secondary exit passageway segments which are interspersed with the primary segments and from which the secondary air is discharged at subsonic velocity as secondary flow components; and (e) providing an exhaust section to receive the primary and secondary flow components in a mixing region and causing the primary and secondary flow components to mix to create a supersonic mixed flow, the exhaust section having a variable area final nozzle through which the mixed flow is discharged.

  5. Investigation of NOx Removal from Small Engine Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akyurtlu, Ates; Akyurtlu, Jale F.

    1999-01-01

    Contribution of emissions from small engines to the air pollution is significant. Due to differences in operating conditions and economics, the pollution control systems designed for automobiles will be neither suitable nor economically feasible for use on small engines. The objective of this project was to find a catalyst for the removal of NOx from the exhaust of small engines which use a rich air to fuel ratio. The desired catalyst should be inexpensive so that the cost of the pollution control unit will be only a small fraction of the total equipment cost. The high cost of noble metals makes them too expensive for use as NOx catalyst for small engines. Catalytic reduction of Nitrogen Oxide (NO) can also be accomplished by base-metal oxide catalysts. The main disadvantage of base-metal catalysts is their deactivation by poisons and high temperatures. Requirements for the length of the life of the small engine exhaust catalysts are much less than those for automobile exhaust catalysts. Since there is no oxygen in the exhaust gases, reduction selectivity is not a problem. Also, the reducing exhaust gases might help prevent the harmful interactions of the catalyst with the support. For these reasons only the supported metal oxide catalysts were investigated in this project.

  6. Double-reed exhaust valve engine

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2015-06-30

    An engine based on a reciprocating piston engine that extracts work from pressurized working fluid. The engine includes a double reed outlet valve for controlling the flow of low-pressure working fluid out of the engine. The double reed provides a stronger force resisting closure of the outlet valve than the force tending to open the outlet valve. The double reed valve enables engine operation at relatively higher torque and lower efficiency at low speed, with lower torque, but higher efficiency at high speed.

  7. Helping Aircraft Engines Lighten Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature polyimide/carbon fiber matrix composites are developed by the Polymers Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center. These materials can withstand high temperatures and have good processing properties, which make them particularly useful for jet and rocket engines and for components such as fan blades, bushings, and duct segments. Applying polyimide composites as components for aerospace structures can lead to substantial vehicle weight reductions. A typical polyimide composite is made up of layers of carbon or glass fibers glued together by a high-temperature polymer to make the material strong, stiff, and lightweight. Organic molecules containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen within the polyimide keep the material s density low, resulting in the light weight. The strength of a component or part made from a polyimide comes mainly from the reinforcing high-strength fibers. The strength of the carbon fibers coupled with the stiffness of polyimides allows engineers to make a very rigid structure without it being massive. Another benefit of a polyimide s suitability for aerospace applications is its reduced need for machining. When polyimide parts are removed from a mold, they are nearly in their final shape. Usually, very little machining is needed before a part is ready for use.

  8. Power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Due to the energy consciousness of the United States and to the ever increasing cost of engine fuels, power recovery from turbine and gas engine exhausts has come of age. The addition of waste recovery systems to these exhausts increases the thermal efficiencies of typical systems from the range of 21% to 39% up to the range of 28% to 49%. The new ''expander'' type power recovery system includes a waste heat recovery exchanger which will transfer heat from the engine exhaust into any of numerous thermal fluids. The recovered heat energy now in the thermal fluid medium can, in turn, be used to produce power for any desired application (i.e. gas compression, process refrigeration, electrical power generation, etc.). The particular systems put forth in this paper concentrate on the use of expansion fluids (other than steam) driving ''expanders'' as motive devices.

  9. Exhaust recycle to carburetor of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.R.

    1984-03-20

    A hot slipstream from the exhaust of an internal combustion engine is used directly, that is without valving it, to heat and vaporize fuel as it is sprayed from the fuel nozzle of a carburetor having a booster venturi above the throttle plate, provided the ratio of the volume of slipstream to the volume of exhaust gases is self-regulated within narrow limits at all times during the engine's operation, in accordance with the physical considerations governing gas flow. The main jets of a conventional carburetor may be changed to provide decreased flow of gasoline by about 10% to give better mileage without sacrificing performance of the engine, and without adversely affecting the exhaust emissions which are otherwise controlled by a conventional emission control system.

  10. Catalysts For Lean Burn Engine Exhaust Abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2004-04-06

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  11. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  12. Catalysts for lean burn engine exhaust abatement

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Clark, Noline C.; Paffett, Mark T.

    2006-08-01

    The present invention provides a process for catalytically reducing nitrogen oxides in an exhaust gas stream containing nitrogen oxides and a reductant material by contacting the gas stream under conditions effective to catalytically reduce the nitrogen oxides with a catalyst comprising a aluminum-silicate type material and a minor amount of a metal, the catalyst characterized as having sufficient catalytic activity so as to reduce the nitrogen oxides by at least 60 percent under temperatures within the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C.

  13. Experimental evaluation of exhaust mixers for an Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kozlowski, H.; Kraft, G.

    1980-01-01

    Static scale model tests were conducted to evaluate exhaust system mixers for a high bypass ratio engine as part of the NASA sponsored Energy Efficient program. Gross thrust coefficients were measured for a series of mixer configurations which included variations in the number of mixer lobes, tailpipe length, mixer penetration, and length. All of these parameters have a significant impact on exhaust system performance. In addition, flow visualization pictures and pressure/temperature traverses were obtained for selected configurations. Parametric performance trends are discussed and the results considered relative to the Energy Efficient Engine program goals.

  14. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  15. Comparison of immunotoxic effects induced by the extracts from methanol and gasoline engine exhausts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Che, Wangjun; Liu, Guiming; Qiu, Hong; Zhang, Hao; Ran, Yun; Zeng, Xianggui; Wen, Weihua; Shu, Ya

    2010-06-01

    Gasoline engine exhaust has been considered as a major source of air pollution in China. Due to lower cyto- and geno-toxicity effects of methanol engine exhaust, methanol is regarded as a potential substitute for gasoline. We have previously compared cyto- and geno-toxicities of gasoline engine exhaust with that of methanol engine exhaust in A549 cells (Zhang et al., 2007).To characterize the immunotoxic effects for gasoline and methanol engine exhausts in immune cell, in this study, we further compared effects of gasoline and methanol engine exhausts on immune function in RAW264.7 cell and rabbit alveolar macrophages. Results showed that both gasoline and methanol engine exhaust could evidently inhibit RAW264.7 cell proliferation, promote RAW264.7 cell apoptosis, decrease E-rosette formation rate and inhibit anti-tumor effects of alveolar macrophages, at the same time, these effects of gasoline engine exhaust were far stronger than those of methanol engine exhaust. In addition, gasoline engine exhaust could significantly inhibit activities of ADCC of alveolar macrophages, but methanol engine exhaust could not. These results suggested that both gasoline and methanol engine exhausts might be immunotoxic atmospheric pollutants, but some effects of gasoline engine exhaust on immunotoxicities may be far stronger than that of methanol engine exhaust.

  16. Vehicle engines produce exhaust nanoparticles even when not fueled.

    PubMed

    Rönkkö, Topi; Pirjola, Liisa; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Heikkilä, Juha; Karjalainen, Panu; Hillamo, Risto; Keskinen, Jorma

    2014-01-01

    Vehicle engines produce submicrometer exhaust particles affecting air quality, especially in urban environments. In on-road exhaust studies with a heavy duty diesel vehicle and in laboratory studies with two gasoline-fueled passenger cars, we found that as much as 20-30% of the number of exhaust particles larger than 3 nm may be formed during engine braking conditions-that is, during decelerations and downhill driving while the engine is not fueled. Particles appeared at size ranges extending even below 7 nm and at high number concentrations. Their small size and nonvolatility, coupled with the observation that these particles contain lube-oil-derived metals zinc, phosphorus, and calcium, are suggestive of health risks at least similar to those of exhaust particles observed before. The particles' characteristics indicate that their emissions can be reduced using exhaust after-treatment devices, although these devices have not been mandated for all relevant vehicle types. Altogether, our findings enhance the understanding of the formation vehicle emissions and allow for improved protection of human health in proximity to traffic.

  17. Computational models for the viscous/inviscid analysis of jet aircraft exhaust plumes. [predicting afterbody drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dash, S. M.; Pergament, H. S.; Thorpe, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Computational models which analyze viscous/inviscid flow processes in jet aircraft exhaust plumes are discussed. These models are component parts of an NASA-LaRC method for the prediction of nozzle afterbody drag. Inviscid/shock processes are analyzed by the SCIPAC code which is a compact version of a generalized shock capturing, inviscid plume code (SCIPPY). The SCIPAC code analyzes underexpanded jet exhaust gas mixtures with a self-contained thermodynamic package for hydrocarbon exhaust products and air. A detailed and automated treatment of the embedded subsonic zones behind Mach discs is provided in this analysis. Mixing processes along the plume interface are analyzed by two upgraded versions of an overlaid, turbulent mixing code (BOAT) developed previously for calculating nearfield jet entrainment. The BOATAC program is a frozen chemistry version of BOAT containing the aircraft thermodynamic package as SCIPAC; BOATAB is an afterburning version with a self-contained aircraft (hydrocarbon/air) finite-rate chemistry package. The coupling of viscous and inviscid flow processes is achieved by an overlaid procedure with interactive effects accounted for by a displacement thickness type correction to the inviscid plume interface.

  18. Control method for turbocharged diesel engines having exhaust gas recirculation

    DOEpatents

    Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.; Jankovic, Mrdjan J; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2000-03-14

    A method of controlling the airflow into a compression ignition engine having an EGR and a VGT. The control strategy includes the steps of generating desired EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates as a function of the desired and measured compressor mass airflow values and exhaust manifold pressure values. The desired compressor mass airflow and exhaust manifold pressure values are generated as a function of the operator-requested fueling rate and engine speed. The EGR and VGT turbine mass flow rates are then inverted to corresponding EGR and VGT actuator positions to achieve the desired compressor mass airflow rate and exhaust manifold pressure. The control strategy also includes a method of estimating the intake manifold pressure used in generating the EGR valve and VGT turbine positions.

  19. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  20. Field test comparison of natural gas engine exhaust valves

    SciTech Connect

    Bicknell, W.B.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N.; Statler, G.R.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a product improvement program, an extensive spark-ignited, turbocharged, natural gas engine exhaust valve test program was conducted using laboratory and field engines. Program objectives were to identify a valve and seat insert combination that increased mean time between overhauls (MTBO) while reducing the risk of premature valve cracking and failure. Following a thorough design review, a large number of valve and seat insert configurations were tested in a popular 900 RPM, 166 BHP (0.123 Mw) per cylinder industrial gas engine series. Material, head geometry, seat angle and other parameters were compared. Careful in-place measurements and post-test inspections compared various configurations and identified optimal exhaust valving for deployment in new units and upgrades of existing engines.

  1. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    .... SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE... the following new AD: 2012-26-12 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-17307; Docket No. FAA... Thielert Aircraft Engines (TAE) TAE 125- 02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. (d) Reason This...

  2. 76 FR 68636 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-01 and TAE 125- 02-99 reciprocating engines. That AD... Register approved the incorporation by reference of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin (SB) No..., 2010), and adding the following new AD: 2011-23-01 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment...

  3. General aviation piston-engine exhaust emission reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempke, E. E., Jr.; Houtman, W. H.; Westfield, W. T.; Duke, L. C.; Rezy, B. J.

    1977-01-01

    To support the promulgation of aircraft regulations, two airports were examined, Van Nuys and Tamiami. It was determined that the carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from piston-engine aircraft have a significant influence on the CO levels in the ambient air in and around airports, where workers and travelers would be exposed. Emissions standards were set up for control of emissions from aircraft piston engines manufactured after December 31, 1979. The standards selected were based on a technologically feasible and economically reasonable control of carbon monoxide. It was concluded that substantial CO reductions could be realized if the range of typical fuel-air ratios could be narrowed. Thus, improvements in fuel management were determined as reasonable controls.

  4. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  5. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  6. Sulfuric acid measurements in the exhaust plume of a jet aircraft in flight: Implications for the sulfuric acid formation efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtius, J.; Arnold, F.; Schulte, P.

    2002-04-01

    Sulfuric acid concentrations were measured in the exhaust plume of a B737-300 aircraft in flight. The measurements were made onboard of the German research aircraft Falcon using the Volatile Aerosol Component Analyzer (VACA). The VACA measures total H2SO4, which is the sum of gaseous H2SO4 and aerosol H2SO4. Measurements took place at distances of 25-200 m behind the B737 corresponding to plume ages of about 0.1-1 seconds. The fuel sulfur content (FSC) of the fuel burned by the B737 engines was alternatively 2.6 and 56 mg sulfur per kilogram fuel (ppmm). H2SO4 concentrations measured in the plume for the 56 ppmm sulfur case were up to ~600 pptv. The average concentration of H2SO4 measured in the ambient atmosphere outside the aircraft plume was 88 pptv, the maximum ambient atmospheric H2SO4 was ~300 pptv. Average efficiencies ɛΔCO2 = 3.3 +/- 1.8% and ɛΔT = 2.9 +/- 1.6% for fuel sulfur conversion to sulfuric acid were inferred when relating the H2SO4 data to measurements of the plume tracers ΔCO2 and ΔT.

  7. High Reliability Engine Control Demonstrated for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    1999-01-01

    For a dual redundant-control system, which is typical for short-haul aircraft, if a failure is detected in a control sensor, the engine control is transferred to a safety mode and an advisory is issued for immediate maintenance action to replace the failed sensor. The safety mode typically results in severely degraded engine performance. The goal of the High Reliability Engine Control (HREC) program was to demonstrate that the neural-network-based sensor validation technology can safely operate an engine by using the nominal closed-loop control during and after sensor failures. With this technology, engine performance could be maintained, and the sensor could be replaced as a conveniently scheduled maintenance action.

  8. Thrust engine and propellant exhaust arrangement therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Retallick, F.D.

    1981-01-27

    A nuclear engine and nozzle arrangement are described for a nuclear rocket comprising a cluster of elongated fissile fuel bearing and high temperature capacity modules suitably supported in a pressure vessel. The modules have a plurality of coolant-propellant channels extending therethrough, a convergent - divergent nozzle structure of fixed cross-sectional dimensions secured to the end portion of each of said modules, a divergent-only unitary skirt member connected directly to the propellant exit end of said modular cluster in series with and diverging from the divergent ends of said convergent-divergent nozzle structures. The modules are formed to conduct a compressible propellant therethrough at sub-sonic velocities, said nozzle structures being formed to develop supersonic velocities of the propellant and said divergent-only skirt being formed to develop further the supersonic velocities of said propellant.

  9. Mutagenicity of diesel exhaust particles from an engine with differing exhaust after treatments.

    PubMed

    Shi, X-C; Keane, M J; Ong, T; Li, S-Q; Bugarski, A B

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of engine operating conditions and exhaust aftertreatments on the mutagenicity of diesel particulate matter (DPM) collected directly in an underground mine environment. A number of after-treatment devices are currently used on diesel engines in mines, but it is critical to determine whether reductions in DPM concentrations result in a corresponding decrease in adverse health effects. An eddy-current dynamometer was used to operate naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine at several steady-state conditions. The samples were collected when the engine was equipped with a standard muffler, a diesel oxidation catalytic converter, two types of uncatalyzed diesel particulate filter systems, and three types of disposable diesel particulate filter elements. Bacterial gene mutation activity of DPM was tested on acetone extracts using the Ames Salmonella assay. The results indicated strong correlation between engine operating conditions and mutagenic activity of DPM. When the engine was fitted with muffler, the mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected from light-load, but not heavy-load operating conditions. When the engine was equipped with a diesel oxidation catalyst, the samples did not exhibit mutagenic activity for any of four engine operating conditions. Mutagenic activity was observed for the samples collected when the engine was retrofitted with three types of disposable filters and sintered metal diesel particulate filter and operated at light load conditions. However, those filtration systems substantially reduced the concentration-normalized mutagenic activity from the levels observed for the muffler.

  10. Scramjet exhaust simulation technique for hypersonic aircraft nozzle design and aerodynamic tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Talcott, N. A., Jr.; Cubbage, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Current design philosophy for scramjet-powered hypersonic aircraft results in configurations with the entire lower fuselage surface utilized as part of the propulsion system. The lower aft-end of the vehicle acts as a high expansion ratio nozzle. Not only must the external nozzle be designed to extract the maximum possible thrust force from the high energy flow at the combustor exit, but the forces produced by the nozzle must be aligned such that they do not unduly affect aerodynamic balance. The strong coupling between the propulsion system and aerodynamics of the aircraft makes imperative at least a partial simulation of the inlet, exhaust, and external flows of the hydrogen-burning scramjet in conventional facilities for both nozzle formulation and aerodynamic-force data acquisition. Aerodynamic testing methods offer no contemporary approach for such vehicle design requirements. NASA-Langley has pursued an extensive scramjet/airframe integration R&D program for several years and has recently developed a promising technique for simulation of the scramjet exhaust flow for hypersonic aircraft. Current results of the research program to develop a scramjet flow simulation technique through the use of substitute gas blends are described in this paper.

  11. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  12. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  13. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine...: AIRCRAFT ENGINES 0 1. The authority citation for part 33 continues to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness...

  14. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    .... SUMMARY: The FAA is correcting a technical amendment published on July 5, 2012 (77 FR 39623). In that technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... Technical Amendment entitled, ``Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engine'' (77 FR 39623). In that...

