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Sample records for aircraft engine thrust

  1. Emergency Multiengine Aircraft System for Lateral Control Using Differential Thrust Control of Wing Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor); Bull, John (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Development of an emergency flight control system is disclosed for lateral control using only differential engine thrust modulation of multiengine aircraft is currently underway. The multiengine has at least two engines laterally displaced to the left and right from the axis of the aircraft. In response to a heading angle command psi(sub c) is to be tracked. By continually sensing the heading angle psi of the aircraft and computing a heading error signal psi(sub e) as a function of the difference between the heading angle command psi(sub c) and the sensed heading angle psi, a track control signal is developed with compensation as a function of sensed bank angle phi. Bank angle rate phi, or roll rate p, yaw rate tau, and true velocity produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC(sub psi(L,R)). The thrust control signal is differentially applied to the left and right engines, with equal amplitude and opposite sign, such that a negative sign is applied to the control signal on the side of the aircraft. A turn is required to reduce the error signal until the heading feedback reduces the error to zero.

  2. An inventory of particle and gaseous emissions from large aircraft thrust engine operations at an airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazaheri, M.; Johnson, G. R.; Morawska, L.

    2011-07-01

    Published particle number emission factors for aircraft operations remain very sparse and so far such emissions have not been included in the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databases. This work addresses this gap in knowledge by utilizing recent progress in the quantification of aircraft particle emissions. Annual emissions of particle number (PN), particle mass (PM 2.5) and NO x throughout the aircraft landing and takeoff (LTO) cycles and ground running procedures (GRP) are presented for aircraft using Brisbane Airport BNE (domestic and international). The aircraft are grouped according to an airframe based classification system. The resulting data are then used to develop an emissions inventory for large aircraft thrust engine operations on the ground, during LTO cycles and GRP, at the Airport. Annual PN, PM 2.5 and NO x emissions from large aircraft operations during LTO cycles and GRP at BNE were 1.98 × 10 24 yr -1, 1.35 × 10 4 kg yr -1 and 8.13 × 10 5 kg yr -1, respectively. Results showed that LTO cycles contribute more than 97% of these annual emissions at BNE in comparison to GRP related emissions. Analysis of the LTO cycle contribution to the daily emissions showed that the contribution of the climbout mode is considerably higher than for other individual LTO operational modes. Emissions during aircraft departures were significantly higher than those during arrival operations, due to the higher aircraft engine emission rates during takeoff and climbout.

  3. Variation of pitching moment with engine thrust for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shanks, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Flight tests were made to determine the effect of engine net thrust on airplane pitching moment for a twin-engine commercial jet transport in the approach, climbout and descent, and cruise configurations. The results indicate that for all the conditions analyzed, the pitching moment due to thrust is somewhat higher than that estimated from the product of net thrust and its moment arm (perpendicular distance from thrust axis to the airplane center of gravity). The differences are attributed to additional moments produced by nacelle normal force, jet-induced downwash, and interaction between wing flow and engine nacelle flow.

  4. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. This paper includes a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring and the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000-ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000-ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  5. A simple dynamic engine model for use in a real-time aircraft simulation with thrust vectoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1990-01-01

    A simple dynamic engine model was developed at the NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility, for use in thrust vectoring control law development and real-time aircraft simulation. The simple dynamic engine model of the F404-GE-400 engine (General Electric, Lynn, Massachusetts) operates within the aircraft simulator. It was developed using tabular data generated from a complete nonlinear dynamic engine model supplied by the manufacturer. Engine dynamics were simulated using a throttle rate limiter and low-pass filter. Included is a description of a method to account for axial thrust loss resulting from thrust vectoring. In addition, the development of the simple dynamic engine model and its incorporation into the F-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV) thrust vectoring simulation. The simple dynamic engine model was evaluated at Mach 0.2, 35,000 ft altitude and at Mach 0.7, 35,000 ft altitude. The simple dynamic engine model is within 3 percent of the steady state response, and within 25 percent of the transient response of the complete nonlinear dynamic engine model.

  6. Aircraft Control Using Engine Thrust: A History of Learning TOC Real-Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Jennifer H.; Batteas, Frank; Fullerton, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    A history of learning the operation of Throttles Only Control (TOC) to control an aircraft in real time using engine thrust is shown. The topics include: 1) Past TOC Accidents/Incidents; 2) 1972: DC-10 American Airlines; 3) May 1974: USAF B-52H; 4) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 5) April 1975: USAF C-5A; 6) 1981: USAF B-52G; 7) August 1985: JAL 123 B-747; 8) JAL 123 Survivor Story; 9) JAL 123 Investigation Findings; 10) July 1989: UAL 232 DC-10; 11) UAL 232 DC-10; 12) Eastwind 517 B-737; 13) November 2003: DHL A-300; 14) Historically, TOC has saved lives; 15) Automated Throttles-Only Control; 16) PCA Project; 17) Propulsion-Controlled Aircraft; 18) MD-11 PCA System and Flight Test Envelope; 19) MD-11 Simulation, PCA ILS-Soupled Landing Dispersion; 20) Throttles-Only Pitch and Roll Control Power; 21) PCA in Commercial Fleet; 22) Fall 2005: PCAR Project; 23) PCAR Background - TOC; and 24) PCAR Background - TOC.

