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Sample records for aircraft engine fan

  1. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  2. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  3. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  4. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  5. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh

  6. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  7. Impact Testing of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2001-01-01

    Before composite materials can be considered for use in the fan case of a commercial jet engine, the performance of a composite structure under blade-out loads needs to be demonstrated. The objective of this program is to develop an efficient test and analysis method for evaluating potential composite case concepts. Ballistic impact tests were performed on laminated glass/epoxy composites in order to identify potential failure modes and to provide data for analysis. Flat 7x7 in. panels were impacted with cylindrical titanium projectiles, and 15 in. diameter half-rings were impacted with wedge-shaped titanium projectiles. Composite failure involved local fiber fracture as well as tearing and delamination on a larger scale. A 36 in. diameter full-ring subcomponent was proposed for larger scale testing. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses were used to evaluate impact dynamics and subsequent global deformation for the proposed full-ring subcomponent test. Analyses on half-ring and quarter ring configurations indicated that less expensive smaller scale tests could be used to screen potential composite concepts when evaluation of local impact damage is the primary concern.

  8. Fan noise reduction of an aircraft engine by inclining the outlet guide vanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.; Pochkin, Ya. S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of an aircraft engine fan in the design of which the outlet guide vanes are leaned in the circumferential direction. It was found that the configuration of the outlet guide with the vanes leaned along the rotation of the rotor leads to fan noise reduction with respect to the configuration with outlet guide vanes, and a configuration of the outlet guide with an lean of the vane counterrotation of the rotor wheel leads to its increase.

  9. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  10. Noise simulation of aircraft engine fans by the boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatunin, K. R.; Arkharova, N. V.; Remizov, A. E.

    2016-07-01

    Numerical simulation results of the civil aircraft engine fan stage noise in the far field are presented. Non-steady-state rotor-stator interaction is calculated the commercial software that solves the Navier-Stokes equations using differentturbulence models. Noise propagation to the far acoustic field is calculated by the boundary element method using acoustic Lighthill analogies without taking into account the mean current in the air inlet duct. The calculated sound pressure levels at points 50 m from the engine are presented, and the directional patterns of the acoustic radiation are shown. The use of the eddy resolving turbulence model to calculate rotor-stator interaction increases the accuracy in predicting fan stage noise.

  11. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite fan blade sized for a large aircraft engine. An existing baseline solid metallic fan blade was used as a starting point to develop a hybrid honeycomb sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replacing the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements, a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized whereas the overall blade thickness is held fixed so as to not alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight is taken as the objective function to be minimized by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  12. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  13. Shrouded fan propulsors for light aircraft.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, M. H.; Galloway, T. L.; Rohrbach, C.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general-aviation over the next 10-15 years is dependent upon continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance, and cost. An attractive, compact, low-noise propulsor concept, the Q-FAN, when matched to reciprocating or rotary combustion engines, opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general-aviation aircraft, which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restrictions of the 1980 time period. In this paper, Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. The impact of this propulsion system on the complete aircraft is investigated for two representative aircraft size categories. Examples of conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  14. Test-engine and inlet performance of an aircraft used for investigating flight effects on fan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, R. A.; Preisser, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    As part of the NASA Flight Effects on Fan Noise Program, a Grumman OV-1B Mohawk aircraft was modified to carry a modified and instrumented Pratt & Whitney JT15D-1 turbofan engine. Onboard flight data, together with simultaneously measured farfield acoustic data, comprise a flight data base to which JT15D-1 static and wind-tunnel data are compared. The overall objective is to improve the ability to use ground-based facilities for the prediction of flight inlet radiated noise. This report describes the hardware and presents performance results for the research engine.

  15. High fidelity simulation of non-synchronous vibration for aircraft engine fan/compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, Hong-Sik

    higher mass flow rate, which generates a lower frequency. The possible reason for the DDES to predict the rotor stall early may be because DDES is more sensitive to wave reflection and a non-reflective boundary condition may be necessary. Overall, the high fidelity FSI methodology developed in this thesis for aircraft engine fan/compressor aeromechanics simulation is demonstrated to be very successful and has advanced the forefront of the state of the art. Future work to continue to improve the accuracy and efficiency is discussed at the end of the thesis.

  16. Impact Testing and Analysis of Composites for Aircraft Engine Fan Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M.; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Nie, Walter Z.; Mackenzie, S. Ben; Todd, Kevin B.

    2002-01-01

    The fan case in a jet engine is a heavy structure because of its size and because of the requirement that it contain a blade released during engine operation. Composite materials offer the potential for reducing the weight of the case. Efficient design, test, and analysis methods are needed to efficiently evaluate the large number of potential composite materials and design concepts. The type of damage expected in a composite case under blade-out conditions was evaluated using a subscale test in which a glass/epoxy composite half-ring target was impacted with a wedge-shaped titanium projectile. Fiber shearing occurred near points of contact between the projectile and target. Delamination and tearing occurred on a larger scale. These damage modes were reproduced in a simpler test in which flat glass/epoxy composites were impacted with a blunt cylindrical projectile. A surface layer of ceramic eliminated fiber shear fracture but did not reduce delamination. Tests on 3D woven carbon/epoxy composites indicated that transverse reinforcement is effective in reducing delamination. A 91 cm (36 in.) diameter full-ring sub-component was proposed for larger scale testing of these and other composite concepts. Explicit, transient, finite element analyses indicated that a full-ring test is needed to simulate complete impact dynamics, but simpler tests using smaller ring sections are adequate when evaluation of initial impact damage is the primary concern.

  17. CF6 jet engine performance improvement: New fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasching, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    As part of the NASA sponsored engine component improvement program, and fan package was developed to reduce fuel consumption in current CF6 turbofan aircraft engine. The new fan package consist of an improved fan blade, reduced fan tip clearance due to a fan case stiffener, and a smooth fan casing tip shroud. CF6 engine performance and acoustic tests demonstrated the predicted 1.8% improvement in cruise sfc without an increase in engine noise. Power management thrust/fan speed characteristics were defined. Mechanical and structural integrity was demonstrated in model fan rotor photoelastic stress tests, full-size fan blade bench fatigue tests, and CF6 engine bird ingestion, crosswind, and cyclic endurance tests. The fan was certified in the CF6-500c2/E2 engines and is in commerical service on the Boeing 747-200, Douglas DC-10-30, and Atrbus industrie A300B aircraft.

  18. A measuring stand for a ducted fan aircraft propulsion unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaváček, David

    2014-03-01

    The UL-39 ultra-light aircraft which is being developed by the Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, is equipped with an unconventional ducted fan propulsion unit. The unit consists of an axial fan driven by a piston engine and placed inside a duct ended with a nozzle. This article describes the arrangement of a modernised measuring stand for this highly specific propulsion unit which will be able to measure the fan pressure ratio and velocity field in front of and behind the fan and its characteristic curve.

  19. The lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1995-01-01

    This report summarizes the highlights and results of a workshop held at NASA Ames Research Center in October 1992. The objective of the workshop was a thorough review of the lessons learned from past research on lift fans, and lift-fan aircraft, models, designs, and components. The scope included conceptual design studies, wind tunnel investigations, propulsion systems components, piloted simulation, flight of aircraft such as the SV-5A and SV-5B and a recent lift-fan aircraft development project. The report includes a brief summary of five technical presentations that addressed the subject The Lift-Fan Aircraft: Lessons Learned.

  20. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  1. UHB Engine Fan Broadband Noise Reduction Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gliebe, Philip R.; Ho, Patrick Y.; Mani, Ramani

    1995-01-01

    A study has been completed to quantify the contribution of fan broadband noise to advanced high bypass turbofan engine system noise levels. The result suggests that reducing fan broadband noise can produce 3 to 4 EPNdB in engine system noise reduction, once the fan tones are eliminated. Further, in conjunction with the elimination of fan tones and an increase in bypass ratio, a potential reduction of 7 to 10 EPNdB in system noise can be achieved. In addition, an initial assessment of engine broadband noise source mechanisms has been made, concluding that the dominant source of fan broadband noise is the interaction of incident inlet boundary layer turbulence with the fan rotor. This source has two contributors, i.e., unsteady life dipole response and steady loading quadrupole response. The quadrupole contribution was found to be the most important component, suggesting that broadband noise reduction can be achieved by the reduction of steady loading field-turbulence field quadrupole interaction. Finally, for a controlled experimental quantification and verification, the study recommends that further broadband noise tests be done on a simulated engine rig, such as the GE Aircraft Engine Universal Propulsion Simulator, rather than testing on an engine statically in an outdoor arena The rig should be capable of generating forward and aft propagating fan noise, and it needs to be tested in a large freejet or a wind tunnel.

  2. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  3. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  4. Lift-fan aircraft: Lessons learned-the pilot's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerdes, Ronald M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is written from an engineering test pilot's point of view. Its purpose is to present lift-fan 'lessons learned' from the perspective of first-hand experience accumulated during the period 1962 through 1988 while flight testing vertical/short take-off and landing (V/STOL) experimental aircraft and evaluating piloted engineering simulations of promising V/STOL concepts. Specifically, the scope of the discussions to follow is primarily based upon a critical review of the writer's personal accounts of 30 hours of XV-5A/B and 2 hours of X-14A flight testing as well as a limited simulator evaluation of the Grumman Design 755 lift-fan aircraft. Opinions of other test pilots who flew these aircraft and the aircraft simulator are also included and supplement the writer's comments. Furthermore, the lessons learned are presented from the perspective of the writer's flying experience: 10,000 hours in 100 fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft including 330 hours in 5 experimental V/STOL research aircraft. The paper is organized to present to the reader a clear picture of lift-fan lessons learned from three distinct points of view in order to facilitate application of the lesson principles to future designs. Lessons learned are first discussed with respect to case histories of specific flight and simulator investigations. These principles are then organized and restated with respect to four selected design criteria categories in Appendix I. Lastly, Appendix Il is a discussion of the design of a hypothetical supersonic short take-off vertical landing (STOVL) fighter/attack aircraft.

  5. Moving base simulation of an ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, William W. Y.; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    Using a generalized simulation model, a moving-base simulation of a lift-fan short takeoff/vertical landing fighter aircraft was conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at Ames Research Center. Objectives of the experiment were to (1) assess the effects of lift-fan propulsion system design features on aircraft control during transition and vertical flight including integration of lift fan/lift/cruise engine/aerodynamic controls and lift fan/lift/cruise engine dynamic response, (2) evaluate pilot-vehicle interface with the control system and head-up display including control modes for low-speed operational tasks and control mode/display integration, and (3) conduct operational evaluations of this configuration during takeoff, transition, and landing similar to those carried out previously by the Ames team for the mixed-flow, vectored thrust, and augmentor-ejector concepts. Based on results of the simulation, preliminary assessments of acceptable and borderline lift-fan and lift/cruise engine thrust response characteristics were obtained. Maximum pitch, roll, and yaw control power used during transition, hover, and vertical landing were documented. Control and display mode options were assessed for their compatibility with a range of land-based and shipboard operations from takeoff to cruise through transition back to hover and vertical landing. Flying qualities were established for candidate control modes and displays for instrument approaches and vertical landings aboard an LPH assault ship and DD-963 destroyer. Test pilot and engineer teams from the Naval Air Warfare Center, Boeing, Lockheed, McDonnell Douglas, and the British Defence Research Agency participated in the program.

  6. Damage-Tolerant Fan Casings for Jet Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    All turbofan engines work on the same principle. A large fan at the front of the engine draws air in. A portion of the air enters the compressor, but a greater portion passes on the outside of the engine this is called bypass air. The air that enters the compressor then passes through several stages of rotating fan blades that compress the air more, and then it passes into the combustor. In the combustor, fuel is injected into the airstream, and the fuel-air mixture is ignited. The hot gasses produced expand rapidly to the rear, and the engine reacts by moving forward. If there is a flaw in the system, such as an unexpected obstruction, the fan blade can break, spin off, and harm other engine components. Fan casings, therefore, need to be strong enough to contain errant blades and damage-tolerant to withstand the punishment of a loose blade-turned-projectile. NASA has spearheaded research into improving jet engine fan casings, ultimately discovering a cost-effective approach to manufacturing damage-tolerant fan cases that also boast significant weight reduction. In an aircraft, weight reduction translates directly into fuel burn savings, increased payload, and greater aircraft range. This technology increases safety and structural integrity; is an attractive, viable option for engine manufacturers, because of the low-cost manufacturing; and it is a practical alternative for customers, as it has the added cost saving benefits of the weight reduction.

  7. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 2: Propulsion transmission system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Two types of lift/cruise fan technology aircraft were conceptually designed. One aircraft used turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators, and the other aircraft used variable pitch fans mechanically interconnected to three turboshaft engines. The components of each propulsion transmission system were analyzed and designed to the depth necessary to determine areas of risk, development methods, performance, weights and costs. The types of materials and manufacturing processes were identified to show that the designs followed a low cost approach. The lift/cruise fan thrust vectoring hoods, which are applicable to either aircraft configuration, were also evaluated to assure a low cost/low risk approach.

  8. Gas Turbine Engine Having Fan Rotor Driven by Turbine Exhaust and with a Bypass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Chandler, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has a core engine incorporating a core engine turbine. A fan rotor is driven by a fan rotor turbine. The fan rotor turbine is in the path of gases downstream from the core engine turbine. A bypass door is moveable from a closed position at which the gases from the core engine turbine pass over the fan rotor turbine, and moveable to a bypass position at which the gases are directed away from the fan rotor turbine. An aircraft is also disclosed.

  9. Full scale technology demonstration of a modern counterrotating unducted fan engine concept: Component test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The UDF trademark (Unducted Fan) engine is a new aircraft engine concept based on an ungeared, counterrotating, unducted, ultra-high-bypass turbofan configuration. This engine is being developed to provide a high thrust-to-weight ratio powerplant with exceptional fuel efficiency for subsonic aircraft application. This report covers the testing of pertinent components of this engine such as the fan blades, control and actuation system, turbine blades and spools, seals, and mixer frame.

  10. Enhanced Fan Noise Modeling for Turbofan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krejsa, Eugene A.; Stone, James R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work by consultants to Diversitech Inc. for the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) to revise the fan noise prediction procedure based on fan noise data obtained in the 9- by 15 Foot Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at GRC. The purpose of this task is to begin development of an enhanced, analytical, more physics-based, fan noise prediction method applicable to commercial turbofan propulsion systems. The method is to be suitable for programming into a computational model for eventual incorporation into NASA's current aircraft system noise prediction computer codes. The scope of this task is in alignment with the mission of the Propulsion 21 research effort conducted by the coalition of NASA, state government, industry, and academia to develop aeropropulsion technologies. A model for fan noise prediction was developed based on measured noise levels for the R4 rotor with several outlet guide vane variations and three fan exhaust areas. The model predicts the complete fan noise spectrum, including broadband noise, tones, and for supersonic tip speeds, combination tones. Both spectra and directivity are predicted. Good agreement with data was achieved for all fan geometries. Comparisons with data from a second fan, the ADP fan, also showed good agreement.

  11. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  12. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  13. Mathematical model for lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft simulator programming data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Fajfar, B.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    Simulation data are reported for the purpose of programming the flight simulator for advanced aircraft for tests of the lift/cruise fan V/STOL Research Technology Aircraft. These simulation tests are to provide insight into problem areas which are encountered in operational use of the aircraft. A mathematical model is defined in sufficient detail to represent all the necessary pertinent aircraft and system characteristics. The model includes the capability to simulate two basic versions of an aircraft propulsion system: (1) the gas coupled configuration which uses insulated air ducts to transmit power between gas generators and fans in the form of high energy engine exhaust and (2) the mechanically coupled power system which uses shafts, clutches, and gearboxes for power transmittal. Both configurations are modeled such that the simulation can include vertical as well as rolling takeoff and landing, hover, powered lift flight, aerodynamic flight, and the transition between powered lift and aerodynamic flight.

  14. Full scale technology demonstration of a modern counterrotating unducted fan engine concept. Engine test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Unducted Fan (UDF) engine is an innovative aircraft engine concept based on an ungeared, counterrotating, unducted, ultra-high-bypass turbofan configuration. This engine is being developed to provide a high thrust-to-weight ratio power plant with exceptional fuel efficiency for subsonic aircraft application. This report covers the successful ground testing of this engine. A test program exceeding 100-hr duration was completed, in which all the major goals were achieved. The following accomplishments were demonstrated: (1) full thrust (25,000 lb); (2) full counterrotating rotor speeds (1393+ rpm); (3) low specific fuel consumption (less than 0.24 lb/hr/lb); (4) new composite fan design; (5) counterrotation of structures, turbines, and fan blades; (6) control system; (7) actuation system; and (8) reverse thrust.

  15. Turbofan gas turbine engine with variable fan outlet guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Peter John (Inventor); Zenon, Ruby Lasandra (Inventor); LaChapelle, Donald George (Inventor); Mielke, Mark Joseph (Inventor); Grant, Carl (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A turbofan gas turbine engine includes a forward fan section with a row of fan rotor blades, a core engine, and a fan bypass duct downstream of the forward fan section and radially outwardly of the core engine. The forward fan section has only a single stage of variable fan guide vanes which are variable fan outlet guide vanes downstream of the forward fan rotor blades. An exemplary embodiment of the engine includes an afterburner downstream of the fan bypass duct between the core engine and an exhaust nozzle. The variable fan outlet guide vanes are operable to pivot from a nominal OGV position at take-off to an open OGV position at a high flight Mach Number which may be in a range of between about 2.5-4+. Struts extend radially across a radially inwardly curved portion of a flowpath of the engine between the forward fan section and the core engine.

  16. Lift/cruise fan V/STOL technology aircraft design definition study. Volume 1: Technology flight vehicle definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    Concept design is presented for two types of lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft, turbotip fans and the other using mechanically driven fans. The turbotip research technology aircraft reflects maximum usage of existing airframe components. The propulsion system consists of three turbotip fans pneumatically interconnected to three gas generators. Thrust modulation is accomplished by use of energy transfer and control system and thrust reduction modulation. This system can also be operated in the two engine/three fan mode. The mechanical RTA is virtually identical to the turbotip RTA with the exceptions that a different propulsion system and aft fuselage/tail are used. Both aircraft meet or exceed all of the mission performance guidelines and reflect a low cost, low risk approach.

  17. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  18. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  19. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  20. Structural Integrity Evaluation of the Lear Fan 2100 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, H. P.; Dyer, T. A.

    1996-01-01

    An in-situ nondestructive inspection was conducted to detect manufacturing and assembly induced defects in the upper two wing surfaces (skin s) and upper fuselage skin of the Lear Fan 2100 aircraft E009. The effects of the defects, detected during the inspection, on the integrity of the structure was analytically evaluated. A systematic evaluation was also conducted to determine the damage tolerance capability of the upper wing skin against impact threats and assembly induced damage. The upper wing skin was divided into small regions for damage tolerance evaluations. Structural reliability, margin of safety, allowable strains, and allowable damage size were computed. The results indicated that the impact damage threat imposed on composite military aircraft structures is too severe for the Lear Fan 2100 upper wing skin. However, the structural integrity is not significantly degraded by the assembly induced damage for properly assembled structures, such as the E009 aircraft.

  1. Fan Noise Prediction with Applications to Aircraft System Noise Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Envia, Edmane; Burley, Casey L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an assessment of current fan noise prediction tools by comparing measured and predicted sideline acoustic levels from a benchmark fan noise wind tunnel test. Specifically, an empirical method and newly developed coupled computational approach are utilized to predict aft fan noise for a benchmark test configuration. Comparisons with sideline noise measurements are performed to assess the relative merits of the two approaches. The study identifies issues entailed in coupling the source and propagation codes, as well as provides insight into the capabilities of the tools in predicting the fan noise source and subsequent propagation and radiation. In contrast to the empirical method, the new coupled computational approach provides the ability to investigate acoustic near-field effects. The potential benefits/costs of these new methods are also compared with the existing capabilities in a current aircraft noise system prediction tool. The knowledge gained in this work provides a basis for improved fan source specification in overall aircraft system noise studies.

  2. TF41 Engine Fan Disk Seeded Fault Crack Propagation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Uncontained engine failures, although rare in occurrence, can have a catastrophic effect on aircraft performance and safety. Engine disk cracks can eventually lead to these type of failures. A number of techniques to detect engine disk cracks have been developed in recent years. However, these technologies have only been validated by disk spin pit tests, not actual engine tests. Due to this, a project was established to perform seeded fault engine tests on a TF41 engine disk fan. A defect was machined in the first stage fan disk of a TF41 engine. The disk was run in a spin pit to initiate a crack. Once initiated, the disk was run in an actual engine test facility. The engine was cycled by a number of start and stops with the goal of propagating the crack to disk burst through low cycle fatigue. Various crack detection techniques were installed on the engine and run real-time during the test to validate their abilities to detect disk cracks. These techniques were based on methods such as change in mass imbalance using vibration or shaft displacement, change in blade position, acoustic emission, and torsional resonance. At the completion of 4474 test cycles, the crack in the TF41 disk was determined to have grown approximately 0.025 inches. This was far less the predicted crack growth based on a fracture mechanics analysis and finite element stress analysis.

  3. Levitated Duct Fan (LDF) Aircraft Auxiliary Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Emerson, Dawn C.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.

    2011-01-01

    This generator concept includes a novel stator and rotor architecture made from composite material with blades attached to the outer rotating shell of a ducted fan drum rotor, a non-contact support system between the stator and rotor using magnetic fields to provide levitation, and an integrated electromagnetic generation system. The magnetic suspension between the rotor and the stator suspends and supports the rotor within the stator housing using permanent magnets attached to the outer circumference of the drum rotor and passive levitation coils in the stator shell. The magnets are arranged in a Halbach array configuration.

  4. Optics in aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  5. Variable pitch fan system for NASA/Navy research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, W. P.; Black, D. M.; Yates, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design of a shaft driven, variable-pitch lift fan and lift-cruise fan was conducted for a V/STOL Research and Technology Aircraft. The lift fan and lift-cruise fan employed a common rotor of 157.5 cm diameter, 1.18 pressure ratio variable-pitch fan designed to operate at a rotor-tip speed of 284 mps. Fan performance maps were prepared and detailed aerodynamic characteristics were established. Cost/weight/risk trade studies were conducted for the blade and fan case. Structural sizing was conducted for major components and weights determined for both the lift and lift-cruise fans.

  6. Energy efficient engine shroudless, hollow fan blade technology report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Shroudless, Hollow Fan Blade Technology program was structured to support the design, fabrication, and subsequent evaluation of advanced hollow and shroudless blades for the Energy Efficient Engine fan component. Rockwell International was initially selected to produce hollow airfoil specimens employing the superplastic forming/diffusion bonding (SPF/DB) fabrication technique. Rockwell demonstrated that a titanium hollow structure could be fabricated utilizing SPF/DB manufacturing methods. However, some problems such as sharp internal cavity radii and unsatisfactory secondary bonding of the edge and root details prevented production of the required quantity of fatigue test specimens. Subsequently, TRW was selected to (1) produce hollow airfoil test specimens utilizing a laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bond approach, and (2) manufacture full-size hollow prototype fan blades utilizing the technology that evolved from the specimen fabrication effort. TRW established elements of blade design and defined laminate-core/hot isostatic press/diffusion bonding fabrication techniques to produce test specimens. This fabrication technology was utilized to produce full size hollow fan blades in which the HIP'ed parts were cambered/twisted/isothermally forged, finish machined, and delivered to Pratt & Whitney Aircraft and NASA for further evaluation.

  7. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  8. Noise suppressor for turbo fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, D. Y. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A noise suppressor is disclosed for installation on the discharge or aft end of a turbo fan engine. Within the suppressor are fixed annular airfoils which are positioned to reduce the relative velocity between the high temperature fast moving jet exhaust and the low temperature slow moving air surrounding it. Within the suppressor nacelle is an exhaust jet nozzle which constrains the shape of the jet exhaust to a substantially uniform elongate shape irrespective of the power setting of the engine. Fixed ring airfoils within the suppressor nacelle therefore have the same salutary effects irrespective of the power setting at which the engine is operated.

  9. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  10. Energy efficient engine: fan test hardware detailed design report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.

    1980-10-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  11. Energy efficient engine: Fan test hardware detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A single stage fan and quarter stage booster were designed for the energy efficient engine. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flow rate of 208.9 Kg/S sq m (42.8 lbm/sec sq ft). The fan rotor has 32 medium aspect ratio (2.597) titanium blades with a partspan shroud at 55% blade height. The design corrected fan tip speed is 411.5 M/S (1350 ft/sec). The quarter stage island splits the total fan flow with approximately 22% of the flow being supercharged by the quarter stage rotor. The fan bypass ratio is 6.8. The core flow total pressure ratio is 1.67 and the fan bypass pressure ratio is 1.65. The design details of the fan and booster blading, and the fan frame and static structure for the fan configuration are presented.

  12. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2: Technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology flight vehicles were defined for three different approaches which demonstrate the concept and characteristics of the multipurpose aircraft established for Navy missions. The propulsion system used for the various technology flight vehicles was representative of that established for the multipurpose aircraft. Existing J97-GE100 gas generators were selected based on cost, availability and exhaust characteristics. The LF459 fans were also selected and are compatible with both technology and operational vehicles. To comply with the design guideline safety criteria, it was determined that three gas generators were required to provide engine out safety in the hover flight mode. The final propulsion system established for the technology aircraft was three existing J97 gas generators powering three LF459 fans. Different aircraft candidates were evaluated for application to the three designated design approaches. Each configuration was evaluated on the basis of (1) propulsion system integration, (2) modification required, (3) pilot's visibility, (4) payload volume, and (5) adaptability to compatible location of center-of-gravity/aerodynamic center and thrust center.

  13. Fan rotor blades of turbofan engines

    SciTech Connect

    Zipps, R.H.; Rynaski, C.H.; Fulton, G.B.

    1986-11-11

    This patent describes a fan blade of the type extending outwardly from a rotor disk across the annular flowpath for working medium gases in the fan section of a turbofan engine, including: an airfoil section having an arcuate cross section contour at the inner wall of the working medium flowpath; and a root section having an upstream end and a downstream end wherein the root section is formed to an arcuate contour which approximates the arcuate contour of the airfoil cross section at the inner wall of the working medium flowpath projected onto the root section, and wherein the root section is convergently tapered from the downstream end toward the upstream end of the blade.