  15. Utilization of LPG and gasoline engine exhaust emissions by microalgae.

    PubMed

    Taştan, Burcu Ertit; Duygu, Ergin; Ilbaş, Mustafa; Dönmez, Gönül

    2013-02-15

    The effect of engine exhaust emissions on air pollution is one of the greatest problems that the world is facing today. The study focused on the effects of realistic levels of engine exhaust emissions of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and gasoline (GSN) on Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. Multi parameters including pH, different medial compositions, fuel types, flow rates and biomass concentrations were described in detail. Effects of some growth factors such as triacontanol (TRIA) and salicylic acid (SA) have also been tested. The maximum biomass concentration of Phormidium sp. reached after 15 days at 0.36 and 0.15 g/L initial biomass concentrations were found as 1.160 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.331 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures, respectively. The corresponding figures were 1.478 g/L for LPG emission treated cultures and 1.636 g/L for GSN emission treated cultures at 0.65 and 0.36 g/L initial Chlorella sp. biomass concentrations. This study highlights the significance of using Phormidium sp. and Chlorella sp. for utilization of LPG and GSN engine exhaust emissions by the help of growth factors.

  16. Injection of Nuclear Rocket Engine Exhaust into Deep Unsaturated Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, C. A.; Decker, D.

    2008-05-01

    Nuclear rocket engine technology is being considered as a means of interplanetary vehicle propulsion for a manned mission to Mars. To achieve this, a test and development facility must be constructed to safely run nuclear engines. The testing of nuclear engines in the 1950's and 1960's was accomplished by exhausting the engine gases into the atmosphere, a practice that is no longer acceptable. Injection into deep unsaturated zones of radioactive exhaust gases and water vapor associated with the testing of nuclear rocket engines is being considered as a way of sequestering radionuclides from the environment. Numerical simulations were conducted to determine the ability of an unsaturated zone with the hydraulic properties of Frenchman Flat alluvium at the Nevada Test Site to contain gas-phase radionuclides. Gas and water vapor were injected for two hours at rates of 14.5 kg s-1 and 15 kg s-1, respectively, in an interval between 100 and 430 m below the land surface into alluvium with an intrinsic permeability of 10-11 m2 and porosity of 0.35. The results show that during a test of an engine, radionuclides with at least greater than 10-year half-lives may reach the land surface within several years after injection. Radionuclide transport is primarily controlled by the upward pressure gradient from the point of injection to the lower (atmospheric) pressure boundary condition at the land surface. Radionuclides with half-lives on the order of days should undergo enough decay prior to reaching the land surface. A cooling water vapor injected into the unsaturated zone simultaneously with the exhaust gas will condense within several meters of the injection point and drain downward toward the water table. However, the nearly horizontal hydraulic groundwater gradient present in several of the basins at NTS should limit lateral migration of radionuclides away from the vicinity of injection.

  17. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  18. Evaluation of Federal Aviation Administration ion engine exhaust sampling rake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorentino, A. J.; Greene, W.; Roberts, R.

    1977-01-01

    A FAA exhaust emissions rake was tested in the Experimental Clean Combustor Program, Phase 3 to permit comparison of the values of gaseous emissions and smoke measured by the FAA rake with those measured with the NASA Pratt and Whitney Aircraft (P and WA) rake used in the Phase 3 Experimental Clean Combustor Program and with station seven probes. The results showed that the levels of CO, THC, NOx and smoke measured by the FAA and NASA/P and WA rakes agree well at high power, but that CO emissions measured by the FAA rake were approximately 10 percent higher than those measured by the NASA/P and WA rake at low power.

  19. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  20. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  1. Catalyst for treatment of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, G.; Brunelle, J.P.; Prigent, M.

    1984-01-17

    The exhaust gases from internal combustion engines are catalytically oxidized/reduced, to remove CO, unburned hydrocarbons and NO /SUB x/ therefrom, utilizing an improved stable and long-lived catalyst which comprises (1) a support substrate, e.g., a monolithic or particulate support, and (2) an active phase deposited thereon, said active phase (2) comprising (i) cerium, (ii) iron, (iii) at least one of the metals gallium and/or yttrium, (iv) at least one of the metals platinum and/or palladium, and (v) at least one of the metals iridium and/or rhodium.

  2. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.128 Tests:...

  3. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  4. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  6. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate Only § 21.128 Tests:...

  7. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  8. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  9. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  10. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  11. Helicopter engine exhaust rotor downwash effects on laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Markus; Sjöqvist, Lars; Seiffer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    The hot exhaust gases from engines on helicopters are pushed down by the rotor in a turbulent flow. When the optical path of a laser beam or optical sensor passes through this region severe aberrations of the optical field may result. These perturbations will lead to beam wander and beam distortions that can limit the performance of optical countermeasure systems. To quantify these effects the Italian Air Force Flight Test Centre hosted a trial for the "Airborne platform effects on lasers and warning sensors" (ALWS) EDA-project. Laser beams were propagated from the airport control tower to a target screen in a slant path with the helicopter hovering over this path. Collimated laser beams at 1.55-, 2- and 4.6-μm wavelength were imaged with high speed cameras. Large increases in beam wander and beam divergence were found, with beam wander up to 200 μrad root-mean-square and increases in beam divergence up to 1 mrad. To allow scaling to other laser beam parameters and geometries formulas for propagation in atmospheric turbulence were used even though the turbulence may not follow Kolmogorov statistics. By assuming that the plume is short compared to the total propagation distance the integrated structure parameter through the plume could be calculated. Values in the range 10-10 to 10-8 m1/3 were found when the laser beams passed through the exhaust gases below the helicopter tail. The integrated structure parameter values calculated from beam wander were consistently lower than those calculated from long term spot size, indicating that the method is not perfect but provides information about order of magnitudes. The measured results show that the engine exhaust for worst case beam directions will dominate over atmospheric turbulence even for kilometer path lengths from a helicopter at low altitude. How severe the effect is on system performance will depend on beam and target parameters.

  12. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    .... SUMMARY: This amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness...: Background The airworthiness standards in Sec. 33.83 refer to engine surveys, vibration surveys, vibration test, or simply surveys with the intent to prescribe engine vibration surveys conducted by the means...

  13. Performance, emissions, and physical characteristics of a rotating combustion aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Hermes, W. L.; Mount, R. E.; Myers, D.

    1976-01-01

    The RC2-75, a liquid cooled two chamber rotary combustion engine (Wankel type), designed for aircraft use, was tested and representative baseline (212 KW, 285 BHP) performance and emissions characteristics established. The testing included running fuel/air mixture control curves and varied ignition timing to permit selection of desirable and practical settings for running wide open throttle curves, propeller load curves, variable manifold pressure curves covering cruise conditions, and EPA cycle operating points. Performance and emissions data were recorded for all of the points run. In addition to the test data, information required to characterize the engine and evaluate its performance in aircraft use is provided over a range from one half to twice its present power. The exhaust emissions results are compared to the 1980 EPA requirements. Standard day take-off brake specific fuel consumption is 356 g/KW-HR (.585 lb/BHP-HR) for the configuration tested.

  14. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  15. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  16. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  17. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  18. 30 CFR 36.25 - Engine exhaust system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) Tightness of exhaust system. All joints in the exhaust system shall be tight to prevent the flow of exhaust... with adequate through bolts and all gaskets shall be aligned and held firmly in position by the bolts... exhaust system for convenient, temporary attachment of a pressure gage at a point suitable for...

  19. Exhaust Nozzles for Propulsion Systems with Emphasis on Supersonic Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stitt, Leonard E.

    1990-01-01

    This compendium summarizes the contributions of the NASA-Lewis and its contractors to supersonic exhaust nozzle research from 1963 to 1985. Two major research and technology efforts sponsored this nozzle research work; the U.S. Supersonic Transport (SST) Program and the follow-on Supersonic Cruise Research (SCR) Program. They account for two generations of nozzle technology: the first from 1963 to 1971, and the second from 1971 to 1985. First, the equations used to calculate nozzle thrust are introduced. Then the general types of nozzles are presented, followed by a discussion of those types proposed for supersonic aircraft. Next, the first-generation nozzles designed specifically for the Boeing SST and the second-generation nozzles designed under the SCR program are separately reviewed and then compared. A chapter on throttle-dependent afterbody drag is included, since drag has a major effect on the off-design performance of supersonic nozzles. A chapter on the performance of supersonic dash nozzles follows, since these nozzles have similar design problems, Finally, the nozzle test facilities used at NASA-Lewis during this nozzle research effort are identified and discussed. These facilities include static test stands, a transonic wind tunnel, and a flying testbed aircraft. A concluding section points to the future: a third generation of nozzles designed for a new era of high speed civil transports to produce even greater advances in performance, to meet new noise rules, and to ensure the continuity of over two decades of NASA research.

  20. Exhaust catalyst selection for small two-stroke engines

    SciTech Connect

    Prigent, M.; Castagna, F.; Durand, D.

    1995-12-31

    A laboratory test has been used to evaluate the behavior of different oxidation catalyst formulations for conventional two-stroke engines. The test gas composition was as close as possible to the real exhaust gas composition with respect to its hydrocarbon and oxygen contents. Small size catalyst samples were located inside a quartz tube and heated by an electric furnace. Several wash-coat types and noble metal formulations applied on metallic substrates were compared. Determinations included light-off temperature and pollutant conversion rates. It was generally observed that the most active catalysts for hydrocarbon elimination produced the highest amount of CO at temperatures between 350 and 500 C. This was due to the substoichiometric oxygen content of the simulated exhaust gas. Some tests were then performed to evaluate the possibility of converting the CO produced, back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}, by the water gas-shift reaction. CO conversion rates were determined using two different catalysts in series, with the second being at a lower temperature than the first one. Several formulations were compared for the second catalyst bed with an offset of temperature between the two beds of about 300 C.

  1. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  2. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  3. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  4. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  5. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  6. Condensed data on the aircraft engines of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliedner, C S

    1929-01-01

    This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.

  7. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  8. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  9. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  10. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  11. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section. ... be used in bulkhead penetration glands for dry exhaust systems. A wet exhaust pipe may be welded to...

  12. 14 CFR 34.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.82..., Environmental Protection, Volume II, Aircraft Engine Emissions, Second Edition, July 1993, effective July...

  13. Analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft exhaust dispersion and deposition using a Lagrangian particle model.

    PubMed

    Pecorari, Eliana; Mantovani, Alice; Franceschini, Chiara; Bassano, Davide; Palmeri, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-15

    The risk of air quality degradation is of considerable concern particularly for those airports that are located near urban areas. The ability to quantitatively predict the effects of air pollutants originated by airport operations is important for assessing air quality and the related impacts on human health. Current emission regulations have focused on local air quality in the proximity of airports. However, an integrated study should consider the effects of meteorological events, at both regional and local level, that can affect the dispersion and the deposition of exhausts. Rigorous scientific studies and extensive experimental data could contribute to the analysis of the impacts of airports expansion plans. This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft emission for the Marco Polo Airport in Venice. This is the most important international airport in the eastern part of the Po' Valley, one of the most polluted area in Europe. Air pollution is exacerbated by meteorology that is a combination of large and local scale effects that do not allow significant dispersion. Moreover, the airport is located near Venice, a city of noteworthy cultural and architectural relevance, and nearby the lagoon that hosts several areas of outstanding ecological importance at European level (Natura 2000 sites). Dispersion and deposit of the main aircraft exhausts (NOx, HC and CO) have been evaluated by using a Lagrangian particle model. Spatial and temporal aircraft exhaust dispersion has been analyzed for LTO cycle. Aircraft taxiing resulted to be the most impacting aircraft operation especially for the airport working area and its surroundings, however occasionally peaks may be observed even at high altitudes when cruise mode starts. Mixing height can affect concentrations more significantly than the concentrations in the exhausts themselves. An increase of HC and CO concentrations (15-50%) has been observed during specific meteorological events.

  14. Analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft exhaust dispersion and deposition using a Lagrangian particle model.

    PubMed

    Pecorari, Eliana; Mantovani, Alice; Franceschini, Chiara; Bassano, Davide; Palmeri, Luca; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2016-01-15

    The risk of air quality degradation is of considerable concern particularly for those airports that are located near urban areas. The ability to quantitatively predict the effects of air pollutants originated by airport operations is important for assessing air quality and the related impacts on human health. Current emission regulations have focused on local air quality in the proximity of airports. However, an integrated study should consider the effects of meteorological events, at both regional and local level, that can affect the dispersion and the deposition of exhausts. Rigorous scientific studies and extensive experimental data could contribute to the analysis of the impacts of airports expansion plans. This paper is focused on the analysis of the effects of meteorology on aircraft emission for the Marco Polo Airport in Venice. This is the most important international airport in the eastern part of the Po' Valley, one of the most polluted area in Europe. Air pollution is exacerbated by meteorology that is a combination of large and local scale effects that do not allow significant dispersion. Moreover, the airport is located near Venice, a city of noteworthy cultural and architectural relevance, and nearby the lagoon that hosts several areas of outstanding ecological importance at European level (Natura 2000 sites). Dispersion and deposit of the main aircraft exhausts (NOx, HC and CO) have been evaluated by using a Lagrangian particle model. Spatial and temporal aircraft exhaust dispersion has been analyzed for LTO cycle. Aircraft taxiing resulted to be the most impacting aircraft operation especially for the airport working area and its surroundings, however occasionally peaks may be observed even at high altitudes when cruise mode starts. Mixing height can affect concentrations more significantly than the concentrations in the exhausts themselves. An increase of HC and CO concentrations (15-50%) has been observed during specific meteorological events

  15. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  17. Analysis on fuel economy improvement and exhaust emission reduction in a two-stroke engine by using an exhaust valve

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, Masahiro; Kurosaki, Takaharu; Okada, Kazunori

    1995-12-31

    A timing controlled auto-ignition name ``AR combustion`` could improve irregular combustion in the part load operation of conventional two-stroke engines. Their previous papers have suggested its idea and the drastic improvements in fuel consumption and HC emission proven through a bench experiments. This time, form a concept that improvements of a two-stroke engine should be done maintaining its original advantages, an AR combustion engine was developed by using a simple exhaust valve and maintaining engine`s original power output. This engine was mounted on a motorcycle and experimented in the ``Dakar rally``. As the results, good fuel economies exceeding a four-stroke rally model, excellent driveability and durability were proven, because of the improvement in the combustion and engine`s potential for the downsizing. The AR combustion engine, consequently, has good prospects for the practical use.

  18. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  19. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  20. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  1. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.101 - What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW, LARGE NONROAD SPARK-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1048.101 What exhaust emission standards must my engines meet... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  3. Reduction of diesel engine exhaust noise in the petroleum mining industry. [by resonator type diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinov, T.

    1974-01-01

    An important noise source in a drilling plant is Diesel engine exhaust. In order to reduce this noise, a reactive silencer of the derivative resonator type was proposed, calculated from the acoustic and design point of view and applied. As a result of applying such a silencer on the exhaust conduit of a Diesel engine the noise level dropped down to 18 db.

  4. Side branch absorber for exhaust manifold of two-stroke internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Ralph E.; Broerman, III, Eugene L.; Bourn, Gary D.

    2011-01-11

    A method of improving scavenging operation of a two-stroke internal combustion engine. The exhaust pressure of the engine is analyzed to determine if there is a pulsation frequency. Acoustic modeling is used to design an absorber. An appropriately designed side branch absorber may be attached to the exhaust manifold.

  5. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... panting, and is double clamped where practicable. (f) Where an exhaust pipe passes through a watertight... stresses resulting from the expansion of the exhaust piping. (g) A dry exhaust pipe must: (1) If it passes through a combustible bulkhead or partition, be kept clear of, and suitably insulated or shielded...

  6. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  7. Aircraft Engine-Monitoring System And Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Terence S.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Proposed Engine Health Monitoring System and Display (EHMSD) provides enhanced means for pilot to control and monitor performances of engines. Processes raw sensor data into information meaningful to pilot. Provides graphical information about performance capabilities, current performance, and operational conditions in components or subsystems of engines. Provides means to control engine thrust directly and innovative means to monitor performance of engine system rapidly and reliably. Features reduce pilot workload and increase operational safety.

  8. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia A

    2009-07-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO(2) measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% others). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites in which heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction (EC: 27-658 microg/m(3)). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas in which smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC<50 microg/m(3)). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source, such as drivers and train crew, or outside, such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 microg/m(3)). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above-ground (semi-) enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  9. Occupational exposure to diesel engine exhaust: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, Anjoeka; Coble, Joseph; Stewart, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Aims were to describe the major occupational uses of diesel engines and give an overview of personal DE exposure levels and determinants of exposure as reported in the published literature. Methods Measurements representative of personal DE exposure were abstracted from the literature for the following agents: elemental carbon (EC), particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Information on determinants of exposure was abstracted. Results In total, 3528 EC, 4166 PM, 581 CO, 322 NO, and 1404 NO2 measurements were abstracted. From the 10,001 measurements, 32% represented exposure from on-road vehicles, and 68% from off-road vehicles (30% mining, 15% railroad, and 22% other). Highest levels were reported for enclosed underground work sites where heavy equipment is used: mining, mine maintenance, and construction, (EC: 27-658 μg/m3). Intermediate exposure levels were generally reported for above ground (semi-)enclosed areas where smaller equipment was run: mechanics in a shop, emergency workers in fire stations, distribution workers at a dock, and workers loading/unloading inside a ferry (generally: EC< 50 μg/m3). Lowest levels were reported for enclosed areas separated from the source such as drivers and train crew, or outside such as surface mining, parking attendants, vehicle testers, utility service workers, surface construction and airline ground personnel (EC<25 μg/m3). The other agents showed a similar pattern. Determinants of exposure reported for enclosed situations were ventilation and exhaust after treatment devices. Conclusions Reported DE exposure levels were highest for underground mining and construction, intermediate for working in above ground (semi-)enclosed areas and lowest for working outside or separated from the source. The presented data can be used as a basis for assessing occupational exposure in population

  10. Some aspects of aircraft jet engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekiesinski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Technologies are reviewed for improving the thermal stability of jet fuels, with reference to the overheating of fuel tanks in supersonic aircraft. Consideration is given to the development of a jet fuel with high thermal stability by the Polish petroleum industry.