  7. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2004-01-01

    In this project on the first stage (2000-Ol), we continued to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). At the second stage (2001-03), FM&AL team concentrated its efforts on solving of problems of interest to Glenn Research Center (NASA GRC), especially in the field of propulsion system enhancement. The NASA GRC R&D Directorate and LaRC Hyper-X Program specialists in a hypersonic technology jointly with the FM&AL staff conducted research on a wide region of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The last year the Hampton University School of Engineering & Technology was awarded the NASA grant, for creation of the Aeropropulsion Center, and the FM&AL is a key team of the project fulfillment responsible for research in Aeropropulsion and Acoustics (Pillar I). This work is supported by joint research between the NASA GRC/ FM&AL and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IMMSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The main areas of current scientific interest of the FM&AL include an investigation of the proposed and patented advanced methods for aircraft engine thrust and noise benefits. This is the main subject of our other projects, of which one is presented. The last year we concentrated our efforts to analyze three main problems: (a) new effective methods fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines; (b) new re-circulation method for mixing, heat transfer and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems and domestic industry application; (c) covexity flow The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines (see, for

  8. Design, analysis, and control of large transport aircraft utilizing engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1993-01-01

    A review of accidents that involved the loss of hydraulic flight control systems serves as an introduction to this project. In each of the accidents--involving transport aircraft such as the DC-10, the C-5A, the L-1011, and the Boeing 747--the flight crew attempted to control the aircraft by means of thrust control. Although these incidents had tragic endings, in the absence of control power due to primary control system failure, control power generated by selective application of engine thrust has proven to be a viable alternative. NASA Dryden has demonstrated the feasibility of controlling an aircraft during level flight, approach, and landing conditions using an augmented throttles-only control system. This system has been successfully flown in the flight test simulator for the B-720 passenger transport and the F-15 air superiority fighter and in actual flight tests for the F-15 aircraft. The Douglas Aircraft Company is developing a similar system for the MD-11 aircraft. The project's ultimate goal is to provide data for the development of thrust control systems for mega-transports (600+ passengers).

  9. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2001-01-01

    Three connected sub-projects were conducted under reported project. Partially, these sub-projects are directed to solving the problems conducted by the HU/FM&AL under two other NASA grants. The fundamental idea uniting these projects is to use untraditional 3D corrugated nozzle designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust lost and even with thrust augmentation. Such additional approaches are: (1) to add some solid, fluid, or gas mass at discrete locations to the main supersonic gas stream to minimize the negative influence of strong shock waves forming in propulsion systems; this mass addition may be accompanied by heat addition to the main stream as a result of the fuel combustion or by cooling of this stream as a result of the liquid mass evaporation and boiling; (2) to use porous or permeable nozzles and additional shells at the nozzle exit for preliminary cooling of exhaust hot jet and pressure compensation for non-design conditions (so-called continuous ejector with small mass flow rate; and (3) to propose and analyze new effective methods fuel injection into flow stream in air-breathing engines. Note that all these problems were formulated based on detailed descriptions of the main experimental facts observed at NASA Glenn Research Center. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of finding theoretical explanations for experimental facts and the creation of the accurate numerical simulation technique and prediction theory for solutions for current problems in propulsion systems solved by NASA and Navy agencies. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analysis for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The F&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations, and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. We will present some management activity

  10. Aeroelastic response of an aircraft wing with mounted engine subjected to time-dependent thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazidi, A.; Kalantari, H.; Fazelzadeh, S. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the aeroelastic response of a wing containing an engine subjected to different types of time-dependent thrust excitations is presented. In order to precisely consider the spanwise and chordwise locations of the engine and the time-dependent follower force in governing equations, derived through Lagrange's method, the generalized function theory is used. Unsteady aerodynamic lift and moment in the time domain are considered in terms of Wagner's function. Numerical simulations of the aeroelastic response to different types of time-dependent thrust excitation and comparisons with the previously published results are supplied. Effects of the engine mass and location and also the type of time-dependent thrust on the wing aeroelastic response are studied and pertinent conclusions are outlined.

  11. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Povitsky, Alex; Schkolnikov, Natalia; Njoroge, Norman; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2001-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory at Hampton University (HU/FM&AL) jointly with the NASA Glenn Research Center has conducted four connected subprojects under the reporting project. Basically, the HU/FM&AL Team has been involved in joint research with the purpose of theoretical explanation of experimental facts and creation of accurate numerical simulation techniques and prediction theory for solution of current problems in propulsion systems of interest to the NAVY and NASA agencies. This work is also supported by joint research between the NASA GRC and the Institute of Mechanics at Moscow State University (IM/MSU) in Russia under a CRDF grant. The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. The FM&AL Team uses analytical methods, numerical simulations and possible experimental tests at the Hampton University campus. The fundamental idea uniting these subprojects is to use nontraditional 3D corrugated and composite nozzle and inlet designs and additional methods for exhaust jet noise reduction without essential thrust loss and even with thrust augmentation. These subprojects are: (1) Aeroperformance and acoustics of Bluebell-shaped and Telescope-shaped designs; (2) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round, diamond-round and other nozzles; (3) Measurement technique improvement for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel; a new course in the field of aerodynamics, teaching and training of HU students; experimental tests of Mobius-shaped screws: research and training; (4) Supersonic inlet shape optimization. The main outcomes during this reporting period are: (l) Publications: The AIAA Paper #00-3170 was presented at the 36th AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference, 17-19 June, 2000, Huntsville, AL. The AIAA

  12. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H., III; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    2000-01-01

    The Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) was established At Hampton University in June of 1996. In addition, the FM&AL jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a 2.5 year Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF). The goals of the FM&AL programs are two fold: 1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AL team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and 2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. This project already benefits NASA and HU because: First, the innovation, testing, and further development of new techniques for advanced propulsion systems are necessary for the successful attainment of the NASA Long Term Goals in Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (ASTT) including Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, Access to Space, R&D Services, and the economic competitiveness of the US Aircraft Industry in the 2 1 st century. Secondly, the joint

  13. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilinsky, Mikhail; Morgan, Morris H.; Hardin, Jay C.; Mosiane, Lotlamoreng; Kaushal, Patel; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2000-01-01