  14. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 3: Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegan, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Schmiedlin, R. F.

    1976-01-01

    A family of fans designed with low noise features was acoustically evaluated, and noise results are documented for a 1.6-pressure-ratio, 472-m/sec (155-ft/sec) tip speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far field noise around the fan was measured over a range of operating conditions for a variety of configurations having different arrangements of sound absorbing material in the flow ducts. Complete results of 1.3 octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are acoustic power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Representative 1/3 octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow band spectra are also provided.

  15. Effects of Bifurcations on Aft-Fan Engine Nacelle Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.; Farassat, Fereidoun; Pope, D. Stuart; Vatsa, Veer N.

    2004-01-01

    Aft-fan engine nacelle noise is a significant factor in the increasingly important issue of aircraft community noise. The ability to predict such noise within complex duct geometries is a valuable tool in studying possible noise attenuation methods. A recent example of code development for such predictions is the ducted fan noise propagation and radiation code CDUCT-LaRC. This work focuses on predicting the effects of geometry changes (i.e. bifurcations, pylons) on aft fan noise propagation. Beginning with simplified geometries, calculations show that bifurcations lead to scattering of acoustic energy into higher order modes. In addition, when circumferential mode number and the number of bifurcations are properly commensurate, bifurcations increase the relative importance of the plane wave mode near the exhaust plane of the bypass duct. This is particularly evident when the bypass duct surfaces include acoustic treatment. Calculations involving more complex geometries further illustrate that bifurcations and pylons clearly affect modal content, in both propagation and radiation calculations. Additionally, results show that consideration of acoustic radiation results may provide further insight into acoustic treatment effectiveness for situations in which modal decomposition may not be straightforward. The ability of CDUCT-LaRC to handle complex (non-axisymmetric) multi-block geometries, as well as axially and circumferentially segmented liners, allows investigation into the effects of geometric elements (bifurcations, pylons).

  16. 18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTERIOR VIEW OF BALTIMORE FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel of the 1908 Allis-Chalmers Corliss steam engine and flywheel are in the foreground. The engine is a horizontal slide valve type with a 24 inch bore and 48 inch stroke. It was direct connected to the Dickson Guibal fan which rotated at 69 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  17. Advanced Prop-fan Engine Technology (APET) single- and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, C. N.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary design of advanced technology (1992) prop-fan engines for single-rotation prop-fans, the conceptual design of the entire propulsion system, and an aircraft evaluation of the resultant designs are discussed. Four engine configurations were examined. A two-spool engine with all axial compressors and a three-spool engine with axial/centrifugal compressors were selected. Integrated propulsion systems were designed in conjunction with airframe manufacturers. The design efforts resulted in 12,000 shaft horsepower engines installed in over the installations with in-line and offset gearboxes. The prop-fan powered aircraft used 21 percent less fuel and cost 10 percent less to operate than a similar aircraft powered by turbofan engines with comparable technology.

  18. 17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The direct-acting 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine was made by George A. Parrish and W. B. Culver of West Pittston, Pennsylvania. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  19. 23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. INTERIOR VIEW OF NEW FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST The flywheel, shaft, and coupling of the c. 1930 Buffalo Forge Corliss engine are shown. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  20. Simulation test results for lift/cruise fan research and technology aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bland, M. P.; Konsewicz, R. K.

    1976-01-01

    A flight simulation program was conducted on the flight simulator for advanced aircraft (FSAA). The flight simulation was a part of a contracted effort to provide a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft mathematical model for flight simulation. The simulated aircraft is a configuration of the Lift/Cruise Fan V/STOL research technology aircraft (RTA). The aircraft was powered by three gas generators driving three fans. One lift fan was installed in the nose of the aircraft, and two lift/cruise fans at the wing root. The thrust of these fans was modulated to provide pitch and roll control, and vectored to provide yaw, side force control, and longitudinal translation. Two versions of the RTA were defined. One was powered by the GE J97/LF460 propulsion system which was gas-coupled for power transfer between fans for control. The other version was powered by DDA XT701 gas generators driving 62 inch variable pitch fans. The flight control system in both versions of the RTA was the same.

  1. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  2. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Navy operational aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Aircraft were designed and sized to meet Navy mission requirements. Five missions were established for evaluation: anti-submarine warfare (ASW), surface attack (SA), combat search and rescue (CSAR), surveillance (SURV), and vertical on-board delivery (VOD). All missions were performed with a short takeoff and a vertical landing. The aircraft were defined using existing J97-GE gas generators or reasonable growth derivatives in conjunction with turbotip fans reflecting LF460 type technology. The multipurpose aircraft configuration established for U.S. Navy missions utilizes the turbotip driven lift/cruise fan concept for V/STOL aircraft.

  3. 16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR VIEW OF HILLMAN FAN HOUSE ENGINE ROOM LOOKING EAST This overview of the 1883 Pittston Engine and Machine Company steam engine includes the flywheel and pillowblock in the foreground, with the shaft and cylinder in the background. The engine is a horizontal, slide valve type of 30 inch bore and 60 inch stroke that turned the fan at 49 revolutions per minute. - Dorrance Colliery Fan Complex, South side of Susquehanna River at Route 115 & Riechard Street, Wilkes-Barre, Luzerne County, PA

  4. Fuel saving potential of Mach 0.8 twin engine prop-fan transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    The fuel saving and economic potentials of the prop-fan high-speed propeller concept have been evaluated for twin-engine commercial transport airplanes designed for 3333.6 km range, 180 passengers, and Mach 0.8 cruise. A fuel saving of 9.7% at the design range was estimated for a prop-fan aircraft having wing-mounted engines, while a 5.8% saving was estimated for a design having the engines mounted on the aft body. The fuel savings and cost were found to be sensitive to the propeller noise level and to aerodynamic drag effects due to wing-slipstream interaction. Uncertainties in these effects could change the fuel savings as much as plus or minus 50%. A modest improvement in direct operating cost was estimated for the wing-mounted prop-fan at current fuel prices.

  5. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  6. Full scale technology demonstration of a modern counterrotating unducted fan engine concept. Design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The Unducted Fan engine (UDF trademark) concept is based on an ungeared, counterrotating, unducted, ultra-high-bypass turbofan configuration. This engine is being developed to provide a high thrust-to-weight ratio power plant with exceptional fuel efficiency for subsonic aircraft application. This report covers the design methodology and details for the major components of this engine. The design intent of the engine is to efficiently produce 25,000 pounds of static thrust while meeting life and stress requirements. The engine is required to operate at Mach numbers of 0.8 or above.

  7. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE): The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE under-the-wing fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental high bypass geared turbofan engines and propulsion systems for short haul passenger aircraft are described. The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a variable pitch 1.34 pressure ratio fan for the under the wing (UTW) engine are included. The UTW fan was designed to permit rotation of the 18 composite fan blades into the reverse thrust mode of operation through both flat pitch and stall pitch directions.

  8. Aircraft and Engine Development Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Control in Flight * Integrated Inlet- engine * Power/weight Exceeds Unity F-lll * Advanced Engines * Augmented Turbofan * High Turbine Temperature...residence times). Also, fabrication of a small scale "hot" engine with rotating components such as compressors and turbines with cooled blades , is...capabil- ities are essential to meet the needs of current and projected aircraft and engine programs. The required free jet nozzles should be capable of

  9. The lift-fan powered-lift aircraft concept: Lessons learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, Wallace H.

    1993-01-01

    This is one of a series of reports on the lessons learned from past research related to lift-fan aircraft concepts. An extensive review is presented of the many lift-fan aircraft design studies conducted by both government and industry over the past 45 years. Mission applications and design integration including discussions on manifolding hot gas generators, hot gas dusting, and energy transfer control are addressed. Past lift-fan evaluations of the Avrocar are discussed. Lessons learned from these past efforts are identified.

  10. Simulation model of the integrated flight/propulsion control system, displays, and propulsion system for ASTOVL lift-fan aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, W. Y. William; Borchers, Paul F.; Franklin, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for use in piloted evaluations of takeoff, transition, hover, and landing characteristics of an advanced, short takeoff, vertical landing lift fan fighter aircraft. The flight/propulsion control system includes modes for several response types which are coupled to the aircraft's aerodynamic and propulsion system effectors through a control selector tailored to the lift fan propulsion system. Head-up display modes for approach and hover, tailored to their corresponding control modes are provided in the simulation. Propulsion system components modeled include a remote lift and a lift/cruise engine. Their static performance and dynamic response are represented by the model. A separate report describes the subsonic, power-off aerodynamics and jet induced aerodynamics in hover and forward flight, including ground effects.

  11. Lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft conceptual design study T-39 modification. Volume 1: Technical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, D. W.

    1976-01-01

    The conversion of two T-39 aircraft into lift cruise fan research and technology vehicles is discussed. The concept is based upon modifying the T-39A (NA265-40) Sabreliner airframe into a V/STOL configuration by incorporating two LCF-459 lift cruise fans and three YJ-97 gas generators. The propulsion concept provides the thrust for horizontal flight or lift for vertical flight by deflection of bifurcated nozzles while maintaining engine out safety throughout the flight envelope. The configuration meets all the study requirements specified for the design with control powers in VTOL and conversion in excess of the requirement making it an excellent vehicle for research and development. The study report consists of two volumes; Volume 1 (Reference a) contains background data detailed description and technical substantiation of the aircraft. Volume 2 includes cost data, scheduling and program planning not addressed in Volume 1.

  12. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  13. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of fan A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    The aerodynamic component test results are presented of fan A, one of two high-bypass-ratio, 1160 feet per second single-stage fans, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. This fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.50 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86.5% at a total fan flow of 950 lb/sec. It was tested with and without inlet flow distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.52 and an adiabatic efficiency of 88.3% at a total fan flow of 962 lb/sec were actually achieved. An operating margin of 12.4% was demonstrated at design speed.

  14. Experimental quiet engine program aerodynamic performance of Fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, R. G.; Parker, D. E.; Dunbar, L. W.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents the aerodynamic component test results of Fan C, a high-bypass-ratio, low-aerodynamic-loading, 1550 feet per second (472.4 m/sec), single-stage fan, which was designed and tested as part of the NASA Experimental Quiet Engine Program. The fan was designed to deliver a bypass pressure ratio of 1.60 with an adiabatic efficiency of 84.2 percent at a total fan flow of 915 lb/sec (415.0 kg/sec). It was tested with and without inlet distortion. A bypass total-pressure ratio of 1.61 and an adiabatic efficiency of 83.9 percent at a total fan flow of 921 lb/sec (417.8 kg/sec) were actually achieved. An operating margin in excess of 14.6 percent was demonstrated at design speed.

  15. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  16. Turbine Engine with Differential Gear Driven Fan and Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suciu, Gabriel L. (Inventor); Pagluica, Gino J. (Inventor); Duong, Loc Quang (Inventor); Portlock, Lawrence E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gas turbine engine provides a differential gear system coupling the turbine to the bypass fan and the compressor. In this manner, the power/speed split between the bypass fan and the compressor can be optimized under all conditions. In the example shown, the turbine drives a sun gear, which drives a planet carrier and a ring gear in a differential manner. One of the planet carrier and the ring gear is coupled to the bypass fan, while the other is coupled to the compressor.

  17. Bird impact analysis package for turbine engine fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschbein, M. S.

    1982-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the gross structural response of turbine engine fan blades subjected to bird strikes. The program couples a NASTRAN finite element model and modal analysis of a fan blade with a multi-mode bird impact analysis computer program. The impact analysis uses the NASTRAN blade model and a fluid jet model of the bird to interactively calculate blade loading during a bird strike event. The analysis package is computationaly efficient, easy to use and provides a comprehensive history of the gross structual blade response. Example cases are presented for a representative fan blade.

  18. Design of aircraft turbine fan drive gear transmission system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dent, E.; Hirsch, R. A.; Peterson, V. W.

    1970-01-01

    The following basic types of gear reduction concepts were studied as being feasible power train systems for a low-bypass-ratio, single-spool, geared turbofan engine for general aircraft use: (1) single-stage external-internal reduction, (2) gears (offset shafting), (3) multiple compound idler gear system (concentric shafting), and (4) star gear planetary system with internal ring gear final output member (concentric shafting-counterrotation). In addition, studies were made of taking the accessories drive power off both the high-speed and low-speed shafting, using either face gears or spiral bevel gears. Both antifriction and sleeve-type bearings were considered for the external-internal and star-planet reduction concepts.

  19. A supersonic fan equipped variable cycle engine for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavares, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a variable cycle turbofan engine with an axially supersonic fan stage as powerplant for a Mach 2.7 supersonic transport was evaluated. Quantitative cycle analysis was used to assess the effects of the fan inlet and blading efficiencies on engine performance. Thrust levels predicted by cycle analysis are shown to match the thrust requirements of a representative aircraft. Fan inlet geometry is discussed and it is shown that a fixed geometry conical spike will provide sufficient airflow throughout the operating regime. The supersonic fan considered consists of a single stage comprising a rotor and stator. The concept is similar in principle to a supersonic compressor, but differs by having a stator which removes swirl from the flow without producing a net rise in static pressure. Operating conditions peculiar to the axially supersonic fan are discussed. Geometry of rotor and stator cascades are presented which utilize a supersonic vortex flow distribution. Results of a 2-D CFD flow analysis of these cascades are presented. A simple estimate of passage losses was made using empirical methods.

  20. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  1. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.

    1991-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on effects of rain-water ingestion into bypass fan engines, it is shown that the performance of axial-flow compressors and fans is fundamentally time-dependent during ingestion of water. A code named WINCOF-I has been developed for establishing the performance of axial-flow turbomachinery operating with air-water vapor-water droplet-water film mixture, Illustrative examples of predictions and effects are provided for the case of the air-compression system of a generic bypass fan engine. Utilizing performance maps so-generated, the effects of water ingestion into the generic engine have been determined under test cell conditions simulating ingestion, flight operation (altitude and flight Mach number), and power-demand setting.

  2. Energy efficient engine fan component detailed design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halle, J. E.; Michael, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    The fan component which was designed for the energy efficient engine is an advanced high performance, single stage system and is based on technology advancements in aerodynamics and structure mechanics. Two fan components were designed, both meeting the integrated core/low spool engine efficiency goal of 84.5%. The primary configuration, envisioned for a future flight propulsion system, features a shroudless, hollow blade and offers a predicted efficiency of 87.3%. A more conventional blade was designed, as a back up, for the integrated core/low spool demonstrator engine. The alternate blade configuration has a predicted efficiency of 86.3% for the future flight propulsion system. Both fan configurations meet goals established for efficiency surge margin, structural integrity and durability.

  3. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  4. Near-field sound radiation of fan tones from an installed turbofan aero-engine.

    PubMed

    McAlpine, Alan; Gaffney, James; Kingan, Michael J

    2015-09-01

    The development of a distributed source model to predict fan tone noise levels of an installed turbofan aero-engine is reported. The key objective is to examine a canonical problem: how to predict the pressure field due to a distributed source located near an infinite, rigid cylinder. This canonical problem is a simple representation of an installed turbofan, where the distributed source is based on the pressure pattern generated by a spinning duct mode, and the rigid cylinder represents an aircraft fuselage. The radiation of fan tones can be modelled in terms of spinning modes. In this analysis, based on duct modes, theoretical expressions for the near-field acoustic pressures on the cylinder, or at the same locations without the cylinder, have been formulated. Simulations of the near-field acoustic pressures are compared against measurements obtained from a fan rig test. Also, the installation effect is quantified by calculating the difference in the sound pressure levels with and without the adjacent cylindrical fuselage. Results are shown for the blade passing frequency fan tone radiated at a supersonic fan operating condition.

  5. Labyrinth seal testing for lift fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobek, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    An abradable buffered labyrinth seal for the control of turbine gas path leakage in a tip-turbine driven lift fan was designed, tested, and analyzed. The seal configuration was not designed to operate in any specific location but was sized to be evaluated in an existing test rig. The final sealing diameter selected was 28 inches. Results of testing indicate that the flow equations predicted seal air flows consistent with measured values. Excellent sealing characteristics of the abradable coating on the stator land were demonstrated when a substantial seal penetration of .030 inch into the land surface was encountered without appreciable wear on the labyrinth knife edges.

  6. Engine component improvement: Performance improvement, JT9D-7 3.8 AR fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffin, W. O.

    1980-01-01

    A redesigned, fuel efficient fan for the JT9D-7 engine was tested. Tests were conducted to determine the effect of the 3.8 AR fan on performance, stability, operational characteristics, and noise of the JT9D-7 engine relative to the current 4.6 AR Bill-of-Material fan. The 3.8 AR fan provides increased fan efficiency due to a more advanced blade airfoil with increased chord, eliminating one part span shroud and reducing the number of fan blades and fan exit guide vanes. Engine testing at simulated cruise conditions demonstrated the predicted 1.3 percent improvement in specific fuel consumption with the redesigned 3.8 AR fan. Flight testing and sea level stand engine testing demonstrated exhaust gas temperature margins, fan and low pressure compressor stability, operational suitability, and noise levels comparable to the Bill-of-Material fan.

  7. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1994-01-01

    A three-channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and the high-pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provide blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. To minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three-channel controller by up to 16 dB over a +/- 30-deg angle about the engine axis. A single-channel controller could produce reduction over a +/- 15-deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Outside of the areas contolled, the levels of the tone actually increased due to the generation of radial modes by the control sources. Simultaneous control of two tones is achieved with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high-pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  8. Active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Burdisso, Ricardo A.; Fuller, Christopher R.; O'Brien, Walter F.

    1993-01-01

    A three channel active control system is applied to an operational turbofan engine in order to reduce tonal noise produced by both the fan and high pressure compressor. The control approach is the feedforward filtered-x least-mean-square algorithm implemented on a digital signal processing board. Reference transducers mounted on the engine case provides blade passing and harmonics frequency information to the controller. Error information is provided by large area microphones placed in the acoustic far field. In order to minimize the error signal, the controller actuates loudspeakers mounted on the inlet to produce destructive interference. The sound pressure level of the fundamental tone of the fan was reduced using the three channel controller by up to 16 dB over a 60 deg angle about the engine axis. A single channel controller could produce reduction over a 30 deg angle. The experimental results show the control to be robust. Simultaneous control of two tones is done with parallel controllers. The fundamental and the first harmonic tones of the fan were controlled simultaneously with reductions of 12 dBA and 5 dBA, respectively, measured on the engine axis. Simultaneous control was also demonstrated for the fan fundamental and the high pressure compressor fundamental tones.

  9. Efficient, Low-Cost Fan System Research for General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, G. L.

    2003-01-01

    This document reports research investigations into efficient, low-cost fan system concepts for high bypass turbofans for future general aviation and commuter aircraft. The research specifically addressed lower pressure ratio fans for good propulsive efficiencies in the 200 to 400 knot flight speed regime. Aerodynamic design analyses yielded predicted efficiency in area of 91 to 92 percent (adiabatic). Low-cost manufacturing studies yielded an aluminum blisk rotor and investment cast stator having lowest cost. Structural design analyses yielded a design having excellent vibratory characteristics and the ability to pass One- and Four-pound bird strikes satisfactorily. The low speed and low pressure fans of the study are estimated to have 24 to 30 EPNdB lower community noise levels than larger, high pressure ratio transonic fans.

  10. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  11. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  12. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  13. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  14. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  15. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., 912 F, and 912 S series engines. Versions of the 912 F series and 912 S series engines are type... not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  16. Composite Fan Blade Design for Advanced Engine Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abumeri, Galib H.; Kuguoglu, Latife H.; Chamis, Christos C.

    2004-01-01

    The aerodynamic and structural viability of composite fan blades of the revolutionary Exo-Skeletal engine are assessed for an advanced subsonic mission using the NASA EST/BEST computational simulation system. The Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) calls for the elimination of the shafts and disks completely from the engine center and the attachment of the rotor blades in spanwise compression to a rotating casing. The fan rotor overall adiabatic efficiency obtained from aerodynamic analysis is estimated at 91.6 percent. The flow is supersonic near the blade leading edge but quickly transitions into a subsonic flow without any turbulent boundary layer separation on the blade. The structural evaluation of the composite fan blade indicates that the blade would buckle at a rotor speed that is 3.5 times the design speed of 2000 rpm. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. This paper describes and discusses the results for the composite blade that are obtained from aerodynamic, displacement, stress, buckling, modal, and progressive damage analyses. It will be demonstrated that a computational simulation capability is readily available to evaluate new and revolutionary technology such as the ESE.

  17. Design definition study of NASA/Navy lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. Volume 1: Summary report of Navy multimission aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavage, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Results are presented of a study of lift-cruise fan V/STOL aircraft for the 1980-1985 time period. Technical and operating characteristics and technology requirements for the ultimate development of this type aircraft are identified. Aircraft individually optimized to perform the antisubmarine warfare, carrier onboard delivery, combat search and rescue, and surveillance and surface attack missions are considered along with a multi-purpose aircraft concept capable of performing all five missions at minimum total program cost. It is shown that lighter and smaller aircraft could be obtained by optimizing the design and fan selection for specific missions.

  18. Helping Aircraft Engines Lighten Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature polyimide/carbon fiber matrix composites are developed by the Polymers Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center. These materials can withstand high temperatures and have good processing properties, which make them particularly useful for jet and rocket engines and for components such as fan blades, bushings, and duct segments. Applying polyimide composites as components for aerospace structures can lead to substantial vehicle weight reductions. A typical polyimide composite is made up of layers of carbon or glass fibers glued together by a high-temperature polymer to make the material strong, stiff, and lightweight. Organic molecules containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen within the polyimide keep the material s density low, resulting in the light weight. The strength of a component or part made from a polyimide comes mainly from the reinforcing high-strength fibers. The strength of the carbon fibers coupled with the stiffness of polyimides allows engineers to make a very rigid structure without it being massive. Another benefit of a polyimide s suitability for aerospace applications is its reduced need for machining. When polyimide parts are removed from a mold, they are nearly in their final shape. Usually, very little machining is needed before a part is ready for use.

  19. Highly Loaded Fan by Using Tandem Cascade Rotor Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Suga, Shinya; Matsuoka, Akinori

    For axial flow compressors and fans in the aircraft engines higher pressure ratio is required in order to attain the high thrust engines. In this study, the fan with the tandem cascades was introduced to increase the fan pressure ratio. The use of tandem cascades in the fan allows savings in length and weight and therefore a compact fan could be built. The design of fan with tandem cascades and the fan testing were carried out to develop the high pressure ratio fan for the Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) propulsion system. The ATR is a combined cycle engine which performs like a turbojet engine at subsonic speeds and a ramjet at supersonic speeds. In particular, high fan pressure ratio contributes to increase the engine thrust during subsonic flight at which the engine does not make use of ram effect. The results of the fan testing indicate that the pressure ratio of 2.2 is achieved in single stage fan.

  20. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  1. The supersonic fan engine: An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were carried out for turbofan engines equipped with supersonic through-flow fans. The mission was for a commercial supersonic transport with a Mach 2.32 capability. The advantages of the supersonic fan engines are discussed in terms of mission range comparisons with other engine types. The effects of fan efficiency, inlet losses, and engine weight on engine performance and mission range are shown. The range of a supersonic transport with supersonic fan engines could be 10 to 20 percent better than with other types having the same technology core.

  2. Analysis of control concepts for gas and shaft-coupled V/STOL aircraft lift fan systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, J. F.; Hart, C. E.; Mihaloew, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    For lift-fan powered V/STOL aircraft, two unconventional propulsion system types were proposed. The first type uses fans connected by hot gas ducting, and the second type uses fans connected by cross shafting. An analytical study identified the basic steady-state and dynamic characteristics for each type of system. For the gas-coupled system, the control concepts analyzed were variable-area fan turbines and throttling valves in the ducting. For the shaft-coupled system, the control concepts analyzed were variable-pitch fans and variable fan inlet guide vanes. All of these concepts are capable of meeting V/STOL aircraft control moment and transient response requirements when appropriate propulsion controls are used.

  3. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of inlet distortion in the fan system of a gas-turbine aero-engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotts, Nathan

    As modern trends in commercial aircraft design move toward high-bypass-ratio fan systems of increasing diameter with shorter, nonaxisymmetric nacelle geometries, inlet distortion is becoming common in all operating regimes. The distortion may induce aerodynamic instabilities within the fan system, leading to catastrophic damage to fan blades, should the surge margin be exceeded. Even in the absence of system instability, the heterogeneity of the flow affects aerodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, an understanding of fan-distortion interaction is critical to aircraft engine system design. This thesis research elucidates the complex fluid dynamics and fan-distortion interaction by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of a complete engine fan system; including rotor, stator, spinner, nacelle and nozzle; under conditions typical of those encountered by commercial aircraft. The CFD simulations, based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach, were unsteady, three-dimensional, and of a full-annulus geometry. A thorough, systematic validation has been performed for configurations from a single passage of a rotor to a full-annulus system by comparing the predicted flow characteristics and aerodynamic performance to those found in literature. The original contributions of this research include the integration of a complete engine fan system, based on the NASA rotor 67 transonic stage and representative of the propulsion systems in commercial aircraft, and a benchmark case for unsteady RANS simulations of distorted flow in such a geometry under realistic operating conditions. This study is unique in that the complex flow dynamics, resulting from fan-distortion interaction, were illustrated in a practical geometry under realistic operating conditions. For example, the compressive stage is shown to influence upstream static pressure distributions and thus suppress separation of flow on the nacelle. Knowledge of such flow physics is

  4. Advanced Engine Cycles Analyzed for Turbofans With Variable-Area Fan Nozzles Actuated by a Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berton, Jeffrey J.