  11. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  12. A STUDY OF EXTRACTIVE AND REMOTE-SENSING SAMPLING AND MEASUREMENT OF EMISSIONS FROM MILITARY AIRCRAFT ENGINES

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Mengdawn; Corporan, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aircraft emissions contribute to the increased atmospheric burden of particulate matter (e.g., black carbon and secondary organic compounds) that plays a role in air quality, contrail formation and climate change. Sampling and measurement of modern aircraft emissions at the engine exhaust plane (EEP) for to engine and fuel certification remains a daunting task, no agency-certified method is available for the task. In this paper we summarize the results of a recent study that was devoted to investigate both extractive and optical remote-sensing (ORS) technologies in sampling and measurement of gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emitted by a number of military aircraft engines operated with JP-8 and a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) fuel at various engine conditions. These engines include cargo, bomber, and helicopter types of military aircraft that consumes 70-80% of the military aviation fuel each year. The emission indices of selected pollutants are discussed as these data may be of interest for atmospheric modeling and for design of air quality control strategies around the airports and military bases. It was found that non-volatile particles in the engine emissions were all in the ultrafine range. The mean diameter of particles increased as the engine power increased; the mode diameters were in the 20nm range for the low power condition of a new helicopter engine to 80nm for the high power condition of a newly maintained bomber engine. Elemental analysis indicated little metals were present on particles in the exhaust, while most of the materials on the exhaust particles were based on carbon and sulfate. Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, ethylene, acetylene, propylene, and alkanes were detected using both technologies. The last five species (in the air toxics category) were most noticeable only under the low engine power. The emission indices calculated based on the ORS data were however observed to differ significantly (up to

  13. Methods for designing treatments to reduce interior noise of predominant sources and paths in a single engine light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Richard E.; Remington, Paul J.; Theobald, Mark A.; Wilby, John F.

    1985-01-01

    The sources and paths by which noise enters the cabin of a small single engine aircraft were determined through a combination of flight and laboratory tests. The primary sources of noise were found to be airborne noise from the propeller and engine casing, airborne noise from the engine exhaust, structureborne noise from the engine/propeller combination and noise associated with air flow over the fuselage. For the propeller, the primary airborne paths were through the firewall, windshield and roof. For the engine, the most important airborne path was through the firewall. Exhaust noise was found to enter the cabin primarily through the panels in the vicinity of the exhaust outlet although exhaust noise entering the cabin through the firewall is a distinct possibility. A number of noise control techniques were tried, including firewall stiffening to reduce engine and propeller airborne noise, to stage isolators and engine mounting spider stiffening to reduce structure-borne noise, and wheel well covers to reduce air flow noise.

  14. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  15. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE. PMID:22561182

  16. Evaluation of carcinogenic hazard of diesel engine exhaust needs to consider revolutionary changes in diesel technology.

    PubMed

    McClellan, Roger O; Hesterberg, Thomas W; Wall, John C

    2012-07-01

    Diesel engines, a special type of internal combustion engine, use heat of compression, rather than electric spark, to ignite hydrocarbon fuels injected into the combustion chamber. Diesel engines have high thermal efficiency and thus, high fuel efficiency. They are widely used in commerce prompting continuous improvement in diesel engines and fuels. Concern for health effects from exposure to diesel exhaust arose in the mid-1900s and stimulated development of emissions regulations and research to improve the technology and characterize potential health hazards. This included epidemiological, controlled human exposure, laboratory animal and mechanistic studies to evaluate potential hazards of whole diesel exhaust. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (1989) classified whole diesel exhaust as - "probably carcinogenic to humans". This classification stimulated even more stringent regulations for particulate matter that required further technological developments. These included improved engine control, improved fuel injection system, enhanced exhaust cooling, use of ultra low sulfur fuel, wall-flow high-efficiency exhaust particulate filters, exhaust catalysts, and crankcase ventilation filtration. The composition of New Technology Diesel Exhaust (NTDE) is qualitatively different and the concentrations of particulate constituents are more than 90% lower than for Traditional Diesel Exhaust (TDE). We recommend that future reviews of carcinogenic hazards of diesel exhaust evaluate NTDE separately from TDE.

  17. Exhaust pipe arrangement for a turbocharged multi-cylinder internal combustion engine having catalytic converters

    SciTech Connect

    Gauffres, U.J.

    1984-04-24

    An exhaust pipe arrangement for internal combustion engines is disclosed which includes an exhaust gas turbocharger, a bypass conduit for circumventing the turbocharger, a blow off valve, a starter catalyst disposed in an exhaust pipe, an oxygen sensor, and a main catalyst connected downstream of the turbocharger, starter catalyst, and oxygen sensor. To reduce the exhaust gas counterpressure and relieve the load on the starter catalyst at the same time, the starter catalyst is arranged upstream of a junction of the bypass conduit entering into the exhaust pipe.

  18. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  19. Compact high-speed MWIR spectrometer applied to monitor CO2 exhaust dynamics from a turbojet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares-Herrero, R.; Vergara, G.; Gutiérrez Álvarez, R.; Fernández Montojo, C.; Gómez, L. J.; Villamayor, V.; Baldasano Ramírez, A.; Montojo, M. T.; Archilla, V.; Jiménez, A.; Mercader, D.; González, A.; Entero, A.

    2013-05-01

    Dfgfdg Due to international environmental regulations, aircraft turbojet manufacturers are required to analyze the gases exhausted during engine operation (CO, CO2, NOx, particles, unburned hydrocarbons (aka UHC), among others).Standard procedures, which involve sampling the gases from the exhaust plume and the analysis of the emissions, are usually complex and expensive, making a real need for techniques that allow a more frequent and reliable emissions measurements, and a desire to move from the traditional gas sampling-based methods to real time and non-intrusive gas exhaust analysis, usually spectroscopic. It is expected that the development of more precise and faster optical methods will provide better solutions in terms of performance/cost ratio. In this work the analysis of high-speed infrared emission spectroscopy measurements of plume exhaust are presented. The data was collected during the test trials of commercial engines carried out at Turbojet Testing Center-INTA. The results demonstrate the reliability of the technique for studying and monitoring the dynamics of the exhausted CO2 by the observation of the infrared emission of hot gases. A compact (no moving parts), high-speed, uncooled MWIR spectrometer was used for the data collection. This device is capable to register more than 5000 spectra per second in the infrared band ranging between 3.0 and 4.6 microns. Each spectrum is comprised by 128 spectral subbands with aband width of 60 nm. The spectrometer operated in a passive stand-off mode and the results from the measurements provided information of both the dynamics and the concentration of the CO2 during engine operation.

  20. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  1. A WEAR MODEL FOR DIESEL ENGINE EXHAUST VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Peter Julian

    2009-11-01

    The work summarized here comprises the concluding effort of a multi-year project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies. It supports the development of a better understanding of advanced diesel engine designs in which enhanced power density, energy efficiency, and emissions control place increasing demands upon the durability of engine materials. Many kinds of metallic alloys are used in engines depending on the operating stresses, temperatures, and chemical environments. Exhaust valves, for example, are subjected to high temperatures and repetitive surface contacts that place demands on durability and frictional characteristics of the materials. Valves must continue to seal the combustion chamber properly for thousands of hours of cyclic engine operation and under varying operating conditions. It was the focus of this effort to understand the wear processes in the valve-seat area and to develop a model for the surface deformation and wear of that important interface. An annotated bibliography is provided to illustrate efforts to understand valve wear and to investigate the factors of engine operation that affect its severity and physical manifestation. The project for which this modeling effort was the final task, involved construction of a high-temperature repetitive impact test system as well as basic tribology studies of the combined processes of mechanical wear plus oxidation at elevated temperatures. Several publications resulted from this work, and are cited in this report. The materials selected for the experimental work were high-performance alloys based on nickel and cobalt. In some cases, engine-tested exhaust valves were made available for wear analysis and to ensure that the modes of surface damage produced in experiments were simulative of service. New, production-grade exhaust valves were also used to prepare test specimens for experimental work along with the other alloy samples. Wear analysis of valves and seats

  2. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  3. Lab-scale Lidar Sensing of Diesel Engines Exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borghese, A.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion technology and its environmental concerns are being considered with increasing attention, not only for global-scale effects, but also for toxicological implications, particularly in the lift conditions of traffic-congested areas and industrial sites. Majority combustion by-products (CO, NO(sub x)) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC), are already subject to increasingly severe regulations; however other, non-regulated minority species, mainly soot and heavy aromatic molecules, involve higher health risks, as they are suspected to be agents of serious pathologies and even mutagenic effects. This is but one of the reasons why much research work is being carried out worldwide on the physical properties of these substances. Correspondingly, the need arises to detect their presence in urban environments, with as high a sensitivity as is required by their low concentrations, proper time- and space-resolutions, and 'real-time' capabilities. Lidar techniques are excellent candidates to this purpose, although severe constraints limit their applicability, eye-safety problems and aerosol Mie scattering uncertainties above all. At CNR's Istituto Motori in Napels, a Lidar-like diagnostic system is being developed, aimed primarily at monitoring the dynamic behavior of internal combustion engines, particularly diesel exhausts, and at exploring the feasibility of a so-called 'Downtown Lidar'.

  4. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  5. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed a smoke number (SN) of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section refer to exhaust smoke emission emitted during operation of the...

  6. 14 CFR 34.31 - Standards for exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas turbine engine of Class T8, beginning February 1, 1974, shall not exceed a smoke number (SN) of 30. (b) Exhaust emissions of smoke from each in-use aircraft gas... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section refer to exhaust smoke emission emitted during operation of the...

  7. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  9. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  10. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  11. On the thermodynamics of waste heat recovery from internal combustion engine exhaust gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, G. P.

    2013-03-01

    The ideal internal combustion (IC) engine (Otto Cycle) efficiency ηIC = 1-(1/r)(γ - 1) is only a function of engine compression ratio r =Vmax/Vmin and exhaust gas specific heat ratio γ = cP/cV. Typically r = 8, γ = 1.4, and ηIC = 56%. Unlike the Carnot Cycle where ηCarnot = 1-(TC/TH) for a heat engine operating between hot and cold heat reservoirs at TH and TC, respectively, ηIC is not a function of the exhaust gas temperature. Instead, the exhaust gas temperature depends only on the intake gas temperature (ambient), r, γ, cV, and the combustion energy. The ejected exhaust gas heat is thermally decoupled from the IC engine and conveyed via the exhaust system (manifold, pipe, muffler, etc.) to ambient, and the exhaust system is simply a heat engine that does no useful work. The maximum fraction of fuel energy that can be extracted from the exhaust gas stream as useful work is (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot = 32% for TH = 850 K (exhaust) and TC = 370 K (coolant). This waste heat can be recovered using a heat engine such as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) with ηTEG> 0 in the exhaust system. A combined IC engine and TEG system can generate net useful work from the exhaust gas waste heat with efficiency ηWH = (1-ηIC) × ηCarnot ×ηTEG , and this will increase the overall fuel efficiency of the total system. Recent improvements in TEGs yield ηTEG values approaching 15% giving a potential total waste heat conversion efficiency of ηWH = 4.6%, which translates into a fuel economy improvement approaching 5%. This work is supported by the US DOE under DE-EE0005432.

  12. Update of development on the new Audi NSU rotary engine generation. [for application to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanbasshuysen, R.

    1978-01-01

    Rotary engines with a chamber volume of 750 cc as a two rotor automotive powerplant, called KKM 871 are described. This engine is compared to a 3 liter or 183 cubic inch, six-cylinder reciprocating engine. Emphasis is placed on exhaust emission control and fuel economy.

  13. 75 FR 39803 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16366. Docket No. FAA-2010-0308; Directorate Identifier 2010-NE-17-AD...) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH model TAE 125-01...) Use the Measures section of Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Service Bulletin No. TM TAE...

  14. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  15. The Power of Aircraft Engines at Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragazzi, Paolo

    1939-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is confined to the investigations and methods employed by the Fiat company in their studies on the altitude performance of an air-cooled engine of the production type. The experimental set-up as well as test engine data are provided.

  16. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  17. Preliminary calculation of cylinder dimensions for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwager, Otto

    1921-01-01

    It is extremely important in building aircraft engines to determine the requisite cylinder dimensions as accurately as possible, in order that the weight required for a given power shall not be excessive. This report presents a calculation method that depends on the air requirement of the fuel.

  18. Lean burn combustor technology at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodds, Willard J.

    1992-01-01

    This presentation summarizes progress to date at GE Aircraft Engines in demonstration of a lean combustion system for the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). These efforts were supported primarily by NASA contracts, with the exception of initial size and weight estimates and development of advanced diagnostics which were conducted under GE Independent Research and Development projects. Key accomplishments to date are summarized below.

  19. Combustion system CFD modeling at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Mongia, H.; Tolpadi, Anil K.; Correa, S.; Braaten, M.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses key features of current combustion system CFD modeling capabilities at GE Aircraft Engines provided by the CONCERT code; CONCERT development history; modeling applied for designing engine combustion systems; modeling applied to improve fundamental understanding; CONCERT3D results for current production combustors; CONCERT3D model of NASA/GE E3 combustor; HYBRID CONCERT CFD/Monte-Carlo modeling approach; and future modeling directions.

  20. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  1. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  2. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  3. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maricocchi, Antonio; Bartz, Andi; Wortman, David

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micron (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  4. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartz, A.; Mariocchi, A.; Wortman, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reliability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher performance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of Thermal Barrier Coatings (TBC's) have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 micrometer (0.005 in) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating temperatures of 56-83 C (100-150 F) lower than uncoated components. Engine testing has also revealed the TBC is susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues the TBC erodes away in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area, however, a significant temperature reduction was realized over an airfoil without any TBC.

  5. PVD TBC experience on GE aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maricocchi, A.; Bartz, A.; Wortman, D.

    1997-06-01

    The higher performance levels of modern gas turbine engines present significant challenges in the reli-ability of materials in the turbine. The increased engine temperatures required to achieve the higher per-formance levels reduce the strength of the materials used in the turbine sections of the engine. Various forms of thermal barrier coatings have been used for many years to increase the reliability of gas turbine engine components. Recent experience with the physical vapor deposition process using ceramic material has demonstrated success in extending the service life of turbine blades and nozzles. Engine test results of turbine components with a 125 μm (0.005 in.) PVD TBC have demonstrated component operating tem-peratures of 56 to 83 °C (100 to 150 °F) lower than non-PVD TBC components. Engine testing has also revealed that TBCs are susceptible to high angle particle impact damage. Sand particles and other engine debris impact the TBC surface at the leading edge of airfoils and fracture the PVD columns. As the impacting continues, the TBC erodes in local areas. Analysis of the eroded areas has shown a slight increase in temperature over a fully coated area ; however, a significant temperature reduc-tion was realized over an airfoil without TBC.

  6. Development of naval diesel engine duty cycles for air exhaust emission environmental impact analysis. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Markle, S.P.

    1994-05-01

    A strategy for testing naval diesel engines for exhaust emissions was developed. A survey of existing international and national standard diesel engine duty cycles was conducted. All were found to be inadequate for testing and certification of engine exhaust emissions from naval diesel powered ships. Naval ship data covering 11,500 hours of engine operation of four U.S. Navy LSD 41 Class amphibious ships was analyzed to develop a 27 point class operating profile. A procedure combining ship hull form characteristics, ship propulsion plant parameters, and ship operating profile was detailed to derive an 11-Mode duty cycle representative for testing LSD 41 Class propulsion diesel engines. A similar procedure was followed for ship service diesel engines. Comparisons with industry accepted duty cycles were conducted using exhaust emission contour plots for the Colt-Pielstick PC-4B diesel engines. Results showed the 11-Mode LSD 41 Class Duty Cycle best predicted ship propulsion engine emissions compared to the 27 point operating profile propeller curve. The procedure was applied to T-AO 187 Class with similar results. The application of civilian industry standards to measure naval diesel ship propulsion engine exhaust emissions was found to be inadequate. Engine exhaust flow chemistry post turbocharger was investigated using the SANDIA Lab computer tool CHEMKIN. Results showed oxidation and reduction reactions within exhaust gases are quenched in the exhaust stack. Since the exhaust stream in the stack is unreactive, emission sampling may be performed where most convenient. A proposed emission measurement scheme for LSD 41 Class ships was presented.

  7. Advanced technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Combustor research programs are described whose purpose is to demonstrate significantly lower exhaust emission levels. The proposed EPA regulations covering the allowable levels of emissions will require a major technological effort if these levels are to be met by 1979. Pollution reduction technology is being pursued by NASA through a combination of in-house research, contracted progams, and university grants. In-house research with the swirl-can modular combustor and the double-annular combustor has demonstrated significant reduction in the level of NO(x) emissions. The work is continuing in an attempt to further reduce these levels by improvements in module design and in air-fuel scheduling. Research on the reduction of idle emissions has included the conversion of conventional duplex fuel nozzles to air-assisted nozzles and exploration of the potential improvements possible with fuel staging and variable combustor geometry.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1310-90 - Exhaust gas sampling and analytical system; diesel engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (4) For methanol-fueled engines, cooling or reaction of the exhaust gases in the exhaust duct... unless compensation for varying flow rate is made). The sample collection lines shall be heated to a... overflow gas flow rates into the sample line shall be at least 105 percent of the sample system flow...