    In this project, we continue to develop the previous joint research between the Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Laboratory (FM&AL) at Hampton University (HU) and the Jet Noise Team (JNT) at the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC). The FM&AL was established at Hampton University in June of 1996 and has conducted research under two NASA grants: NAG-1-1835 (1996-99), and NAG-1-1936 (1997-00). In addition, the FM&AL has jointly conducted research with the Central AeroHydrodynamics Institute (TsAGI, Moscow) in Russia under a Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) grant #RE2-136 (1996-99). The goals of the FM&AL programs are twofold: (1) to improve the working efficiency of the FM&AUs team in generating new innovative ideas and in conducting research in the field of fluid dynamics and acoustics, basically for improvement of supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines, and (2) to attract promising minority students to this research and training and, in cooperation with other HU departments, to teach them basic knowledge in Aerodynamics, Gas Dynamics, and Theoretical and Experimental Methods in Aeroacoustics and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The research at the HU FM&AL supports reduction schemes associated with the emission of engine pollutants for commercial aircraft and concepts for reduction of observables for military aircraft. These research endeavors relate to the goals of the NASA Strategic Enterprise in Aeronautics concerning the development of environmentally acceptable aircraft. It is in this precise area, where the US aircraft industry, academia, and Government are in great need of trained professionals and which is a high priority goal of the Minority University Research and Education (MUREP) Program, that the HU FM&AL can make its most important contribution. The main achievements for the reporting period in the development of concepts for noise reduction and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles and inlets for aircraft engines

  14. Advanced Methods for Aircraft Engine Thrust and Noise Benefits: Nozzle-Inlet Flow Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Morris H.; Gilinsky, Mikhail; Patel, Kaushal; Coston, Calvin; Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2003-01-01

    The research is focused on a wide regime of problems in the propulsion field as well as in experimental testing and theoretical and numerical simulation analyses for advanced aircraft and rocket engines. Results obtained are based on analytical methods, numerical simulations and experimental tests at the NASA LaRC and Hampton University computer complexes and experimental facilities. The main objective of this research is injection, mixing and combustion enhancement in propulsion systems. The sub-projects in the reporting period are: (A) Aero-performance and acoustics of Telescope-shaped designs. The work included a pylon set application for SCRAMJET. (B) An analysis of sharp-edged nozzle exit designs for effective fuel injection into the flow stream in air-breathing engines: triangular-round and diamond-round nozzles. (C) Measurement technique improvements for the HU Low Speed Wind Tunnel (HU LSWT) including an automatic data acquisition system and a two component (drag-lift) balance system. In addition, a course in the field of aerodynamics was developed for the teaching and training of HU students.

  15. Analysis of the flow field generated near an aircraft engine operating in reverse thrust. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledwith, W. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A computer solution is developed to the exhaust gas reingestion problem for aircraft operating in the reverse thrust mode on a crosswind-free runway. The computer program determines the location of the inlet flow pattern, whether the exhaust efflux lies within the inlet flow pattern or not, and if so, the approximate time before the reversed flow reaches the engine inlet. The program is written so that the user is free to select discrete runway speeds or to study the entire aircraft deceleration process for both the far field and cross-ingestion problems. While developed with STOL applications in mind, the solution is equally applicable to conventional designs. The inlet and reversed jet flow fields involved in the problem are assumed to be noninteracting. The nacelle model used in determining the inlet flow field is generated using an iterative solution to the Neuman problem from potential flow theory while the reversed jet flow field is adapted using an empirical correlation from the literature. Sample results obtained using the program are included.

  16. Fly in Atmosphere by Drag Force - Easy Thrust Generation Aircraft Engine Based Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierre Celestin, Mwizerwa

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to present to the science community another way to fly in atmosphere, a way which is much more cheaper, efficient, safe and easy. Over the years scientists have been trying to find a way to built the vertically taking off vehicles but there have been no satisfactory success(what have been found was very expensive), Even aircrafts we know now need very sophisticated and expensive engines and not efficient enough. This way of flying may help our governments to spend less money on technologies and will help people to travel at very low prices so that, it may be a solution to the crisis which the world faces nowadays. In other words, it is my proposal to the next generation technologies we was looking for for years because everything can fly from the car to the trucks, the spaceships and even the hotels maybe constructed and fly as we construct the ships which sail in the oceans. My way of flying will have many applications in all the aspect of travel as it is going to be explained.

  17. Emergency Control Aircraft System Using Thrust Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J. (Inventor); Burcham, Frank W., Jr. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A digital longitudinal Aircraft Propulsion Control (APC system of a multiengine aircraft is provided by engine thrust modulation in response to comparing an input flightpath angle signal (gamma)c from a pilot thumbwheel. or an ILS system with a sensed flightpath angle y to produce an error signal (gamma)e that is then integrated (with reasonable limits) to generate a drift correction signal to be added to the error signal (gamma)e after first subtracting a lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) for phugoid damping. The output error signal is multiplied by a constant to produce an aircraft thrust control signal ATC of suitable amplitude to drive a throttle servo for all engines. each of which includes its own full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) computer. An alternative APC system omits sensed flightpath angle feedback and instead controls the flightpath angle by feedback of the lowpass filtered velocity signal Vel(sub f) which also inherently provides phugoid damping. The feature of drift compensation is retained.

  18. Modular multi-engine thrust control assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, S.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a modular thrust control lever assembly for controling forward/reverse thrust generated by an aircraft engine. It includes an electric/electronic engine thrust control system, an inhibit mechanism for preventing inadverent or premature establishment of at least one of forward and reverse engine thrust. It consists of a (a) housing; (b) a control lever assembly pivotally mounted within the housing for fore and aft pivotal movement in a single vertical plane; (c) movable inhibit mechanism normally mounted in the path of movement of the laterally projecting roller on the control lever assembly between at least one of the maximum thrust limit positions of the assembly and the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (d) a electric/electronic engine thrust control system including an mechanism for reconfiguring the thrust controls of the engine upon movement of the thrust control lever assembly to the adjacent intermediate idle thrust position; (e) a mechanism responsive to the output signal for shifting the inhibit mechanism out of the path of movement of the control lever assembly.