    2002-01-01

    Advanced, large commercial turbofan engines using low-fan-pressure-ratio, very high bypass ratio thermodynamic cycles can offer significant fuel savings over engines currently in operation. Several technological challenges must be addressed, however, before these engines can be designed. To name a few, the high-diameter fans associated with these engines pose a significant packaging and aircraft installation challenge, and a large, heavy gearbox is often necessary to address the differences in ideal operating speeds between the fan and the low-pressure turbine. Also, the large nacelles contribute aerodynamic drag penalties and require long, heavy landing gear when mounted on conventional, low wing aircraft. Nevertheless, the reduced fuel consumption rates of these engines are a compelling economic incentive, and fans designed with low pressure ratios and low tip speeds offer attractive noise-reduction benefits. Another complication associated with low-pressure-ratio fans is their need for variable flow-path geometry. As the design fan pressure ratio is reduced below about 1.4, an operational disparity is set up in the fan between high and low flight speeds. In other words, between takeoff and cruise there is too large a swing in several key fan parameters-- such as speed, flow, and pressure--for a fan to accommodate. One solution to this problem is to make use of a variable-area fan nozzle (VAFN). However, conventional, hydraulically actuated variable nozzles have weight, cost, maintenance, and reliability issues that discourage their use with low-fan-pressure-ratio engine cycles. United Technologies Research, in cooperation with NASA, is developing a revolutionary, lightweight, and reliable shape memory alloy actuator system that can change the on-demand nozzle exit area by up to 20 percent. This "smart material" actuation technology, being studied under NASA's Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program and Revolutionary Concepts in Aeronautics (Rev

  5. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  6. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  7. Structural Evaluation of Exo-Skeletal Engine Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuguoglu, Latife; Abumeri, Galib; Chamis, Christos C.

    2003-01-01

    The available computational simulation capability is used to demonstrate the structural viability of composite fan blades of innovative Exo-Skeletal Engine (ESE) developed at NASA Glenn Research Center for a subsonic mission. Full structural analysis and progressive damage evaluation of ESE composite fan blade is conducted through the NASA in-house computational simulation software system EST/BEST. The results of structural assessment indicate that longitudinal stresses acting on the blade are in compression. At a design speed of 2000 rpm, pressure and suction surface outer most ply stresses in longitudinal, transverse and shear direction are much lower than the corresponding composite ply strengths. Damage is initiated at 4870 rpm and blade fracture takes place at rotor speed of 7735 rpm. Damage volume is 51 percent. The progressive damage, buckling, stress and strength results indicate that the design at hand is very sound because of the factor of safety, damage tolerance, and buckling load of 6811 rpm.

  8. Noise generated by quiet engine fans. 2: Fan A. [measurement of power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montegani, F. J.; Schaefer, J. W.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A significant effort within the NASA Quiet Engine Program has been devoted to acoustical evaluation at the Lewis Research Center noise test facility of a family of full-scale fans. This report, documents the noise results obtained with fan A - a 1.5-pressure-ratio, 1160-ft/sec-tip-speed fan. The fan is described and some aerodynamic operating data are given. Far-field noise around the fan was measured for a variety of configurations pertaining to acoustical treatment and over a range of operating conditions. Complete results of 1/3-octave band analysis of the data are presented in tabular form. Included also are power spectra and sideline perceived noise levels. Some representative 1/3-octave band data are presented graphically, and sample graphs of continuous narrow-band spectra are also provided.

  9. Improvements in teaching aircraft engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.D.; Heiser, W.H. Tennessee, University, Tullahoma )

    1992-07-01

    Aircraft gas turbine analysis and design pedagogy can be enriched through the incorporation improved preliminary engine thrust and fuel consumption models, novel computer programs for both aircraft system analysis and turbomechanical design, and a new perspective for engine-cycle analysis. Four computer programs have been developed for preliminary engine design; two of these automate aircraft system analysis, while another designs multistage axial-flow compressors and the last designs multistage axial-flow turbines. Student confusion with 'design-point' and 'off-design' concepts is by these means reduced. 6 refs.

  10. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    Meeting NASA's N+3 goals requires a fundamental shift in approach to aircraft and engine design. Material and design improvements allow higher pressure and higher temperature core engines which improve the thermal efficiency. Propulsive efficiency, the other half of the overall efficiency equation, however, is largely determined by the fan pressure ratio (FPR). Lower FPR increases propulsive efficiency, but also dramatically reduces fan shaft speed through the combination of larger diameter fans and reduced fan tip speed limits. The result is that below an FPR of 1.5 the maximum fan shaft speed makes direct drive turbines problematic. However, it is the low pressure ratio fans that allow the improvement in propulsive efficiency which, along with improvements in thermal efficiency in the core, contributes strongly to meeting the N+3 goals for fuel burn reduction. The lower fan exhaust velocities resulting from lower FPRs are also key to meeting the aircraft noise goals. Adding a gear box to the standard turbofan engine allows acceptable turbine speeds to be maintained. However, development of a 50,000+ hp gearbox required by fans in a large twin engine transport aircraft presents an extreme technical challenge, therefore another approach is needed. This paper presents a propulsion system which transmits power from the turbine to the fan electrically rather than mechanically. Recent and anticipated advances in high temperature superconducting generators, motors, and power lines offer the possibility that such devices can be used to transmit turbine power in aircraft without an excessive weight penalty. Moving to such a power transmission system does more than provide better matching between fan and turbine shaft speeds. The relative ease with which electrical power can be distributed throughout the aircraft opens up numerous other possibilities for new aircraft and propulsion configurations and modes of operation. This paper discusses a number of these new

  11. Transient performance of fan engine with water ingestion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, S. N. B.; Mullican, A.

    1993-01-01

    In a continuing investigation on developing and applying codes for prediction of performance of a turbine jet engine and its components with water ingestion during flight operation, including power settings, and flight altitudes and speed changes, an attempt was made to establish the effects of water ingestion through simulation of a generic high bypass ratio engine with a generic control. In view of the large effects arising in the air compression system and the prediffuser-combustor unit during water ingestion, attention was focused on those effects and the resulting changes in engine performance. Under all conditions of operation, whether ingestion is steady or not, it became evident that water ingestion causes a fan-compressor unit to operate in a time-dependent fashion with periodic features, particularly with respect to the state of water in the span and the film in the casing clearance space, at the exit of the machine. On the other hand, the aerodynamic performance of the unit may be considered as quasi-steady once the distribution of water has attained an equilibrium state with respect to its distribution and motion. For purposes of engine simulation, the performance maps for the generic fan-compressor unit were generated based on the attainment of a quasi-steady state (meaning steady except for long-period variations in performance) during ingestion and operation over a wide enough range of rotational speeds.

  12. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  13. Dynamics of high-bypass-engine thrust reversal using a variable-pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Sagerser, D. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The test program demonstrated that successful and rapid forward-to reverse-thrust transients can be performed without any significant engine operational limitations for fan blade pitch changes through either feather pitch or flat pitch. For through-feather-pitch operation with a flight inlet, fan stall problems were encountered, and a fan blade overshoot technique was used to establish reverse thrust.

  14. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  15. Reverse Flow Engine Core Having a Ducted Fan with Integrated Secondary Flow Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kisska, Michael K. (Inventor); Princen, Norman H. (Inventor); Kuehn, Mark S. (Inventor); Cosentino, Gary B. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Secondary air flow is provided for a ducted fan having a reverse flow turbine engine core driving a fan blisk. The fan blisk incorporates a set of thrust fan blades extending from an outer hub and a set of integral secondary flow blades extending intermediate an inner hub and the outer hub. A nacelle provides an outer flow duct for the thrust fan blades and a secondary flow duct carries flow from the integral secondary flow blades as cooling air for components of the reverse flow turbine engine.

  16. On the design and structural analysis of jet engine fan blade structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoo, Leye M.

    2013-07-01

    Progress in the design and structural analysis of commercial jet engine fan blades is reviewed and presented. This article is motivated by the key role fan blades play in the performance of advanced gas turbine jet engines. The fundamentals of the associated physics are emphasized. Recent developments and advancements have led to an increase and improvement in fan blade structural durability, stability and reliability. This article is intended as a high level review of the fan blade environment and current state of structural design to aid further research in developing new and innovative fan blade technologies.

  17. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  18. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  19. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  20. 77 FR 44429 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... this AD: Aeromot AMT 300 Turbo Super Ximango and Stemme S10 VT have a Rotax 914 engine installed, not a... certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica...

  1. Modal Test Experiences with a Jet Engine Fan Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HOLLKAMP, J. J.; GORDON, R. W.

    2001-11-01

    High cycle fatigue in jet engine blades is caused by excessive vibration. Understanding the dynamic response of the bladed disk system is important in determining vibration levels. Modal testing is a useful tool in understanding the dynamic behavior of structures. However, modal tests are not conducted on bladed disks because of the difficulties involved. One problem is that the overall dynamic behavior is sensitive to small perturbations. Another problem is that multiple inputs and high-resolution techniques are required to separate modes that are nearly repeated. Two studies of engine blade response were recently completed in which bench modal tests were successfully performed on simplified fan models. The modal test procedures for the first study were successful in extracting the modal parameters. But the tests in the second study were more demanding. Ultimately, an approach was devised that accurately extracted the modal parameters. This paper describes the challenges and the evolution of the test procedures.

  2. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Part 33 [Amendment No. 33-33] Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment AGENCY... amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness standards. The clarification is in response to inquiries from applicants requesting FAA engine type certifications...

  3. Coupled Analysis of an Inlet and Fan for a Quiet Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chima, Rodrick V.; Conners, Timothy R.; Wayman, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    A computational analysis of a Gulfstream isentropic external compression supersonic inlet coupled to a Rolls-Royce fan was completed. The inlet was designed for a small, low sonic boom supersonic vehicle with a design cruise condition of M = 1.6 at 45,000 feet. The inlet design included an annular bypass duct that routed flow subsonically around an engine-mounted gearbox and diverted flow with high shock losses away from the fan tip. Two Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes codes were used for the analysis: an axisymmetric code called AVCS for the inlet and a 3-D code called SWIFT for the fan. The codes were coupled at a mixing plane boundary using a separate code for data exchange. The codes were used to determine the performance of the inlet/fan system at the design point and to predict the performance and operability of the system over the flight profile. At the design point the core inlet had a recovery of 96 percent, and the fan operated near its peak efficiency and pressure ratio. A large hub radial distortion generated in the inlet was not eliminated by the fan and could pose a challenge for subsequent booster stages. The system operated stably at all points along the flight profile. Reduced stall margin was seen at low altitude and Mach number where flow separated on the interior lips of the cowl and bypass ducts. The coupled analysis gave consistent solutions at all points on the flight profile that would be difficult or impossible to predict by analysis of isolated components.

  4. Jet Engine Fan Blade Containment Using an Alternate Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, K.S.; Pereira, J.M.; Revilock, D.M.; Matheny, P.

    2008-01-01

    With a goal of reducing jet engine weight, simulations of a fan blade containment system with an alternate geometry were tested and analyzed. A projectile simulating a fan blade was shot at two alternate geometry containment case configurations using a gas gun. The first configuration was a flat plate representing a standard case configuration. The second configuration was a flat plate with a radially convex curve section at the impact point. The curved surface was designed to force the blade to deform plastically, dissipating energy before the full impact of the blade is received by the plate. The curved case was able to tolerate a higher impact velocity before failure. The computational model was developed and correlated with the tests and a weight savings assessment was performed. For the particular test configuration used in this study the ballistic impact velocity of the curved plate was approximately 60 m/s (200 ft/s) greater than that of the flat plate. For the computational model to successfully duplicate the test, the very high strain rate behavior of the materials had to be incorporated.

  5. Simulation of flight-type engine fan noise in the NASA-Lewis 9 x 15 anechoic wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, M. F.; Dietrich, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    A major problem in the measurement of aircraft engine fan noise is the difficulty of simulating, in a ground-based facility, the noise that occurs during flight. Flight-type noise as contrasted to the usual ground-static test noise exhibits substantial reductions in both (1) the time unsteadiness of tone noise and (2) the mean level of tones calculated to be nonpropagating or cut-off. A model fan designed with cut-off of the fundamental tone was acoustically tested in the anechoic wind tunnel under both static and tunnel flow conditions. The properties that characterize flight-type noise were progressively simulated with increasing tunnel flow. The distinctly lobed directivity pattern of propagating rotor/stator interaction modes was also observed. The results imply that the excess noise attributed to the ingestion of the flow disturbances that prevail near most static test facilities was substantially reduced with tunnel flow. The anechoic wind tunnel appears to be a useful facility for applied research on aircraft engine fan noise under conditions of simulated flight.

  6. The supersonic fan engine - An advanced concept in supersonic cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1981-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were conducted for a novel turbofan engine concept incorporating a supersonic through-flow fan, and comparisons were made with two supersonic transport (SST) engine concepts of equivalent thrust and technological sophistication. It was found that in the case of an SST with a cruise speed of Mach 2.32, the through-flow fan engine may yield ranges 10 to 20% greater than the two alternatives considered. The engine has a conventional core, with the supersonic fan being driven by a concentric low-pressure turbine that is uncoupled with the single, high pressure turbine/compressor core spool. Among the topics discussed are the methods of analysis employed and perturbation studies concerning supersonic fan adiabatic efficiency, fan discharge characteristics and propulsion system weight.

  7. Simulation of an Impact Test of the All-Composite Lear Fan Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockwell, Alan E.; Jones, Lisa E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An MSC.Dytran model of an all-composite Lear Fan aircraft fuselage was developed to simulate an impact test conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Impact Dynamics Research Facility (IDRF). The test was the second of two Lear Fan impact tests. The purpose of the second test was to evaluate the performance of retrofitted composite energy-absorbing floor beams. A computerized photogrammetric survey was performed to provide airframe geometric coordinates, and over 5000 points were processed and imported into MSC.Patran via an IGES file. MSC.Patran was then used to develop the curves and surfaces and to mesh the finite element model. A model of the energy-absorbing floor beams was developed separately and then integrated into the Lear Fan model. Structural responses of components such as the wings were compared with experimental data or previously published analytical data wherever possible. Comparisons with experimental results were used to guide structural model modifications to improve the simulation performance. This process was based largely on qualitative (video and still camera images and post-test inspections) rather than quantitative results due to the relatively few accelerometers attached to the structure.

  8. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... crankcase surface to remove any oil. (ii) Warm up the engine to a minimum oil temperature of 50 degrees C (120 degrees F). Information about warming up the engine can be found in the applicable line... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N...

  9. Engine having hydraulic and fan drive systems using a single high pressure pump

    DOEpatents

    Bartley, Bradley E.; Blass, James R.; Gibson, Dennis H.

    2000-01-01

    An engine comprises a hydraulic system attached to an engine housing that includes a high pressure pump and a hydraulic fluid flowing through at least one passageway. A fan drive system is also attached to the engine housing and includes a hydraulic motor and a fan which can move air over the engine. The hydraulic motor includes an inlet fluidly connected to the at least one passageway.

  10. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  11. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  13. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  14. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  15. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... condition exists and is likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. FAA's.... Table 1 of Paragraph (c)--Affected Airplanes Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...... HK 36 R...

  16. Advanced Prop-fan Engine Technology (APET) single- and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, C. N.

    1985-01-01

    The preliminary design of advanced technology (1992) turboprop engines for single-rotation prop-fans and conceptual designs of pitch change mechanisms for single- and counter-rotation prop-fan application are discussed. The single-rotation gearbox is a split path, in-line configuration. The counter-rotation gearbox is an in-line, differential planetary design. The pitch change mechanisms for both the single- and counter-rotation arrangements are rotary/hydraulic. The advanced technology single-rotation gearbox yields a 2.4 percent improvement in aircraft fuel burn and a one percent improvement in operating cost relative to a current technology gearbox. The 1992 counter-rotation gearbox is 15 percent lighter, 15 percent more reliable, 5 percent lower in cost, and 45 percent lower in maintenance cost than the 1992 single-rotation gearbox. The pitch controls are modular, accessible, and external.

  17. Fan beam and double crosshole Lamb wave tomography for mapping flaws in aging aircraft structures.

    PubMed

    Malyarenko, E V; Hinders, M K

    2000-10-01

    As the worldwide aviation fleet continues to age, methods for accurately predicting the presence of structural flaws-such as hidden corrosion and disbonds-that compromise airworthiness become increasingly necessary. Ultrasonic guided waves, Lamb waves, allow large sections of aircraft structures to be rapidly inspected. However, extracting quantitative information from Lamb wave data has always involved highly trained personnel with a detailed knowledge of mechanical waveguide physics. The work summarized here focuses on a variety of different tomographic reconstruction techniques to graphically represent the Lamb wave data in quantitative maps that can be easily interpreted by technicians. Because the velocity of Lamb waves depends on thickness, for example, the traveltimes of the fundamental Lamb modes can be converted into a thickness map of the inspection region. This article describes two potentially practical implementations of Lamb wave tomographic imaging techniques that can be optimized for in-the-field testing of large-area aircraft structures. Laboratory measurements discussed here demonstrate that Lamb wave tomography using either a ring of transducers with fan beam reconstructions, or a square array of transducers with algebraic reconstruction tomography, is appropriate for detecting flaws in multilayer aircraft materials. The speed and fidelity of the reconstruction algorithms as well as practical considerations for person-portable array-based systems are discussed in this article.

  18. Aircraft Engineering Conference 1934 - Full Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Gathered together in the only facility big enough to hold them, attendees at Langleys 1934 aircraft Engineering Conference pose in the Full Scale Wind Tunnel underneath a Boeing P-26A Peashooter. Present, among other notables, were Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Howard Hughes.

  19. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  20. Flow Forming of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Canada 1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA jean.Savoie@pwc.ca ABSTRACT Aircraft engine components are often an assembly of...1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  1. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  2. Effects of fan inlet temperature disturbances on the stability of a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abdelwahab, M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of steady-state and time-dependent fan inlet total temperature disturbances on the stability of a TF30-P-3 turbofan engine were determined. Disturbances were induced by a gaseous-hydrogen-fueled burner system installed upstream of the fan inlet. Data were obtained at a fan inlet Reynolds number index of 0.50 and at a low-pressure-rotor corrected speed of 90 percent of military speed. All tests were conducted with a 90 deg extent of the fan inlet circumference exposed to above-average temperatures.

  3. Integrated propulsion/energy transfer control systems for lift-fan V/STOL aircraft. [reduction of total propulsion system and control system installation requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deckert, W. H.; Rolls, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    An integrated propulsion/control system for lift-fan transport aircraft is described. System behavior from full-scale experimental and piloted simulator investigations are reported. The lift-fan transport is a promising concept for short-to-medium haul civil transportation and for other missions. The lift-fan transport concept features high cruise airspeed, favorable ride qualities, small perceived noise footprints, high utilization, transportation system flexibility, and adaptability to VTOL, V/STOL, or STOL configurations. The lift-fan transport has high direct operating costs in comparison to conventional aircraft, primarily because of propulsion system and aircraft low-speed control system installation requirements. An integrated lift-fan propulsion system/aircraft low-speed control system that reduces total propulsion system and control system installation requirements is discussed.

  4. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  6. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  7. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  8. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  9. The Detection of Radiated Modes from Ducted Fan Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Nark, Douglas M.; Thomas, Russell H.

    2001-01-01

    The bypass duct of an aircraft engine is a low-pass filter allowing some spinning modes to radiate outside the duct. The knowledge of the radiated modes can help in noise reduction, as well as the diagnosis of noise generation mechanisms inside the duct. We propose a nonintrusive technique using a circular microphone array outside the engine measuring the complex noise spectrum on an arc of a circle. The array is placed at various axial distances from the inlet or the exhaust of the engine. Using a model of noise radiation from the duct, an overdetermined system of linear equations is constructed for the complex amplitudes of the radial modes for a fixed circumferential mode. This system of linear equations is generally singular, indicating that the problem is illposed. Tikhonov regularization is employed to solve this system of equations for the unknown amplitudes of the radiated modes. An application of our mode detection technique using measured acoustic data from a circular microphone array is presented. We show that this technique can reliably detect radiated modes with the possible exception of modes very close to cut-off.

  10. Conceptual design studies of lift/cruise fans for military transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A study program for conceptual design studies of remote lift and lift/cruise fan systems to meet the requirements of military V/STOL aircraft was conducted. Parametric performance and design data are presented for fans covering a range of pressure ratios, including both single and two stage fan concepts. The gas generator selected for these fan systems was the J101-GE-100 engine. Noise generation and transient response were determined for selected fan systems.

  11. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  12. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  13. Wind tunnel tests of a 20 inch diameter 1.15 pressure ratio fan engine model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesoky, H. L.; Steffen, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    Aerodynamic and acoustic measurements at a typical STOL aircraft takeoff and landing velocity demonstrated that a 1.35 inlet lip area contraction ratio was superior to a 1.26 ratio at high nacelle incidence angles. Reverse thrust, obtained with a variable pitch rotor, was lower at the landing velocity, and the noise level higher, than at the static condition. High speed tests showed that, for the design cruise Mach number of 0.75, internal losses and external drag were 27 percent of the ideal fan net thrust, and propulsive efficiency was estimated to be 59 percent for an 85 percent efficient fan stage.

  14. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  15. A reflection mechanism for aft fan tone noise from turbofan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topol, D. A.; Holhubner, S. C.; Mathews, D. C.

    1987-10-01

    A fan tone noise mechanism is proposed which results from reflections from the fan of forward propagating rotor wake/fan exit guide vane interaction tone noise. These fan noise tones are often more dominant out of the rear than out of the front of an engine. To simulate this effect a simple qualitative prediction model was formulated and a scaled model test program was conducted. Results from each of these investigations are compared with each other and with full-scale engine data. These comparisons substantiate the potential importance of this mechanism. Further support is provided by mode measurement data from full-scale testing. This study concluded that for certain vane/blade ratios and tip Mach numbers the contribution of the reflection noise mechanism is significant.

  16. Testing of lift/cruise fan exhaust deflector. [for a tip turbine lift fan in short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlundt, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    A lift/cruise exhaust deflector system for the LF336/A tip turbine lift fan was designed, built, and tested to determine the design and performance characteristics of a large-scale, single swivel nozzle thrust vectoring system. The exhaust deflector static testing was performed at the Ames Research Center outside static test stand facilities. The test hardware was installed on a hydraulic lift platform to permit both in and out of ground effect testing. The exhaust flow of the LF336/A lift fan was vectored from 0 degrees through 130 degrees during selected fan speeds to obtain performance at different operating conditions. The system was operated with and without flow vanes installed in the small radius bends to evaluate the system performance based on a proposed method of improving the internal flow losses. The program also included testing at different ground heights, to the nozzle exhaust plane, to obtain ground effect data, and the testing of two methods of thrust spoiling using a duct bypass door system and nozzle flap system.

  17. Numerical investigation on super-cooled large droplet icing of fan rotor blade in jet engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Keisuke; Suzuki, Masaya; Yamamoto, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Icing (or ice accretion) is a phenomenon in which super-cooled water droplets impinge and accrete on a body. It is well known that ice accretion on blades and vanes leads to performance degradation and has caused severe accidents. Although various anti-icing and deicing systems have been developed, such accidents still occur. Therefore, it is important to clarify the phenomenon of ice accretion on an aircraft and in a jet engine. However, flight tests for ice accretion are very expensive, and in the wind tunnel it is difficult to reproduce all climate conditions where ice accretion can occur. Therefore, it is expected that computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which can estimate ice accretion in various climate conditions, will be a useful way to predict and understand the ice accretion phenomenon. On the other hand, although the icing caused by super-cooled large droplets (SLD) is very dangerous, the numerical method has not been established yet. This is why SLD icing is characterized by splash and bounce phenomena of droplets and they are very complex in nature. In the present study, we develop an ice accretion code considering the splash and bounce phenomena to predict SLD icing, and the code is applied to a fan rotor blade. The numerical results with and without the SLD icing model are compared. Through this study, the influence of the SLD icing model is numerically clarified.

  18. Supersonic through-flow fan assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kepler, C. E.; Champagne, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the performance potential of a supersonic through-flow fan engine for supersonic cruise aircraft. It included a mean-line analysis of fans designed to operate with in-flow velocities ranging from subsonic to high supersonic speeds. The fan performance generated was used to estimate the performance of supersonic fan engines designed for four applications: a Mach 2.3 supersonic transport, a Mach 2.5 fighter, a Mach 3.5 cruise missile, and a Mach 5.0 cruise vehicle. For each application an engine was conceptualized, fan performance and engine performance calculated, weight estimates made, engine installed in a hypothetical vehicle, and mission analysis was conducted.

  19. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  20. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  1. Boron/aluminum fan blades for SCAR engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stabrylla, R. G.; Carlson, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Processing procedures were developed to enhance boron/aluminum bond behavior and foreign object damage (FOD) tolerance. Design and analysis indicated that the J101 Stage 1 fan blade meets the required frequencies without a midspan shroud. The fabricability of full size J101 blades was assessed, while six blades were fabricated and finished machined.

  2. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... determined the unsafe condition exists and is likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type... 40507; and (2) Certificated in any category. Table 1--Affected Airplanes Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond...

  3. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards--Aircraft.... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine... additional burden on any person. List of Subjects 14 CFR Part 33 Air transportation, Aircraft,...

  4. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  5. The aerodynamic design and performance of the General Electric/NASA EEE fan. [Energy Efficient Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Hager, R. D.

    1983-01-01

    The aerodynamic design and test results of the fan and quarter-stage component for the GE/NASA Energy Efficient Engine (EEE) are presented. The fan is a high bypass ratio, single-stage design having 32 part-span shrouded rotor blades, coupled with a unique quarter-stage arrangement that provides additional core-stream pressure ratio and particle separation. The fan produces a bypass pressure ratio of 1.65 at the exit of the low aspect ratio vane/frame and a core-stream pressure ratio of 1.67 at the entrance to the core frame struts. The full-scale fan vehicle was instrumented, assembled and tested as a component in November 1981. Performance mapping was conducted over a range of speeds and bypass ratios using individually-controlled bypass and core-stream discharge valves. The fan bypass and core-stream test data showed excellent results, with the fan exceeding all performance goals at the important engine operating conditions.

  6. Counter-Rotatable Fan Gas Turbine Engine with Axial Flow Positive Displacement Worm Gas Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Rollin George (Inventor); Murrow, Kurt David (Inventor); Fakunle, Oladapo (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A counter-rotatable fan turbine engine includes a counter-rotatable fan section, a worm gas generator, and a low pressure turbine to power the counter-rotatable fan section. The low pressure turbine maybe counter-rotatable or have a single direction of rotation in which case it powers the counter-rotatable fan section through a gearbox. The gas generator has inner and outer bodies having offset inner and outer axes extending through first, second, and third sections of a core assembly. At least one of the bodies is rotatable about its axis. The inner and outer bodies have intermeshed inner and outer helical blades wound about the inner and outer axes and extending radially outwardly and inwardly respectively. The helical blades have first, second, and third twist slopes in the first, second, and third sections respectively. A combustor section extends through at least a portion of the second section.