  9. 40 CFR 1054.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my nonhandheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for HC+NOX emissions as described in subpart H of this part. You may not generate or use emission... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must...-IGNITION ENGINES AND EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1054.105 What exhaust...

  10. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  11. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  12. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  13. Chemistry Characterization of Jet Aircraft Engine Particulate by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports XPS analysis of jet exhaust particulate from a B737, Lear, ERJ, and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and platforms. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20 percent or more. By lower resolution survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N, and O in the form of oxides. Burning additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their presence can be used as a tracer for identifying soots from aircraft engines as well as diagnostic for monitoring engine performance and wear.

  14. Chemistry characterization of jet aircraft engine particulate matter by XPS: Results from APEX III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vander Wal, Randy L.; Bryg, Victoria M.; Huang, Chung-Hsuan

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of jet exhaust particulate matter (PM) from a B737, Lear, ERJ and A300 aircraft during the APEX III NASA led field campaign. Carbon hybridization and bonding chemistry are identified by high-resolution scans about the C1s core-shell region. Significant organic content as gauged by the sp3/sp2 ratio is found across engines and powers. Polar oxygen functional groups include carboxylic, carbonyl and phenol with combined content of 20% or more. By survey scans various elements including transition metals are identified along with lighter elements such as S, N and O in the form of oxides. Additives within lubricants are probable sources of Na, Ba, Ca, Zn, P and possibly Sn. Elements present and their percentages varied significantly across all engines, not revealing any trend or identifiable cause for the differences, though the origin is likely the same for the same element when observed. This finding suggests that their collective presence could serve as an environmental tracer for identifying PM originating from aircraft engines and serving as a diagnostic for engine performance and wear.

  15. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  16. Exergo-Economic Analysis of an Experimental Aircraft Turboprop Engine Under Low Torque Condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atilgan, Ramazan; Turan, Onder; Aydin, Hakan

    Exergo-economic analysis is an unique combination of exergy analysis and cost analysis conducted at the component level. In exergo-economic analysis, cost of each exergy stream is determined. Inlet and outlet exergy streams of the each component are associated to a monetary cost. This is essential to detect cost-ineffective processes and identify technical options which could improve the cost effectiveness of the overall energy system. In this study, exergo-economic analysis is applied to an aircraft turboprop engine. Analysis is based on experimental values at low torque condition (240 N m). Main components of investigated turboprop engine are the compressor, the combustor, the gas generator turbine, the free power turbine and the exhaust. Cost balance equations have been formed for all components individually and exergo-economic parameters including cost rates and unit exergy costs have been calculated for each component.

  17. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  18. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  19. Performance of Blowdown Turbine Driven by Exhaust Gas of Nine-Cylinder Radial Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Desmon, Leland G

    1944-01-01

    An investigation was made of an exhaust-gas turbine having four separate nozzle boxes each covering a 90 degree arc of the nozzle diaphragm and each connected to a pair of adjacent cylinders of a nine-cylinder radial engine. This type of turbine has been called a "blowdown" turbine because it recovers the kinetic energy developed in the exhaust stacks during the blowdown period, that is the first part of the exhaust process when the piston of the reciprocating engine is nearly stationary. The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether the blow turbine could develop appreciable power without imposing any large loss in engine power arising from restriction of the engine exhaust by the turbine.

  20. Influence of increased exhaust gas recirculation ratio on the thermodynamic processes in CI DI engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pielecha, I.; Skowron, M.; Bueschke, W.; Cieślik, W.; Wisłocki, K.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the conducted research was the thermodynamic identification of combustion process involving up to 50-60% recirculated exhaust gasses in compression ignition engine. The values of the respective indicators obtained for the high share of exhaust gasses in the cylinder were compared to the values obtained in the engine working without EGR. The research was conducted on the single-cylinder AVL 5804 engine equipped with recirculated gas cooling system. The conditions of combustion process were determined using indicators of engine operation and measurements of fast-varying cylinder pressure. The evaluation of the influence of different share of exhaust gases in the cylinder on the combustion course and heat release was conducted. As a result of the conducted research the possibility of utilizing the high share of exhaust gasses (50-60%) with simultaneous ecological benefits, not only in relation to nitrogen oxides, was demonstrated.

  1. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  2. Components for digitally controlled aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Control system components suitable for use in digital electronic control systems are defined. Compressor geometry actuation concepts and fuel handling system concepts suitable for use in large high performance turbofan/turbojet engines are included. Eight conceptual system designs were formulated for the actuation of the compressor geometry. Six conceptual system designs were formulated for the engine fuel handling system. Assessment criteria and weighting factors were established and trade studies performed on their candidate systems to establish the relative merits of the various concepts. Fuel pumping and metering systems for small turboshaft engines were also studied. Seven conceptual designs were formulated, and trade studies performed. A simplified bypassing fuel metering scheme was selected and a preliminary design defined.

  3. Transport of exhaust products in the near trail of a jet engine under atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Karcher, B.

    1994-07-01

    The transport of exhaust effluents and the possibility of water ice contrail formation are investigated under the specific fluid dynamical conditions in the near exhaust trail of a subsonic jet aircraft at cruise altitude. By means of a computational model describing the two-dimensional turbulent mixing of a single jet of hot exhaust gas with the atmosphere, representative results are discussed on the temperature and saturation ratio evolutions of air parcels in the jet flow field as well as on radial distributions of exhaust effluents undergoing chemical reactions behind the nozzle exit with prescribed, typical net reaction rates. The results underline the importance of a simultaneous treatment of spatially resolved jet expansion together with microphysical and chemical processes, because this coupling leads to distinct concentration patterns for various classes of chemical reactants and is essential for the detailed prediction of contrails.

  4. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  5. Biological effects of fuel and exhaust components from spacecraft descent engines employing hydrazine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehwalt, M. E.; Woeller, F. H.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of the products of the Viking terminal descent engine fuel upon possible extraterrestrial life at the Martian landing site is examined. The effects of the engine exhaust, the hydrazine fuel, and the breakdown products of the latter on terrestrial microorganisms have been studied. The results indicate that the gaseous exhaust products would probably not be hazardous to microorganisms, but that liquid hydrazine would be lethal.

  6. Wind tunnel investigation of simulated helicopter engine exhaust interacting with windstream

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, C. S.; Wilson, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the windstream-engine exhaust flow interaction on a light observation helicopter model has been conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The investigation utilized flow visualization techniques to determine the cause to determine the cause of exhaust shield overheating during cruise and to find a means of eliminating the problem. Exhaust flow attachment to the exhaust shield during cruise was found to cause the overheating. Several flow-altering devices were evaluated to find a suitable way to correct the problem. A flow deflector located on the model cowling upstream of the exhaust in addition to aerodynamic shield fairings provided the best solution. Also evaluated was heat transfer concept employing pin fins to cool future exhaust hardware. The primary flow visualization technique used in the investigation was a newly developed system employing neutrally buoyant helium-filled bubbles. The resultant flow patterns were recorded on motion picture film and on television magnetic tape.

  7. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  8. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  9. Effect of Exhaust Pressure on the Cooling Characteristics of a Liquid-Cooled Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Ronald B.; Desmon, Leland G.

    1947-01-01

    Data for a liquid-cooled engine with a displacement volume of 1710 cubic inches were analyzed to determine the effect of exhaust pressure on the engine cooling characteristics. The data covered a range of exhaust pressures from 7 to 62 inches of mercury absolute, inlet-manifold pressures from 30 to 50 inches of mercury absolute, engine speeds from 1600 to 3000 rpm, and fuel-air ratios from 0.063 to 0.100. The effect of exhaust pressure on engine cooling was satisfactorily incorporated in the NACA cooling-correlation method as a variation in effective gas temperature with exhaust pressure. Large variations of cylinder-head temperature with exhaust pressure were obtained for operation at constant charge flow. At a constant charge flow of 2 pounds per second (approximately 1000 bhp) and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, an increase in exhaust pressure from 10 to 60 inches of mercury absolute resulted in an increase of 40 F in average cylinder-head temperature. For operation at constant engine speed and inlet-manifold pressure and variable exhaust pressure (variable charge flow), however, the effect of exhaust pressure on cylinder-head temperature is small. For example, at an inlet-manifold pressure of 40 inches of mercury absolute, an engine speed of 2400 rpm.- and a fuel-air ratio of 0.085, the average cylinder-head temperature was about the same at exhaust pressures of 10 and 60 inches of,mercury absolute; a rise and a subsequent decrease of about 70 occurred between these extremes.

  10. Study of small turbofan engines applicable to general-aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.; Burnett, G. A.; Alsworth, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The applicability of small turbofan engines to general aviation aircraft is discussed. The engine and engine/airplane performance, weight, size, and cost interrelationships are examined. The effects of specific engine noise constraints are evaluated. The factors inhibiting the use of turbofan engines in general aviation aircraft are identified.

  11. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  12. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  13. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  14. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  15. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  16. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... maximum values you may specify for family emission limits: (1) 336 g/kW-hr for Class III engines. (2) 275 g/kW-hr for Class IV engines. (3) 186 g/kW-hr for Class V engines. (c) Fuel types. The exhaust... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50...

  17. Investigations on the main engines exhaust of two Boeing 767-3ZR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lechner, Bernhard; Bacher, Michael; Rodler, Johannes; Sturm, Peter J.

    2004-02-01

    The main engines exhaust of two Boeing 767-3ZR(ER) powered by Pratt & Whitney 4060 has been intensively studied using spectroscopic methods like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS). All cockpit data was provided by the operating airline while the thrust level was varied between idle (25% N1) and 70 % N1 where N1 is the maximum number of revolutions of the fan. The investigated gaseous species were carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) and some hydrocarbons (C2H4, C2H2, HCOH and unburned kerosene). A comparison to the database of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) showed much higher emissions of CO and NOx-emissions in the same range. Although these two aircraft were of the same age and maintained by the same operator the emissions differed by a factor of two. Formaldehyde proved to be the most abundant hydrocarbon besides ethane and ethane.

  18. Exhaust system for an internal combustion engine, burn-off unit and methods therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Frankenberg, A.A.; Scott, D.R.

    1984-05-22

    An exhaust system is disclosed for an internal combustion engine which burns a hydrocarbon fuel mixture and which produces a carbonaceous particle carrying exhaust gas stream that passes through a filter of the system that retains at least part of the particles therein, the system having a burn-off unit for periodically burning the retained particles in the filter to tend to periodically clean the filter of the retained particles thereof. The burn-off unit is adapted to raise the temperature of the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter to raise the temperature of the filter to particle burning temperature thereof, the burn-off unit injecting and burning a certain amount of the hydrocarbon fuel mixture in the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter to raise the temperature of the exhaust gas stream intermediate the engine and the filter. The fuel mixture is injected into the exhaust gas stream by an aspirating unit of the burn-off unit, and the temperature of the exhaust gas stream is raised by an electrical heater and a catalyst bed in which the injected fuel mixture is to burn.

  19. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... deterioration factors that represent the expected deterioration in emissions over your engines' full useful life... deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that do not use aftertreatment technology, use an... between exhaust emissions at the end of useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... deterioration factors that represent the expected deterioration in emissions over your engines' full useful life... deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that do not use aftertreatment technology, use an... between exhaust emissions at the end of useful life and exhaust emissions at the low-hour test...

  1. Modeling Macro- and Micro-Scale Turbulent Mixing and Chemistry in Engine Exhaust Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menon, Suresh

    1998-01-01

    Simulation of turbulent mixing and chemical processes in the near-field plume and plume-vortex regimes has been successfully carried out recently using a reduced gas phase kinetics mechanism which substantially decreased the computational cost. A detailed mechanism including gas phase HOx, NOx, and SOx chemistry between the aircraft exhaust and the ambient air in near-field aircraft plumes is compiled. A reduced mechanism capturing the major chemical pathways is developed. Predictions by the reduced mechanism are found to be in good agreement with those by the detailed mechanism. With the reduced chemistry, the computer CPU time is saved by a factor of more than 3.5 for the near-field plume modeling. Distributions of major chemical species are obtained and analyzed. The computed sensitivities of major species with respect to reaction step are deduced for identification of the dominant gas phase kinetic reaction pathways in the jet plume. Both the near field plume and the plume-vortex regimes were investigated using advanced mixing models. In the near field, a stand-alone mixing model was used to investigate the impact of turbulent mixing on the micro- and macro-scale mixing processes using a reduced reaction kinetics model. The plume-vortex regime was simulated using a large-eddy simulation model. Vortex plume behind Boeing 737 and 747 aircraft was simulated along with relevant kinetics. Many features of the computed flow field show reasonable agreement with data. The entrainment of the engine plumes into the wing tip vortices and also the partial detrainment of the plume were numerically captured. The impact of fluid mechanics on the chemical processes was also studied. Results show that there are significant differences between spatial and temporal simulations especially in the predicted SO3 concentrations. This has important implications for the prediction of sulfuric acid aerosols in the wake and may partly explain the discrepancy between past numerical studies

  2. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  3. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  4. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  5. Particulate exhaust emissions from an experimental combustor. [gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    The concentration of dry particulates (carbon) in the exhaust of an experimental gas turbine combustor was measured at simulated takeoff operating conditions and correlated with the standard smoke-number measurement. Carbon was determined quantitatively from a sample collected on a fiberglass filter by converting the carbon in the smoke sample to carbon dioxide and then measuring the volume of carbon dioxide formed by gas chromatography. At a smoke of 25 (threshold of visibility of the smoke plume for large turbojets) the carbon concentration was 2.8 mg carbon/cu m exhaust gas, which is equivalent to an emission index of 0.17 g carbon/kg fuel.

  6. MULTIDISCIPLINARY SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING APPROACHES TO ASSESSING DIESEL EXHAUST TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Based on epidemiology reports, diesel exhaust (DE) containing particulate matter (PM) may play a role in increasing cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity, such as lung infection and asthma symptoms. DE gas-phase components may modify the PM effects. DE components vary depending...

  7. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  8. Exhaust emissions of DI diesel engine using unconventional fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudrajad, Agung; Ali, Ismail; Hamdan, Hazmie; Hamzah, Mohd. Herzwan

    2012-06-01

    Optimization of using waste plastic and tire disposal fuel on diesel engine were observed. The experimental project was comparison between using both of unconventional fuel and base diesel fuel. The engine experiment was conducted with YANMAR TF120 single cylinder four stroke diesel engine set-up at variable engine speed at 2100, 1900, 1700, 1500 and 1300 rpm. The data have been taken at each point of engine speed during the stabilized engine-operating regime. Measurement of emissions parameters at different engine speed conditions have generally indicated lower in emission COfor waste plastic fuel, lower NOx for tire disposal fuel and lower SOx for diesel fuel.

  9. Wind tunnel investigation of a simulated gunship helicopter engine-exhaust-windstream interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Mineck, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the engine exhaust and windstream flow interaction on a gunship helicopter model was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel. The investigation utilized a flow visualization technique employing neutrally buoyant helium filled bubbles to determine the cause of exhaust shield overheating during cruising flight and to evaluate means of eliminating the problem. The flow patterns were recorded with still cameras and on television magnetic tape. Exhaust flow impingement on the exhaust shield during cruise was found to cause the problem. Several flow altering devices were evaluated to find suitable ways to correct the problem. A flow deflector located on the model cowling upstream of the exhaust provides an effective solution.

  10. Exhaust gas recirculation control device for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Onishi, T.

    1986-12-02

    This patent describes an EGR control device for controlling an EGR value in a diesel engine, the EGR control device comprising: an electric control unit means for receiving input from an engine load sensor means for detecting engine load, an engine revolution sensor means for detecting an engine speed and a thermo-sensor means for detecting an engine temperature state. The electric control unit means has a first EGR MAP for preventing EGR under a low engine revolution idling speed during low engine temperature states, a second EGR MAP for permitting EGR under the low engine revolution idling speed during high engine temperature states, and a means for selecting either the first EGR MAP or the second EGR MAP in accordance with engine operating conditions. The first EGR MAP issues an output signal for EGR in a stage of fuel injection and an engine speed greater than a first predetermined engine speed that is higher than the idling speed and the second EGR MAP issues an output signal for EGR in the stage of fuel injection and at an engine speed greater than a second predetermined engine speed that is lower than the idling speed; and an electric vacuum regulating valve means connected to the electric control unit means and receiving an output signal therefrom. The electric vacuum regulating valve means regulates an opening degree of the EGR valve in accordance with the output signal from the electric control unit.