  19. Full Flight Envelope Direct Thrust Measurement on a Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.; Sims, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    Direct thrust measurement using strain gages offers advantages over analytically-based thrust calculation methods. For flight test applications, the direct measurement method typically uses a simpler sensor arrangement and minimal data processing compared to analytical techniques, which normally require costly engine modeling and multisensor arrangements throughout the engine. Conversely, direct thrust measurement has historically produced less than desirable accuracy because of difficulty in mounting and calibrating the strain gages and the inability to account for secondary forces that influence the thrust reading at the engine mounts. Consequently, the strain-gage technique has normally been used for simple engine arrangements and primarily in the subsonic speed range. This paper presents the results of a strain gage-based direct thrust-measurement technique developed by the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and successfully applied to the full flight envelope of an F-15 aircraft powered by two F100-PW-229 turbofan engines. Measurements have been obtained at quasi-steady-state operating conditions at maximum non-augmented and maximum augmented power throughout the altitude range of the vehicle and to a maximum speed of Mach 2.0 and are compared against results from two analytically-based thrust calculation methods. The strain-gage installation and calibration processes are also described.

  20. Thrust stand for low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines.

    PubMed

    Xing, Qin; Zhang, Jun; Qian, Min; Jia, Zhen-yuan; Sun, Bao-yuan

    2010-09-01

    A thrust stand is developed for measuring the pulsed thrust generated by low-thrust liquid pulsed rocket engines. It mainly consists of a thrust dynamometer, a base frame, a connecting frame, and a data acquisition and processing system. The thrust dynamometer assembled with shear mode piezoelectric quartz sensors is developed as the core component of the thrust stand. It adopts integral shell structure. The sensors are inserted into unique double-elastic-half-ring grooves with an interference fit. The thrust is transferred to the sensors by means of static friction forces of fitting surfaces. The sensors could produce an amount of charges which are proportional to the thrust to be measured. The thrust stand is calibrated both statically and dynamically. The in situ static calibration is performed using a standard force sensor. The dynamic calibration is carried out using pendulum-typed steel ball impact technique. Typical thrust pulse is simulated by a trapezoidal impulse force. The results show that the thrust stand has a sensitivity of 25.832 mV/N, a linearity error of 0.24% FSO, and a repeatability error of 0.23% FSO. The first natural frequency of the thrust stand is 1245 Hz. The thrust stand can accurately measure thrust waveform of each firing, which is used for fine control of on-orbit vehicles in the thrust range of 5-20 N with pulse frequency of 50 Hz.

  1. Start Up Research Effort in Fluid Mechanics. Advanced Methods for Acoustic and Thrust Benefits for Aircraft Engine Nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Samuel G.; Gilinsky, Mikhail M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the project plan for the report period in the proposal titled above, HU and FML teams investigated two sets of concepts for reduction of noise and improvement in efficiency for jet exhaust nozzles of aircraft engines and screws for mixers, fans, propellers and boats. The main achievements in the report period are: (a) Publication of the paper in the AIAA Journal, which described our concepts and some results. (b) The Award in the Civil Research and Development Foundation (CRDF) competition. This 2 year grant for Hampton University (HU) and Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute (TSAGI, Moscow, Russia) supports the research implementation under the current NASA FAR grant. (c) Selection for funding by NASA HQ review panel of the Partnership Awards Concept Paper. This two year grant also will support our current FAR grant. (d) Publication of a Mobius Strip concept in NASA Technical Briefs, June, 1996, and a great interest of many industrial companies in this invention. Successful experimental results with the Mobius shaped screw for mixers, which save more than 30% of the electric power by comparison with the standard screws. Creation of the scientific-popular video-film which can be used for commercial and educational purposes. (e) Organization work, joint meetings and discussions of the NASA LARC JNL Team and HU professors and administration for the solution of actual problems and effective work of the Fluid Mechanics Laboratory at Hampton University. In this report the main designs are enumerated. It also contains for both concept sets: (1) the statement of the problem for each design, some results, publications, inventions, patents, our vision for continuation of this research, and (2) present and expected problems in the future.

  2. On INM's Use of Corrected Net Thrust for the Prediction of Jet Aircraft Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAninch, Gerry L.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2011-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration s (FAA) Integrated Noise Model (INM) employs a prediction methodology that relies on corrected net thrust as the sole correlating parameter between aircraft and engine operating states and aircraft noise. Thus aircraft noise measured for one set of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions is assumed to be applicable to all other conditions as long as the corrected net thrust remains constant. This hypothesis is investigated under two primary assumptions: (1) the sound field generated by the aircraft is dominated by jet noise, and (2) the sound field generated by the jet flow is adequately described by Lighthill s theory of noise generated by turbulence.

  3. The scaling of model test results to predict intake hot gas reingestion for STOVL aircraft with augmented vectored thrust engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penrose, C. J.

    1987-01-01

    The difficulties of modeling the complex recirculating flow fields produced by multiple jet STOVL aircraft close to the ground have led to extensive use of experimental model tests to predict intake Hot Gas Reingestion (HGR). Model test results reliability is dependent on a satisfactory set of scaling rules which must be validated by fully comparable full scale tests. Scaling rules devised in the U.K. in the mid 60's gave good model/full scale agreement for the BAe P1127 aircraft. Until recently no opportunity has occurred to check the applicability of the rules to the high energy exhaust of current ASTOVL aircraft projects. Such an opportunity has arisen following tests on a Tethered Harrier. Comparison of this full scale data and results from tests on a model configuration approximating to the full scale aircraft geometry has shown discrepancies between HGR levels. These discrepancies although probably due to geometry and other model/scale differences indicate some reexamination of the scaling rules is needed. Therefore the scaling rules are reviewed, further scaling studies planned are described and potential areas for further work are suggested.

  4. Wind tunnel test of model target thrust reversers for the Pratt and Whitney aircraft JT8D-100 series engines installed on a 727-200 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hambly, D.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a low speed wind tunnel test of 0.046 scale model target thrust reversers installed on a 727-200 model airplane are presented. The full airplane model was mounted on a force balance, except for the nacelles and thrust reversers, which were independently mounted and isolated from it. The installation had the capability of simulating the inlet airflows and of supplying the correct proportions of primary and secondary air to the nozzles. The objectives of the test were to assess the compatibility of the thrust reversers target door design with the engine and airplane. The following measurements were made: hot gas ingestion at the nacelle inlets; model lift, drag, and pitching moment; hot gas impingement on the airplane structure; and qualitative assessment of the rudder effectiveness. The major parameters controlling hot gas ingestion were found to be thrust reverser orientation, engine power setting, and the lip height of the bottom thrust reverser doors on the side nacelles. The thrust reversers tended to increase the model lift, decrease the drag, and decrease the pitching moment.