  7. Design and Test of Fan/Nacelle Models Quiet High-Speed Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher J. (Technical Monitor); Weir, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The Quiet High-Speed Fan program is a cooperative effort between Honeywell Engines & Systems (formerly AlliedSignal Engines & Systems) and the NASA Glenn Research Center. Engines & Systems has designed an advanced high-speed fan that will be tested on the Ultra High Bypass Propulsion Simulator in the NASA Glenn 9 x 15 foot wind tunnel, currently scheduled for the second quarter of 2000. An Engines & Systems modern fan design will be used as a baseline. A nacelle model is provided that is characteristic of a typical, modern regional aircraft nacelle and meets all of the program test objectives.

  8. Design study and performance analysis of a high-speed multistage variable-geometry fan for a variable cycle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, T. J.; Parker, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    A design technology study was performed to identify a high speed, multistage, variable geometry fan configuration capable of achieving wide flow modulation with near optimum efficiency at the important operating condition. A parametric screening study of the front and rear block fans was conducted in which the influence of major fan design features on weight and efficiency was determined. Key design parameters were varied systematically to determine the fan configuration most suited for a double bypass, variable cycle engine. Two and three stage fans were considered for the front block. A single stage, core driven fan was studied for the rear block. Variable geometry concepts were evaluated to provide near optimum off design performance. A detailed aerodynamic design and a preliminary mechanical design were carried out for the selected fan configuration. Performance predictions were made for the front and rear block fans.

  9. Aircraft Engine Noise Research and Testing at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will begin with a brief introduction to the NASA Glenn Research Center as well as an overview of how aircraft engine noise research fits within the organization. Some of the NASA programs and projects with noise content will be covered along with the associated goals of aircraft noise reduction. Topics covered within the noise research being presented will include noise prediction versus experimental results, along with engine fan, jet, and core noise. Details of the acoustic research conducted at NASA Glenn will include the test facilities available, recent test hardware, and data acquisition and analysis methods. Lastly some of the actual noise reduction methods investigated along with their results will be shown.

  10. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  11. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  12. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, John

    2000-01-01

    Engineering studies for reducing ducted fan engine noise were conducted using the noise prediction code TBIEM3D. To conduct parametric noise reduction calculations, it was necessary to advance certain theoretical and computational aspects of the boundary integral equation method (BIEM) described in and implemented in TBIEM3D. Also, enhancements and upgrades to TBIEM3D were made for facilitating the code's use in this research and by the aeroacoustics engineering community.

  13. Acoustic and aerodynamic performance of a 1.83 meter (6 foot) diameter 1.2 pressure ratio fan (QF-6). [for short takeoff aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, R. P.; Lucas, J. G.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1974-01-01

    A 1.2-pressure-ratio, 1.83-meter-(6-ft-) diameter experimental fan stage with characteristics suitable for use in STOL aircraft engines was tested for acoustic and aerodynamic performance. The design incorporated features for low noise, including absence of inlet guide vanes, low rotor-blade-tip speed, low aerodynamic blade loading, and long axial spacing between the rotor and stator rows. The stage was run with four nozzles of different area. The perceived noise along a 152.4 meter (500-ft) sideline was rear-quadrant dominated with a maximum design-point level of 103.9 PNdb. The acoustic 1/3-octave results were analytically separated into broadband and pure-tone components. It was found that the stage noise levels generally increase with a decrease in nozzle area, with this increase observed primarily in the broadband noise component. A stall condition was documented acoustically with a 90-percent-of-design-area nozzle.

  14. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  15. Active control of aircraft engine inlet noise using compact sound sources and distributed error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burdisso, Ricardo (Inventor); Fuller, Chris R. (Inventor); O'Brien, Walter F. (Inventor); Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Dungan, Mary E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An active noise control system using a compact sound source is effective to reduce aircraft engine duct noise. The fan noise from a turbofan engine is controlled using an adaptive filtered-x LMS algorithm. Single multi channel control systems are used to control the fan blade passage frequency (BPF) tone and the BPF tone and the first harmonic of the BPF tone for a plane wave excitation. A multi channel control system is used to control any spinning mode. The multi channel control system to control both fan tones and a high pressure compressor BPF tone simultaneously. In order to make active control of turbofan inlet noise a viable technology, a compact sound source is employed to generate the control field. This control field sound source consists of an array of identical thin, cylindrically curved panels with an inner radius of curvature corresponding to that of the engine inlet. These panels are flush mounted inside the inlet duct and sealed on all edges to prevent leakage around the panel and to minimize the aerodynamic losses created by the addition of the panels. Each panel is driven by one or more piezoelectric force transducers mounted on the surface of the panel. The response of the panel to excitation is maximized when it is driven at its resonance; therefore, the panel is designed such that its fundamental frequency is near the tone to be canceled, typically 2000-4000 Hz.

  16. Energy efficient engine. Fan and quarter-stage component performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, S. J.; Halter, P. H.; Kutney, J. T., Jr.; Sullivan, T. J.

    1983-01-01

    The fan configuration for the general Electric/NASA Energy Efficient Engine was selected following an extensive preliminary design study. The fan has an inlet radius ratio of 0.342 and a specific flowrate of 208.9 Kg/sec/sq. m (42.8 1bm/sec/sq. ft). The design corrected tip speed is 411.5 m/sec (1350 ft/sec) producing a bypass flow total-pressure ratio of 1.65 and a core flow total-pressure ratio of 1.6. The design bypass ratio is 6.8. The aerodynamic design point corresponds to the maximum climb power setting at Mach 0.8 and 10.67 Km (35,000 ft) altitude. The fully-instrumented fan component was tested in the Lynn Large Fan Test Facility in 1981. The overall performance results, reported herein, showed excellent fan performance with the fan meeting all of its component test goals of flow, efficiency and stall margin.

  17. Fan Noise Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from five to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  18. Fan noise research at NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeneweg, John F.

    Results of recent NASA research to reduce aircraft turbofan noise are described. As the bypass ratio of a turbofan engine increases from 5 to as much as 20, the dominant source of engine noise is the fan. A primary mechanism of tone noise generation is the rotor blade wakes interacting with downstream stator vanes. Methods of analyzing rotor-stator tone noise generation are described and sample results are given. The role of an acoustic modal description is emphasized. Wind tunnel tests of model fans and nacelles are described including a novel rotating microphone technique for modal measurement. Sample far field results are given showing the effects of inlet length, and modal measurements are shown which point to a new generation mechanism. Concepts for active fan noise control at the source are addressed. Implications of the research which have general relevance to fan noise generation and control are discussed.

  19. Metal Foam Analysis: Improving Sandwich Structure Technology for Engine Fan and Propeller Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedor, Jessica L.

    2004-01-01

    The Life Prediction Branch of the NASA Glenn Research Center is searching for ways to construct aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades that are lighter and less costly. One possible design is to create a sandwich structure composed of two metal faces sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets would carry the bending loads and the foam core would have to resist the transverse shear loads. Metal foam is ideal because of its low density and energy absorption capabilities, making the structure lighter, yet still stiff. The material chosen for the face sheets and core was 17-4PH stainless steel, which is easy to make and has appealing mechanical properties. This material can be made inexpensively compared to titanium and polymer matrix composites, the two current fan blade alternatives. Initial tests were performed on design models, including vibration and stress analysis. These tests revealed that the design is competitive with existing designs; however, some problems were apparent that must be addressed before it can be implemented in new technology. The foam did not hold up as well as expected under stress. This could be due to a number of issues, but was most likely a result of a large number of pores within the steel that weakened the structure. The brazing between the face sheets and the foam was also identified as a concern. The braze did not hold up well under shear stress causing the foam to break away from the face sheets. My role in this project was to analyze different options for improving the design. I primarily spent my time examining various foam samples, created with different sintering conditions, to see which exhibited the most favorable characteristics for our purpose. Methods of analysis that I employed included examining strut integrity under a microscope, counting the number of cells per inch, measuring the density, testing the microhardness, and testing the strength under compression. Shear testing will also be done to examine

  20. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  1. 76 FR 72128 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engines installed on, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 42 airplanes. The existing... the PPRV, part number (P/N) 05-7212- E002801, on TAE 125-02-99 engines, from 300 hours to 600...

  2. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  3. A combined mode fatigue model for glass reinforced nylon as applied to molded engine cooling fans

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.D.; Bennet, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    The use of glass reinforced nylon in fatigue inducing environments calls for a new method of stress analysis. With an engine cooling fan, both mean and vibratory stresses need to be examined. Speed cycling can cause tensile fatigue, while vibration can cause flexural fatigue. Since tensile and flexural stresses exist in the fan simultaneously, a combined mode fatigue model is needed. The proposed model is based on high cycle flexural and tensile fatigue strengths, and tensile strength. It relates measurable strain to stress using temperature dependent flexural and tensile moduli, and treats underhood temperature and desired product life as variables.

  4. 78 FR 47228 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of engine power loss due to engine coolant contaminating the engine clutch. The design of the...

  5. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). The aerodynamic and mechanical design of the QCSEE over-the-wing fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aerodynamic and mechanical design of a fixed-pitch 1.36 pressure ratio fan for the over-the-wing (OTW) engine is presented. The fan has 28 blades. Aerodynamically, the fan blades were designed for a composite blade, but titanium blades were used in the experimental fan as a cost savings measure.

  6. Discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiation from diesel engine cooling fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geon-Seok

    This effort focuses on measuring and predicting the discrete-frequency and broadband noise radiated by diesel engine cooling fans. Unsteady forces developed by the interaction of the fan blade with inlet flow are the dominant source for both discrete-frequency and broadband noise of the subject propeller fan. In many cases, a primary source of discrepancy between fan noise prediction and measurement is due to incomplete description of the fan inflow. Particularly, in such engine cooling systems where space is very limited, it would be very difficult, if not, impossible to measure the fan inflow velocity field using the conventional, stationary hot-wire method. Instead, the fan inflow was measured with two-component x-type hot-film probes attached very close to the leading edge of a rotating blade. One of the advantages of the blade-mounted-probe measurement technique is that it measures velocities relative to the rotating probe, which enables the acquired data to be applied directly in many aerodynamic theories that have been developed for the airfoil fixed-coordinate system. However, the velocity time data measured by this technique contains the spatially non-uniform mean velocity field along with the temporal fluctuations. A phase-locked averaging technique was successfully employed to decompose the velocity data into time-invariant flow distortions and fluctuations due to turbulence. The angles of attack of the fan blades, obtained from inlet flow measurements, indicate that the blades are stalled. The fan's radiated noise was measured without contamination from the engine noise by driving the fan with an electric motor. The motor operated at a constant speed while a pair of speed controllable pulleys controlled the fan speed. Narrowband and 1/3-octave band sound power of the cooling fan was measured by using the comparison method with a reference sound source in a reverberant room. The spatially non-uniform mean velocity field was used in axial-flow fan noise

  7. Experimental Measurement of Transonic Fan Wake Response to Uniform and Simulated Boundary Layer Ingesting Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Brien, Walter F.; Ferrar, Anthony M.; Arend, David

    2011-01-01

    BWB Aircraft with embedded engines and BLI inlets offer attractive advantages in terms of reduced noise from engines and increased range and fuel economy. The BLI inlet produces inlet distortion patterns that can reduce fan performance and stall margin, and can produce undesirable forced responses. Knowledge of the dynamic response of fan flow when subjected to flow distortions of the type produced by BLI inlets is important for the design of distortion tolerant fans. This project is investigating fan response to flow distortion by measuring the response of the fan of a JT15D engine to a flow pattern following the results of the NASA Inlet A BLI wind tunnel tests.

  8. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  9. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  10. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  11. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  12. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  13. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) under-the-wing engine composite fan blade: Preliminary design test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Results of tests conducted on preliminary design polymeric-composite fan blade for the under the wing (UTW) OCSEE engine are presented. During this phase of the program a total of 17preliminary OCSEE UTW composite fan blades were manufactured for various component tests including frequency characteristics, strain distribution, bench fatigue, dovetail pull, whirligig overspeed and whirligig impact. All tests were successfully completed with the exception of whirligig impact tests. Improvements in local impact capability are being evaluated for the OCSEE blade under other NASA and related programs.

  14. 76 FR 68636 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Thielert Aircraft Engines...

  15. Flutter of aircraft engine turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovsky, Josef, Jr.

    1997-11-01

    The goal of this research is to eliminate occurrences of flutter of low-pressure turbine blades in aircraft engines. Fundamental unsteady aerodynamic experiments in an annular cascade plus correlating analyses are conducted to improve the understanding of the flutter mechanism in these blades and to identify the key flutter parameters. The use of two- and three-dimensional linearized Euler methods for the calculation of the unsteady pressures due to the blade motion are validated through detailed comparison with the experimental data. Unexpected features of the steady and unsteady flows are also investigated using these computational tools. The validated computer codes are used to extend the range of the experimental data in a series of parametric studies, where the influence of mode shape, reduced frequency, and blade loading are investigated. Mode shape is identified as the most important contributor to determining the stability of a blade design. A new stability parameter is introduced to gain additional insight into the key contributors to flutter. This stability parameter is derived from the influence coefficient representation of the cascade, and includes only contributions from the reference blade and its immediate neighbors. This has the effect of retaining the most important contributions while filtering out terms of less significance. Design rules for the preliminary concept phase and procedures for the detailed analysis phase of the typical blade design process are defined. Utilization of these procedures will lead to blade designs which are free of flutter.

  16. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  17. Altitude performance of a low-noise-technology fan in a turbofan engine with and without a sound suppressing nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Grey, R. E.; Abdelwahah, M.

    1976-01-01

    Test variables were inlet Reynolds number index (0.2 to 0.5), flight Mach number (0.2 to 0.8), and flow distortion (tip radial and combined circumferential - tip radial patterns). Results are limited to fan bypass and overall engine performance. There were no discernible effects of Reynolds number on fan performance. Increasing flight Mach number shifted the fan operating line such that pressure ratio decreased and airflow increased. Inlet flow distortion lowered stall margin. For a Reynolds number index of 0.2 and flight Mach number of 0.54, the sound suppressing nacelle lowered fan efficiency three points and increased specific fuel consumption about 10 percent.

  18. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  19. Conceptual design of a V/STOL lift fan commercial short haul transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Conceptual designs of V/STOL lift-fan commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. Engine concepts studied included both integral remote fans. The scope of the study included definition of the hover control concept for each propulsion system, aircraft design, aircraft mass properties, cruise performance noise, and ride qualities evaluation. Economic evaluation was also studied on a basis of direct operating cost and route structure.

  20. Summary of Lift and Lift/Cruise Fan Powered Lift Concept Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Woodrow L.

    1993-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the lift and lift/cruise fan technology including fan performance, fan stall, ground effects, ingestion and thrust loss, design tradeoffs and integration, control effectiveness and several other areas related to vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) aircraft conceptual design. The various subjects addressed, while not necessarily pertinent to specific short takeoff/vertical landing (STOVL) supersonic designs being considered, are of interest to the general field of lift and lift/cruise fan aircraft designs and may be of importance in the future. The various wind tunnel and static tests reviewed are: (1) the Doak VZ-4 ducted fan, (2) the 0.57 scale model of the Bell X-22 ducted fan aircraft, (3) the Avrocar, (4) the General Electric lift/cruise fan, (5) the vertical short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) lift engine configurations related to ingestion and consequent thrust loss, (6) the XV-5 and other fan-in-wing stall consideration, (7) hybrid configurations such as lift fan and lift/cruise fan or engines, and (8) the various conceptual design studies by air-frame contractors. Other design integration problems related to small and large V/STOL transport aircraft are summarized including lessons learned during more recent conceptual design studies related to a small executive V/STOL transport aircraft.

  1. Fiber-Optic Circuits For Aircraft Engine Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Walter L.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes environmental effects which impact the design of interfaces to fiber-optic sensors and data buses in aircraft engine controls. Emphasis is placed on selection of components and designs which maintain their performance and reliability in the harsh environment of an electronics enclosure mounted on a modern aircraft turbine engine. Particular attention is given to the effects of temperature on electro-optical component and system performance. The main conclusion is that electro-optical interfaces to a variety of fiber-optic systems can be installed in an engine-mounted control if the designs and components are selected after careful analysis of the effects of the engine environment.

  2. Viability of Cross-Flow Fan for Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    the CFF’s thrust was through the use of the average air velocity leaving the fan. Initially, a hand-held anemometer was used to find the outlet... history for mass flow rate through the CFF. The inlet mass flow rate and outlet mass flow rate were verified to reach a steady-state value after five

  3. A Roadmap for Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2001-01-01

    The concept of Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control is introduced. A brief description of the tradeoffs between performance and engine life are first explained. The overall goal of the life extending controller is to reduce the engine operating cost by extending the on-wing engine life while improving operational safety. The research results for NASA's Rocket Engine life extending control program are also briefly described. Major building blocks of the Engine Life Extending Control architecture are examined. These blocks include: life prediction models, engine operation models, stress and thermal analysis tools, control schemes, and intelligent control systems. The technology areas that would likely impact the successful implementation of an aircraft engine life extending control are also briefly described. Near, intermediate, and long term goals of NASA's activities are also presented.

  4. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) under-the-wing engine composite fan blade design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravenhall, R.; Salemme, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A total of 38 quiet clean short haul experimental engine under the wing composite fan blades were manufactured for various component tests, process and tooling, checkout, and use in the QCSEE UTW engine. The component tests included frequency characterization, strain distribution, bench fatigue, platform static load, whirligig high cycle fatigue, whirligig low cycle fatigue, whirligig strain distribution, and whirligig over-speed. All tests were successfully completed. All blades planned for use in the engine were subjected to and passed a whirligig proof spin test.

  5. Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.

  6. 78 FR 70216 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This AD requires applying sealant to close the engine clutch...

  7. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  8. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  9. Low Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, David E.; Neubert, Robert J.; Malmborg, Eric W.; Philbrick, Daniel H.; Spear, David A.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the design of a Low Noise ADP Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes and core stators. This fan stage design was combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle, subscale model. This model is intended for use in aerodynamic performance, acoustic and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The model has a 22-inch outer fan diameter and a hub-to-top ratio of 0.426 which permits the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance designs and rig drive system. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the PW 17-inch rig previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric analysis at aerodynamic design condition are included. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is described including the material selections and stress analysis. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low cycle fatigue life, and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the fan exit guide vane and core stator to minimize noise. A fan-FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine these airfoil counts. The fan stage design was matched to a nacelle design to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. The nacelle design was developed under a separate NASA contract. The nacelle was designed with an axisymmetric inlet, cowl and nozzle for convenience in testing and fabrication. Aerodynamic analysis of the nacelle confirmed the required performance at various aircraft operating conditions.

  10. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  11. 76 FR 82110 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16906; AD 2010-06-12R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft.... SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. That AD currently requires replacing...

  12. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  13. Lifecycle Information of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    commercial aircraft, the industry generated a number of potential RFID-based applications for airlines, air- freight carriers, aircraft maintenance and...adoption of RFID technologies to track serially controlled items requires careful planning and design. Data overload and data noise also affect the...performance of RFID systems. Data overload results from continuously scanning the RFID tags within reader range and sending the repeated information

  14. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... amendment, the FAA intended to clarify vibration test requirements in Sec. 33.83 of 14 Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to...

  15. Condensed data on the aircraft engines of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliedner, C S

    1929-01-01

    This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.

  16. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  17. Preliminary experiments on active control of fan noise from a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, R. H.; Burdisso, R. A.; Fuller, C. R.; O'Brien, W. F.

    1993-01-01

    In the preliminary experiments reported here, active acoustic sources positioned around the circumference of a turbofan engine were used to control the fan noise radiated forward through the inlet. The main objective was to demonstrate the potential of active techniques to alleviate the noise pollution that will be produced by the next generation of larger engines. A reduction of up to 19 dB in the radiation directivity was demonstrated in a zone that encompasses a 30-deg angle, near the error sensor, while spillover effects were observed toward the lateral direction. The simultaneous control of two tones was also demonstrated using two identical controllers in a parallel control configuration.

  18. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  19. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    amd Identify by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume IV D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUS Director, Turbine Engine Division If your address has changed, if you

  20. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    Identity by block number) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickness Rotor Camber Distribution Aerodesign Throat Margin Aerodynamics 20. 1ABSRACT...COMPRESSOR ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume II D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson General Electric Company / Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced Technology...Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. IVAN BUSH Director, Turbine Engine Division . If your address has changed, if you wish to be

  1. Transonic Fan/Compressor Rotor Design Study. Volume 3

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    KEY WORDS (Continue on revere. old. $1 nocoeoary and identify by block nuvb.,) Fan Aircraft Engines Compressor Blade Thickne)s Rotor Camber...COMPRESSOR ’Q ROTOR DESIGN STUDY Volume III D.E. Parker and M.R. Simonson CZ) General Electric Company Aircraft Engine Business Group Advanced...Compressor Research Group Chief, Technology Branch FOR THE COMMANDER H. WAN BI Director, Turbine Engine Division ŕ *If your address has changed, if you wish

  2. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  3. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  5. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  6. Effects of Structural Flexibility on Aircraft-Engine Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis extends technique for design of widely used type of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines, in which rubber mounting pads located in plane behind center of gravity of enginepropeller combination. New analysis treats problem in statics. Results of simple approach useful in providing equations for design of vibrationisolating mounts. Equations applicable in usual situation in which engine-mount structure itself relatively light and placed between large mass of engine and other heavy components of airplane.

  7. Novel Engineering and Fabrication Techniques Tested in Low-Noise- Research Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Cameron C.

    2003-01-01

    A major source of fan noise in commercial turbofan engines is the interaction of the wake from the fan blades with the stationary vanes (stators) directly behind them. The Trailing Edge Blowing (TEB) project team at the NASA Glenn Research Center designed and fabricated new fan blades to study the effects of fan trailing edge blowing as a potential noise-reduction concept. The intent is to fill the rotor wake by supplying air to the rotor blade trailing edge at the proper conditions to minimize the wake deficit, and thus generate less noise. The TEB hardware is designed for the Active Noise Control Fan (ANCF) test rig in Glenn's Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory. For this test, the air is fed from an external supply through the shaft of the rig. It is distributed to the base of each blade through an impeller, where it is forced into a plenum at the core of each blade. In actual engine configuration, air would most likely be bled from the compressor, but only at times when noise is an issue, such as takeoffs and landings. Glenn researchers designed and manufactured the blades in-house, using new techniques and concepts. The skins, which were designed for maximum strength in the directions of highest stress, were molded from multiple layers of carbon fiber. Considerable use was made of rapid prototyping techniques, such as laser sintering. The core was sintered from a lightweight polymer, and the retainer was CNC-machined (computer numerical control machined) from aluminum. All the components were joined with a cold-cure aerospace adhesive. These techniques and processes reduced the overall cost and allowed the new concept to be studied much sooner than would be possible using traditional fabrication methods. Since this test rig did not support the use of blade-monitoring techniques such as strain gauges, extensive bench testing was required to qualify the design. The blades were examined using a variety of methods including holography, pull tests (cyclic and

  8. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  9. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  10. The Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    line and staggered tube ~ anks . Another way to get the coolant out of the trailing edge is to use drilled holes. These are normally calculated using...Pittsburgh, PA, 1976. 20.35 Butze, H. F., and Ehlers , R. C., "Effect of FUel Properties on Performance of a Single Aircraft Turbojet Combustor," NASA-Tl~-X...20.75 Butze, H. F .. and Ehlers , R. C., "Effect of Fuel Properties on Performance of A Single Aircraft Turboj et Combustor," NASA-TM-X-71789

  11. 77 FR 13488 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... TAE 125-02-99 reciprocating engines installed on, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft Industries...-E002801, on TAE 125-02-99 engine. This AD was prompted by TAE increasing the life of the PPRV, part...

  12. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02- 99, and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. That AD...

  13. 77 FR 4217 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) ] TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by in-flight...

  14. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD requires inspection of the oil...

  15. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1979-01-01

    The computational techniques utilized to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements are described. The characteristics and use of the following computer codes are discussed: (1) NNEP - a very general cycle analysis code that can assemble an arbitrary matrix fans, turbines, ducts, shafts, etc., into a complete gas turbine engine and compute on- and off-design thermodynamic performance; (2) WATE - a preliminary design procedure for calculating engine weight using the component characteristics determined by NNEP; (3) POD DRG - a table look-up program to calculate wave and friction drag of nacelles; (4) LIFCYC - a computer code developed to calculate life cycle costs of engines based on the output from WATE; and (5) INSTAL - a computer code developed to calculate installation effects, inlet performance and inlet weight. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight, and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  16. Rationale for selection of a flight control system for lift cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Konsewicz, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    Various features of the lift cruise fan V/STOL concept are briefly reviewed. The ability to operate from small ships in adverse weather, low visibility, and rough sea conditions is emphasized as is the need for a highly capable, flexible, and reliabile flight control system. A three channel control by wire, digital flight control system is suggested. The requirement for automatic flight control, the advantage of control by wire implementation, the preference for a digital computer, and the need for three channel redundancy are among the factors discussed.

  17. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  18. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  19. Some aspects of aircraft jet engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekiesinski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Technologies are reviewed for improving the thermal stability of jet fuels, with reference to the overheating of fuel tanks in supersonic aircraft. Consideration is given to the development of a jet fuel with high thermal stability by the Polish petroleum industry.

  20. Wind tunnel and ground static investigation of a large scale model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in a 40 foot by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic/propulsion characteristics of a large scale powered model of a lift/cruise fan V/STOL aircraft. The model was equipped with three 36 inch diameter turbotip X376B fans powered by three T58 gas generators. The lift fan was located forward of the cockpit area and the two lift/cruise fans were located on top of the wing adjacent to the fuselage. The three fans with associated thrust vectoring systems were used to provide vertical, and short, takeoff and landing capability. For conventional cruise mode operation, only the lift/cruise fans were utilized. The data that were obtained include lift, drag, longitudinal and lateral-directional stability characteristics, and control effectiveness. Data were obtained up to speeds of 120 knots at one model height of 20 feet for the conventional aerodynamic lift configuration and at several thrust vector angles for the powered lift configuration.