  11. Extending acoustic data measured with small-scale supersonic model jets to practical aircraft exhaust jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ching-Wen

    2010-06-01

    Modern military aircraft jet engines are designed with variable geometry nozzles to provide optimum thrust in different operating conditions within the flight envelope. However, the acoustic measurements for such nozzles are scarce, due to the cost involved in making full-scale measurements and the lack of details about the exact geometry of these nozzles. Thus the present effort at The Pennsylvania State University and the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with GE Aviation, is aiming to study and characterize the acoustic field produced by supersonic jets issuing from converging-diverging military style nozzles. An equally important objective is to develop a scaling methodology for using data obtained from small- and moderate-scale experiments which exhibits the independence of the jet sizes to the measured noise levels. The experimental results presented in this thesis have shown reasonable agreement between small-scale and moderate-scale jet acoustic data, as well as between heated jets and heat-simulated ones. As the scaling methodology is validated, it will be extended to using acoustic data measured with small-scale supersonic model jets to the prediction of the most important components of full-scale engine noise. When comparing the measured acoustic spectra with a microphone array set at different radial locations, the characteristics of the jet noise source distribution may induce subtle inaccuracies, depending on the conditions of jet operation. A close look is taken at the details of the noise generation region in order to better understand the mismatch between spectra measured at various acoustic field radial locations. A processing methodology was developed to correct the effect of the noise source distribution and efficiently compare near-field and far-field spectra with unprecedented accuracy. This technique then demonstrates that the measured noise levels in the physically restricted space of an anechoic chamber can be appropriately

  12. Dynamic response at altitude of a turbojet engine with variable area exhaust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delio, Gene J; Rosenweig, Solomon

    1952-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of turbojet engine with variable exhaust nozzle area were investigated over a range of altitudes and flight Mach numbers. These characteristics generalize to standard static level condition. Data resulting from approximate step disturbances in either manipulated variable suggested functional relationships from which functions can be derived. The constants of the transfer functions are listed for five combinations of engine speed and exhaust nozzle area. The minimum data needed to completely define the transfer functions were: experimentally determined dynamic characteristics, such as engine time constant and initial rise ratio, resulting from either manipulated variable; static characteristics determined from steady-state performance curves.

  13. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel. PMID:19525107

  14. The characteristics of performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine using a biodiesel with antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Kyunghyun

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel, the engine performance and the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine. Biodiesel fuel used in the study was derived from soybean oil. The results show that the efficiency of antioxidants is in the order TBHQ>PrG>BHA>BHT>alpha-tocopherol. The oxidative stability of biodiesel fuel attained the 6-h quality standard with 100 ppm TBHQ and with 300 ppm PrG in biodiesel fuel. Combustion characteristics and exhaust emissions in diesel engine were not influenced by the addition of antioxidants in biodiesel fuel. The BSFC of biodiesel fuel with antioxidants decreased more than that of biodiesel fuel without antioxidants, but no trends were observed according to the type or amount of antioxidant. Antioxidants had few effects on the exhaust emissions of a diesel engine running on biodiesel.

  15. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  16. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  17. 40 CFR 1054.103 - What exhaust emission standards must my handheld engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credits under the averaging, banking, and trading (ABT) program for HC+NOX emissions as described in... Emission Standards for Handheld Engines (g/kW-hr) Engine displacement class HC+NOX CO Class III 50 805... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards...

  18. Preferential concentration of certain elements in smaller aerosols emitted from aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, R. K.; Gupta, S. K.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Buckle, D. C.; Thornton, W. B.; Aceto, H., Jr.; Singh, J. J.; Woods, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Aerosols from aircraft engines were collected with an eight-stage cascade sampler for a period of 24 h. The aerosol samples from each stage were analyzed for their elemental composition using the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Seventeen elements (Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, Nb, Sn, and Pb) were positively identified and quantitated at each stage. Six elements (S, Ca, Fe, Zn, Sn, and Pb) showed a fractional concentration increase with decreasing aerosol size. Similar, but less well-defined, trends were also observed for V and Ni. Silicon and chlorine, on the other hand, showed an opposite trend. Neutron-activation analysis of bulk aerosol samples collected every 2 h over the same period showed a correlation between concentration of Si, Ca, V, Ti, Zn, Br, and Sn and the density of air traffic at the airport. Analysis of the aviation-fuel samples by PIXE indicates that major fractions of Pb, Sn, Br, Zn, Ni, Fe, V, Ca, and S observed in these aerosol studies come from the aircraft engine exhaust.

  19. 40 CFR 87.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM AIRCRAFT AND AIRCRAFT ENGINES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.62 Test procedure (propulsion... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test procedure (propulsion...

  20. 14 CFR 34.62 - Test procedure (propulsion engines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FUEL VENTING AND EXHAUST EMISSION REQUIREMENTS FOR TURBINE ENGINE POWERED AIRPLANES Test Procedures for Engine Exhaust Gaseous Emissions (Aircraft and Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 34.62 Test procedure... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedure (propulsion engines)....

  1. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  2. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  3. Reducing drag of a commuter train, using engine exhaust momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Dong Keun

    The objective of this thesis was to perform numerical investigations of two different methods of injecting fluid momentum into the air flow above a commuter train to reduce its drag. Based on previous aerodynamic modifications of heavy duty trucks in improving fuel efficiency, two structural modifications were designed and applied to a Metrolink Services commuter train in the Los Angeles (LA) County area to reduce its drag and subsequently improve fuel efficiency. The first modification was an L-shaped channel, added to the exhaust cooling fan above the locomotive roof to divert and align the exhaust gases in the axial direction. The second modification was adding an airfoil shaped lid over the L-shape channel, to minimize the drag of the perturbed structure, and thus reduce the overall drag. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software CCM+ from CD-Adapco with the ?-? turbulence model was used for the simulations. A single train set which consists of three vehicles: one locomotive, one trailer car and one cab car were used. All the vehicles were modeled based on the standard Metrolink fleet train size. The wind speed was at 90 miles per hour (mph), which is the maximum speed for the Orange County Metrolink line. Air was used as the exhaust gas in the simulation. The temperature of the exhausting air emitting out of the cooling fan on the roof was 150 F and the average fan speed was 120 mph. Results showed that with the addition of the lid, momentum injection results in reduced flow separation and pressure recovery behind the locomotive, which reduces the overall drag by at least 30%.

  4. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei; Chen, Philip; Jaw, Link

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. The purpose of life-extending-control (LEC) is to study the relationship between control action and engine component life usage, and to design an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper trade-offs between performance and engine life usage. The benefit of this approach is that it is expected to maintain safety while minimizing the overall operating costs. With the advances of computer technology, engine operation models, and damage physics, it is necessary to reevaluate the control strategy fro overall operating cost consideration. This paper uses the thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can drastically reduce the engine life usage with minimum sacrifice in performance. A Monte Carlo simulation is also performed to evaluate the likely engine damage accumulation under various operating conditions. The simulation results show that an optimized acceleration schedule can provide a significant life saving in selected engine components.

  5. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  6. Flight measured and calculated exhaust jet conditions for an F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The exhaust jet conditions, in terms of temperature and Mach number, were determined for a nozzle-aft end acoustic study flown on an F-15 aircraft. Jet properties for the F100 EMD engines were calculated using the engine manufacturer's specification deck. The effects of atmospheric temperature on jet Mach number, M10, were calculated. Values of turbine discharge pressure, PT6M, jet Mach number, and jet temperature were calculated as a function of aircraft Mach number, altitude, and power lever angle for the test day conditions. At a typical test point with a Mach number of 0.9, intermediate power setting, and an altitude of 20,000 ft, M10 was equal to 1.63. Flight measured and calculated values of PT6M were compared for intermediate power at altitudes of 15500, 20500, and 31000 ft. It was found that at 31000 ft, there was excellent agreement between both, but for lower altitudes the specification deck overpredicted the flight data. The calculated jet Mach numbers were believed to be accurate to within 2 percent.

  7. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  8. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1309-90 Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto... including the systems described in § 86.1310 for petroleum-fueled diesel engines may be used if shown...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1309-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system; Otto-cycle and non-petroleum-fueled engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test period. (2) Engine exhaust to CVS duct. For methanol-fueled engines, reactions of the exhaust...), as applicable are achieved by sampling at a constant flow rate. For methanol-fueled engines, the... analyzed using a HFID calibrated with methanol. The variable mixture flow rate is maintained at choked...

  11. 40 CFR 1045.240 - How do I demonstrate that my engine family complies with exhaust emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that do not use aftertreatment technology, use an... deterioration factor for exhaust emissions. For engines that use aftertreatment technology, such as catalytic... each pollutant and then add the results before rounding. (e) Use good engineering judgment...

  12. Three dimensional model calculations of the global dispersion of high speed aircraft exhaust and implications for stratospheric ozone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglass, Anne R.; Rood, Richard B.; Jackman, Charles H.; Weaver, Clark J.

    1994-01-01

    Two-dimensional (zonally averaged) photochemical models are commonly used for calculations of ozone changes due to various perturbations. These include calculating the ozone change expected as a result of change in the lower stratospheric composition due to the exhaust of a fleet of supersonic aircraft flying in the lower stratosphere. However, zonal asymmetries are anticipated to be important to this sort of calculation. The aircraft are expected to be restricted from flying over land at supersonic speed due to sonic booms, thus the pollutant source will not be zonally symmetric. There is loss of pollutant through stratosphere/troposphere exchange, but these processes are spatially and temporally inhomogeneous. Asymmetry in the pollutant distribution contributes to the uncertainty in the ozone changes calculated with two dimensional models. Pollutant distributions for integrations of at least 1 year of continuous pollutant emissions along flight corridors are calculated using a three dimensional chemistry and transport model. These distributions indicate the importance of asymmetry in the pollutant distributions to evaluation of the impact of stratospheric aircraft on ozone. The implications of such pollutant asymmetries to assessment calculations are discussed, considering both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions.

  13. 40 CFR 87.23 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 6 and Tier 8 engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard, as described in § 87.60. The tier of standards identified for an engine relates to NOX emissions... the NOX emission standards. (a) New turboprop aircraft engines with rated output at or above 1,000... excepted without request from the otherwise applicable Tier 6 NOX emission standard. To be eligible...

  14. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  15. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  16. Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on small engine generator energy efficiency and exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Yinn; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Hsieh, You-Ru

    2010-02-01

    This study was focused on fuel energy efficiency and pollution analysis of different ratios of ethanol-gasoline blended fuels (E0, E3, E6, and E9) under different loadings. In this research, the experimental system consisted of a small engine generator, a particulate matter measurement system, and an exhaust gas analyzer system. Different fuels, unleaded gasoline, and ethanol-gasoline blends (E0, E3, E6, and E9) were used to study their effects on the exhaust gas emission and were expressed as thermal efficiency of the small engine generator energy efficiency. The results suggested that particle number concentration increased as the engine loading increased; however, it decreased as the ethanol content in the blend increased. While using E6 as fuel, the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was less than other fuels (E0, E3, and E9) for each engine loading. The average of CO concentration reduction by using E3, E6, and E9 is 42, 86, and 83%, respectively. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 78.7, 97.5, and 89.46% of the mean average values of hydrocarbons (HCs) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, for all engine loadings. Using an ethanol-gasoline blend led to a significant reduction in exhaust emissions by approximately 35, 86, and 77% of the mean average values of nitrogen oxides (NOx) with E3, E6, and E9 fuels, respectively, at each engine loading. The E6 fuel gave the best results of the exhaust emissions, and the E9 fuel gave the best results of the particle emissions and engine performance. The thermal efficiency of the small engine generator increased as the ethanol content in the blend increased and as the engine loading increased.

  17. Open loop pneumatic control of a Lysholm engine or turbine exhaust pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Plonski, B.A.

    1981-07-17

    A Lysholm engine, or helical screw expander, is currently being evaluated at the University of California, Berkeley for staging with a conventional turbine in geothermal energy conversion. A pneumatic closed loop, proportional-integral control system was implemented to control the Lysholm engine's exhaust pressure for performance testing of the engine at constant inlet/outlet pressure ratios. The control system will also be used to control the exhaust pressure of the conventional turbine during future testing of the staged Lysholm-turbine system. Analytical modeling of the control system was performed and successful tuning was achieved by applying Ziegler-Nichol's tuning method. Stable control and quick response, of approximately 1 minute, was demonstrated for load and set point changes in desired exhaust pressures.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Active Noise Controller for Internal Combustion Engine Exhaust System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian-Da; Chen, Chih-Keng; Lee, Chun-Ying; Lee, Tian-Hua

    2002-10-01

    Two active noise control (ANC) algorithms for internal combustion engine exhaust systems are developed and their performances are compared in various experiments. The first controller is based on the filtered-x least mean square (FXLMS) algorithm with feedback neutralization, while the second is a fixed controller with a gain-scheduled active control technique for broadband attenuation with thermal effects. Both control algorithms are implemented on a digital signal processing (DSP) platform. Experiments are carried out to evaluate the attenuation performance of the proposed active noise control systems for an engine exhaust system. The results of the experiments indicate that both the adaptive controller and the gain-scheduled controller effectively suppress the noise of engine exhaust systems. The experimental comparison and analysis of the proposed controllers are also described.

  19. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    DOEpatents

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  20. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  1. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Rinehart, Aidan W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  2. Sensor Selection for Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation and Gas Path Fault Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents analytical techniques for aiding system designers in making aircraft engine health management sensor selection decisions. The presented techniques, which are based on linear estimation and probability theory, are tailored for gas turbine engine performance estimation and gas path fault diagnostics applications. They enable quantification of the performance estimation and diagnostic accuracy offered by different candidate sensor suites. For performance estimation, sensor selection metrics are presented for two types of estimators including a Kalman filter and a maximum a posteriori estimator. For each type of performance estimator, sensor selection is based on minimizing the theoretical sum of squared estimation errors in health parameters representing performance deterioration in the major rotating modules of the engine. For gas path fault diagnostics, the sensor selection metric is set up to maximize correct classification rate for a diagnostic strategy that performs fault classification by identifying the fault type that most closely matches the observed measurement signature in a weighted least squares sense. Results from the application of the sensor selection metrics to a linear engine model are presented and discussed. Given a baseline sensor suite and a candidate list of optional sensors, an exhaustive search is performed to determine the optimal sensor suites for performance estimation and fault diagnostics. For any given sensor suite, Monte Carlo simulation results are found to exhibit good agreement with theoretical predictions of estimation and diagnostic accuracies.

  3. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  4. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe. PMID:18409606

  5. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  6. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  7. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  8. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  9. 14 CFR 21.331 - Issuance of export airworthiness approvals for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... for aircraft engines, propellers, and articles. 21.331 Section 21.331 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... engines, propellers, and articles. (a) A person may obtain from the FAA an export airworthiness approval to export a new aircraft engine, propeller, or article that is manufactured under this part if...

  10. Biofuel Blending Impacts on Aircraft Engine Particle Emissions at Cruise Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We present measurements of aerosol emissions indices and microphysical properties measured in-situ behind the CFM56-2-C1 engines of the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the 2014 Alternative Fuel Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions (ACCESS) project. Aircraft engine emissions can have a disproportionately large climatic impact since they are emitted high in the troposphere and in remote regions with otherwise low aerosol concentrations. This has motivated numerous past ground-based studies focused on quantifying the emissions indices of non-volatile and semi-volatile aerosol species, however, it is unclear the extent to which emissions on the ground translate to emissions at cruise conditions. In addition, the ability of engine-emitted aerosols to nucleate ice crystals and form linear contrails or contrail cirrus clouds remains poorly understood. To better understand these effects, two chase plane experiments were carried out in 2013 and 2014. Three different fuel types are discussed: a low-sulfur JP-8 fuel, a 50:50 blend of JP-8 and a camelina-based HEFA fuel, and the JP-8 fuel doped with sulfur. Emissions were sampled using a large number of aerosol and gas instruments integrated on HU-25 and Falcon 20 jets that were positioned in the DC-8 exhaust plume at approximately 50-500 m distance behind the engines. It was found that the biojet fuel blend substantially decreases the aerosol number and mass emissions indices, while the gas phase emission indices were similar across fuels. The magnitude of the effects of these fuel-induced changes of aerosol emissions and implications for future aviation biofuel blending impacts will be discussed.

  11. Measuring long chain alkanes in diesel engine exhaust by thermal desorption PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, M. H.; Gueneron, M.; Jobson, B. T.

    2013-07-01

    A method using thermal desorption sampling and analysis by PTR-MS to measure long chain alkanes (C12-C18) and other larger organics associated with diesel engine exhaust emissions is described. Long chain alkanes undergo dissociative proton transfer reactions forming a series of fragment ions with formula CnH2n+1. The PTR-MS is insensitive to n-alkanes less than C8 but displays an increasing sensitivity for larger alkanes. Fragment ion distribution and sensitivity is a function of drift conditions. At 80 Td the most abundant ion fragments from C10 to C16 n-alkanes were m/z 57, 71 and 85. The mass spectrum of gasoline and diesel fuel at 80 Td displayed ion group patterns that can be related to known fuel constituents, such as alkanes, alkylbenzenes and cycloalkanes, and other compound groups that are inferred from molecular weight distributions such as dihydronapthalenes and naphthenic monoaromatics. It is shown that thermal desorption sampling of gasoline and diesel engine exhausts at 80 Td allows for discrimination against light alkanes and alkenes which are a major constituent of both exhausts, allowing for quantification of higher molecular weight alkanes from the abundance of CnH2n+1 fragment ions. Using this approach, the molar abundance of C12-C18 alkanes in diesel engine exhaust was found to be 75% that of the total C1-C4 alkylbenzene abundance. While the PTR-MS mass spectra of gasoline and diesel exhaust looked similar, the abundance of higher molecular weight compounds relative to that of C4-alkylbenzenes was much greater in diesel engine exhaust. The abundance patterns of compounds determined by thermal desorption sampling may allow for emission profiles to be developed to better quantify the relative contributions of diesel and gasoline exhaust emissions of larger organic compounds to urban air concentrations.