  5. Adaptive Control of a Transport Aircraft Using Differential Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje; Nguyen, Nhan

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an adaptive control technique for a damaged large transport aircraft subject to unknown atmospheric disturbances such as wind gust or turbulence. It is assumed that the damage results in vertical tail loss with no rudder authority, which is replaced with a differential thrust input. The proposed technique uses the adaptive prediction based control design in conjunction with the time scale separation principle, based on the singular perturbation theory. The application of later is necessitated by the fact that the engine response to a throttle command is substantially slow that the angular rate dynamics of the aircraft. It is shown that this control technique guarantees the stability of the closed-loop system and the tracking of a given reference model. The simulation example shows the benefits of the approach.

  6. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoji, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study evaluating thrust chamber cooling engine cycles and preliminary engine design for low thrust chemical rocket engines for orbit transfer vehicles is described. Oxygen/hydrogen, oxygen/methane, and oxygen/RP-1 engines with thrust levels from 444.8 N to 13345 N, and chamber pressures from 13.8 N/sq cm to 689.5 N/sq cm were evaluated. The physical and thermodynamic properties of the propellant theoretical performance data, and transport properties are documented. The thrust chamber cooling limits for regenerative/radiation and film/radiation cooling are defined and parametric heat transfer data presented. A conceptual evaluation of a number of engine cycles was performed and a 2224.1 N oxygen/hydrogen engine cycle configuration and a 2224.1 N oxygen/methane configuration chosen for preliminary engine design. Updated parametric engine data, engine design drawings, and an assessment of technology required are presented.

  7. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  8. Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Counts, Richard H. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Lackey, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Peters, Warren (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor); Lawrence, Timothy W. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A thrust chamber assembly for liquid fueled rocket engines and the method of making it wherein a two-piece mandrel having the configuration of an assembly having a combustion chamber portion connected to a nozzle portion through a throat portion is wrapped with a silica tape saturated with a phenolic resin, the tape extending along the mandrel and covering the combustion chamber portion of the mandrel to the throat portion. The width of the tape is positioned at an angle of 30 to 50 deg. to the axis of the mandrel such that one edge of the tape contacts the mandrel while the other edge is spaced from the mandrel. The phenolic in the tape is cured and the end of the wrap is machined to provide a frusto-conical surface extending at an angle of 15 to 30 deg. with respect to the axis of the mandrel for starting a second wrap on the mandrel to cover the throat portion. The remainder of the mandrel is wrapped with a third silica tape having its width positioned at a angle of 5 to 20 deg. from the axis of the mandrel. The resin in the third tape is cured and the assembly is machined to provide a smooth outer surface. The entire assembly is then wrapped with a tow of graphite fibers wetted with an epoxy resin and, after the epoxy resin is cured, the graphite is machined to final dimensions.

  9. Oxygen/Alcohol Dual Thrust RCS Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angstadt, Tara; Hurlbert, Eric

    1999-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust RCS engine offers significant operational, safety, and performance advantages to the space shuttle and the next generation RLVs. In this concept, a single engine produces two thrust levels of 25 and 870 lbf. The low thrust level is provided by the spark torch igniter, which, with the addition of 2 extra valves, can also be made to function as a vernier. A dual thrust RCS engine allows 38 verniers to be packaged more efficiently on a vehicle. These 38 vemiers improve translation and reduce cross coupling, thereby providing more pure roll, pitch, and yaw maneuvers of the vehicle. Compared to the 6 vemiers currently on the shuttle, the 38 dual thrust engines would be 25 to 40% more efficient for the same maneuvers and attitude control. The vernier thrust level also reduces plume impingement and contamination concerns. Redundancy is also improved, thereby improving mission success reliability. Oxygen and ethanol are benign propellants which do not create explosive reaction products or contamination, as compared to hypergolic propellants. These characteristics make dual-thrust engines simpler to implement on a non-toxic reaction control system. Tests at WSTF in August 1999 demonstrated a dual-thrust concept that is successful with oxygen and ethanol. Over a variety of inlet pressures and mixture ratios at 22:1 area ratio, the engine produced between 230 and 297 sec Isp, and thrust levels from 8 lbf. to 50 lbf. This paper describes the benefits of dual-thrust engines and the recent results from tests at WSTF.

  10. Design, analysis, and control of a large transport aircraft utilizing selective engine thrust as a backup system for the primary flight control. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A study has been conducted to determine the capability to control a very large transport airplane with engine thrust. This study consisted of the design of an 800-passenger airplane with a range of 5000 nautical miles design and evaluation of a flight control system, and design and piloted simulation evaluation of a thrust-only backup flight control system. Location of the four wing-mounted engines was varied to optimize the propulsive control capability, and the time constant of the engine response was studied. The goal was to provide level 1 flying qualities. The engine location and engine time constant did not have a large effect on the control capability. The airplane design did meet level 1 flying qualities based on frequencies, damping ratios, and time constants in the longitudinal and lateral-directional modes. Project pilots consistently rated the flying qualities as either level 1 or level 2 based on Cooper-Harper ratings. However, because of the limited control forces and moments, the airplane design fell short of meeting the time required to achieve a 30 deg bank and the time required to respond a control input.

  11. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  12. Improvements in teaching aircraft engine design

    SciTech Connect

    Mattingly, J.D.; Heiser, W.H. Tennessee, University, Tullahoma )

    1992-07-01

    Aircraft gas turbine analysis and design pedagogy can be enriched through the incorporation improved preliminary engine thrust and fuel consumption models, novel computer programs for both aircraft system analysis and turbomechanical design, and a new perspective for engine-cycle analysis. Four computer programs have been developed for preliminary engine design; two of these automate aircraft system analysis, while another designs multistage axial-flow compressors and the last designs multistage axial-flow turbines. Student confusion with 'design-point' and 'off-design' concepts is by these means reduced. 6 refs.

  13. Evaluation of various thrust calculation techniques on an F404 engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Ronald J.