  1. Characterization of chemical and particulate emissions from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Sawant, Aniket A.; Jansen, Karel; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a series of measurements from four on-wing, commercial aircraft engines, including two newer CFM56-7 engines and two earlier CFM56-3 engines. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned behind the exhaust nozzle of the aircraft, chocked on a concrete testing pad. The emission factors for particulate matter mass, elemental and organic carbon, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, dioxins, metals and ions are reported for four different engine power setting modes. The emissions indices of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon are highly power dependent for these engines. Particulate matter emission indices (g kg-1 fuel) are found to increase from 1.1E-02 to 2.05E-01 with increase in power from idle to 85%. The elemental carbon to organic carbon varies from 0.5 to 3.8 with change in power from idle to 85%. The carbonyl emissions are dominated by formaldehyde. The emission index of formaldehyde ranges from 2.3E-01 to 4.8E-01 g kg-1 fuel. The distribution of metals depends on the difference in the various engines. The dioxin emissions from the aircraft engines are observed to be below detection limit.

  2. Weight Assessment for Fuselage Shielding on Aircraft With Open-Rotor Engines and Composite Blade Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, Kelly; Pereira, Michael; Kohlman, Lee; Goldberg, Robert; Envia, Edmane; Lawrence, Charles; Roberts, Gary; Emmerling, William

    2013-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been engaged in discussions with airframe and engine manufacturers concerning regulations that would apply to new technology fuel efficient "openrotor" engines. Existing regulations for the engines and airframe did not envision features of these engines that include eliminating the fan blade containment systems and including two rows of counter-rotating blades. Damage to the airframe from a failed blade could potentially be catastrophic. Therefore the feasibility of using aircraft fuselage shielding was investigated. In order to establish the feasibility of this shielding, a study was conducted to provide an estimate for the fuselage shielding weight required to provide protection from an open-rotor blade loss. This estimate was generated using a two-step procedure. First, a trajectory analysis was performed to determine the blade orientation and velocity at the point of impact with the fuselage. The trajectory analysis also showed that a blade dispersion angle of 3deg bounded the probable dispersion pattern and so was used for the weight estimate. Next, a finite element impact analysis was performed to determine the required shielding thickness to prevent fuselage penetration. The impact analysis was conducted using an FAA-provided composite blade geometry. The fuselage geometry was based on a medium-sized passenger composite airframe. In the analysis, both the blade and fuselage were assumed to be constructed from a T700S/PR520 triaxially-braided composite architecture. Sufficient test data on T700S/PR520 is available to enable reliable analysis, and also demonstrate its good impact resistance properties. This system was also used in modeling the surrogate blade. The estimated additional weight required for fuselage shielding for a wing- mounted counterrotating open-rotor blade is 236 lb per aircraft. This estimate is based on the shielding material serving the dual use of shielding and fuselage structure. If the

  3. Improvements in Numerical Modeling Methodology of Dry Woven Fabrics for Aircraft Engine Containment Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fein, Jonathan

    Woven fabric composite materials are widely used in the construction of aircraft engine fan containment systems, mostly due to their high strength to weight ratios and ease of implementation. The development of a predictive model for fan blade containment would provide great benefit to engine manufactures in shortened development cycle time, less risk in certification and fewer dollars lost to redesign/recertification cycles. A mechanistic user-defined material model subroutine has been developed at Arizona State University (ASU) that captures the behavioral response of these fabrics, namely Kevlar ® 49, under ballistic loading. Previously developed finite element models used to validate the consistency of this material model neglected the effects of the physical constraints imposed on the test setup during ballistic testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC). Part of this research was to explore the effects of these boundary conditions on the results of the numerical simulations. These effects were found to be negligible in most instances. Other material models for woven fabrics are available in the LS-DYNA finite element code. One of these models, MAT234: MAT_VISCOELASTIC_LOOSE_FABRIC (Ivanov & Tabiei, 2004) was studied and implemented in the finite element simulations of ballistic testing associated with the FAA ASU research. The results from these models are compared to results obtained from the ASU UMAT as part of this research. The results indicate an underestimation in the energy absorption characteristics of the Kevlar 49 fabric containment systems. More investigation needs to be performed in the implementation of MAT234 for Kevlar 49 fabric. Static penetrator testing of Kevlar® 49 fabric was performed at ASU in conjunction with this research. These experiments are designed to mimic the type of loading experienced during fan blade out events. The resulting experimental strains were measured using a non-contact optical strain measurement

  4. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  5. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  6. Factors Affecting Inlet-Engine Compatibility During Aircraft Departures at High Angle of Attack for an F/A -18A Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steenken, W. G.; Williams, J. G.; Yuhas, A. J.; Walsh, K. R.

    1999-01-01

    The F404-GE-400 engine powered F/A- 18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the quality of inlet airflow during departed flight maneuvers, that is, during flight outside the normal maneuvering envelope where control surfaces have little or no effectiveness. A series of six nose-left and six nose-right departures were initiated at Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.4 at an altitude of 35 kft. The yaw rates at departure recovery were in the range of 40 to 90 degrees per second. Engine surges were encountered during three of the nose-left and one of the nose-right departures. Time-variant inlet-total-pressure distortion levels at the engine face were determined to not significantly exceed those measured at maximum angle-of-attack and - sideslip maneuvers during controlled flight. Surges as a result of inlet distortion levels were anticipated to initiate in the fan. Analysis revealed that the surges initiated in the compressor and were the result of a combination of high levels of inlet distortion and rapid changes in aircraft motion. These rapid changes in aircraft motion are indicative of a combination of engine mount and gyroscopic loads being applied to the engine structure that impact the aerodynamic stability of the compressor through changes in the rotor-to-case clearances.

  7. Tabulated pressure measurements on a large subsonic transport model airplane with high bypass ratio, powered, fan jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flechner, S. G.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental wind-tunnel investigation to determine the aerodynamic interference and the jet-wake interference associated with the wing, pylon, and high-bypass-ratio, powered, fan-jet model engines has been conducted on a typical high-wing logistics transport airplane configuration. Pressures were measured on the wing and pylons and on the surfaces of the engine fan cowl, turbine cowl, and plug. Combinations of wing, pylons, engines, and flow-through nacelles were tested, and the pressure coefficients are presented in tabular form. Tests were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.700 to 0.825 and angles of attack from -2 to 4 deg.

  8. Investigation of Hygro-Thermal Aging on Carbon/Epoxy Materials for Jet Engine Fan Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Roberts, Gary D.; Miller, Sandi G.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    This poster summarizes 2 years of aging on E862 epoxy and E862 epoxy with triaxial braided T700s carbon fiber composite. Several test methods were used to characterize chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of both the resin and composite materials. The aging cycle that was used included varying temperature and humidity exposure. The goal was to evaluate the environmental effects on a potential jet engine fan section material. Some changes were noted in the resin which resulted in increased brittleness, though this did not significantly affect the tensile and impact test results. A potential decrease in compression strength requires additional investigation.

  9. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  10. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach to Aircraft Kinetic Kill Countermeasures Technology: Development of an Active Aircraft Defense System for the C/KC-135 Aircraft. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    AFIT/GSE/ENY/95D-01 A SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO AIRCRAFT KINETIC KILL COUNTERMEASURE TECHNOLOGY: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM...AFIT/GSE/ENY/95D-01 A SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO AIRCRAFT KINETIC KILL COUNTERMEASURE TECHNOLOGY: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM FOR...THE C/KC-135 AIRCRAFT THESIS (1 of2) Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air

  12. In flight measurement of steady and unsteady blade surface pressure of a single rotation large scale advanced prop-fan installed on the PTA aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzych, D.; Boyd, L.; Meissner, W.; Wyrostek, A.

    1991-01-01

    An experiment was performed by Hamilton Standard, Division of United Technologies Corporation, under contract by LeRC, to measure the blade surface pressure of a large scale, 8 blade model prop-fan in flight. The test bed was the Gulfstream 2 Prop-Fan Test Assessment (PTA) aircraft. The objective of the test was to measure the steady and periodic blade surface pressure resulting from three different Prop-Fan air inflow angles at various takeoff and cruise conditions. The inflow angles were obtained by varying the nacelle tilt angles, which ranged from -3 to +2 degrees. A range of power loadings, tip speeds, and altitudes were tested at each nacelle tilt angle over the flight Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.80. Unsteady blade pressure data tabulated as Fourier coefficients for the first 35 harmonics of shaft rotational frequency and the steady (non-varying) pressure component are presented.

  13. NO(x) reduction additives for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines is a vital part of the NASA High Speed Research Program. Emissions reductions are critical to the feasibility of future High Speed Civil Transports which operate at supersonic speeds in the stratosphere. It is believed that large fleets of such aircraft using conventional gas turbine engines would emit levels of NO(x) that would be harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. Previous studies have shown that NO(x) emissions can be reduced from stationary powerplant exhausts by the addition of additives such as ammonia to the exhaust gases. Since the exhaust residence times, pressures and temperatures may be different for aircraft gas turbines, a study has been made of additive effectiveness for high speed, high altitude flight.

  14. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  15. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, R.F.

    1980-06-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  16. Calculation of the pressures on aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigenberger, O

    1929-01-01

    For aircraft engines the three principal operating conditions are idling speed, cruising speed, and diving with the engine stopped. In what follows, we will discuss a method which affords a good idea of the course of pressure for the above mentioned operating conditions. The pressures produced in the driving gear are of three kinds; namely, the pressure due to gases, the pressure due to the inertia of the rotating masses, and the pressure due to the inertia of the reciprocating masses.

  17. Combustion system CFD modeling at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Mongia, H.; Tolpadi, Anil K.; Correa, S.; Braaten, M.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses key features of current combustion system CFD modeling capabilities at GE Aircraft Engines provided by the CONCERT code; CONCERT development history; modeling applied for designing engine combustion systems; modeling applied to improve fundamental understanding; CONCERT3D results for current production combustors; CONCERT3D model of NASA/GE E3 combustor; HYBRID CONCERT CFD/Monte-Carlo modeling approach; and future modeling directions.

  18. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  19. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  20. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  1. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  2. The Power of Aircraft Engines at Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragazzi, Paolo

    1939-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is confined to the investigations and methods employed by the Fiat company in their studies on the altitude performance of an air-cooled engine of the production type. The experimental set-up as well as test engine data are provided.

  3. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  4. Swirling-flow jet noise suppressors for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the effects of swirling the jet exhausts of small turbofan and turbojet engines have indicated significant progress towards predicting and attaining substantial jet noise abatement with minimum thrust losses in large aircraft engines. Systematic variations of the important swirl vane and swirling flow parameters were conducted to determine their effects on jet noise reduction and engine performance. Since swirling flow becomes more effective in reducing jet noise as the density and temperature gradients increase, the significant trends in noise reduction and engine performance that were established by these parametric studies could be projected into potentially greater reductions of sound pressure levels with minimum thrust losses by controlled swirling of the jets of high thrust engines. The density and temperature gradients in the jet exhausts of high thrust engines are larger by comparison with gradients in small engines.

  5. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  6. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  7. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  8. Aircraft Turbine Engine Reliability and Inspection Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    controls and accessories typically produced the largest number of in-flight flameouts, compressor stalls , and engine shutdowns. In addition to the actuarial...typically produced the largest number of in-flight flameouts, compressor stalls , and engine shutdowns. Diagnostic troubleshooting procedures for controls...airfoils suffer because these * materials are damaged during compressor stalls when cooling air flows are disrupted. 3. Fuel/oil system failures are

  9. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 2; BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the second volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the BFaNS computer program.

  10. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  11. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  12. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  13. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  15. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  16. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  17. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  18. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  19. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  20. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  1. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  2. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  3. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  4. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  5. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: Implications for the F100 Engine Diagnostic System Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    malfunction re- port data were obtained from the Program Office. -8- EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 76 - MAY 77 INSTRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL...interesting to note that the J85 was a mature engine and that the number of engine problems encountered was not very great. Also, the EHMS was not a new...copyright notation hereon. Library of Congress Cataloging In PObNiation Data Birkier, John L Aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. ([Report

  6. TBCC Fan Stage Operability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.

    2007-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. Studies performed under NASA s NGLT and the NASP High Speed Propulsion Assessment (HiSPA) program indicated a variable cycle turbofan/ramjet was the best configuration to satisfy access-to-space mission requirements because this configuration maximizes the engine thrust-to-weight ratio while minimizing frontal area. To this end, NASA and GE teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10X), fan speed (7X), inlet mass flow (3.5X), inlet pressure (8X), and inlet temperature (3X). The primary goal of the fan stage was to provide a high pressure ratio level with good efficiency at takeoff through the mid range of engine operation, while avoiding stall and losses at the higher flight Mach numbers, without the use of variable inlet guide vanes. Overall fan performance and operability therefore requires major consideration, as competing goals at different operating points and aeromechanical issues become major drivers in the design. To mitigate risk of meeting the unique design requirements for the fan stage, NASA and GE teamed to design and build a 57% engine scaled fan stage to be tested in NASA s transonic compressor facility. The objectives of this test are to assess the aerodynamic and aero mechanic performance and operability characteristics of the fan stage over the entire range of engine operation including: 1) sea level static take-off, 2) transition over large swings in fan bypass ratio, 3) transition from turbofan to ramjet, and 4) fan windmilling operation at high Mach

  7. Comparison of several inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan tone noise using a JT15D-1 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcardle, J. G.; Jones, W. L.; Heidelberg, L. J.; Homyak, L.

    1980-01-01

    To enable accurate simulation of in-flight fan tone noise during ground static tests, four devices intended to reduce inflow disturbances and turbulence were tested with a JT15D-1 turbofan engine. These inflow control devices (ICD's) consisted of honeycomb/screen structures mounted over the engine inlet. The ICD's ranged from 1.6 to 4 fan diameters in size, and differed in shape and fabrication method. All the ICD's significantly reduced the BPF tone in the far-field directivity patterns, but the smallest ICD's apparently introduced propagating modes which could be recognized by additional lobes in the speeds; at supersonic fan tip speed the smallest ICD's had some measurable loss, but the largest had no loss. Data from a typical transducer show that the unsteady inflow distortion modes (turbulence) were eliminated or significantly reduced when either of the ICD's was installed. However, some steady inflow distortion modes remained.

  8. The Application of a Boundary Integral Equation Method to the Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.; Farassat, F.

    1999-01-01

    The prediction of ducted fan engine noise using a boundary integral equation method (BIEM) is considered. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on linearized acoustics and describe the scattering of incident sound by a thin, finite-length cylindrical duct in the presence of a uniform axial inflow. A classical boundary value problem (BVP) is derived that includes an axisymmetric, locally reacting liner on the duct interior. Using potential theory, the BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations with subsidiary conditions. We describe the integral equation derivation and solution procedure in detail. The development of the computationally efficient ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D, which implements the BIEM, and its utility in conducting parametric noise reduction studies are discussed. Unlike prediction methods based on spinning mode eigenfunction expansions, the BIEM does not require the decomposition of the interior acoustic field into its radial and axial components which, for the liner case, avoids the solution of a difficult complex eigenvalue problem. Numerical spectral studies are presented to illustrate the nexus between the eigenfunction expansion representation and BIEM results. We demonstrate BIEM liner capability by examining radiation patterns for several cases of practical interest.

  9. Influence of thickness and camber on the aeroelastic stability of supersonic throughflow fans: An engineering approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, John K.

    1989-01-01

    An engineering approach was used to include the nonlinear effects of thickness and camber in an analytical aeroelastic analysis of cascades in supersonic acial flow (supersonic leading-edge locus). A hybrid code using Lighthill's nonlinear piston theory and Lanes's linear potential theory was developed to include these nonlinear effects. Lighthill's theory was used to calculate the unsteady pressures on the noninterference surface regions of the airfoils in cascade. Lane's theory was used to calculate the unsteady pressures on the remaining interference surface regions. Two airfoil profiles was investigated (a supersonic throughflow fan design and a NACA 66-206 airfoil with a sharp leading edge). Results show that compared with predictions of Lane's potential theory for flat plates, the inclusion of thickness (with or without camber) may increase or decrease the aeroelastic stability, depending on the airfoil geometry and operating conditions. When thickness effects are included in the aeroelastic analysis, inclusion of camber will influence the predicted stability in proportion to the magnitude of the added camber. The critical interblade phase angle, depending on the airfoil profile and operating conditions, may also be influenced by thickness and camber. Compared with predictions of Lane's linear potential theory, the inclusion of thickness and camber decreased the aerodynamic stifness and increased the aerodynamic damping at Mach 2 and 2.95 for a cascade of supersonic throughflow fan airfoils oscillating 180 degrees out of phase at a reduced frequency of 0.1.

  10. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  11. A program for calculating turbofan-driven lift-fan propulsion system performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, M. E.; Fuhs, A. E.; Paterson, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The performance of a turbofan-powered lift fan propulsion system for vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) aircraft is calculated. The program formulation consists of taking bleed air from a turbofan engine, heating the bleed air in an interburner, and passing it through a tip turbine to drive a lift fan. Two options are available: bleed air from the engine exhaust, or bleed air that has passed through the engine fan only. This computer program will benefit persons unfamiliar with the thermodynamics of engine cycle analysis.

  12. Assessment of Radiated Fan Noise Prediction Capabilities Using Static Engine Test Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nark, Douglas M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes further assessment of the CDUCT-LaRC code via comparison with static engine test data. In an effort to improve confidence in the use of CDUCT-LaRC for liner optimization studies addressing realistic three-dimensional geometries, inlet radiated fan noise predictions were performed at 54% and 87% engine speed settings. Predictions were then compared with far-field measurements to assess the approach and implementation. The particular configurations were chosen to exercise the three-dimensional capability of CDUCT-LaRC and it s applicability to realistic configurations and conditions. At the 54% engine speed setting, the predictions capture the general directivity and acoustic treatment effects quite well. Comparisons of the predicted and measured directivity at the 87% power setting were more problematic. This was likely due in part to the difficulties in source specification and possibly the nonlinear nature of buzz-saw tones at this engine operating condition. Overall, the approach captured the basic trends and provided a conservative estimate of liner effects from which relative performance metrics could be inferred.

  13. Application of composite materials to turbofan engine fan exit guide vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. T.

    1980-01-01

    A program was conducted by NASA with the JT9D engine manufacturer to develop a lightweight, cost effective, composite material fan exit guide vane design having satisfactory structural durability for commerical engine use. Based on the results of a previous company supported program, eight graphite/epoxy and graphite-glass/epoxy guide vane designs were evaluated and four were selected for fabrication and testing. Two commercial fabricators each fabricated 13 vanes. Fatigue tests were used to qualify the selected design configurations under nominally dry, 38 C (100 F) and fully wet and 60 C (140 F) environmental conditions. Cost estimates for a production rate of 1000 vanes per month ranged from 1.7 to 2.6 times the cost of an all aluminum vane. This cost is 50 to 80 percent less than the initial program target cost ratio which was 3 times the cost of an aluminum vane. Application to the JT9D commercial engine is projected to provide a weight savings of 236 N (53 lb) per engine.

  14. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  15. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  16. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  17. Carbureting conditions characteristics of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S

    1920-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the altitude laboratory erected at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the changes in engine performance with changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure at various levels above the earth's surface, with special reference to (a) the variables affecting the functioning of the carburetor and (b) the changes in performance resulting from variables in the carburetor itself. This report constitutes a concise statement of the difficulties to be encountered in this branch of carburetion.

  18. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, W. S.

    1979-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two experimental propulsion systems for powered lift transport aircraft are given. The under the wing (UTW) engine was intended for installation in an externally blown flap configuration and the over the wing (OTW) engine for use in an upper surface blowing aircraft. The UTW engine included variable pitch composite fan blades, main reduction gear, composite fan frame and nacelle, and a digital control system. The OTW engine included a fixed pitch fan, composite fan frame, boilerplate nacelle, and a full authority digital control. Many acoustic, pollution, performance, and weight goals were demonstrated.

  19. Rapid Measurement of Emissions From Military Aircraft Turbine Engines by Downstream Extractive Sampling of Aircraft on the Ground: Results for C-130 and F-15 Aircraft (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    engines were tested using indoor engine test facilities (F110, F101, J85 -GE-5M, PT6A-68, TF41-A2, TF30-P103 and TF30- P109), while others were studied while...afterburning). Engine T56-A-15 F100-PW-100 F110 F101 J85 -GE-5M PT6A-68 TF-39-1C CFM-56-3 TF41-A2 TF30-P103 TF30-P109 Misc. Type Turboprop Turbofan...AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES BY DOWNSTREAM EXTRACTIVE SAMPLING OF AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND: RESULTS FOR C-130 AND F-15 AIRCRAFT Chester Spicer and

  20. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry...

  1. Cooling Air Inlet and Exit Geometries on Aircraft Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

    1982-01-01

    A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag or several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center 40 x 80-ft Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

  2. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  3. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  4. The Prediction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via a Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Dunn, M. H.; Tweed, J.

    1996-01-01

    A computationally efficient Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is presented. The key features of the BIEM are its versatility and the ability to compute rapidly any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Governing equations for the BIEM are based on the assumptions that all acoustic processes are linear, generate spinning modes, and occur in a uniform flow field. An exterior boundary value problem (BVP) is defined that describes the scattering of incident sound by an engine duct with arbitrary profile. Boundary conditions on the duct walls are derived that allow for passive noise control treatment. The BVP is recast as a system of hypersingular boundary integral equations for the unknown duct surface quantities. BIEM solution methodology is demonstrated for the scattering of incident sound by a thin cylindrical duct with hard walls. Numerical studies are conducted for various engine parameters and continuous portions of the total pressure field are computed. Radiation and duct propagation results obtained are in agreement with the classical results of spinning mode theory for infinite ducts.

  5. Effect of forward velocity and crosswind on the reverse-thrust performance of a variable-pitch fan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reemsnyder, D. C.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A full-size variable-pitch fan engine was tested in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of forward velocity and crosswind on reverse-thrust performance. Two flight-type inlet configurations were tested, and a flared fan nozzle was installed as an inlet for reverse-thrust operation. Steady-state reverse-thrust performance was obtained up to 54 m/s (105 knots). An abrupt decrease in reverse thrust occurred at about 30 m/s (60 knots). Reverse thrust was established following forward-to-reverse thrust transients both statically and with forward velocities only up to 30 m/s.

  6. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  7. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990-2007 in the US alone [1]. As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a non-rotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various nonrotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the pre-stress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in a

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT ENGINE - PHASE II-A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    JET TRANSPORT PLANES, *SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT ) (U) TURBOJET ENGINES , PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), TURBOFAN ENGINES , AFTERBURNING, SPECIFICATIONS...COMPRESSORS, GEOMETRY, TURBOJET INLETS, COMBUSTION, TEST EQUIPMENT, TURBINE BLADES , HEAT TRANSFER, AIRFOILS , CASCADE STRUCTURES, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, PLUG NOZZLES, ANECHOIC CHAMBERS, BEARINGS, SEALS, DESIGN, FATIGUE(MECHANICS)

  9. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  10. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  11. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  12. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9437-2] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution... engines which in her judgment causes or contributes to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated...

  13. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  14. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and other regulatory requirements for aircraft turbofan or... Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. Deposition of Nitrogen b. Visibility Effects c. Plant and Ecosystem... nitrogen (NO X ) emission standards for aircraft engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kN...

  15. Design definition study of a life/cruise fan technology V/STOL aircraft. Volume 2, addendum 2: Program risk assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The results are presented of a risk assessment study conducted on two technology aircraft. The aircraft system components were reviewed and assessed for risk based on: (1) complexity relative to state-of-the-art, (2) manufacturing and qualification testing, (3) availability and delays, and (4) cost/schedule impact. These assessments were based on five risk nomenclatures: low, minor, moderate, high, and extreme. Each aircraft system was assigned an overall risk rating depending upon its contribution to the capability of the aircraft to achieve the performance goals. The slightly lower Sabreliner performance margin is due to the restricted flight envelope, the fixed landing gear, and internal fuel capacity. The Sabreliner with retractable gear and allowed to fly at its best speed and altitude would reflect performance margins similar to the New Airframe. These significant margins, inherent with the MCAIR three gas generator/three fan propulsion system, are major modifiers to risk assessment of both aircraft. The estimated risk and the associated key system and performance areas are tabulated.

  16. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  17. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  18. Ducted-Fan Engine Acoustic Predictions Using a Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Farassat, F.; Spence, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computer code is used to predict one of the ducted-fan engine acoustic modes that results from rotor-wake/stator-blade interaction. A patched sliding-zone interface is employed to pass information between the moving rotor row and the stationary stator row. The code produces averaged aerodynamic results downstream of the rotor that agree well with a widely used average-passage code. The acoustic mode of interest is generated successfully by the code and is propagated well upstream of the rotor, temporal and spatial numerical resolution are fine enough such that attenuation of the signal is small. Two acoustic codes are used to find the far-field noise. Near-field propagation is computed by using Eversman's wave envelope code, which is based on a finite-element model. Propagation to the far field is accomplished by using the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces with the results of the wave envelope code as input data. Comparison of measured and computed far-field noise levels show fair agreement in the range of directivity angles where the peak radiation lobes from the inlet are observed. Although only a single acoustic mode is targeted in this study, the main conclusion is a proof-of-concept: Navier Stokes codes can be used both to generate and propagate rotor-stator acoustic modes forward through an engine, where the results can be coupled to other far-field noise prediction codes.

  19. Ducted-Fan Engine Acoustic Predictions using a Navier-Stokes Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, C. L.; Biedron, R. T.; Farassat, F.; Spence, P. L.

    1998-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computer code is used to predict one of the ducted-fan engine acoustic modes that results from rotor-wake/stator-blade interaction. A patched sliding-zone interface is employed to pass information between the moving rotor row and the stationary stator row. The code produces averaged aerodynamic results downstream of the rotor that agree well with a widely used average-passage code. The acoustic mode of interest is generated successfully by the code and is propagated well upstream of the rotor; temporal and spatial numerical resolution are fine enough such that attenuation of the signal is small. Two acoustic codes are used to find the far-field noise. Near-field propagation is computed by using Eversman's wave envelope code, which is based on a finite-element model. Propagation to the far field is accomplished by using the Kirchhoff formula for moving surfaces with the results of the wave envelope code as input data. Comparison of measured and computed far-field noise levels show fair agreement in the range of directivity angles where the peak radiation lobes from the inlet are observed. Although only a single acoustic mode is targeted in this study, the main conclusion is a proof-of-concept: Navier-Stokes codes can be used both to generate and propagate rotor/stator acoustic modes forward through an engine, where the results can be coupled to other far-field noise prediction codes.