  12. Chronic lymphatic leukaemia and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and DDT: a case-referent study.

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, U; Fredriksson, M; Persson, B; Axelson, O

    1988-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for chronic lymphatic leukaemia was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 111 cases and 431 randomised referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained by questionnaires posted to the subjects. Crude rate ratios were increased for occupational exposure to solvents. DDT, engine exhausts, fresh wood (lumberjacks, paper pulp workers, and sawmill workers, for example) and also in farming. Further analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique reduced the number of rate ratios significantly exceeding unity to encompass only occupational exposure to engine exhaust, fresh wood, DDT, and contact with horses. PMID:2449239

  13. Efficiency of thermoelectric recuperators of the exhaust gas energy of internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anatychuk, L. I.; Kuz, R. V.; Rozver, Yu. Yu.

    2012-06-01

    Results of computer simulation of thermoelectric generators (TEG) using the exhaust heat of internal combustion engines are presented. Sectionalized generator schematics whereby maximum efficiency is achieved for cases of real temperature dependences of the most suitable thermoelectric materials are considered. A model optimized for minimum cost is considered as well. Results of experimental research on generator that employs exhaust heat from heat and electricity cogeneration plant with a diesel engine are presented. Computer simulation is verified by the test results. The outlook for application of such heat recuperators in stationary plants is considered.

  14. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  15. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  16. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  17. Effect of Installation of Mixer/Ejector Nozzles on the Core Flow Exhaust of High-Bypass-Ratio Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The aerospace industry is currently investigating the effect of installing mixer/ejector nozzles on the core flow exhaust of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. This effort includes both full-scale engine tests at sea level conditions and subscale tests in static test facilities. Subscale model tests are to be conducted prior to full-scale testing. With this approach, model results can be analyzed and compared with analytical predications. Problem areas can then be identified and design changes made and verified in subscale prior to committing to any final design configurations for engine ground tests. One of the subscale model test programs for the integrated mixer/ejector development was a joint test conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Pratt & Whitney Aircraft. This test was conducted to study various mixer/ejector nozzle configurations installed on the core flow exhaust of advanced, high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines for subsonic, commercial applications. The mixer/ejector concept involves the introduction of largescale, low-loss, streamwise vortices that entrain large amounts of secondary air and rapidly mix it with the primary stream. This results in increased ejector pumping relative to conventional ejectors and in more complete mixing within the ejector shroud. The latter improves thrust performance through the efficient energy exchange between the primary and secondary streams. This experimental program was completed in April 1997 in Lewis' CE-22 static test facility. Variables tested included the nozzle area ratio (A9/A8), which ranged from 1.6 to 3.0. This ratio was varied by increasing or decreasing the nozzle throat area, A8. Primary nozzles tested included both lobed mixers and conical primaries. These configurations were tested with and without an outer shroud, and the shroud position was varied by inserting spacers in it. In addition, data were acquired with and without secondary flow.

  18. Procedure for generating global atmospheric engine emissions data from future supersonic transport aircraft. The 1990 high speed civil transport studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohn, R. A.; Stroup, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The input for global atmospheric chemistry models was generated for baseline High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) configurations at Mach 1.6, 2.2, and 3.2. The input is supplied in the form of number of molecules of specific exhaust constituents injected into the atmosphere per year by latitude and by altitude (for 2-D codes). Seven exhaust constituents are currently supplied: NO, NO2, CO, CO2, H2O, SO2, and THC (Trace Hydrocarbons). An eighth input is also supplied, NO(x), the sum of NO and NO2. The number of molecules of a given constituent emitted per year is a function of the total fuel burned by a supersonic fleet and the emission index (EI) of the aircraft engine for the constituent in question. The EIs for an engine are supplied directly by the engine manufacturers. The annual fuel burn of a supersonic fleet is calculated from aircraft performance and economic criteria, both of which are strongly dependent on basic design parameters such as speed and range. The altitude and latitude distribution of the emission is determined based on 10 Intern. Air Transport Assoc. (IATA) regions chosen to define the worldwide route structure for future HSCT operations and the mission flight profiles.

  19. Falcon 20-E5 Aircraft Flies Close Behind NASA DC-8 to Sample Exhaust

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video was taken from a NASA HU-25C Guardian chase plane looking toward NASA's DC-8, with a Falcon 20-E5 from the German Aerospace Agency (DLR) soon to fly into the DC-8's exhaust. The Falcon i...

  20. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  1. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  2. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  3. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  4. New technique for the direct measurement of core noise from aircraft engines. [YF 102 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, E. A.

    1981-01-01

    The core noise levels from gas turbine aircraft engines were measured using a technique which requires that fluctuating pressures be measured in the far field and at two locations within the engine core. The cross spectra of these measurements are used to determine the levels of the far-field noise that propagated from the engine vore. The technique makes it possible to measure core noise levels even when other noise sources dominate. The technique was applied to signals measured from an Avco Lycoming YF102 turbofan engine. Core noise levels as a function of frequency and radiation angle were measured and are presented over a range of power settings.

  5. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. It is noted that development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlY TBC's is emphasized in addition to observations fundamentally related to their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA is also noted.

  6. Thermal barrier coatings for aircraft engines: History and directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Thin thermal barrier coatings for protecting aircraft turbine section airfoils are examined in this paper. The discussion focuses on those advances that led first to their use for component life extension, and more recently as an integral part of airfoil design. Development has been driven by laboratory rig and furnace testing corroborated by engine testing and engine field experience. The technology has also been supported by performance modeling to demonstrate benefits and life modeling for mission analysis. Factors which have led to the selection of the current state-of-the-art plasma sprayed and physical vapor deposited zirconia-yttria/MCrAlX TBC's are emphasized, as are observations fundamentally related to the their behavior. Current directions in research into thermal barrier coatings and recent progress at NASA are also noted.

  7. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In the last decade, Government/Industry programs have advanced powder metallurgy-near-net-shape technology to permit the use of hot isostatic pressed (HIP) turbine disks in the commercial aircraft fleet. These disks offer a 30% savings of input weight and an 8% savings in cost compared in cast-and-wrought disks. Similar savings were demonstrated for other rotating engine components. A compressor rotor fabricated from hot-die-forged-HIP superalloy billets revealed input weight savings of 54% and cost savings of 35% compared to cast-and-wrought parts. Engine components can be produced from compositions such as Rene 95 and Astroloy by conventional casting and forging, by forging of HIP powder billets, or by direct consolidation of powder by HIP. However, each process produces differences in microstructure or introduces different defects in the parts. As a result, their mechanical properties are not necessarily identical. Acceptance methods should be developed which recognize and account for the differences.

  8. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  9. Effective density measurements of fresh particulate matter emitted by an aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Durdina, Lukas; Mensah, Amewu; Brem, Benjamin; Corbin, Joel; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Wang, Jing; Lohmann, Ulrike; Sierau, Berko

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Carbonaceous particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), once emitted into the atmosphere affects the global radiation budget by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. Furthermore, it can alter the formation, lifetime and distribution of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The ability of soot particles to act as CCN and IN depends on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Soot particles are known to consist of spherical, primary particles that tend to arrange in chain-like structures. The structure of soot particles typically changes in the atmosphere when the particles are coated with secondary material, thus changing their radiative and cloud microphysical properties. Bond et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013: Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System.) estimated the total industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon to be 1.1 W/m2 ranging from the uncertainty bonds of 0.17 W/m2 to 2.1 W/m2. Facing the large uncertainty range, there is a need for a better characterization of soot particles abundant in the atmosphere. We provide experimental data on physical properties such as size, mass, density and morphology of freshly produced soot particles from a regularly used aircraft engine and from four laboratory generated soot types. This was done using a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), a relatively new instrument that records mass distributions of aerosol particles. Experimental Aircraft engine exhaust particles were collected and analysed during the Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiments (A-PRIDE) campaigns in a test facility at the Zurich airport in November 2012 and August 2013. The engines were operated at different relative thrust levels spanning 7 % to 100 %. The sample was led into a heated line in order to prevent condensation of water and evolution of secondary

  10. Predicting Noise From Aircraft Turbine-Engine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, P.; Mani, R.; Salamah, S.; Coffin, R.; Mehta, Jayesh

    2005-01-01

    COMBUSTOR and CNOISE are computer codes that predict far-field noise that originates in the combustors of modern aircraft turbine engines -- especially modern, low-gaseous-emission engines, the combustors of which sometimes generate several decibels more noise than do the combustors of older turbine engines. COMBUSTOR implements an empirical model of combustor noise derived from correlations between engine-noise data and operational and geometric parameters, and was developed from databases of measurements of acoustic emissions of engines. CNOISE implements an analytical and computational model of the propagation of combustor temperature fluctuations (hot spots) through downstream turbine stages. Such hot spots are known to give rise to far-field noise. CNOISE is expected to be helpful in determining why low-emission combustors are sometimes noisier than older ones, to provide guidance for refining the empirical correlation model embodied in the COMBUSTOR code, and to provide insight on how to vary downstream turbinestage geometry to reduce the contribution of hot spots to far-field noise.

  11. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  12. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  13. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  14. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  15. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  16. 40 CFR 87.21 - Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4 and earlier engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Exhaust emission standards for Tier 4... greater than 26.7 kilonewtons rated output: (i) Engines manufactured on or after January 1, 1984... greater than 26.7 kilonewtons but not greater than 89 kilonewtons: Oxides of Nitrogen: (37.572 +...

  17. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  18. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  19. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  20. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  1. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  2. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  3. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  4. 40 CFR 1045.105 - What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards must my sterndrive/inboard engines meet? 1045.105 Section 1045.105 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION...

  5. 40 CFR 1045.101 - What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What exhaust emission standards and requirements must my engines meet? 1045.101 Section 1045.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM SPARK-IGNITION PROPULSION...

  6. Exhaust gas diverter for divided volute turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, A.; Meistrick, Z.S.; Pitzi, V.J.

    1992-09-15

    This patent describes a divided volute turbocharger diverter disposed between the exhaust manifold of an internal combustion engine and the turbine of the turbocharger, it comprises: first and second volute passageways; an interconnection passageway interconnecting the first and second volute passageways; an a diverter member disposed in only the first of the first and second volute passageways.

  7. Engine Performance (Section B: Fuel and Exhaust Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This module is the third of nine modules in the competency-based Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Six units cover: fuel supply systems; carburetion; carburetor service; gasoline engine electronic fuel injection; diesel fuel injection; and exhaust systems and turbochargers. Introductory materials include a competency profile and…

  8. [Preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and exhausts emission characteristics in diesel engine].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runduo; He, Hong; Zhang, Changbin; Shi, Xiaoyan

    2003-07-01

    The technology that diesel oil is partly substituted by ethanol can reduce diesel engine exhausts emission, especially fuel soot. This research is concentrated on preparation of ethanol-diesel blend fuel and exhausts emission characteristics using diesel engine bench. Absolute ethanol can dissolve into diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio. However, a trace of water (0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. Organic additive synthesized during this research can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The effects of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends on exhausts emission, were compared with that of diesel fuel in direct injection (DI) diesel engine. The optimum ethanol percentage for ethanol-diesel fuel blends was 20%. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with 2% additive of the total volume, bench diesel engine showed a large amount decrease of exhaust gas, e.g. 55% of Bosch smoke number, 70% of HC emission, and 45% of CO emission at 13 kW and 1540 r/min. Without the addition of additive, the blend of ethanol produced new organic compounds such as ethanol and acetaldehyde in tail gas. However, the addition of additive obviously reduced the emission of ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  9. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  10. Gaseous exhaust emissions from a J-58 engine at simulated supersonic flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from a J-58 engine at simulated flight conditions of Mach 2.0, 2.4, and 2.8 at 19.8 km altitude are reported. For each flight condition, measurements were made for four engine power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. These measurements were made 7 cm downstream of the engine primary nozzle using a single point traversing gas sample probe. Results show that emissions vary with flight speed, engine power level, and with radial position across the exhaust.

  11. Predictive Acoustic Modelling Applied to the Control of Intake/exhaust Noise of Internal Combustion Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.; Harrison, M. F.

    1997-05-01

    The application of validated acoustic models to intake/exhaust system acoustic design is described with reference to a sequence of specific practical examples. These include large turbocharged diesel generating sets, truck engines and high performance petrol engines. The discussion includes a comparison of frequency domain, time domain and hybrid modelling approaches to design methodology. The calculation of sound emission from open terminations is summarized in an appendix.

  12. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  13. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adequately protected from mechanical damage. (e) Where flexibility is necessary, a section of flexible... meet the material requirements of part 56 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (k... reference; see 46 CFR 175.600), will be considered as meeting the requirements of this section....

  14. Airflow calibration and exhaust pressure/temperature survey of an F404, S/N 215-109, turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Maureen E.; Kirchgessner, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    A General Electric F-404 turbofan engine was calibrated for thrust and airflow at the NASA Lewis Propulsion System Laboratory in support of future flight tests of the X-29 aircraft. Tests were conducted with and without augmentation, over a range of flight conditions, including the two design points of the airplane. Data obtained during the altitude tests will be used to correct two independent gross thrust calculation routines which will be installed and operated on the airplane to determine in-flight gross thrust. Corrected airflow data as a function of corrected fan speed collapsed onto a single curve. Similarly, trends were observed and defined for both augmented and dry thrust. Overall agreement between measured data and F-404 Engine Spec Deck data was within 2 percent for airflow and 6 percent for thrust. The results of an uncertainty analysis for thrust and airflow is presented. In addition to the thrust calibration, the exhaust gas boundary layer pressure and temperatures were surveyed at selected condition and engine power levels to obtain data for another NASA F-404 program. Test data for these surveys are presented.

  15. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  16. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  17. Particulate control for coal-fueled diesel engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Smolensky, L.A.; Easom, B.H.

    1993-11-01

    The Core Separator is a cylindrical vessel having one tangential inlet and two outlets at the opposite end of the vessel. It contains an outlet for the clean flow and a second outlet for the recirculating flow. The solids-laden flue gas is introduced through a fan to the inlet of the Core Separator. Due to the swirling motion of the flow, solids move to the periphery as the central jet leaving the system through the central outlet is cleaned of particulates. The peripheral flow with most of the particles is exhausted to the cyclone and then recirculates back to the Core Separator by means of the fan. The processes of separation and solids collection are accomplished separately and in different components. The Core Separator cleans the flow discharged from the system and detains solids within the system If the Core Separator efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system. They recirculate again and again until the cyclone finally collects them for removal. An analytical formula can be derived that defines the system performance. E = E{sub c}E{sub s}/1{minus}E{sub s}(1{minus}E{sub c}), where E, E{sub c}, and E{sub s} are the system, collector, and Core Separator partial separation efficiencies respectively. Examination of this equation shows that the system efficiency remains high even with poor performance in the collector, as long as the efficiency of the Core Separator is high. For example, if E{sub s} is 99% and E{sub c} is 30%, the system efficiency is 96.7%.

  18. A candidate V/STOL research aircraft design concept using an S-3A aircraft and 2 Pegasus 11 engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lampkin, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    A candidate V/STOL research aircraft concept which uses an S-3A airframe and two Pegasus 11 engines was studied to identify a feasible V/STOL national flight facility that could be obtained at the lowest possible cost for the demonstration of V/STOL technology, inflight simulation, and flight research. The rationale for choosing the configuration, a description of the configuration, and the capability of a fully developed aircraft are discussed.

  19. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, J S; Hays, M D; Dong, Y; Williams, D C; Logan, R

    2011-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of seven turbofan engine models were sampled as part of the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). In these experiments, continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle surface-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were conducted. In addition, time-integrated sampling was performed for bulk elemental composition, water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and trace semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The continuous BC and PAH monitoring showed a characteristic U-shaped curve of the emission index (EI or mass of pollutant/mass of fuel burned) vs fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. The time-integrated EIs for both elemental composition and water-soluble ions were heavily dominated by sulfur and SO(4)(2-), respectively, with a ∼2.4% median conversion of fuel S(IV) to particle S(VI). The corrected OC and EC emission indices obtained in this study ranged from 37 to 83 mg/kg and 21 to 275 mg/kg, respectively, with the EC/OC ratio ranging from ∼0.3 to 7 depending on engine type and test conditions. Finally, the particle SVOC EIs varied by as much as 2 orders of magnitude with distinct variations in chemical composition observed for different engine types and operating conditions.

  20. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, J S; Hays, M D; Dong, Y; Williams, D C; Logan, R

    2011-04-15

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of seven turbofan engine models were sampled as part of the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX). In these experiments, continuous measurements of black carbon (BC) and particle surface-bound polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) were conducted. In addition, time-integrated sampling was performed for bulk elemental composition, water-soluble ions, organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC), and trace semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The continuous BC and PAH monitoring showed a characteristic U-shaped curve of the emission index (EI or mass of pollutant/mass of fuel burned) vs fuel flow for the turbofan engines tested. The time-integrated EIs for both elemental composition and water-soluble ions were heavily dominated by sulfur and SO(4)(2-), respectively, with a ∼2.4% median conversion of fuel S(IV) to particle S(VI). The corrected OC and EC emission indices obtained in this study ranged from 37 to 83 mg/kg and 21 to 275 mg/kg, respectively, with the EC/OC ratio ranging from ∼0.3 to 7 depending on engine type and test conditions. Finally, the particle SVOC EIs varied by as much as 2 orders of magnitude with distinct variations in chemical composition observed for different engine types and operating conditions. PMID:21428391

  1. Hydrazine engine plume contamination mapping. [measuring instruments for rocket exhaust from liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chirivella, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    Instrumentation for the measurement of plume exhaust specie deposition rates were developed and demonstrated. The instruments, two sets of quartz crystal microbalances, were designed for low temperature operation in the back flow and variable temperature operation in the core flow regions of an exhaust plume. These quartz crystal microbalances performed nominally, and measurements of exhaust specie deposition rates for 8400 number of pulses for a 0.1-lb monopropellant thruster are reported.