    1990-01-01

    In support of performance testing of the X-29A aircraft at the NASA-Ames, various thrust calculation techniques were developed and evaluated for use on the F404-GE-400 engine. The engine was thrust calibrated at NASA-Lewis. Results from these tests were used to correct the manufacturer's in-flight thrust program to more accurately calculate thrust for the specific test engine. Data from these tests were also used to develop an independent, simplified thrust calculation technique for real-time thrust calculation. Comparisons were also made to thrust values predicted by the engine specification model. Results indicate uninstalled gross thrust accuracies on the order of 1 to 4 percent for the various in-flight thrust methods. The various thrust calculations are described and their usage, uncertainty, and measured accuracies are explained. In addition, the advantages of a real-time thrust algorithm for flight test use and the importance of an accurate thrust calculation to the aircraft performance analysis are described. Finally, actual data obtained from flight test are presented.

  14. Interference effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness of twin-engine fighter aircraft at Mach numbers from 0.15 to 0.90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, F. J.; Mason, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16 foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the interference effects of thrust reversing on horizontal tail effectiveness of a twin engine, general research fighter model at approach and in-flight speeds. Twin vertical tails at three longitudinal locations were tested at a cant angle of 0 deg. One configuration was also tested at a cant angle of 20 deg. Two nonaxisymmetric nozzle reverser concepts were studied. Test data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.15, 0.60, and 0.90 and at angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg. Nozzle pressure ratios varied from jet off to 7.0, depending upon Mach number. At landing approach speed (Mach number 0.15), thrust reverser operation usually resulted in large variations (up to 70% increase) in horizontal tail effectiveness as nozzle pressure ratio was varied at zero angle of attack or as angle of attack was varied at constant nozzle pressure ratio. There was always a decrease in effectiveness at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.90 as a result of reverser operation.

  15. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-12-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro2 and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a simple engine holder can be constructed and used with Vernier's LabPro and force probe to record data that students can use to compare to sample data from the rocket manufacturer or the National Association of Rocketry's3 engine certification sheets, calculate total impulse, and make predictions for model rocket launches. PASCO markets a rocket engine test bracket4 that mounts to its PASPORT force sensor for similar measurements. The engine holder described here is very economical, and all the parts can be obtained from a local hardware store or home center.

  16. Supersonic fan engines for military aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Engine performance and mission studies were performed for turbofan engines with supersonic through-flow fans. A Mach 2.4 CTOL aircraft was used in the study. Two missions were considered: a long range penetrator mission and a long range intercept mission. The supersonic fan engine is compared with an augmented mixed flow turbofan in terms of mission radius for a fixed takeoff gross weight of 75,000 lbm. The mission radius of aircraft powered by supersonic fan engines could be 15 percent longer than aircraft powered with conventional turbofan engines at moderate thrust to gross weight ratios. The climb and acceleration performance of the supersonic fan engines is better than that of the conventional turbofan engines.

  17. Low-thrust chemical rocket engine study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellish, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    Engine data and information are presented to perform system studies on cargo orbit-transfer vehicles which would deliver large space structures to geosynchronous equatorial orbit. Low-thrust engine performance, weight, and envelope parametric data were established, preliminary design information was generated, and technologies for liquid rocket engines were identified. Two major engine design drivers were considered in the study: cooling and engine cycle options. Both film-cooled and regeneratively cooled engines were evaluated. The propellant combinations studied were hydrogen/oxygen, methane/oxygen, and kerosene/oxygen.

  18. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  19. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  20. Integrated Thrust Vectored Engine Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    erformances operationnelles des aeronefs militaires, des vehicules terrestres et des vehicules maritimes] To order the complete compilation report...throttling "* Autonomous Engine Configuration Side forces demand to define nozzle vectoring "* Simple Interface FADEC -> FCS " Minimum Interaction FCS

  1. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  2. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  3. Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Area report FY'84

    SciTech Connect

    Minichino, C.; Phelps, P.L.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes the work of the Electronics Engineering Department Thrust Areas for FY'84: diagnostics and microelectronic engineering; signal and control engineering; microwave and pulsed power engineering; computer-aided engineering; engineering modeling and simulation; and systems engineering. For each Thrust Area, an overview and a description of the goals and achievements of each project is provided.

  4. Robust nonlinear control of vectored thrust aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, John C.; Murray, Richard; Morris, John

    1993-01-01

    An interdisciplinary program in robust control for nonlinear systems with applications to a variety of engineering problems is outlined. Major emphasis will be placed on flight control, with both experimental and analytical studies. This program builds on recent new results in control theory for stability, stabilization, robust stability, robust performance, synthesis, and model reduction in a unified framework using Linear Fractional Transformations (LFT's), Linear Matrix Inequalities (LMI's), and the structured singular value micron. Most of these new advances have been accomplished by the Caltech controls group independently or in collaboration with researchers in other institutions. These recent results offer a new and remarkably unified framework for all aspects of robust control, but what is particularly important for this program is that they also have important implications for system identification and control of nonlinear systems. This combines well with Caltech's expertise in nonlinear control theory, both in geometric methods and methods for systems with constraints and saturations.

  5. Predicted Performance of a Thrust-Enhanced SR-71 Aircraft with an External Payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has completed a preliminary performance analysis of the SR-71 aircraft for use as a launch platform for high-speed research vehicles and for carrying captive experimental packages to high altitude and Mach number conditions. Externally mounted research platforms can significantly increase drag, limiting test time and, in extreme cases, prohibiting penetration through the high-drag, transonic flight regime. To provide supplemental SR-71 acceleration, methods have been developed that could increase the thrust of the J58 turbojet engines. These methods include temperature and speed increases and augmentor nitrous oxide injection. The thrust-enhanced engines would allow the SR-71 aircraft to carry higher drag research platforms than it could without enhancement. This paper presents predicted SR-71 performance with and without enhanced engines. A modified climb-dive technique is shown to reduce fuel consumption when flying through the transonic flight regime with a large external payload. Estimates are included of the maximum platform drag profiles with which the aircraft could still complete a high-speed research mission. In this case, enhancement was found to increase the SR-71 payload drag capability by 25 percent. The thrust enhancement techniques and performance prediction methodology are described.