  20. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  1. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  2. Life-Extending Control for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Te-Huei

    2002-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide both performance and stability margins. However, the standard method of operation results in significant wear and tear on the engine and negatively affects the on-wing life--the time between cycles when the engine must be physically removed from the aircraft for maintenance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward a new control concept that will include engine life usage as part of the control function. The resulting controller will be able to significantly extend the engine's on-wing life with little or no impact on engine performance and operability. The new controller design will utilize damage models to estimate and mitigate the rate and overall accumulation of damage to critical engine parts. The control methods will also provide a means to assess tradeoffs between performance and structural durability on the basis of mission requirements and remaining engine life. Two life-extending control methodologies were studied to reduce the overall life-cycle cost of aircraft engines. The first methodology is to modify the baseline control logic to reduce the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) damage of cooled stators during acceleration. To accomplish this, an innovative algorithm limits the low-speed rotor acceleration command when the engine has reached a threshold close to the requested thrust. This algorithm allows a significant reduction in TMF damage with only a very small increase in the rise time to reach the commanded rotor speed. The second methodology is to reduce stress rupture/creep damage to turbine blades and uncooled stators by incorporating an engine damage model into the flight mission. Overall operation cost is reduced by an optimization among the flight time, fuel consumption, and component damages. Recent efforts have focused on applying life-extending control technology to an existing commercial turbine engine

  3. A Study of Bird Ingestions Into Large High Bypass Ratio Turbine Aircraft Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    into large high bypass ratio turbine aircraft engines on a worldwide basis and what damage , if any, resulted. This interim report presents a summary...operations. These aircraft experienced 289 engine ingestion events during the initial contract * period, May 1961 through April 1982. The FAA is...Airports involved 88 3. Total events 289 4. hngine damage , minor and/or major 188 5. Multiple engine ingestions per aircraft 11 6. MuLtiple bird

  4. Experimental Studies of Coal and Biomass Fuel Synthesis and Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-31

    Synthesis and Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0344 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F... Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines AFOSR Grant Number: FA9550-10-1-0344 Final Performance Report Report Period: September 1, 2008 to... Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines (Final Performance Report) Project Period: September 1, 2008 to March 31, 2012 Report Period

  5. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  6. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  7. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  8. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  9. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-06-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  10. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  11. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  12. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  13. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  14. Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan Stage Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neubert, Robert; Bock, Larry; Malmborg, Eric; Owen-Peer, William

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the design of the Advanced Low-Noise Research Fan stage. The fan is a variable pitch design, which is designed at the cruise pitch condition. Relative to the cruise setting, the blade is closed at takeoff and opened for reverse thrust operation. The fan stage is a split flow design with fan exit guide vanes (FEGVs) and core stators. The fan stage design is combined with a nacelle and engine core duct to form a powered fan/nacelle subscale model. This model is intended for use in combined aerodynamic, acoustic, and structural testing in a wind tunnel. The fan has an outer diameter of 22 in. and a hub-to-tip of 0.426 in., which allows the use of existing NASA fan and cowl force balance and rig drive systems. The design parameters were selected to permit valid acoustic and aerodynamic comparisons with the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) 17- and 22-in. rigs previously tested under NASA contract. The fan stage design is described in detail. The results of the design axisymmetric and Navier-Stokes aerodynamic analysis are presented at the critical design conditions. The structural analysis of the fan rotor and attachment is included. The blade and attachment are predicted to have adequate low-cycle fatigue life and an acceptable operating range without resonant stress or flutter. The stage was acoustically designed with airfoil counts in the FEGV and core stator to minimize noise. A fan/FEGV tone analysis developed separately under NASA contract was used to determine the optimum airfoil counts. The fan stage was matched to the existing nacelle, designed under the previous P&W low-noise contract, to form a fan/nacelle model for wind tunnel testing. It is an axisymmetric nacelle for convenience in testing and analysis. Previous testing confirmed that the nacelle performed as required at various aircraft operating conditions.

  15. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  16. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  17. Acoustic evaluation of a novel swept-rotor fan. [noise reduction in turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, J. G.; Woodward, R. P.; Mackinnon, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    Inlet noise and aerodynamic performance are presented for a high tip speed fan designed with rotor blade leading edge sweep that gives a subsonic component of inlet Mach number normal to the edge at all radii. The intent of the design was to minimize the generation of rotor leading edge shock waves thereby minimizing multiple pure tone noise. Sound power level and spectral comparisons are made with several high-speed fans of conventional design. Results show multiple pure tone noise at levels below those of some of the other fans and this noise was initiated at a higher tip speed. Aerodynamic performance of the fan did not meet design goals for this first build which applied conventional design procedures to the swept fan geometry.

  18. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  19. The Reduction of Ducted Fan Engine Noise Via A Boundary Integral Equation Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweed, J.; Dunn, M.

    1997-01-01

    The development of a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM) for the prediction of ducted fan engine noise is discussed. The method is motivated by the need for an efficient and versatile computational tool to assist in parametric noise reduction studies. In this research, the work in reference 1 was extended to include passive noise control treatment on the duct interior. The BEM considers the scattering of incident sound generated by spinning point thrust dipoles in a uniform flow field by a thin cylindrical duct. The acoustic field is written as a superposition of spinning modes. Modal coefficients of acoustic pressure are calculated term by term. The BEM theoretical framework is based on Helmholtz potential theory. A boundary value problem is converted to a boundary integral equation formulation with unknown single and double layer densities on the duct wall. After solving for the unknown densities, the acoustic field is easily calculated. The main feature of the BIEM is the ability to compute any portion of the sound field without the need to compute the entire field. Other noise prediction methods such as CFD and Finite Element methods lack this property. Additional BIEM attributes include versatility, ease of use, rapid noise predictions, coupling of propagation and radiation both forward and aft, implementable on midrange personal computers, and valid over a wide range of frequencies.

  20. Impact Resistance of Lightweight Hybrid Structures for Gas Turbine Engine Fan Containment Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Noebe, Ronald D.; Revilock, Duane M.

    2003-01-01

    The ballistic impact resistance of hybrid composite sandwich structures was evaluated with the ultimate goal of developing new materials or structures for potential gas turbine engine fan containment applications. The sandwich structures investigated consisted of GLARE-5 laminates as face sheets with lightweight cellular metallic materials such as honeycomb, foam, and lattice block as a core material. The impact resistance of these hybrid sandwich structures was compared to GLARE-5 laminates and 2024-T3 Al sheet, which were tested as a function of areal weight (material thickness). The GLARE-5 laminates exhibited comparable impact properties to that of 2024-T3 Al at low areal weights, even though there were significant differences in the static tensile properties of these materials. The GLARE-5, however, did have a greater ballistic limit than straight aluminum sheet at higher areal weights. Furthermore, there is up to a 25% advantage in ballistic limit for the GLARE-5/foam sandwich structures compared to straight 2024-T3 Al. But no advantage in ballistic limit was observed between any of the hybrid sandwich structures and thicker versions of GLARE-5. Recommendations for future work are provided, based on these preliminary data.

  1. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In the last decade, Government/Industry programs have advanced powder metallurgy-near-net-shape technology to permit the use of hot isostatic pressed (HIP) turbine disks in the commercial aircraft fleet. These disks offer a 30% savings of input weight and an 8% savings in cost compared in cast-and-wrought disks. Similar savings were demonstrated for other rotating engine components. A compressor rotor fabricated from hot-die-forged-HIP superalloy billets revealed input weight savings of 54% and cost savings of 35% compared to cast-and-wrought parts. Engine components can be produced from compositions such as Rene 95 and Astroloy by conventional casting and forging, by forging of HIP powder billets, or by direct consolidation of powder by HIP. However, each process produces differences in microstructure or introduces different defects in the parts. As a result, their mechanical properties are not necessarily identical. Acceptance methods should be developed which recognize and account for the differences.

  2. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  3. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  4. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  5. Engineering and organizational solutions for improvement of engineering and economic characteristics of the TPE-216 boilers equipped with MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillov, M. V.; Safronov, P. G.

    2014-07-01

    Efficiency of coal-fired boilers is determined in many respects by optimal operation of the coal-pulverizing plants that are increasingly frequently equipped with pulverizing fans. By an example of retrofitted MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans, the effects of different factors on the performance and economic efficiency of the coal-pulverizing plants are analyzed. The experience gained in retrofitting MV-3300/800/490 pulverizing fans by introducing the three-crusher operation mode of a TPE-216 boiler employing the internal recirculation and a blading device in the classifier was also studied. Optimization of the boiler's operation mode was made when switching over from the four-crusher to the three-crusher mode, which considerably improved the engineering and economic characteristics.

  6. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  7. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  8. Test data report, low speed wind tunnel tests of a full scale lift/cruise-fan inlet, with engine, at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shain, W. M.

    1978-01-01

    A low speed wind tunnel test of a fixed lip inlet with engine, was performed. The inlet was close coupled to a Hamilton Standard 1.4 meter, variable pitch fan driven by a lycoming T55-L-11A engine. Tests were conducted with various combinations of inlet angle of attack freestream velocities, and fan airflows. Data were recorded to define the inlet airflow separation boundaries, performance characteristics, and fan blade stresses. The test model, installation, instrumentation, test, data reduction and final data are described.

  9. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  10. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  11. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  12. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...) Perform a leak check as follows: (i) Clean the crankcase surface to remove any oil. (ii) Warm up the engine to a minimum oil temperature of 50 degrees C (120 degrees F). Information about warming up the... crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N 27811, certificated in any category: Type certificate...

  13. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  14. Metal spar/superhybrid shell composite fan blades. [for application to turbofan engins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salemme, C. T.; Murphy, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    The use of superhybrid materials in the manufacture and testing of large fan blades is analyzed. The FOD resistance of large metal spar/superhybrid fan blades is investigated. The technical effort reported was comprised of: (1) preliminary blade design; (2) detailed analysis of two selected superhybrid blade designs; (3) manufacture of two process evaluation blades and destructive evaluation; and (4) manufacture and whirligig testing of six prototype superhybrid blades.

  15. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  16. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Systems: Overview and Lessons Learned from Six Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    engines of both groups. EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 󈨐 - MAY 󈨑 INSIRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL ENGINES NUMBER OF ENGINES 26 26 TOTAL...Kreviews the experience gained from several aircraft turbine engine monitoring systems used over the last decade and a half and examines the...the supporting research. -,Two different approaches to engine monitoring have evolved in attempts to achieve the goals of improved engine operations

  17. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  18. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  19. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  20. Improved NASA-ANOPP Noise Prediction Computer Code for Advanced Subsonic Propulsion Systems. Volume 2; Fan Suppression Model Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontos, Karen B.; Kraft, Robert E.; Gliebe, Philip R.

    1996-01-01

    The Aircraft Noise Predication Program (ANOPP) is an industry-wide tool used to predict turbofan engine flyover noise in system noise optimization studies. Its goal is to provide the best currently available methods for source noise prediction. As part of a program to improve the Heidmann fan noise model, models for fan inlet and fan exhaust noise suppression estimation that are based on simple engine and acoustic geometry inputs have been developed. The models can be used to predict sound power level suppression and sound pressure level suppression at a position specified relative to the engine inlet.

  1. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  2. Engine Performance and Knock Rating of Fuels for High-output Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothbrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1938-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained on a single-cylinder test engine with aircraft-engine fuels varying from a fuel of 87 octane number to one 100 octane number plus 1 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5-inch by 5.75-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.50 to 8.75. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 120 to 280 F. and the inlet-air pressure from 30 inches of mercury absolute to the highest permissible. The limiting factors for the increase in compression ratio and in inlet-air pressure was the occurrence of either audible or incipient knock. The data are correlated to show that, for any one fuel,there is a definite relationship between the limiting conditions of inlet-air temperature and density at any compression ratio. This relationship is dependent on the combustion-gas temperature and density relationship that causes knock. The report presents a suggested method of rating aircraft-engine fuels based on this relationship. It is concluded that aircraft-engine fuels cannot be satisfactorily rated by any single factor, such as octane number, highest useful compression ratio, or allowable boost pressure. The fuels should be rated by a curve that expresses the limitations of the fuel over a variety of engine conditions.

  3. Design definition study of a lift/cruise fan technology V/STOL airplane: Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabinsky, J. M.; Higgins, H. C.

    1975-01-01

    A two-engine three-fan V/STOL airplane was designed to fulfill naval operational requirements. A multimission airplane was developed from study of specific point designs. Based on the multimission concept, airplanes were designed to demonstrate and develop the technology and operational procedures for this class of aircraft. Use of interconnected variable pitch fans led to a good balance between high thrust with responsive control and efficient thrust at cruise speeds. The airplanes and their characteristics are presented.

  4. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  5. The selection of convertible engines with current gas generator technology for high speed rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Lewis has sponsored two studies to determine the most promising convertible engine concepts for high speed rotorcraft. These studies projected year 2000 convertible technology limited to present gas generator technology. Propulsion systems for utilization on aircraft needing thrust only during cruise and those aircraft needing both power and thrust at cruise were investigated. Mission calculations for the two contractors involved were based upon the fold tilt rotor concept. Analysis and comparison of the General Electric concepts (geared UDF, clutched fan, and VIGV fan), and the Allison Gas Turbine concepts (clutched fan, VIGV fan, variable pitch fan, single rotation tractor propfan, and counter rotation tractor propfan) are presented.

  6. The selection of convertible engines with current gas generator technology for high speed rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Lewis sponsored two studies to determine the most promising convertible engine concepts for high speed rotorcraft. These studies projected year 2000 convertible technology limited to present gas generator technology. Propulsion systems for utilization on aircraft needing thrust only during cruise and those aircraft needing both power and thrust at cruise were investigated. Mission calculations for the two contractors involved were based upon the fold tilt rotor concept. Analysis and comparison of the General Electric concepts (geared UDF, clutched fan, and Variable Inlet Guide Vane (VIGV) fan), and the Allison Gas Turbine concepts (clutched fan, VIGV fan, variable pitch fan, single rotation tractor propfan, and counter rotation tractor propfan) are presented.

  7. Dynamic response and aeroelastic analysis of a propeller blade of a prop-fan engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Gene; Lee, Hae-Kyung

    Blades are modeled as cantilevered sandwich plates with Gr/Ep composite faces and orthotropic cores and also as curved twisted beams for the aeroelastic analysis. A free vibration analysis for the cantilevered sandwich plate model is performed using Rayleigh-Ritz method. Calculated results are compared with FEM codes and free vibration test results. A free vibration equation for the aeroelastic analysis is obtained by small linear perturbation about the nonlinear static equilibrium position of the curved and twisted beam model. An aeroelastic stability is analyzed along with unsteady aerodynamic analysis results with 2-D cascade effects. For analyzing dynamic response of the real prop-fan blade mode, F.E.M. codes are used. In order to verify computed results, SR-3 composite prop-fan blades with various stacking sequencies are manufactured. Natural frequencies of prop-fan specimen are obtained by modal testing method using impact hammer and FFT analyzer.

  8. Low Frequency Noise Contamination in Fan Model Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft engine noise research and development depends on the ability to study and predict the noise created by each engine component in isolation. The presence of a downstream pylon for a model fan test, however, may result in noise contamination through pylon interactions with the free stream and model exhaust airflows. Additionally, there is the problem of separating the fan and jet noise components generated by the model fan. A methodology was therefore developed to improve the data quality for the 9 15 Low Speed Wind Tunnel (LSWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center that identifies three noise sources: fan noise, jet noise, and rig noise. The jet noise and rig noise were then measured by mounting a scale model of the 9 15 LSWT model fan installation in a jet rig to simulate everything except the rotating machinery and in duct components of fan noise. The data showed that the spectra measured in the LSWT has a strong rig noise component at frequencies as high as 3 kHz depending on the fan and airflow fan exit velocity. The jet noise was determined to be significantly lower than the rig noise (i.e., noise generated by flow interaction with the downstream support pylon). A mathematical model for the rig noise was then developed using a multi-dimensional least squares fit to the rig noise data. This allows the rig noise to be subtracted or removed, depending on the amplitude of the rig noise relative to the fan noise, at any given frequency, observer angle, or nozzle pressure ratio. The impact of isolating the fan noise with this method on spectra, overall power level (OAPWL), and Effective Perceived Noise Level (EPNL) is studied.

  9. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  10. Q-FANSTM for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worobel, R.; Mayo, M. G.

    1973-01-01

    Continued growth of general aviation over the next 10 to 15 years is dependent on continuing improvement in aircraft safety, utility, performance and cost. Moreover, these advanced aircraft will need to conform to expected government regulations controlling propulsion system emissions and noise levels. An attractive compact low noise propulsor concept, the Q-FANTM when matched to piston, rotary combustion, or gas turbine engines opens up the exciting prospect of new, cleaner airframe designs for the next generation of general aviation aircraft which will provide these improvements and meet the expected noise and pollution restriction of the 1980 time period. New Q-FAN methodology which was derived to predict Q-FAN noise, weight and cost is presented. Based on this methodology Q-FAN propulsion system performance, weight, noise, and cost trends are discussed. Then the impact of this propulsion system type on the complete aircraft is investigated for several representative aircraft size categories. Finally, example conceptual designs for Q-FAN/engine integration and aircraft installations are presented.

  11. Single stage, low noise, advanced technology fan. Volume 5: Fan acoustics. Section 1: Results and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jutras, R. R.

    1976-01-01

    The acoustic tests and data analysis for a 0.508-scale fan vehicle of a 111,300 newton (25,000 pound) thrust, full-size engine, which would have application on an advanced transport aircraft, is described. The single-stage advanced technology fan was designed to a pressure ratio of 1.8 at a tip speed of 503 m/sec (1,650 ft/sec) to achieve the desired pressure ratio in a single-stage fan with low radius ratio (0.38), and to maintain adequate stall margin. The fan has 44 tip-shrouded rotor blades and 90 outlet guide vanes. The two basic approaches taken in the acoustic design were: (1) minimization of noise at the source, and (2) suppression of the generated noise in the inlet and bypass exhaust duct. Suppression of the generated noise was accomplished in the inlet through use of the hybrid concept (wall acoustic treatment plus airflow acceleration suppression) and in the exhaust duct with extensive acoustic treatment including a splitter. The goal of the design was attainment of twenty effective perceived noise decibels (20 EPNdB) below current Federal Air Regulation noise standards for a full-scale fan at the takeoff, cutback, and approach conditions. The suppression goal of FAR 36-20 was not reached, but improvements in the technology of both front and aft fan-noise suppression were realized. The suppressed fan noise was shown to be consistent with the proposed federal regulation on aircraft noise.

  12. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  13. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  14. V/STOL aircraft and method

    DOEpatents

    Owens, P.R.

    1997-11-18

    Aircraft apparatus and method capable of V/STOL (vertical, short takeoff and landing) in addition to conventional flight are disclosed. For V/STOL operation, induced lift is provided by blowing air over the upper surface of each wing through a duct installed near the leading edge. Intake air is supplied to the blowing fan through a duct installed near the trailing edge, thus providing suction as well as blowing. Two fans in series are required. The engine provides power not only to the propeller but also to a transmission which provides power to the pulleys driving the belt-driven fans. 10 figs.

  15. V/STOL aircraft and method

    DOEpatents

    Owens, Phillip R.

    1997-01-01

    Aircraft apparatus and method capable of V/STOL (vertical, short takeoff and landing) in addition to conventional flight. For V/STOL operation, induced lift is provided by blowing air over the upper surface of each wing through a duct installed near the leading edge. Intake air is supplied to the blowing fan through a duct installed near the trailing edge, thus providing suction as well as blowing. Two fans in series are required. The engine provides power not only to the propeller but also to a transmission which provides power to the pulleys driving the belt-driven fans.

  16. Development potential of Intermittent Combustion (I.C.) aircraft engines for commuter transport applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An update on general aviation (g/a) and commuter aircraft propulsion research effort is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: on several advanced intermittent combustion engines emphasizing lightweight diesels and rotary stratified charge engines. The current state-of-the-art is evaluated for lightweight, aircraft suitable versions of each engine. This information is used to project the engine characteristics that can be expected on near-term and long-term time horizons. The key enabling technology requirements are identified for each engine on the long-term time horizon.

  17. Embedded Acoustic Sensor Array for Engine Fan Noise Source Diagnostic Test: Feasibility of Noise Telemetry via Wireless Smart Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, Afroz; Bauch, Matthew; Raible, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft engines have evolved into a highly complex system to meet ever-increasing demands. The evolution of engine technologies has primarily been driven by fuel efficiency, reliability, as well as engine noise concerns. One of the sources of engine noise is pressure fluctuations that are induced on the stator vanes. These local pressure fluctuations, once produced, propagate and coalesce with the pressure waves originating elsewhere on the stator to form a spinning pressure pattern. Depending on the duct geometry, air flow, and frequency of fluctuations, these spinning pressure patterns are self-sustaining and result in noise which eventually radiate to the far-field from engine. To investigate the nature of vane pressure fluctuations and the resulting engine noise, unsteady pressure signatures from an array of embedded acoustic sensors are recorded as a part of vane noise source diagnostics. Output time signatures from these sensors are routed to a control and data processing station adding complexity to the system and cable loss to the measured signal. "Smart" wireless sensors have data processing capability at the sensor locations which further increases the potential of wireless sensors. Smart sensors can process measured data locally and transmit only the important information through wireless communication. The aim of this wireless noise telemetry task was to demonstrate a single acoustic sensor wireless link for unsteady pressure measurement, and thus, establish the feasibility of distributed smart sensors scheme for aircraft engine vane surface unsteady pressure data transmission and characterization.

  18. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  19. Estimating Engine Airflow in Gas-Turbine Powered Aircraft with Clean and Distorted Inlet Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Steenken, W. G.; Yuhas, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    The P404-GF-400 Powered F/A-18A High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was used to examine the impact of inlet-generated total-pressure distortion on estimating levels of engine airflow. Five airflow estimation methods were studied. The Reference Method was a fan corrected airflow to fan corrected speed calibration from an uninstalled engine test. In-flight airflow estimation methods utilized the average, or individual, inlet duct static- to total-pressure ratios, and the average fan-discharge static-pressure to average inlet total-pressure ratio. Correlations were established at low distortion conditions for each method relative to the Reference Method. A range of distorted inlet flow conditions were obtained from -10 deg. to +60 deg. angle of attack and -7 deg. to +11 deg. angle of sideslip. The individual inlet duct pressure ratio correlation resulted in a 2.3 percent airflow spread for all distorted flow levels with a bias error of -0.7 percent. The fan discharge pressure ratio correlation gave results with a 0.6 percent airflow spread with essentially no systematic error. Inlet-generated total-pressure distortion and turbulence had no significant impact on the P404-GE400 engine airflow pumping. Therefore, a speed-flow relationship may provide the best airflow estimate for a specific engine under all flight conditions.

  20. Quiet, Efficient Fans for Spaceflight: An Overview of NASA's Technology Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle

    2010-01-01

    A Technology Development Plan to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of spaceflight fans has been submitted to NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The plan describes a research program intended to make broader use of the technology developed at NASA Glenn to increase the efficiency and reduce the noise of aircraft engine fans. The goal is to develop a set of well-characterized government-owned fans nominally suited for spacecraft ventilation and cooling systems. NASA s Exploration Life Support community will identify design point conditions for the fans in this study. Computational Fluid Dynamics codes will be used in the design and analysis process. The fans will be built and used in a series of tests. Data from aerodynamic and acoustic performance tests will be used to validate performance predictions. These performance maps will also be entered into a database to help spaceflight fan system developers make informed design choices. Velocity measurements downstream of fan rotor blades and stator vanes will also be collected and used for code validation. Details of the fan design, analysis, and testing will be publicly reported. With access to fan geometry and test data, the small fan industry can independently evaluate design and analysis methods and work towards improvement.

  1. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. A user oriented description of the program input requirements, program output, deck setup, and operating instructions is presented.

  2. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data is described. The method estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag.

  3. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  4. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  5. Ballistic and Cyclic Rig Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, William R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    FAA fan blade-out certification testing on turbofan engines occurs very late in an engine's development program and is very costly. It is of utmost importance to approach the FAA Certification engine test with a high degree of confidence that the containment structure will not only contain the high-energy debris, but that it will also withstand the cyclic loads that occur with engine spooldown and continued rotation as the non-running engine maintains a low rotor RPM due to forced airflow as the engine-out aircraft returns to an airport. Accurate rig testing is needed for predicting and understanding material behavior of the fan case structure during all phases of this fan blade-out event.

  6. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  7. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  8. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  9. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  10. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  11. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  12. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driggers, H. H.; Powers, S. A.; Roush, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design analysis is performed on a single engine V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack concept powered by a series flow tandem fan propulsion system. Forward and aft mounted fans have independent flow paths for V/STOL operation and series flow in high speed flight. Mission, combat and V/STOL performance is calculated. Detailed aerodynamic estimates are made and aerodynamic uncertainties associated with the configuration and estimation methods identified. A wind tunnel research program is developed to resolve principal uncertainties and establish a data base for the baseline configuration and parametric variations.

  13. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  14. TBIEM3D: A Computer Program for Predicting Ducted Fan Engine Noise. Version 1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. H.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the usage of the ducted fan noise prediction program TBIEM3D (Thin duct - Boundary Integral Equation Method - 3 Dimensional). A scattering approach is adopted in which the acoustic pressure field is split into known incident and unknown scattered parts. The scattering of fan-generated noise by a finite length circular cylinder in a uniform flow field is considered. The fan noise is modeled by a collection of spinning point thrust dipoles. The program, based on a Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM), calculates circumferential modal coefficients of the acoustic pressure at user-specified field locations. The duct interior can be of the hard wall type or lined. The duct liner is axisymmetric, locally reactive, and can be uniform or axially segmented. TBIEM3D is written in the FORTRAN programming language. Input to TBIEM3D is minimal and consists of geometric and kinematic parameters. Discretization and numerical parameters are determined automatically by the code. Several examples are presented to demonstrate TBIEM3D capabilities.