  2. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  3. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  4. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  5. 14 CFR 21.500 - Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... propellers. 21.500 Section 21.500 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Propellers, and Articles for Import § 21.500 Acceptance of aircraft engines and propellers. An aircraft engine or propeller manufactured in a foreign country or jurisdiction meets the requirements...

  6. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  7. Catalytic converters for exhaust emission control of commercial equipment powered by internal combustion engines.

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, J G

    1975-01-01

    The development of PTX, monolithic catalytic exhaust purifiers, is outlined, and their first use for exhaust emissions control of commercial equipment is described. The main use of PTX converters is on forklift trucks. The purification achievable with PTX-equipped fork-lift trucks under various operational conditions is discussed, and examples from the field are given. During more than ten years of operation, no adverse health effects have been reported, and PTX-equipped internal combustion engines appear safe for use in confined areas. PMID:50933

  8. Discovery of magnetite in the exhausted material from a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Gautam, M.

    2001-04-01

    Magnetite was detected in the particulate matter collected from diesel engine exhaust using a total exhaust dilution tunnel. This discovery is very important in determining the health effects of exposure to magnetite or its interaction with static magnetic fields or low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Magnetite is the best absorber of microwave radiation of any biological material in the 0.5-10 GHz frequency range through the process of electromagnetic resonance. This includes the frequencies that are normally used in the cellular telephone industry.

  9. Determination of two-stroke engine exhaust noise by the method of characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; Brown, G. L.

    1981-06-01

    A computational technique was developed for the method of characteristics solution of a one-dimensional flow in a duct as applied to the wave action in an engine exhaust system. By using the method, it was possible to compute the unsteady flow in both straight pipe and tuned expansion chamber exhaust systems as matched to the flow from the cylinder of a small two-stroke engine. The radiated exhaust noise was then determined by assuming monopole radiation from the tailpipe outlet. Very good agreement with experiment on an operation engine was achieved in the calculation of both the third octave radiated noise and the associated pressure cycles at several locations in the different exhaust systems. Of particular interest is the significance of nonlinear behavior which results in wave steepening and shock wave formation. The method computes the precise paths on the x-t plane of a finite number of C(sub +), C(sub -) and P characteristics, thereby obtaining high accuracy in determining the tailpipe outlet velocity and the radiated noise.

  10. Determination of two-stroke engine exhaust noise by the method of characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; Brown, G. L.

    1982-06-01

    A computational technique was developed for the method of characteristics solution of a one-dimensional compressible, unsteady flow in a duct as applied to the wave action in an engine exhaust system. By using the method it was possible to compute the detailed flow in both straight pipe and tuned expansion chamber exhaust systems as matched to the flow from the cylinder of a small two-stroke engine. The radiated exhaust noise was then determined by assuming monopole radiation from the tailpipe outlet. Very good agreement with experiment on an operating engine has been achieved in the calculation of both the third-octave radiated noise and the associated pressure cycles at several locations in the different exhaust systems. Of particular interest is the significance of non-linear behavior which results in wave steepening and shock wave formation. The calculation method developed differs from those of others, principally that of Blair and that of Karnopp, Dwyer and Margolis. Its essential feature is the computation of the precise paths on the x-t plane of a finite number of C+, C- and P characteristics, to provide high accuracy in determining the tailpipe outlet velocity and hence radiated noise.

  11. Determination of two-stroke engine exhaust noise by the method of characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. D.; Brown, G. L.

    1981-01-01

    A computational technique was developed for the method of characteristics solution of a one-dimensional flow in a duct as applied to the wave action in an engine exhaust system. By using the method, it was possible to compute the unsteady flow in both straight pipe and tuned expansion chamber exhaust systems as matched to the flow from the cylinder of a small two-stroke engine. The radiated exhaust noise was then determined by assuming monopole radiation from the tailpipe outlet. Very good agreement with experiment on an operation engine was achieved in the calculation of both the third octave radiated noise and the associated pressure cycles at several locations in the different exhaust systems. Of particular interest is the significance of nonlinear behavior which results in wave steepening and shock wave formation. The method computes the precise paths on the x-t plane of a finite number of C(sub +), C(sub -) and P characteristics, thereby obtaining high accuracy in determining the tailpipe outlet velocity and the radiated noise.

  12. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  13. Diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system of an automotive engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, I.

    1988-02-09

    This patent describes a diagnosing system for an exhaust gas recirculation system having an EGR passage communicating an exhaust pipe of an engine with an intake passage of the engine, an EGR valve provided in the EGR passage, control means for opening the EGR valve in accordance with enigne operating conditions comprising: first means for detecting flow rate of recirculated gas in the EGR passage and for producing an actual EGR rate signal dependent on the flow rate; second means for producing a desired EGR rate signal including an allowable range in accordance with engine operating conditions; and third means responsive to the actual EGR rate signal and the desired EGR rate signal for producing a trouble signal as an alarm signal when the actual EGR rate signal is out of the allowable range.

  14. Impact of the injection dose of exhaust gases, on work parameters of combustion engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marek, W.; Śliwiński, K.

    2016-09-01

    This article is another one from the series in which were presented research results indicated the possible areas of application of the pneumatic injection using hot combustion gases proposed by Professor Jarnuszkiewicz. This publication present the results of the control system of exhaust gas recirculation. The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of exhaust gas recirculation to the operating parameters of the internal combustion engine on the basis of laboratory measurements. All measurements were performed at a constant engine speed. These conditions correspond to the operation of the motor operating an electrical generator. The study was conducted on the four-stroke two-cylinder engine with spark ignition. The study were specifically tested on the air injection system and therefore the selection of the rotational speed was not bound, as in conventional versions of operating parameters of the electrical machine. During the measurement there were applied criterion which used power control corresponding to the requirements of load power, at minimal values of engine speed. Recirculation value determined by the following recurrent position control valve of the injection doses inflator gas for pneumatic injection system. They were studied and recorded, the impact of dose of gases recirculation to the operating and ecological engine parameters such as power, torque, specific fuel consumption, efficiency, air fuel ratio, exhaust gas temperature and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons.

  15. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  16. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  17. A Mathematical Model for the Exhaust Gas Temperature Profile of a Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brito, C. H. G.; Maia, C. B.; Sodré, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents a heat transfer model for the exhaust gas of a diesel power generator to determine the gas temperature profile in the exhaust pipe. The numerical methodology to solve the mathematical model was developed using a finite difference method approach for energy equation resolution and determination of temperature profiles considering turbulent fluid flow and variable fluid properties. The simulation was carried out for engine operation under loads from 0 kW to 40 kW. The model was compared with results obtained using the multidimensional Ansys CFX software, which was applied to solve the governor equations of turbulent fluid flow. The results for the temperature profiles in the exhaust pipe show a good proximity between the mathematical model developed and the multidimensional software.

  18. Real Time Diagnostics of Jet Engine Exhaust Plumes Using a Chirped QC Laser Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, K. G.; Duxbury, G.; Langford, N.

    2010-06-01

    Quantitative measurements of real-time variations of the chemical composition of a jet engine exhaust plume is demonstrated using a 4.86 μmn intra-pulse quantum cascade laser spectrometer. The measurements of the gas turbine exhaust were carried out in collaboration with John Black and Mark Johnson at Rolls Royce. The recording of five sets of averaged spectra a second has allowed us to follow the build up of the combustion products within the exhaust, and to demonstrate the large variation of the integrated absorption of these absorption lines with temperature. The absorption cross sections of the lines of both carbon monoxide and water increase with temperature, whereas those of the three main absorption lines of carbon dioxide decrease. At the steady state limit the absorption lines of carbon dioxide are barely visible, and the spectrum is dominated by absorption lines of carbon monoxide and water.

  19. Range safety signal attenuation by the Space Shuttle main engine exhaust plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearce, B. E.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of attenuation of the range safety signal at 416.5 MHz observed after SRB separation and ending at hand over to Bermuda, during which transmission must pass through the LOX/H2 propelled main engine exhaust plumes, is summarized. Absorption by free electrons in the exhaust plume can account for the nearly constant magnitude of the observed attenuation during this period; it does not explain the short term transient increases that occur at one or more times during this portion of the flight. It is necessary to assume that a trace amount (about 0.5 ppm) of easily ionizable impurity must be present in the exhaust flow. Other mechanisms of attenuation, such as scattering by turbulent fluctuations of both free and bound electrons and absorption by water vapor, were examined but found to be inadequate to explain the observations.

  20. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen (NOX) emissions decreased with increasing altitude, and increased with increasing flight speed. NOX emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude, and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  1. Measurement of exhaust emissions from two J-58 engines at simulated supersonic cruise flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.

    1976-01-01

    Emissions of total oxides of nitrogen, unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide from two J-58 afterburning turbojet engines at simulated high-altitude flight conditions are reported. Test conditions included flight speeds from Mach 2 to 3 at altitudes from 16 to 23 km. For each flight condition, exhaust measurements were made for four or five power levels from maximum power without afterburning through maximum afterburning. The data show that exhaust emissions vary with flight speed, altitude, power level, and radial position across the exhaust. Oxides of nitrogen emissions decreased with increasing altitude and increased with increasing flight speed. NO(x) emission indices with afterburning were less than half the value without afterburning. Carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions increased with increasing altitude and decreased with increasing flight speed. Emissions of these species were substantially higher with afterburning than without.

  2. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  3. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  4. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on SI Engines at Wide Open Throttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronson, Sydney; Puzinauskas, Paulius

    2011-11-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation, a charge dilution technique, has proven to be an effective method of reducing NOx emissions and fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Wide open throttle operation also increases overall engine efficiency by reducing the pumping losses caused by throttling. In this study, the emissions and fuel economy benefits of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at wide open throttle conditions were quantified using a 2.4L port-injected engine. Engine performance and emissions data were recorded as the percentage of EGR in the intake charge was increased from zero to just above thirty percent (the EGR limit). This EGR percentage, in-cylinder pressure measurements, and the temperatures and pressures of the intake and exhaust were all recorded to ensure stable operating conditions. These tests were performed with a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio at a constant speed of 2000 rpm at wide open throttle. The variation of brake specific fuel consumption and emissions (in particular NOx) with increasing EGR percentages was analyzed.

  5. 75 FR 7947 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... aircraft equipped with a TAE 125-01 engine. This was found to be mainly the result of a blockage of the... specified products. The MCAI states: An in-flight engine shutdown incident was reported on an aircraft... the following new AD: 2010-04-06 Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Amendment 39-16199. Docket No....

  6. 75 FR 17084 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Federal holidays. Fax: (202) 493-2251. Contact Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH, Platanenstrasse 14 D-09350.... 39.13 by adding the following new AD: Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH: Docket No. FAA-2010-0308... Airworthiness Directives (ADs) (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to Thielert Aircraft Engines...

  7. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  8. Advanced optical smoke meters for jet engine exhaust measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitz, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Smoke meters with increased sensitivity, improved accuracy, and rapid response are needed to measure the smoke levels emitted by modern jet engines. The standard soiled tape meter in current use is based on filtering, which yields long term averages and is insensitive to low smoke levels. Two new optical smoke meter techniques that promise to overcome these difficulties have been experimentally evaluated: modulated transmission (MODTRAN) and photothermal deflection spectroscopy (PDS). Both techniques are based on light absorption by smoke, which is closely related to smoke density. They are variations on direct transmission measurements which produce a modulated signal that can be easily measured with phase sensitive detection. The MODTRAN and PDS techniques were tested on low levels of smoke and diluted samples of NO2 in nitrogen, simulating light adsorption due to smoke. The results are evaluated against a set of ideal smoke meter criteria that include a desired smoke measurement range of 0.1 to 12 mg cu.m. (smoke numbers of 1 to 50) and a frequency response of 1 per second. The MODTRAN instrument is found to be inaccurate for smoke levels below 3 mg/cu.m. and is able to make a only about once every 20 seconds because of its large sample cell. The PDS instrument meets nearly all the characteristics of an ideal smoke meter: it has excellent sensitivity over a range of smoke levels from 0.1 to 20 mg/cu.m. (smoke numbers of 1 to 60) and good frequency response (1 per second).

  9. Engine Performance and Knock Rating of Fuels for High-output Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothbrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1938-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained on a single-cylinder test engine with aircraft-engine fuels varying from a fuel of 87 octane number to one 100 octane number plus 1 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5-inch by 5.75-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.50 to 8.75. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 120 to 280 F. and the inlet-air pressure from 30 inches of mercury absolute to the highest permissible. The limiting factors for the increase in compression ratio and in inlet-air pressure was the occurrence of either audible or incipient knock. The data are correlated to show that, for any one fuel,there is a definite relationship between the limiting conditions of inlet-air temperature and density at any compression ratio. This relationship is dependent on the combustion-gas temperature and density relationship that causes knock. The report presents a suggested method of rating aircraft-engine fuels based on this relationship. It is concluded that aircraft-engine fuels cannot be satisfactorily rated by any single factor, such as octane number, highest useful compression ratio, or allowable boost pressure. The fuels should be rated by a curve that expresses the limitations of the fuel over a variety of engine conditions.

  10. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  11. Effects of water-emulsified fuel on a diesel engine generator's thermal efficiency and exhaust.

    PubMed

    Syu, Jin-Yuan; Chang, Yuan-Yi; Tseng, Chao-Heng; Yan, Yeou-Lih; Chang, Yu-Min; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Lin, Wen-Yinn

    2014-08-01

    Water-emulsified diesel has proven itself as a technically sufficient improvement fuel to improve diesel engine fuel combustion emissions and engine performance. However, it has seldom been used in light-duty diesel engines. Therefore, this paper focuses on an investigation into the thermal efficiency and pollution emission analysis of a light-duty diesel engine generator fueled with different water content emulsified diesel fuels (WD, including WD-0, WD-5, WD-10, and WD-15). In this study, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide were analyzed by a vehicle emission gas analyzer and the particle size and number concentration were measured by an electrical low-pressure impactor. In addition, engine loading and fuel consumption were also measured to calculate the thermal efficiency. Measurement results suggested that water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the thermal efficiency and the exhaust emission of a diesel engine. Obviously, the thermal efficiency was increased about 1.2 to 19.9%. In addition, water-emulsified diesel leads to a significant reduction of nitric oxide emission (less by about 18.3 to 45.4%). However the particle number concentration emission might be increased if the loading of the generator becomes lower than or equal to 1800 W. In addition, exhaust particle size distributions were shifted toward larger particles at high loading. The consequence of this research proposed that the water-emulsified diesel was useful to improve the engine performance and some of exhaust emissions, especially the NO emission reduction. Implications: The accumulated test results provide a good basis to resolve the corresponding pollutants emitted from a light-duty diesel engine generator. By measuring and analyzing transforms of exhaust pollutant from this engine generator, the effects of water-emulsified diesel fuel and loading on emission characteristics might be more clear. Understanding reduction of pollutant emissions during the use

  12. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  13. Biological activity of particle exhaust emissions from light-duty diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Carraro, E; Locatelli, A L; Ferrero, C; Fea, E; Gilli, G

    1997-01-01

    Whole diesel exhaust has been classified recently as a probable carcinogen, and several genotoxicity studies have found particulate exhaust to be clearly mutagenic. Moreover, genotoxicity of diesel particulate is greatly influenced by fuel nature and type of combustion. In order to obtain an effective environmental pollution control, combustion processes using alternative fuels are being analyzed presently. The goal of this study is to determine whether the installation of exhaust after treatment-devices on two light-duty, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve-equipped diesel engines (1930 cc and 2500 cc) can reduce the mutagenicity associated with particles collected during U.S.A. and European driving cycles. Another interesting object was to compare the ability of alternative biodiesel and conventional diesel fuels to reduce the mutagenic activity associated with collected particles from two light duty diesel engines (both 1930 cc) during the European driving cycle. SOF mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella/microsome test (TA 98 and TA 100 strains, +/- S9 fraction). In the first part of our study, the highest mutagenicity was revealed by TA98 strain without enzymatic activation, suggesting a direct-acting mutagenicity prevalence in diesel particulate. The 2500 cc engine revealed twofold mutagenic activity compared with the 1930 cc engine (both EGR valve equipped), whereas an opposite result was found in particulate matter amount. The use of a noncatalytic ceramic trap produced a decrease of particle mutagenic activity in the 2500 cc car, whereas an enhancement in the 1930 cc engine was found. The catalytic converter and the electrostatic filter installed on the 2500 cc engine yielded a light particle amount and an SOF mutagenicity decrease. A greater engine stress was obtained using European driving cycles, which caused the strongest mutagenicity/km compared with the U.S.A. cycles. In the second part of the investigation, even though a small number of

  14. Thermal-mechanical fatigue crack growth in aircraft engine materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Yi

    1993-05-01

    A thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF) testing rig was built which is capable of studying the fatigue behaviors of gas turbine engine materials under simultaneous changes of temperatures and strains or stress. An advance alternating current potential drop (ACPD) measurement system was also developed which is capable of performing on-line monitoring of fatigue crack initiation and growth in specimen testing under isothermal and TMF conditions. Fatigue crack initiation and short crack growth data were obtained for titanium alloy specimens designed with notch features associated with bolt holes of compressor discs. TMF data were also obtained for two titanium alloys used in aircraft engine components. Those data explained the material fatigue behavior encountered in full-scale component testing. A complete fractographic analysis was performed on the tested specimens enhancing the understanding of the fatigue crack growth mechanisms and helping to formulate an analytical crack growth model. The ACPD fatigue crack monitoring technique was applied to the low cycle fatigue testing of Pratt & Whitney 1480 monocrystalline nickel alloy. A completely automated, computer controlled test procedure was developed which could obtain crack initiation and growth data with greater speed, precision, and reliability than previous methods.