  6. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If the engine incorporates a reverser, the endurance calibration, operation, and vibration tests prescribed...

  7. Optics in aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  8. Thrust stand evaluation of engine performance improvement algorithms in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation is underway to determine the benefits of a new propulsion system optimization algorithm in an F-15 airplane. The performance seeking control (PSC) algorithm optimizes the quasi-steady-state performance of an F100 derivative turbofan engine for several modes of operation. The PSC algorithm uses an onboard software engine model that calculates thrust, stall margin, and other unmeasured variables for use in the optimization. As part of the PSC test program, the F-15 aircraft was operated on a horizontal thrust stand. Thrust was measured with highly accurate load cells. The measured thrust was compared to onboard model estimates and to results from posttest performance programs. Thrust changes using the various PSC modes were recorded. Those results were compared to benefits using the less complex highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) algorithm. The PSC maximum thrust mode increased intermediate power thrust by 10 percent. The PSC engine model did very well at estimating measured thrust and closely followed the transients during optimization. Quantitative results from the evaluation of the algorithms and performance calculation models are included with emphasis on measured thrust results. The report presents a description of the PSC system and a discussion of factors affecting the accuracy of the thrust stand load measurements.

  9. Real-time in-flight thrust calculation on a digital electronic engine control-equipped F100 engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1984-01-01

    Computer algorithms which calculate in-flight engine and aircraft performance real-time are discussed. The first step was completed with the implementation of a real-time thrust calculation program on a digital electronic engine control (DEEC) equiped F100 engine in an F-15 aircraft. The in-flight thrust modifications that allow calculations to be performed in real-time, to compare results to predictions, are presented.

  10. A study of external fuel vaporization. [for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.; Baker, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Candidate external vaporizer designs for an aircraft gas turbine engine are evaluated with respect to fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. The selected concept is shown to offer potential gains in engine performance in terms of reduced specific fuel consumption and improved engine thrust/weight ratio. The thrust/weight improvement can be traded against vaporization system weight.

  11. Aircraft Engine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veres, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    This report outlines the detailed simulation of Aircraft Turbofan Engine. The objectives were to develop a detailed flow model of a full turbofan engine that runs on parallel workstation clusters overnight and to develop an integrated system of codes for combustor design and analysis to enable significant reduction in design time and cost. The model will initially simulate the 3-D flow in the primary flow path including the flow and chemistry in the combustor, and ultimately result in a multidisciplinary model of the engine. The overnight 3-D simulation capability of the primary flow path in a complete engine will enable significant reduction in the design and development time of gas turbine engines. In addition, the NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) multidisciplinary integration and analysis are discussed.

  12. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Blodmer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady state reverse and forward to reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original quiet, clean, short haul, experimental engine four segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30 deg half angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30 deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress, and approximately a 20 percent improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35 percent of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff to reverse thrust transients.

  13. Fuel conservative aircraft engine technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nored, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Technology developments for more fuel-efficiency subsonic transport aircraft are reported. Three major propulsion projects were considered: (1) engine component improvement - directed at current engines; (2) energy efficient engine - directed at new turbofan engines; and (3) advanced turboprops - directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft. Each project is reviewed and some of the technologies and recent accomplishments are described.

  14. A Layman's Guide to Thrust Engine Development for Super/Hyper Sonic Flight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiesse, James L.

    The intention of this paper is to discuss the advances in thrust engines from the initial development of the J58/SR-71 (JT11D-20) of the U.S. Air Force's SR-71 Blackbird to the development of the RAM and SCRAM engines necessary to propel the new generations of high-flying super-speed aircraft. Engineering complexities suggest that the engines and…

  15. MHD thrust vectoring of a rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labaune, Julien; Packan, Denis; Tholin, Fabien; Chemartin, Laurent; Stillace, Thierry; Masson, Frederic

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the possibility to use MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) to vectorize the thrust of a solid propellant rocket engine exhaust is investigated. Using a magnetic field for vectoring offers a mass gain and a reusability advantage compared to standard gimbaled, elastomer-joint systems. Analytical and numerical models were used to evaluate the flow deviation with a 1 Tesla magnetic field inside the nozzle. The fluid flow in the resistive MHD approximation is calculated using the KRONOS code from ONERA, coupling the hypersonic CFD platform CEDRE and the electrical code SATURNE from EDF. A critical parameter of these simulations is the electrical conductivity, which was evaluated using a set of equilibrium calculations with 25 species. Two models were used: local thermodynamic equilibrium and frozen flow. In both cases, chlorine captures a large fraction of free electrons, limiting the electrical conductivity to a value inadequate for thrust vectoring applications. However, when using chlorine-free propergols with 1% in mass of alkali, an MHD thrust vectoring of several degrees was obtained.

  16. Swirling-flow jet noise suppressors for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, I. R.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the effects of swirling the jet exhausts of small turbofan and turbojet engines have indicated significant progress towards predicting and attaining substantial jet noise abatement with minimum thrust losses in large aircraft engines. Systematic variations of the important swirl vane and swirling flow parameters were conducted to determine their effects on jet noise reduction and engine performance. Since swirling flow becomes more effective in reducing jet noise as the density and temperature gradients increase, the significant trends in noise reduction and engine performance that were established by these parametric studies could be projected into potentially greater reductions of sound pressure levels with minimum thrust losses by controlled swirling of the jets of high thrust engines. The density and temperature gradients in the jet exhausts of high thrust engines are larger by comparison with gradients in small engines.

  17. Measurement effects on the calculation of in-flight thrust for an F404 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conners, Timothy R.