  15. An inventory of particle and gaseous emissions from large aircraft thrust engine operations at an airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, M.; Johnson, G. R.; Morawska, L.

    2011-07-01

    Published particle number emission factors for aircraft operations remain very sparse and so far such emissions have not been included in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databases. This work addresses this gap in knowledge by utilizing recent progress in the quantification of aircraft particle emissions. Annual emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM 2.5) and NO x throughout the aircraft landing and takeoff (LTO) cycles and ground running procedures (GRP) are presented for aircraft using Brisbane Airport BNE (domestic and international). The aircraft are grouped according to an airframe based classification system. The resulting data are then used to develop an emissions inventory for large aircraft thrust engine operations on the ground, during LTO cycles and GRP, at the Airport. Annual PN, PM 2.5 and NO x emissions from large aircraft operations during LTO cycles and GRP at BNE were 1.98 × 10 24 yr -1, 1.35 × 10 4 kg yr -1 and 8.13 × 10 5 kg yr -1, respectively. Results showed that LTO cycles contribute more than 97% of these annual emissions at BNE in comparison to GRP related emissions. Analysis of the LTO cycle contribution to the daily emissions showed that the contribution of the climbout mode is considerably higher than for other individual LTO operational modes. Emissions during aircraft departures were significantly higher than those during arrival operations, due to the higher aircraft engine emission rates during takeoff and climbout.

  16. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Tracking Control Using Engine Differential Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Xidong; Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft model that incorporates independently adjustable engine throttles and ailerons is employed to develop an adaptive control scheme in the presence of actuator failures. This model captures the key features of aircraft flight dynamics when in the engine differential mode. Based on this model an adaptive feedback control scheme for asymptotic state tracking is developed and applied to a transport aircraft model in the presence of two types of failures during operation, rudder failure and aileron failure. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  17. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service,...

  18. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  19. Maritime Patrol Aircraft Engine Study P&WA Derivative Engines. Volume II. Performance Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    U) APR 79 R C NEWELL. P W HERRICK N62269-78C-0GIG UNCLASSIFIED PWA -FR-10966B/C"VOL-2 NAC-79132-60-VOL-2 NL mmEhE mhm 111 1 4;.c~ 111128 12.5 IIIIIII...MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT ENGINE STUDT PIWA DERIVATIVE ENGINES. --EC(U) APR 79 R C NEWELL. P W HERRICK N62269-78-C-010 UNCLASSIFIED PWA -FR-10966B/C-VOL-2 NADC...0.80 823. n. 524 -165. 51.3 5.8 1635. MAX .LIft 5.000. 0.85 6289 o 0.333 249. 125.3 17.*6 2535. MAX CKUISE 45000. 0.85 5629. 0.331 150.. 11,.6 16.3

  20. Prototype Morphing Fan Nozzle Demonstrated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ho-Jun; Song, Gang-Bing

    2004-01-01

    Ongoing research in NASA Glenn Research Center's Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch to develop smart materials technologies for aeropropulsion structural components has resulted in the design of the prototype morphing fan nozzle shown in the photograph. This prototype exploits the potential of smart materials to significantly improve the performance of existing aircraft engines by introducing new inherent capabilities for shape control, vibration damping, noise reduction, health monitoring, and flow manipulation. The novel design employs two different smart materials, a shape-memory alloy and magnetorheological fluids, to reduce the nozzle area by up to 30 percent. The prototype of the variable-area fan nozzle implements an overlapping spring leaf assembly to simplify the initial design and to provide ease of structural control. A single bundle of shape memory alloy wire actuators is used to reduce the nozzle geometry. The nozzle is subsequently held in the reduced-area configuration by using magnetorheological fluid brakes. This prototype uses the inherent advantages of shape memory alloys in providing large induced strains and of magnetorheological fluids in generating large resistive forces. In addition, the spring leaf design also functions as a return spring, once the magnetorheological fluid brakes are released, to help force the shape memory alloy wires to return to their original position. A computerized real-time control system uses the derivative-gain and proportional-gain algorithms to operate the system. This design represents a novel approach to the active control of high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines. Researchers have estimated that such engines will reduce thrust specific fuel consumption by 9 percent over that of fixed-geometry fan nozzles. This research was conducted under a cooperative agreement (NCC3-839) at the University of Akron.

  1. Acoustic testing of a supersonic tip speed fan with acoustic treatment and rotor casting slots. Quiet engine program scale model fan C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazin, S. B.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic tests were conducted on a high tip speed (1550 ft/sec, 472.44 m/sec) single stage fan with varying amounts of wall acoustic treatment and with circumferential slots over the rotor blade tips. The slots were also tested with acoustic treatment placed behind the slots. The wall treatment results show that the inlet treatment is more effective at high fan speeds and aft duct treatment is more effective at low fan speeds. Maximum PNL's on a 200-foot (60.96 m) sideline show the untreated slots to have increased the rear radiated noise at approach. However, when the treatment was added to the slots inlet radiated noise was decreased, resulting in little change relative to the solid casing on an EPNL basis.

  2. Aerodynamic Design and Computational Analysis of a Spacecraft Cabin Ventilation Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Quieter working environments for astronauts are needed if future long-duration space exploration missions are to be safe and productive. Ventilation and payload cooling fans are known to be dominant sources of noise, with the International Space Station being a good case in point. To address this issue in a cost-effective way, early attention to fan design, selection, and installation has been recommended. Toward that end, NASA has begun to investigate the potential for small-fan noise reduction through improvements in fan aerodynamic design. Using tools and methodologies similar to those employed by the aircraft engine industry, most notably computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes, the aerodynamic design of a new cabin ventilation fan has been developed, and its aerodynamic performance has been predicted and analyzed. The design, intended to serve as a baseline for future work, is discussed along with selected CFD results

  3. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  4. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may effect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are explored; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are examined. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel specification changes is assessed and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  5. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  6. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  7. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  8. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  9. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  10. Results of T56 Engine Performance Monitoring Trial in Hercules Aircraft, February-July 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Engine Removals/Rejections 2 3.1.1 Resume 5 3.2 Faults not Associated with Engine Removals 5 * NOTATION REFERENCES I TABLES FIGURES APPENDIX 1 ANNEX A...in those cases in which performance monitoring could have been expected to reflect the fault , the appropriate engine performance trend plots were...the appropriate EL 500. (ihis form is used by aircrew and maiintenazice personnel to record any aircraft/ engine fault and its subsequent

  11. V/STOL Tandem Fan transition section model test. [in the Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpkin, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    An approximately 0.25 scale model of the transition section of a tandem fan variable cycle engine nacelle was tested in the NASA Lewis Research Center 10-by-10 foot wind tunnel. Two 12-inch, tip-turbine driven fans were used to simulate a tandem fan engine. Three testing modes simulated a V/STOL tandem fan airplane. Parallel mode has two separate propulsion streams for maximum low speed performance. A front inlet, fan, and downward vectorable nozzle forms one stream. An auxilliary top inlet provides air to the aft fan - supplying the core engine and aft vectorable nozzle. Front nozzle and top inlet closure, and removal of a blocker door separating the two streams configures the tandem fan for series mode operations as a typical aircraft propulsion system. Transition mode operation is formed by intermediate settings of the front nozzle, blocker door, and top inlet. Emphasis was on the total pressure recovery and flow distortion at the aft fan face. A range of fan flow rates were tested at tunnel airspeeds from 0 to 240 knots, and angles-of-attack from -10 to 40 deg for all three modes. In addition to the model variables for the three modes, model variants of the top inlet were tested in the parallel mode only. These lip variables were: aft lip boundary layer bleed holes, and Three position turning vane. Also a bellmouth extension of the top inlet side lips was tested in parallel mode.

  12. Predicting the Rotor-Stator Interaction Acoustics of a Ducted Fan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Podboy, Gary G.; Dunn, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computation is performed for a ducted-fan configuration with the goal of predicting rotor-stator noise generation without having to resort to heuristic modeling. The calculated pressure field in the inlet region is decomposed into classical infinite-duct modes, which are then used in either a hybrid finite-element/Kirchhoff surface method or boundary integral equation method to calculate the far field noise. Comparisons with experimental data are presented, including rotor wake surveys and far field sound pressure levels for two blade passage frequency (BPF) tones.

  13. Predicting the Rotor-Stator Interaction Acoustics of a Ducted Fan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biedron, Robert T.; Rumsey, Christopher L.; Podboy, Gary G.; Dunn, M. H.

    2001-01-01

    A Navier-Stokes computation is performed for a ducted-fan configuration with the goal of predicting rotor-stator noise generation without having to re- to heuristic modeling. The calculated pressure field in the inlet region is decomposed into classical infinite-duct, modes, which are then used in either a hybrid finite-element /Kirchhoff surface method or boundary integral equation method to calculate the far field noise. Comparisons with experimental data are presented, including rotor wake surveys and far field sound pressure levels for 2 blade passage frequency (BPF) tones.

  14. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  15. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  16. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  17. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  18. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  19. Preliminary Aerodynamic Investigation of Fan Rotor Blade Morphing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies currently under development may enable controlled blade shape variability, or so-called blade morphing, to be practically employed in aircraft engine fans and compressors in the foreseeable future. The current study is a relatively brief, preliminary computational fluid dynamics investigation aimed at partially demonstrating and quantifying the aerodynamic potential of fan rotor blade morphing. The investigation is intended to provide information useful for near-term planning, as well as aerodynamic solution data sets that can be subsequently analyzed using advanced acoustic diagnostic tools, for the purpose of making fan noise comparisons. Two existing fan system models serve as baselines for the investigation: the Advanced Ducted Propulsor fan with a design tip speed of 806 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.294, and the Source Diagnostic Test fan with a design tip speed of 1215 ft/sec and a pressure ratio of 1.470. Both are 22-in. sub-scale, low-noise research fan/nacelle models that have undergone extensive experimental testing in the 9- by 15-foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The study, restricted to fan rotor blade morphing only, involves a fairly simple blade morphing technique. Specifically, spanwise-linear variations in rotor blade-section setting angle are applied to alter the blade shape; that is, the blade is linearly retwisted from hub to tip. Aerodynamic performance comparisons are made between morphed-blade and corresponding baseline configurations on the basis of equal fan system thrust, where rotor rotational speed for the morphed-blade fan is varied to change the thrust level for that configuration. The results of the investigation confirm that rotor blade morphing could be a useful technology, with the potential to enable significant improvements in fan aerodynamic performance. Even though the study is very limited in scope and confined to simple geometric perturbations of two existing fan

  20. Motion-base simulator study of control of an externally blown flap STOL transport aircraft after failure of an outboard engine during landing approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, D. B.; Hurt, G. J., Jr.; Bergeron, H. P.; Patton, J. M., Jr.; Deal, P. L.; Champine, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    A moving-base simulator investigation of the problems of recovery and landing of a STOL aircraft after failure of an outboard engine during final approach was made. The approaches were made at 75 knots along a 6 deg glide slope. The engine was failed at low altitude and the option to go around was not allowed. The aircraft was simulated with each of three control systems, and it had four high-bypass-ratio fan-jet engines exhausting against large triple-slotted wing flaps to produce additional lift. A virtual-image out-the-window television display of a simulated STOL airport was operating during part of the investigation. Also, a simple heads-up flight director display superimposed on the airport landing scene was used by the pilots to make some of the recoveries following an engine failure. The results of the study indicated that the variation in visual cues and/or motion cues had little effect on the outcome of a recovery, but they did have some effect on the pilot's response and control patterns.

  1. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  2. Material development for fan blade containment casing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes the physics reasoning and the engineering development process for the structured material system adopted for the containment system of the Trent 900 engine. This is the Rolls-Royce engine that powers the Airbus A380 double-decker aeroplane, which is on the point of entering service. The fan blade containment casing is the near cylindrical casing that surrounds the fan blades at the front of the engine. The fan blades provide the main part of the thrust of the engine; the power to the fan is provided through a shaft from the turbine. The fan is approximately three meters in diameter, with the tips of the blade travelling at a little over Mach speed. The purpose of the containment system is to catch and contain a blade in the extremely unlikely event of a part or whole blade becoming detached. This is known as a ''Fan Blade Off (FBO)'' event. The requirement is that no high-energy fragments should escape the containment system; this is essential to prevent damage to other engines or to the fuselage of the aircraft. Traditionally the containment system philosophy has been to provide a sufficiently thick solid metallic skin that the blade cannot penetrate. Obviously, this is heavy. A good choice of metal in this case is a highly ductile steel, which arrests the kinetic energy of the blade through plastic deformation, and possibly, a controlled amount of cracking. This is known as ''hard wall'' containment. More recently, to reduce weight, containment systems have incorporated a Kevlar fibre wrap. In this case, the thinner metallic wall provides some containment, which is backed up by the stretching of the Kevlar fibres. This is known as ''soft wall'' containment; but it suffers the disadvantage of requiring a large empty volume in the nacelle in to which to expand. For the Trent 900 engine, there was a requirement to make a substantial weight saving while still adopting a hard wall style of containment system. To achieve this, a hollow structured

  3. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  4. Minimum time acceleration of aircraft turbofan engines by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum time accelerations of aircraft turbofan engines are presented. The calculation of these accelerations was made by using a piecewise linear engine model, and an algorithm based on nonlinear programming. Use of this model and algorithm allows such trajectories to be readily calculated on a digital computer with a minimal expenditure of computer time.

  5. Evaluation of two inflow control devices for flight simulation of fan noise using a JT15D engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. L.; Mcardle, J. G.; Homyak, L.

    1979-01-01

    The program was developed to accurately simulate flight fan noise on ground static test stands. The results generally indicated that both the induct and external ICD's were effective in reducing the inflow turbulence and the fan blade passing frequency tone generated by the turbulence. The external ICD was essentially transparent to the propagating fan tone but the induct ICD caused attenuation under most conditions.

  6. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  7. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Lobo, Prem; Onasch, Timothy B; Fleming, Gregg; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    The emissions from in-use commercial aircraft engines have been analyzed for selected gas-phase species and particulate characteristics using continuous extractive sampling 1-2 min downwind from operational taxi- and runways at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Using the aircraft tail numbers, 376 plumes were associated with specific engine models. In general, for takeoff plumes, the measured NOx emission index is lower (approximately 18%) than that predicted by engine certification data corrected for ambient conditions. These results are an in-service observation of the practice of "reduced thrust takeoff". The CO emission index observed in ground idle plumes was greater (up to 100%) than predicted by engine certification data for the 7% thrust condition. Significant differences are observed in the emissions of black carbon and particle number among different engine models/technologies. The presence of a mode at approximately 65 nm (mobility diameter) associated with takeoff plumes and a smaller mode at approximately 25 nm associated with idle plumes has been observed. An anticorrelation between particle mass loading and particle number concentration is observed.

  8. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    engine model is a detailed, physics-based engine model of a two-spool, non-augmented, low bypass ratio engine developed using MATLAB/ Simulink ® [9]. The...AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-218 A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE- EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT...SUBTITLE A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE-EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  9. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  10. Design study: A 186 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an aircraft engine capable of developing 186 kW shaft power at a 7620 m altitude is described. The 186 kW design takes into account expected new developments in aircraft designs resulting in a reassessment of the power requirements at the cruise mode operation. Based on the results of this analysis a three phase technology development program is projected resulting in production dates of 1985, 1992, and 2000.

  11. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-08-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  12. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  13. A Study of Bird Ingestions Into Large High Bypass Ratio Turbine Aircraft Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    4. SUMMARY 37 5. CONCLUSIONS 39 6. UEFERENCES 41 APPENDICES A - Comparison of HBPR Engine Aircraft B - HIVE Engines C - Statistical Procesures D...allow a reliable assessment of the bird ingestion phenomenon. Sufficient data to conduct a statistical analysis based upon the numbers, weights, and...species of birds. Sufficient data to conduct a statistical analysis of the engine damage resulting from a bird ingestion - considering the bird number

  14. The impact of emissions standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  15. An Object-oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA s NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc. that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300- passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case. Keywords: NASA, aircraft engine, weight, object-oriented

  16. A Fan Concept to Meet the 2017 Noise Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittmar, James H.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has established a goal of a 20 EPNdB reduction of aircraft noise by the year 2017. This paper proposes a fan concept for an engine that may meet this noise goal. The concept builds upon technology established during the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program which should show a 10 dB reduction potential. The new concept uses a two stage fan which allows low tip speed while still maintaining a reasonable total pressure rise across the two stages. The concept also incorporates many other noise reduction techniques in addition to low tip speed including a low number of exit guide vanes, swept and leaned guide vanes, a high subsonic Mach number inlet and syncrophased rotors to obtain active noise cancellation. The fan proposed in this paper is calculated to be able to achieve the 2017 noise goal.

  17. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  18. A Sensitivity Study of Commercial Aircraft Engine Response for Emergency Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the details of a sensitivity study in which the variation in a commercial aircraft engine's outputs is observed for perturbations in its operating condition inputs or control parameters. This study seeks to determine the extent to which various controller limits can be modified to improve engine performance, while capturing the increased risk that results from the changes. In an emergency, the engine may be required to produce additional thrust, respond faster, or both, to improve the survivability of the aircraft. The objective of this paper is to propose changes to the engine controller and determine the costs and benefits of the additional capabilities produced by the engine. This study indicates that the aircraft engine is capable of producing additional thrust, but at the cost of an increased risk of an engine failure due to higher turbine temperatures and rotor speeds. The engine can also respond more quickly to transient commands, but this action reduces the remaining stall margin to possibly dangerous levels. To improve transient response in landing scenarios, a control mode known as High Speed Idle is proposed that increases the responsiveness of the engine and conserves stall margin

  19. Characterization of Composite Fan Case Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dvoracek, Charlene M.

    2004-01-01

    The majority of commercial turbine engines that power today s aircraft use a large fan driven by the engine core to generate thrust which dramatically increases the engine s efficiency. However, if one of these fan blades fails during flight, it becomes high energy shrapnel, potentially impacting the engine or puncturing the aircraft itself and thus risking the lives of passengers. To solve this problem, the fan case must be capable of containing a fan blade should it break off during flight. Currently, all commercial fan cases are made of either just a thick metal barrier or a thinner metal wall surrounded by Kevlar-an ultra strong fiber that elastically catches the blade. My summer 2004 project was to characterize the resins for a composite fan case that will be lighter and more efficient than the current metal. The composite fan case is created by braiding carbon fibers and injecting a polymer resin into the braid. The resin holds the fibers together, so at first using the strongest polymer appears to logically lead to the strongest fan case. Unfortunately, the stronger polymers are too viscous when melted. This makes the manufacturing process more difficult because the polymer does not flow as freely through the braid, and the final product is less dense. With all of this in mind, it is important to remember that the strength of the polymer is still imperative; the case must still contain blades with high impact energy. The research identified which polymer had the right balance of properties, including ease of fabrication, toughness, and ability to transfer the load to the carbon fibers. Resin deformation was studied to better understand the composite response during high speed impact. My role in this research was the testing of polymers using dynamic mechanical analysis and tensile, compression, and torsion testing. Dynamic mechanical analysis examines the response of materials under cyclic loading. Two techniques were used for dynamic mechanical analysis

  20. An Assessment of NASA Glenn's Aeroacoustic Experimental and Predictive Capabilities for Installed Cooling Fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, L. Danielle; VanZante, Dale E.; Wernet, Mark P.; Podboy, Gary G.

    2006-01-01

    Quiet, high performance electronics cooling fans are needed for both commercial applications and future manned space exploration missions. Researchers at NASA Glenn focusing on aircraft engine noise, have long been familiar with the challenge of reducing fan noise without sacrificing aerodynamic performance. Is it possible to capitalize on the lessons-learned in aircraft engine noise reduction to identify inexpensive ways to improve the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of electronics cooling fans? Recent tests at NASA Glenn have begun to look for answers to this question. The overall aerodynamic and acoustic performance of a commercially available, spaceflight qualified 80 mm diameter axial flow fan has been measured using an automated plenum in accordance with ISO 10302 in the hemi-anechoic chamber of NASA Glenn s Acoustical Testing Laboratory. These measurements are complemented by detailed aerodynamic measurements of the inlet, exhaust, and rotor wake regions of the fan using Particle Image Velocimetry and hot-wire probes. A study of preliminary results yielded recommendations for system designers, fan manufacturers, and researchers.

  1. Fan Cart: The Next Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamore, Brian

    2016-10-01

    For years the fan cart has provided physics students with an excellent resource for exploring fundamental mechanics concepts such as acceleration, Newton's laws, impulse, momentum, work-energy, and energy conversions. The Physics Teacher has even seen some excellent do-it-yourself (DIY) fan carts and activities. If you are interested in developing the `E' portion of your and your students' STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) skills, one way to accomplish this is to revisit the DIY fan cart. In this article I share a design of a new edition of the DIY fan cart and some ideas for incorporating the engineering design process into your high school curriculum.

  2. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 3: Library of maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. The use of two data base files to represent the engine and the inlet/nozzle/aftbody performance characteristics is discussed. The existing library of performance characteristics for inlets and nozzle/aftbodies and an example of the 1000 series of engine data tables is presented.

  3. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  4. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  5. Technologies for Aircraft Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Technologies for aircraft noise reduction have been developed by NASA over the past 15 years through the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) Noise Reduction Program and the Quiet Aircraft Technology (QAT) project. This presentation summarizes highlights from these programs and anticipated noise reduction benefits for communities surrounding airports. Historical progress in noise reduction and technologies available for future aircraft/engine development are identified. Technologies address aircraft/engine components including fans, exhaust nozzles, landing gear, and flap systems. New "chevron" nozzles have been developed and implemented on several aircraft in production today that provide significant jet noise reduction. New engines using Ultra-High Bypass (UHB) ratios are projected to provide about 10 EPNdB (Effective Perceived Noise Level in decibels) engine noise reduction relative to the average fleet that was flying in 1997. Audio files are embedded in the presentation that estimate the sound levels for a 35,000 pound thrust engine for takeoff and approach power conditions. The predictions are based on actual model scale data that was obtained by NASA. Finally, conceptual pictures are shown that look toward future aircraft/propulsion systems that might be used to obtain further noise reduction.

  6. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  7. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  8. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) under-the-wing engine composite fan blade design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The design and analysis of a composite fan blade for the under the wing (UTW) QCSEE is presented. The blade is designed for a variable pitch, 18 bladed rotor and is constructed from a hybrid composite combination of materials consisting of Kevlar-49, type AS graphite, boron, and S-glass fibers in a PR288 epoxy resin matrix. The blade has an attached platform which is constructed of AS-graphite, PR288 epoxy resin matrix and aluminum honeycomb. The blade is designed to satisfy aerostability and cyclic life and strength requirements with a light weight construction. The attached platform is designed for a fail-safe condition in that it is retainable by the blade, under centrifugal force loading, even in the event of blade to platform bond separation. Details of the blade design and the results of stress, vibration, and impact analysis are included.

  9. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  10. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  11. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  12. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  13. The horsepower of aircraft engines and their maximum frontal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Precoul, Michel

    1936-01-01

    This adaptation of a Russian report reveals the effect of maximum cross section of an engine as well as the interest attaching to a choice not solely based on horsepower. The tabulation gives a comparison between different engines restored at 5,000 meters. Radial versus inverted in-line engines are also compared.

  14. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  15. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  16. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  17. Description and Laboratory Tests of a Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden

    1926-01-01

    This report describes a roots type aircraft engine supercharger and presents the results of some tests made with it at the Langley Field Laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The supercharger used in these tests was constructed largely of aluminum, weighed 88 pounds and was arranged to be operated from the rear of a standard aircraft engine at a speed of 1 1/2 engine crankshaft speed. The rotors of the supercharger were cycloidal in form and were 11 inches long and 9 1/2 inches in diameter. The displacement of the supercharger was 0.51 cubic feet of air per revolution of the rotors. The supercharger was tested in the laboratory, independently and in combination with a Liberty-12 aircraft engine, under simulated altitude pressure conditions in order to obtain information on its operation and performance. From these tests it seems evident that the Roots blower compares favorably with other compressor types used as aircraft engine superchargers and that it has several features that make it particularly attractive for such use.

  18. Takeoff predictions for powered-lift aircraft. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wardwell, Douglas A.; Sandlin, Doral R.

    1988-01-01

    Takeoff predictions for powered-lift short takeoff (STO) and conventional takeoff (CTO) aircraft have been added to NASA Ames Research Center's Aircraft Synthesis (ACSYNT) code. The new computer code predicts the aircraft engine and nozzle settings required to achieve the minimum takeoff roll. As a test case, the code predicted takeoff ground rolls and nozzle settings for the YAV-8B Harrier that compared well with measured values. Brief analysis of takeoff performance for an Ejector, Remote Augmented Lift, Hybrid-Tandem Fan, and Vectored Thrust STO aircraft using the new routine will be presented.

  19. A plume capture technique for the remote characterization of aircraft engine emissions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G R; Mazaheri, M; Ristovski, Z D; Morawska, L

    2008-07-01

    A technique for capturing and analyzing plumes from unmodified aircraft or other combustion sources under real world conditions is described and applied to the task of characterizing plumes from commercial aircraft during the taxiing phase of the Landing/Take-Off (LTO) cycle. The method utilizes a Plume Capture and Analysis System (PCAS) mounted in a four-wheel drive vehicle which is positioned in the airfield 60 to 180 m downwind of aircraft operations. The approach offers low test turnaround times with the ability to complete careful measurements of particle and gaseous emission factors and sequentially scanned particle size distributions without distortion due to plume concentration fluctuations. These measurements can be performed for individual aircraft movements at five minute intervals. A Plume Capture Device (PCD) collected samples of the naturally diluted plume in a 200 L conductive membrane conforming to a defined shape. Samples from over 60 aircraft movements were collected and analyzed in situ for particulate and gaseous concentrations and for particle size distribution using a Scanning Particle Mobility Sizer (SMPS). Emission factors are derived for particle number, NO(x), and PM2.5 for a widely used commercial aircraft type, Boeing 737 airframes with predominantly CFM56 class engines, during taxiing. The practical advantages of the PCAS include the capacity to perform well targeted and controlled emission factor and size distribution measurements using instrumentation with varying response times within an airport facility, in close proximity to aircraft during their normal operations.