  15. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  16. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  17. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model E4 aircraft diesel engine (ADE) using turbine (jet) fuel. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature(s) associated with the installation of a diesel cycle engine utilizing turbine (jet) fuel. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate......

  18. The Appearance of a Boric Oxide Exhaust Cloud from a Turbojet Engine Operating on Trimethylborate Fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Albert M; Kaufman, Warner B

    1956-01-01

    An investigation was conducted on the size and density of the boric oxide exhaust cloud from a J47-25 turbojet engine operating on trimethylborate fuel at sea-level static condition. Movies and still photographs were taken from the ground and from a helicopter. Objects could not be perceived through the main body of the cloud at distances up to 800 feet from the engine. Data are included on the amount of fallout from the cloud and the concentration of boric oxide in the cloud. A radiation detection device was set up to determine whether the glowing oxide particles would be more susceptible than hydrocarbon exhaust gases to this type of tracking device. The device showed an increase in radiation by a factor of 3 for trimethylborate over that for JP-4.

  19. Advanced engine management of individual cylinders for control of exhaust species

    DOEpatents

    Graves, Ronald L [Knoxville, TN; West, Brian H [Knoxville, TN; Huff, Shean P [Knoxville, TN; Parks, II, James E

    2008-12-30

    A method and system controls engine-out exhaust species of a combustion engine having a plurality of cylinders. The method typically includes various combinations of steps such as controlling combustion parameters in individual cylinders, grouping the individual cylinders into a lean set and a rich set of one or more cylinders, combusting the lean set in a lean combustion parameter condition having a lean air:fuel equivalence ratio, combusting the rich set in a rich combustion parameter condition having a rich air:fuel equivalence ratio, and adjusting the lean set and the rich set of one or more cylinders to generate net-lean combustion. The exhaust species may have elevated concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen.

  20. Exhaust-Gas Pressure and Temperature Survey of F404-GE-400 Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, James T.; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An exhaust-gas pressure and temperature survey of the General Electric F404-GE-400 turbofan engine was conducted in the altitude test facility of the NASA Lewis Propulsion System Laboratory. Traversals by a survey rake were made across the exhaust-nozzle exit to measure the pitot pressure and total temperature. Tests were performed at Mach 0.87 and a 24,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.30 and a 30,000-ft altitude with various power settings from intermediate to maximum afterburning. Data yielded smooth pressure and temperature profiles with maximum jet temperatures approximately 1.4 in. inside the nozzle edge and maximum jet temperatures from 1 to 3 in. inside the edge. A low-pressure region located exactly at engine center was noted. The maximum temperature encountered was 3800 R.

  1. Correlation of Exhaust-Valve Temperatures with Engine Operating Conditions and Valve Design in an Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipkin, M A; Sanders, J C

    1945-01-01

    A semiempirical equation correlating exhaust-valve temperatures with engine operating conditions and exhaust-valve design has been developed. The correlation is based on the theory correlating engine and cooling variables developed in a previous NACA report. In addition to the parameters ordinarily used in the correlating equation, a term is included in the equation that is a measure of the resistance of the complex heat-flow paths between the crown of the exhaust valve and a point on the outside surface of the cylinder head. A means for comparing exhaust valves of different designs with respect to cooling is consequently provided. The necessary empirical constants included in the equation were determined from engine investigations of a large air-cooled cylinder. Tests of several valve designs showed that the calculated and experimentally determined exhaust-valve temperatures were in good agreement.

  2. Fuel flow regulator control for a diesel engine with exhaust gas driven turbocharger

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, G.C.

    1984-03-06

    A fuel flow regulator for an internal combustion engine having an exhaust gas turbocharger is disclosed. The fuel flow regulator responds to intake manifold pressure. Thus the fuel flow regulator increases the maximum fuel flow to the internal combustion engine from a first maximum predetermined fuel flow rate when the intake manifold pressure is at a first predetermined intake air pressure level to a second predetermined maximum fuel flow rate when the intake air manifold pressure is at a second predetermined intake air pressure level. Additionally, the fuel flow regulator decreases fuel flow to a third maximum fuel flow rate which is less than the first predetermined maximum fuel flow rate when the intake manifold pressure is greater than the second predetermined intake air pressure level. Therefore, the fuel flow regulator protects the internal combustion engine from overboost of the engine by the turbocharger and for overfueling the engine.

  3. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine. PMID:24350455

  4. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  5. Multi-stage selective catalytic reduction of NOx in lean burn engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsaio, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E.

    1997-12-31

    Many studies suggest that the conversion of NO to NO{sub 2} is an important intermediate step in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO{sub x} to N{sub 2}. Some effort has been devoted to separating the oxidative and reductive functions of the catalyst in a multi-stage system. This method works fine for systems that require hydrocarbon addition. The hydrocarbon has to be injected between the NO oxidation catalyst and the NO{sub 2} reduction catalyst; otherwise, the first-stage oxidation catalyst will also oxidize the hydrocarbon and decrease its effectiveness as a reductant. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is appropriate for diesel engine exhausts since they contain insufficient hydrocarbons for SCR, and the hydrocarbons can be added at the desired location. For lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts, the hydrocarbons already present in the exhausts will make it necessary to find an oxidation catalyst that can oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} but not oxidize the hydrocarbon. A plasma can also be used to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2}. Plasma oxidation has several advantages over catalytic oxidation. Plasma-assisted catalysis can work well for both diesel engine and lean-burn gasoline engine exhausts. This is because the plasma can oxidize NO in the presence of hydrocarbons without degrading the effectiveness of the hydrocarbon as a reductant for SCR. In the plasma, the hydrocarbon enhances the oxidation of NO, minimizes the electrical energy requirement, and prevents the oxidation of SO{sub 2}. This paper discusses the use of multi-stage systems for selective catalytic reduction of NO{sub x}. The multi-stage catalytic scheme is compared to the plasma-assisted catalytic scheme.

  6. Modified pressure loss model for T-junctions of engine exhaust manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenhui; Lu, Xiaolu; Cui, Yi; Deng, Kangyao

    2014-11-01

    The T-junction model of engine exhaust manifolds significantly influences the simulation precision of the pressure wave and mass flow rate in the intake and exhaust manifolds of diesel engines. Current studies have focused on constant pressure models, constant static pressure models and pressure loss models. However, low model precision is a common disadvantage when simulating engine exhaust manifolds, particularly for turbocharged systems. To study the performance of junction flow, a cold wind tunnel experiment with high velocities at the junction of a diesel exhaust manifold is performed, and the variation in the pressure loss in the T-junction under different flow conditions is obtained. Despite the trend of the calculated total pressure loss coefficient, which is obtained by using the original pressure loss model and is the same as that obtained from the experimental results, large differences exist between the calculated and experimental values. Furthermore, the deviation becomes larger as the flow velocity increases. By improving the Vazsonyi formula considering the flow velocity and introducing the distribution function, a modified pressure loss model is established, which is suitable for a higher velocity range. Then, the new model is adopted to solve one-dimensional, unsteady flow in a D6114 turbocharged diesel engine. The calculated values are compared with the measured data, and the result shows that the simulation accuracy of the pressure wave before the turbine is improved by 4.3% with the modified pressure loss model because gas compressibility is considered when the flow velocities are high. The research results provide valuable information for further junction flow research, particularly the correction of the boundary condition in one-dimensional simulation models.

  7. Analysis of the flow field generated near an aircraft engine operating in reverse thrust. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledwith, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer solution is developed to the exhaust gas reingestion problem for aircraft operating in the reverse thrust mode on a crosswind-free runway. The computer program determines the location of the inlet flow pattern, whether the exhaust efflux lies within the inlet flow pattern or not, and if so, the approximate time before the reversed flow reaches the engine inlet. The program is written so that the user is free to select discrete runway speeds or to study the entire aircraft deceleration process for both the far field and cross-ingestion problems. While developed with STOL applications in mind, the solution is equally applicable to conventional designs. The inlet and reversed jet flow fields involved in the problem are assumed to be noninteracting. The nacelle model used in determining the inlet flow field is generated using an iterative solution to the Neuman problem from potential flow theory while the reversed jet flow field is adapted using an empirical correlation from the literature. Sample results obtained using the program are included.

  8. A reexamination of the formation of exhaust condensation trails by jet aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, H.M.; Hanson, D.M.

    1995-11-01

    With the end of World War II, it became apparent that a study should be undertaken to identify the factors controlling the production of aircraft condensation trails (contrails). This early work provided a theoretical prediction of T{sub c}, the critical temperature at which the values of the relative humidity and pressure are such that the formation of the contrail phenomenon will occur. As empirical data were obtained, the general agreement at increased altitude was not precise and several studies were made to obtain both theoretical and empirical fits that would provide a {open_quotes}yes/no{close_quotes} decision. These modifications did allow a better decision for the formation of contrails but were found to be increasingly inaccurate at greater altitudes. This study provides an improved algorithm that yields a theoretical prediction that is in general agreement with the available empirical data at all altitudes. It demonstrates that there is a need for additional effort in the identification and precision of relative humidity and pressure that are input to this computation. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  10. A source-independent empirical correction procedure for the fast mobility and engine exhaust particle sizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Jeong, Cheol-Heon; Wang, Jonathan M.; Ramos, Manuel; Wallace, James S.; Evans, Greg J.

    2015-01-01

    The TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) and Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) provide size distributions for 6-560 nm particles with a time resolution suitable for characterizing transient particle sources; however, the accuracy of these instruments can be source dependent, due to influences of particle morphology. The aim of this study was to develop a source-independent correction protocol for the FMPS and EEPS. The correction protocol consists of: (1) broadening the >80 nm size range of the distribution to account for under-sizing by the FMPS and EEPS; (2) applying an existing correction protocol in the 8-93 nm size range; and (3) dividing each size bin by the ratio of total concentration measured by the FMPS or EEPS and a water-based Condensation Particle Counter (CPC) as a surrogate scaling factor to account for particle morphology. Efficacy of the correction protocol was assessed for three sources: urban ambient air, diluted gasoline direct injection engine exhaust, and diluted diesel engine exhaust. Linear regression against a reference instrument, the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), before and after applying the correction protocol demonstrated that the correction ensured agreement within 20%.

  11. Influence of the exhaust system on performance of a 4-cylinder supercharged engine

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F.; Bizjan, F.; Hribernik, A.

    1998-10-01

    Twin entry radial turbines are mostly used to drive compressors of small and medium size 6-cylinder diesel engines where the available energy of the undisturbed exhaust pulses can be efficiently used to drive the turbine of a turbocharger. Three selected cylinders feed two separated manifold branches and two turbine inlets and prevent negative interaction of pressure waves and its influence on the scavenging process of the individual cylinders. In the case of a four-stroke, 4-cylinder engine, two selected cylinders, directed by the firing order, can be connected to one (of the two) separated manifold branches that feeds one turbine entry. Good utilization of the pressure pulse energy, together with typically longer periods of reduced exhaust flow can lead to good overall efficiency of the two-pulse system. Sometimes this system can be superior to the single manifold system with four cylinders connected to one single-entry turbine. The paper describes advantages and disadvantages of the above described exhaust systems applied to a turbocharged and aftercooled 4-cylinder Diesel engine. Comparisons supported by the analyses of the numerical and experimental results are also given in the presented paper.

  12. Effect of jet engine exhaust on SOFIA straylight performance. [Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1993-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is being designed at NASA's Ames Research Center as a replacement for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). A 2.5-m Nasmyth telescope will be mounted in a Boeing 747 SP and flown at 41,000 ft, above most of the H2O in the earth's atmosphere. In the original SOFIA design, the telescope is located in front of the wings, as it is in the KAO. An alternative design with the telescope placed behind the wings is being studied as part of an effort to reduce cost and weight. In this location, the emission from the engines and the hot H2O molecules in the exhaust become significant straylight sources. The engines and exhaust radiate into the telescope cavity, and illuminate the primary and tertiary mirrors at low telescope elevation angles. The APART/PADE program was used to analyze the straylight at the SOFIA focal plane as a function of wavelength and telescope elevation angle. The emission from the engines and exhaust gas is compared to that from the earth and the telescope itself. Based on the results of this analysis, the SOFIA telescope has been moved behind the wings.

  13. Application of hybrid evolutionary algorithms to low exhaust emission diesel engine design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, S.; Obayashi, S.; Minemura, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid evolutionary algorithm, consisting of a genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO), is proposed. Generally, GAs maintain diverse solutions of good quality in multi-objective problems, while PSO shows fast convergence to the optimum solution. By coupling these algorithms, GA will compensate for the low diversity of PSO, while PSO will compensate for the high computational costs of GA. The hybrid algorithm was validated using standard test functions. The results showed that the hybrid algorithm has better performance than either a pure GA or pure PSO. The method was applied to an engineering design problem—the geometry of diesel engine combustion chamber reducing exhaust emissions such as NOx, soot and CO was optimized. The results demonstrated the usefulness of the present method to this engineering design problem. To identify the relation between exhaust emissions and combustion chamber geometry, data mining was performed with a self-organising map (SOM). The results indicate that the volume near the lower central part of the combustion chamber has a large effect on exhaust emissions and the optimum chamber geometry will vary depending on fuel injection angle.

  14. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  15. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  16. 40 CFR 87.82 - Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... measuring smoke exhaust emissions. 87.82 Section 87.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Test Procedures for Engine Smoke Emissions (Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines) § 87.82 Sampling and analytical procedures for measuring smoke exhaust emissions. The system and procedures for sampling...

  17. Condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide in the jet exhausts of rocket engines: 1. Model calculation of the physical conditions in a jet exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platov, Yu. V.; Alpatov, V. V.; Klyushnikov, V. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    Model calculations have been performed for the temperature and pressure of combustion products in the jet exhaust of rocket engines of last stages of Proton, Molniya, and Start launchers operating in the upper atmosphere at altitudes above 120 km. It has been shown that the condensation of water vapor and carbon dioxide can begin at distances of 100-150 and 450-650 m away from the engine nozzle, respectively.

  18. Effects of injection pressure and injection timing to exhaust gas opacity for a conventional indirect diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiman, Agus; Majid, Akmal Irfan; Pambayun, Nirmala Adhi Yoga; Yuswono, Lilik Chaerul; Sukoco

    2016-06-01

    In relation to pollution control and environmental friendliness, the quality of exhaust gas from diesel engine needs to be considered. The influences of injection pressure and timing to exhaust gas opacity were investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in a one-cylinder conventional diesel engine with a naturally aspirated system and indirect injection. The default specification of injection pressure was 120 kg/cm2. To investigate the injection pressure, the engine speed was retained on 1000 rpm with pressure variations from 80 to 215 kg/cm2. On the other hand, the various injection timing (8, 10, 12, 16 degrees before TDC point and exact 18 degrees before TDC point) were used to determine their effects to exhaust gas opacity. In this case, the engine speed was varied from 1000 to 2400 rpm. The injector tester was used to measure injection pressure whereas the exhaust gas opacity was determined by the smoke meter. Those data were also statistically analyzed by product moment correlation. As the results, the injection pressure of diesel engine had a non-significant positive correlation to the exhaust gas opacity with r = 0.113 and p > 5 %. Injection pressure should be adjusted to the specification listed on the diesel engine as if it was too high or too low will lead to the higher opacity. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between injection timing and the exhaust gas opacity in all engine speeds.

  19. Model of Heat Exchangers for Waste Heat Recovery from Diesel Engine Exhaust for Thermoelectric Power Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Chad; Vuppuluri, Prem; Shi, Li; Hall, Matthew

    2012-06-01

    The performance and operating characteristics of a hypothetical thermoelectric generator system designed to extract waste heat from the exhaust of a medium-duty turbocharged diesel engine were modeled. The finite-difference model consisted of two integrated submodels: a heat exchanger model and a thermoelectric device model. The heat exchanger model specified a rectangular cross-sectional geometry with liquid coolant on the cold side, and accounted for the difference between the heat transfer rate from the exhaust and that to the coolant. With the spatial variation of the thermoelectric properties accounted for, the thermoelectric device model calculated the hot-side and cold-side heat flux for the temperature boundary conditions given for the thermoelectric elements, iterating until temperature and heat flux boundary conditions satisfied the convection conditions for both exhaust and coolant, and heat transfer in the thermoelectric device. A downhill simplex method was used to optimize the parameters that affected the electrical power output, including the thermoelectric leg height, thermoelectric n-type to p-type leg area ratio, thermoelectric leg area to void area ratio, load electrical resistance, exhaust duct height, coolant duct height, fin spacing in the exhaust duct, location in the engine exhaust system, and number of flow paths within the constrained package volume. The calculation results showed that the configuration with 32 straight fins was optimal across the 30-cm-wide duct for the case of a single duct with total height of 5.5 cm. In addition, three counterflow parallel ducts or flow paths were found to be an optimum number for the given size constraint of 5.5 cm total height, and parallel ducts with counterflow were a better configuration than serpentine flow. Based on the reported thermoelectric properties of MnSi1.75 and Mg2Si0.5Sn0.5, the maximum net electrical power achieved for the three parallel flow paths in a counterflow arrangement was 1

  20. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.