  20. Altitude and airspeed effects on the optimum synchrophase angles for a four-engine propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunt, David M.

    2014-08-01

    Noise and vibration is a serious problem in all types of aircraft. Any techniques that lower cabin noise and vibration levels by even a few decibels with little or no weight or performance penalties are worth pursuing. Propeller synchrophasing is one such technique that has shown potential in aircraft with two or more propellers; however this technique is not being used to its full potential because the synchrophase angles are typically fixed. This paper provides a detailed examination of how the optimum synchrophase angles in a typical four-engine propeller aircraft vary with different altitudes and airspeeds, and how this information could lead to the design of new adaptive propeller synchrophasing systems and potentially yield improvements to other active noise control measures in propeller aircraft.

  1. USAF Aircraft Engine Emission Goals: A Critical Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    dif- ficult to obtain. Combustion product gases at the exhaust plane are extremely reactive and at high temperature; consequently, much of the CO and...19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side if necessary and identify by block number) J Pollution Abatement Exhaust Emissions Combustion Aircraft...The USAF must continue basic research in areas of combustion , smoke formation, etc. it - -W: (7) Variability of emissions is an area where more

  2. Preliminary Fatigue Studies on Aluminum Alloy Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Preliminary information on the complex subject of the fatigue strength of fabricated structural members for aircraft is presented in the test results obtained on several different types of airship girders subjected to axial tension and compression in a resonance fatigue machine. A description of this machine as well as numerous photographs of the fatigue failures are given. There is also presented an extended bibliography on the subject of fatigue strength.

  3. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  4. The Effect of Bypass Nozzle Exit Area on Fan Aerodynamic Performance and Noise in a Model Turbofan Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; Podboy, Gary, G.; Woodward, Richard P.; Jeracki, Robert, J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of effective new technologies to reduce aircraft propulsion noise is dependent on identifying and understanding the noise sources and noise generation mechanisms in the modern turbofan engine, as well as determining their contribution to the overall aircraft noise signature. Therefore, a comprehensive aeroacoustic wind tunnel test program was conducted called the Fan Broadband Source Diagnostic Test as part of the NASA Quiet Aircraft Technology program. The test was performed in the anechoic NASA Glenn 9- by 15-Foot Low Speed Wind Tunnel using a 1/5 scale model turbofan simulator which represented a current generation, medium pressure ratio, high bypass turbofan aircraft engine. The investigation focused on simulating in model scale only the bypass section of the turbofan engine. The test objectives were to: identify the noise sources within the model and determine their noise level; investigate several component design technologies by determining their impact on the aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the fan stage; and conduct detailed flow diagnostics within the fan flow field to characterize the physics of the noise generation mechanisms in a turbofan model. This report discusses results obtained for one aspect of the Source Diagnostic Test that investigated the effect of the bypass or fan nozzle exit area on the bypass stage aerodynamic performance, specifically the fan and outlet guide vanes or stators, as well as the farfield acoustic noise level. The aerodynamic performance, farfield acoustics, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter flow diagnostic results are presented for the fan and four different fixed-area bypass nozzle configurations. The nozzles simulated fixed engine operating lines and encompassed the fan stage operating envelope from near stall to cruise. One nozzle was selected as a baseline reference, representing the nozzle area which would achieve the design point operating conditions and fan stage performance. The total area change from

  5. Design and test of aircraft engine isolators for reduced interior noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    Improved engine vibration isolation was proposed to be the most weight and cost efficient retrofit structure-borne noise control measure for single engine general aviation aircraft. A study was carried out the objectives: (1) to develop an engine isolator design specification for reduced interior noise transmission, (2) select/design candidate isolators to meet a 15 dB noise reduction design goal, and (3) carry out a proof of concept evaluation test. Analytical model of the engine, vibration isolators and engine mount structure were coupled to an empirical model of the fuselage for noise transmission evaluation. The model was used to develop engine isolator dynamic properties design specification for reduced noise transmission. Candidate isolators ere chosen from available product literature and retrofit to a test aircraft. A laboratory based test procedure was then developed to simulate engine induced noise transmission in the aircraft for a proof of concept evaluation test. Three candidate isolator configurations were evaluated for reduced structure-borne noise transmission relative to the original equipment isolators.

  6. Suppression of fatigue inducing cavity acoustic modes on turbo fan engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, R. H.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses several methods of suppressing shear layer excitation of cavity acoustic modes on turbofan engines. The methods include the use of a Helmholtz resonator, reducing the cavity impingement length with vane-like dividers, and drawing the shear layer into the cavity. Empirical data and closed-form solutions were used to design baseline structures employed in each method. Full scale turbofan engine tests were used to measure their effectiveness. Each method significantly reduced the level to which cavity acoustic modes were excited by shear layer flow.

  7. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  8. Demonstration of short haul aircraft aft noise reduction techniques on a twenty inch (50.8 cm) diameter fan, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Tests of a twenty inch diameter, low tip speed, low pressure ratio fan which investigated aft fan noise reduction techniques are reported. The 1/3 octave band sound data are presented for all the configurations tested. The model data are presented on 17 foot arc and extrapolated to 200 foot sideline.

  9. A method to estimate weight and dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    The weight and major envelope dimensions of small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines are estimated. The computerized method, called WATE-S (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines-Small) is a derivative of the WATE-2 computer code. WATE-S determines the weight of each major component in the engine including compressors, burners, turbines, heat exchangers, nozzles, propellers, and accessories. A preliminary design approach is used where the stress levels, maximum pressures and temperatures, material properties, geometry, stage loading, hub/tip radius ratio, and mechanical overspeed are used to determine the component weights and dimensions. The accuracy of the method is generally better than + or - 10 percent as verified by analysis of four small aircraft propulsion gas turbine engines.

  10. Impacts of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft turbine engine combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Bahr, D.W.

    1982-11-01

    In the future, aircraft turbine engines may be required to accommodate fuels with lower hydrogen contents, fluidity/volatility characteristics, and thermal stability ratings than those of present-day jet fuels. The key results of several investigations conducted to quantify the impacts of such fuel property changes on the performance, pollutant emission, and durability characteristics of aircraft turbine engine combustors are reviewed. These results were obtained in both component and engine tests of the current production combustors used in the CF6-6, CF6-50, F101/CFM56, and J79/CJ805 engines. Based on these results, it is concluded that the most significant concerns associated with such fuel property changes are decreased combustor life, decreased ground starting/altitude relight capabilities, and increased fuel injector gumming/coking tendencies. The combustor design improvements that appear to be needed to permit the use of jet fuels of significantly lower quality than present day fuels are also reviewed.

  11. Effect of NACA Injection Impeller on Mixture Distribution of Double-Row Radial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marble, Frank E; Ritter, William K; Miller, Mahlon A

    1945-01-01

    The NACA injection impeller was developed to improve the mixture distribution of aircraft engines by discharging the fuel from a centrifugal supercharger impeller and thus to promote a thorough mixing of fuel and charge air. Experiments with a double-row radial aircraft engine indicated that for the normal range of engine power the NACA injection impeller provided marked improvement in mixture distribution over the standard spray-bar injection system used in the same engine. The mixture distribution at cruising conditions was excellent; at 1200, 1500, and 1700 brake horsepower, the differences between the fuel-air ratios of the richest and the leanest cylinders were reduced to approximately one-third their former values.

  12. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icinig. Flight data wre reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured 'iced' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13173

  13. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icing. Flight data were reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured ""iced'' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower.

  14. Status review of NASA programs for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Programs initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate low emission advanced technology combustors for reducing aircraft gas turbine engine pollution are reviewed. Program goals are consistent with urban emission level requirements as specified by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and with upper atmosphere cruise emission levels as recommended by the U. S. Climatic Impact Assessment Program and National Research Council. Preliminary tests of advanced technology combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft gas turbine engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Preliminary test results from fundamental studies indicate that extremely low emission combustion systems may be possible for future generation jet aircraft. The emission reduction techniques currently being evaluated in these programs are described along with the results and a qualitative assessment of development difficulty.

  15. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) composite fan frame design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    An advanced composite frame which is flight-weight and integrates the functions of several structures was developed for the over the wing (OTW) engine and for the under the wing (UTW) engine. The composite material system selected as the basic material for the frame is Type AS graphite fiber in a Hercules 3501 epoxy resin matrix. The frame was analyzed using a finite element digital computer program. This program was used in an iterative fashion to arrive at practical thicknesses and ply orientations to achieve a final design that met all strength and stiffness requirements for critical conditions. Using this information, the detail design of each of the individual parts of the frame was completed and released. On the basis of these designs, the required tooling was designed to fabricate the various component parts of the frame. To verify the structural integrity of the critical joint areas, a full-scale test was conducted on the frame before engine testing. The testing of the frame established critical spring constants and subjected the frame to three critical load cases. The successful static load test was followed by 153 and 58 hours respectively of successful running on the UTW and OTW engines.

  16. Active Control of Fan Noise-Feasibility Study. Volume 1; Flyover System Noise Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, Robert E.; Janardan, B. A.; Kontos, G. C.; Gliebe, P. R.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been completed to examine the potential reduction of aircraft flyover noise by the method of active noise control (ANC). It is assumed that the ANC system will be designed such that it cancels discrete tones radiating from the engine fan inlet or fan exhaust duct. Thus, without considering the engineering details of the ANC system design, tone levels are arbitrarily removed from the engine component noise spectrum and the flyover noise EPNL levels are compared with and without the presence of tones. The study was conducted for a range of engine cycles, corresponding to fan pressure ratios from 1.3 to 1.75. The major conclusions that can be drawn are that, for a fan pressure ratio of 1.75, ANC of tones gives about the same suppression as acoustic treatment without ANC, and for a fan pressure ratio of 1.45, ANC appears to offer less effectiveness than passive treatment. Additionally, ANC appears to be more effective at sideline and cutback conditions than at approach. Overall EPNL suppressions due to tone removal range from about 1 to 3 dB at takeoff engine speeds and from 1 to 5 db at approach speeds. Studies of economic impact of the installation of an ANC system for the four engine cases indicate increases of DOC ranging from 1 to 2 percent, favoring the lower fan pressure ratio engines. Further study is needed to confirm the results by examining additional engine data, particularly at low fan pressure ratios, and studying the details of the current results to obtain a more complete understanding. Further studies should also include determining the effects of combining passive and active treatment.

  17. An Object-Oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2009-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA's NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc., that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300-passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case.

  18. Avco Lycoming/NASA contract status. [on reduction of emissions from aircraft piston engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The standards promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions were the basis in a study of ways to reduce emissions from aircraft piston engines. A variable valve timing system, ultrasonic fuel atomization, and ignition system changes were postulated.

  19. 77 FR 76842 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... action revises the standards for oxides of nitrogen and test procedures for exhaust emissions based on... Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed new aircraft engine emission standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO... Protection (CAEP) of ICAO uses to differentiate the CAEP work cycles that produce new standards. For...

  20. Weibull-Based Design Methodology for Rotating Aircraft Engine Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, Erwin; Hendricks, Robert C.; Soditus, Sherry

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Energy Efficient Engine (E(sup 3)-Engine) is used as the basis of a Weibull-based life and reliability analysis. Each component's life and thus the engine's life is defined by high-cycle fatigue (HCF) or low-cycle fatigue (LCF). Knowing the cumulative life distribution of each of the components making up the engine as represented by a Weibull slope is a prerequisite to predicting the life and reliability of the entire engine. As the engine Weibull slope increases, the predicted lives decrease. The predicted engine lives L(sub 5) (95 % probability of survival) of approximately 17,000 and 32,000 hr do correlate with current engine maintenance practices without and with refurbishment. respectively. The individual high pressure turbine (HPT) blade lives necessary to obtain a blade system life L(sub 0.1) (99.9 % probability of survival) of 9000 hr for Weibull slopes of 3, 6 and 9, are 47,391 and 20,652 and 15,658 hr, respectively. For a design life of the HPT disks having probable points of failure equal to or greater than 36,000 hr at a probability of survival of 99.9 %, the predicted disk system life L(sub 0.1) can vary from 9,408 to 24,911 hr.

  1. Pollution reduction technology program small jet aircraft engines, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Kuhn, T. E.; Mongia, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A series of Model TFE731-2 engine tests were conducted with the Concept 2 variable geometry airblast fuel injector combustion system installed. The engine was tested to: (1) establish the emission levels over the selected points which comprise the Environmental Protection Agency Landing-Takeoff Cycle; (2) determine engine performance with the combustion system; and (3) evaulate the engine acceleration/deceleration characteristics. The hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), and smoke goals were met. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) were above the goal for the same configuration that met the other pollutant goals. The engine and combustor performance, as well as acceleration/deceleration characteristics, were acceptable. The Concept 3 staged combustor system was refined from earlier phase development and subjected to further rig refinement testing. The concept met all of the emissions goals.

  2. CF6 fan performance improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.; Reemsnyder, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    A significant portion of the NASA-sponsored Performance Improvement Program for the CF6 engine was the development of an improved fan concept. This involved aerodynamic redesign of the CF6 fan blade to increase fan efficiency while retaining the mechanical integrity, operability, and acoustic characteristics of the existing blade. A further improvement in performance was obtained by adding a fan case stiffener ring to decouple blade-case vibrational characteristics, permitting a significant reduction in running tip clearance. Engine testing was performed to establish the performance, mechanical and acoustic properties of the new design relative to the current fan, and to establish power management characteristics for the CF6-50C2/E2 engine. A significant improvement in cruise power SFC of 1.8 percent was demonstrated in Sea Level testing projected to altitude flight conditions.

  3. Elevated Temperature Ballistic Impact Testing of PBO and Kevlar Fabrics for Application in Supersonic Jet Engine Fan Containment Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Roberts Gary D.; Revilock, Duane M., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Ballistic impact tests were conducted on fabric made from both Poly(phenylene benzobizoxazole) (PBO) and Kevlar 29 which were selected to be similar in weave pattern, areal density, and fiber denier. The projectiles were 2.54-cm- (1-in.-) long aluminum cylinders with a diameter of 1.27 cm (0.5 in.). The fabric specimens were clamped on four sides in a 30.5-cm- (12-in.-) square frame. Tests on PBO were conducted at room temperature and at 260 C (500 F). A number of PBO specimens were aged in air at 204 and 260 C (400 and 500 F) before impact testing. Kevlar specimens were tested only at room temperature and with no aging. The PBO absorbed significantly more energy than the Kevlar at both room and elevated temperatures. However, after aging at temperatures of 204 C (400 F) and above, the PBO fabric lost almost all of its energy absorbing ability. It was concluded that PBO fabric is not a feasible candidate for fan containment system applications in supersonic jet engines where operating temperatures exceed this level.

  4. Aircraft Engine Sensor/Actuator/Component Fault Diagnosis Using a Bank of Kalman Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In this report, a fault detection and isolation (FDI) system which utilizes a bank of Kalman filters is developed for aircraft engine sensor and actuator FDI in conjunction with the detection of component faults. This FDI approach uses multiple Kalman filters, each of which is designed based on a specific hypothesis for detecting a specific sensor or actuator fault. In the event that a fault does occur, all filters except the one using the correct hypothesis will produce large estimation errors, from which a specific fault is isolated. In the meantime, a set of parameters that indicate engine component performance is estimated for the detection of abrupt degradation. The performance of the FDI system is evaluated against a nonlinear engine simulation for various engine faults at cruise operating conditions. In order to mimic the real engine environment, the nonlinear simulation is executed not only at the nominal, or healthy, condition but also at aged conditions. When the FDI system designed at the healthy condition is applied to an aged engine, the effectiveness of the FDI system is impacted by the mismatch in the engine health condition. Depending on its severity, this mismatch can cause the FDI system to generate incorrect diagnostic results, such as false alarms and missed detections. To partially recover the nominal performance, two approaches, which incorporate information regarding the engine s aging condition in the FDI system, will be discussed and evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed FDI system is promising for reliable diagnostics of aircraft engines.

  5. 75 FR 7947 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Engines GmbH (TAE) Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA.... The MCAI describes the unsafe condition as: An in-flight engine shutdown incident was reported on an aircraft equipped with a TAE 125-01 engine. This was found to be mainly the result of a blockage of...

  6. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  7. Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines. A Handbook for the Calculation of Emission Indexes and Gaseous Emissions from Aircraft Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    corresponded to intervals of stable engine operation, as specified by the operators of the engine. Each laboratory reported emission indexes for the read ...period. The test established 50 read periods for gaseous emissions. Tabl, 5-1 gives the emission indexes at idle, high idle, approach, cruise and...emission indexes from a T58-GE-8F engine Test Cell - 12 Location - Naval Air Rework Facility, North Island IDLE Date Time Reading Prior Emission index

  8. Chemical composition and photochemical reactivity of exhaust from aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, C. W.; Holdren, M. W.; Riggin, R. M.; Lyon, T. F.

    1994-10-01

    Assessment of the environmental impact of aircraft emissions is required by planners and policy makers. Seveal areas of concern are: 1. exposure of airport workers and urban residents to toxic chemicals emitted when the engines operate at low power (idle and taxi) on the ground; 2. contributions to urban photochemical air pollution of aircraft volatile organic and nitrogen oxides emissions from operations around airports; and 3. emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles during high-altitude operation. The environmental impact of chemicals emitted from jet aircraft turbine engines has not been firmly established due to lack of data regarding emission rates and identities of the compounds emitted. This paper describes an experimental study of two different aircraft turbine engines designed to determine detailed organic emissions, as well as emissions of inorganic gases. Emissions were measured at several engine power settings. Measurements were made of detailed organic composition from C1 through C17, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Measurements were made using a multi-port sampling pro be positioned directly behind the engine in the exhaust exit plane. The emission measurements have been used to determine the organic distribution by carbon number and the distribution by compound class at each engine power level. The sum of the organic species was compared with an independent measurement of total organic carbon to assess the carbon mass balance. A portion of the exhaust was captured and irradiated in outdoor smog chambers to assess the photochemical reactivity of the emissions with respect to ozone formation. The reactivity of emissions from the two engines was apportioned by chemical compound class.

  9. Ultra-efficient Engine Diameter Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Brown, Stephen T.; Kawai, Ron T.

    2003-01-01

    Engine fan diameter and Bypass Ratio (BPR) optimization studies have been conducted since the beginning of the turbofan age with the recognition that reducing the engine core jet velocity and increasing fan mass flow rate generally increases propulsive efficiency. However, performance tradeoffs limit the amount of fan flow achievable without reducing airplane efficiency. This study identifies the optimum engine fan diameter and BPR, given the advanced Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) powerplant efficiencies, for use on an advanced subsonic airframe. Engine diameter studies have historically focused on specific engine size options, and were limited by existing technology and transportation infrastructure (e.g., ability to fit bare engines through aircraft doors and into cargo holds). This study is unique in defining the optimum fan diameter and drivers for future 2015 (UEET) powerplants while not limiting engine fan diameter by external constraints. This report follows on to a study identifying the system integration issues of UEET engines. This Engine Diameter study was managed by Boeing Phantom Works, Seattle, Washington through the NASA Glenn Revolutionary Aero Space Engine Research (RASER) contract under task order 10. Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, completed the engine/airplane sizing optimization, while the Boeing Commercial Airplane group (BCA) provided design oversight. A separate subcontract to support the overall project was issued to Tuskegee University.

  10. Fan Noise Reduction: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Envia, Edmane

    2001-01-01

    Fan noise reduction technologies developed as part of the engine noise reduction element of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Program are reviewed. Developments in low-noise fan stage design, swept and leaned outlet guide vanes, active noise control, fan flow management, and scarfed inlet are discussed. In each case, a description of the method is presented and, where available, representative results and general conclusions are discussed. The review concludes with a summary of the accomplishments of the AST-sponsored fan noise reduction research and a few thoughts on future work.

  11. Variable-cycle engines for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E.

    1976-01-01

    Progress and the current status of the Variable Cycle Engine (VCE) study are reviewed with emphasis placed on the impact of technology advancements and design specifications. A large variety of VCE concepts are also examined.

  12. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neitzel, R. E.; Hirschkron, R.; Johnston, R. P.

    1976-01-01

    A study of unconventional engine cycle concepts, which may offer significantly lower energy consumption than conventional subsonic transport turbofans, is described herein. A number of unconventional engine concepts were identified and parametrically studied to determine their relative fuel-saving potential. Based on results from these studies, regenerative, geared, and variable-boost turbofans, and combinations thereof, were selected along with advanced turboprop cycles for further evaluation and refinement. Preliminary aerodynamic and mechanical designs of these unconventional engine configurations were conducted and mission performance was compared to a conventional, direct-drive turofan reference engine. Consideration is given to the unconventional concepts, and their state of readiness for application. Areas of needed technology advancement are identified.

  13. NASA Now: Engineering Design: Tilt Rotors, Aircraft of the Future

    NASA Video Gallery

    Meet Carl Russell, a research aerospace engineer who is working on developing new innovations for air travel. Russell discusses how tilt rotors work, including a demonstration on how rotors use Ber...

  14. Chemical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper addresses the need for detailed chemical information on the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) generated by commercial aviation engines. The exhaust plumes of nine engine models were sampled during the three test campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (AP...

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  16. Optimal Tuner Selection for Kalman-Filter-Based Aircraft Engine Performance Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    An emerging approach in the field of aircraft engine controls and system health management is the inclusion of real-time, onboard models for the inflight estimation of engine performance variations. This technology, typically based on Kalman-filter concepts, enables the estimation of unmeasured engine performance parameters that can be directly utilized by controls, prognostics, and health-management applications. A challenge that complicates this practice is the fact that an aircraft engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters such as efficiencies and flow capacities related to each major engine module. Through Kalman-filter-based estimation techniques, the level of engine performance degradation can be estimated, given that there are at least as many sensors as health parameters to be estimated. However, in an aircraft engine, the number of sensors available is typically less than the number of health parameters, presenting an under-determined estimation problem. A common approach to address this shortcoming is to estimate a subset of the health parameters, referred to as model tuning parameters. The problem/objective is to optimally select the model tuning parameters to minimize Kalman-filterbased estimation error. A tuner selection technique has been developed that specifically addresses the under-determined estimation problem, where there are more unknown parameters than available sensor measurements. A systematic approach is applied to produce a model tuning parameter vector of appropriate dimension to enable estimation by a Kalman filter, while minimizing the estimation error in the parameters of interest. Tuning parameter selection is performed using a multi-variable iterative search routine that seeks to minimize the theoretical mean-squared estimation error of the Kalman filter. This approach can significantly reduce the error in onboard aircraft engine parameter estimation

  17. Results of an Advanced Fan Stage Operating Over a Wide Range of Speed and Bypass Ratio. Part 1; Fan Stage Design and Experimental Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suder, Kenneth L.; Prahst, Patricia S.; Thorp, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Fundamental Aeronautics Program is investigating turbine-based combined cycle (TBCC) propulsion systems for access to space because it provides the potential for aircraft-like, space-launch operations that may significantly reduce launch costs and improve safety. To this end, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and General Electric (GE) teamed to design a Mach 4 variable cycle turbofan/ramjet engine for access to space. To enable the wide operating range of a Mach 4+ variable cycle turbofan ramjet required the development of a unique fan stage design capable of multi-point operation to accommodate variations in bypass ratio (10 ), fan speed (7 ), inlet mass flow (3.5 ), inlet pressure (8 ), and inlet temperature (3 ). In this paper, NASA has set out to characterize a TBCC engine fan stage aerodynamic performance and stability limits over a wide operating range including power-on and hypersonic-unique "windmill" operation. Herein, we will present the fan stage design, and the experimental test results of the fan stage operating from 15 to 100 percent corrected design speed. Whereas, in the companion paper, we will provide an assessment of NASA s APNASA code s ability to predict the fan stage performance and operability over a wide range of speed and bypass ratio.

  18. Robust In-Flight Sensor Fault Diagnostics for Aircraft Engine Based on Sliding Mode Observers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaodong; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-11

    For a sensor fault diagnostic system of aircraft engines, the health performance degradation is an inevitable interference that cannot be neglected. To address this issue, this paper investigates an integrated on-line sensor fault diagnostic scheme for a commercial aircraft engine based on a sliding mode observer (SMO). In this approach, one sliding mode observer is designed for engine health performance tracking, and another for sensor fault reconstruction. Both observers are employed in in-flight applications. The results of the former SMO are analyzed for post-flight updating the baseline model of the latter. This idea is practical and feasible since the updating process does not require the algorithm to be regulated or redesigned, so that ground-based intervention is avoided, and the update process is implemented in an economical and efficient way. With this setup, the robustness of the proposed scheme to the health degradation is much enhanced and the latter SMO is able to fulfill sensor fault reconstruction over the course of the engine life. The proposed sensor fault diagnostic system is applied to a nonlinear simulation of a commercial aircraft engine, and its effectiveness is evaluated in several fault scenarios.

  19. Accurate Measurements of Aircraft Engine Soot Emissions Using a CAPS PMssa Monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onasch, Timothy; Thompson, Kevin; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Smallwood, Greg; Make-Lye, Richard; Freedman, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    We present results of aircraft engine soot emissions measurements during the VARIAnT2 campaign using CAPS PMssa monitors. VARIAnT2, an aircraft engine non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions field campaign, was focused on understanding the variability in nvPM mass measurements using different measurement techniques and accounting for possible nvPM sampling system losses. The CAPS PMssa monitor accurately measures both the optical extinction and scattering (and thus single scattering albedo and absorption) of an extracted sample using the same sample volume for both measurements with a time resolution of 1 second and sensitivity of better than 1 Mm-1. Absorption is obtained by subtracting the scattering signal from the total extinction. Given that the single scattering albedo of the particulates emitted from the aircraft engine measured at both 630 and 660 nm was on the order of 0.1, any inaccuracy in the scattering measurement has little impact on the accuracy of the ddetermined absorption coefficient. The absorption is converted into nvPM mass using a documented Mass Absorption Coefficient (MAC). Results of soot emission indices (mass soot emitted per mass of fuel consumed) for a turbojet engine as a function of engine power will be presented and compared to results obtained using an EC/OC monitor.

  20. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.