    1989-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates parameter measurement effects on calculated in-flight thrust for the General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine which powered the X-29A forward-swept wing research aircraft. Net-thrust uncertainty and influence coefficients were calculated and are presented. Six flight conditions were analyzed at five engine power settings each. Results were obtained using the mass flow-temperature and area-pressure thrust calculation methods, both based on the commonly used gas generator technique. Thrust uncertainty was determined using a common procedure based on the use of measurement uncertainty and influence coefficients. The effects of data nonlinearity on the uncertainty calculation procedure were studied and results are presented. The advantages and disadvantages of using this particular uncertainty procedure are discussed. A brief description of the thrust-calculation technique along with the uncertainty calculation procedure is included.

  18. Reverse thrust performance of the QCSEE variable pitch turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samanich, N. E.; Reemsnyder, D. C.; Bloomer, H. E.

    1980-01-01

    Results of steady-state reverse and forward-to-reverse thrust transient performance tests are presented. The original QCSEE 4-segment variable fan nozzle was retested in reverse and compared with a continuous, 30-deg half-angle conical exlet. Data indicated that the significantly more stable, higher pressure recovery flow with the fixed 30-deg exlet resulted in lower engine vibrations, lower fan blade stress and approximately a 20% improvement in reverse thrust. Objective reverse thrust of 35% of takeoff thrust was reached. Thrust response of less than 1.5 sec was achieved for the approach and the takeoff-to-reverse thrust transients.

  19. Net thrust calculation sensitivity of an afterburning turbofan engine to variations in input parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, D. L.; Ray, R. J.; Walton, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    The calculated value of net thrust of an aircraft powered by a General Electric F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engine was evaluated for its sensitivity to various input parameters. The effects of a 1.0-percent change in each input parameter on the calculated value of net thrust with two calculation methods are compared. This paper presents the results of these comparisons and also gives the estimated accuracy of the overall net thrust calculation as determined from the influence coefficients and estimated parameter measurement accuracies.

  20. Method of vibration isolating an aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Stanley I. (Inventor); Butler, Lawrence (Inventor); Dawes, Peter W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A method for coupling an engine to a support frame for mounting to a fuselage of an aircraft using a three point vibration isolating mounting system in which the load reactive forces at each mounting point are statically and dynamically determined. A first vibration isolating mount pivotably couples a first end of an elongated support beam to a stator portion of an engine with the pivoting action of the vibration mount being oriented such that it is pivotable about a line parallel to a center line of the engine. An aft end of the supporting frame is coupled to the engine through an additional pair of vibration isolating mounts with the mounts being oriented such that they are pivotable about a circumference of the engine. The aft mounts are symmetrically spaced to each side of the supporting frame by 45 degrees. The relative orientation between the front mount and the pair of rear mounts is such that only the rear mounts provide load reactive forces parallel to the engine center line, in support of the engine to the aircraft against thrust forces. The forward mount is oriented so as to provide only radial forces to the engine and some lifting forces to maintain the engine in position adjacent a fuselage. Since each mount is connected to provide specific forces to support the engine, forces required of each mount are statically and dynamically determinable.

  1. Acoustically shielded exhaust system for high thrust jet engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carey, John P. (Inventor); Lee, Robert (Inventor); Majjigi, Rudramuni K. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A flade exhaust nozzle for a high thrust jet engine is configured to form an acoustic shield around the core engine exhaust flowstream while supplementing engine thrust during all flight conditions, particularly during takeoff. The flade airflow is converted from an annular 360.degree. flowstream to an arcuate flowstream extending around the lower half of the core engine exhaust flowstream so as to suppress exhaust noise directed at the surrounding community.

  2. Using Engine Thrust for Emergency Flight Control: MD-11 and B-747 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Maine, Trindel A.; Burken, John J.; Bull, John

    1998-01-01

    With modern digital control systems, using engine thrust for emergency flight control to supplement or replace failed aircraft normal flight controls has become a practical consideration. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center has developed a propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system in which computer-controlled engine thrust provides emergency flight control. An F-15 and an MD-11 airplane have been landed without using any flight control surfaces. Preliminary studies have also been conducted that show that engines on only one wing can provide some flight control capability if the lateral center of gravity can be shifted toward the side of the airplane that has the operating engine(s). Simulator tests of several airplanes with no flight control surfaces operating and all engines out on the left wing have all shown positive control capability within the available range of lateral center-of-gravity offset. Propulsion-controlled aircraft systems that can operate without modifications to engine control systems, thus allowing PCA technology to be installed on less capable airplanes or at low cost, are also desirable. Further studies have examined simplified 'PCA Lite' and 'PCA Ultralite' concepts in which thrust control is provided by existing systems such as auto-throttles or a combination of existing systems and manual pilot control.

  3. Control Design for a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey; May, Ryan D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the control algorithms and control design process for a generic commercial aircraft engine simulation of a 40,000 lb thrust class, two spool, high bypass ratio turbofan engine. The aircraft engine is a complex nonlinear system designed to operate over an extreme range of environmental conditions, at temperatures from approximately -60 to 120+ F, and at altitudes from below sea level to 40,000 ft, posing multiple control design constraints. The objective of this paper is to provide the reader an overview of the control design process, design considerations, and justifications as to why the particular architecture and limits have been chosen. The controller architecture contains a gain-scheduled Proportional Integral controller along with logic to protect the aircraft engine from exceeding any limits. Simulation results illustrate that the closed loop system meets the Federal Aviation Administration s thrust response requirements

  4. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn't have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  5. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Yost, M. C.; Tobin, R. D.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted on the regenerative cooled thrust chamber of the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine. The conditions for the tests and the durations obtained are presented. The tests demonstrated thrust chamber operation over the nominal ranges of chamber pressure mixture ratio. Variations in auxiliary film coolant flowrate were also demonstrated. High pressure tests were conducted to demonstrate the thrust chamber operation at conditions approaching the design chamber pressure for the derivative space tug application.

  6. Effects of bleed air extraction on thrust levels on the F404-GE-400 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1992-01-01

    A ground test was performed to determine the effects of compressor bleed flow extraction on the performance of F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engines. The two engines were installed in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. A specialized bleed ducting system was installed onto the aircraft to control and measure engine bleed airflow while the aircraft was tied down to a thrust measuring stand. The test was conducted on each engine and at various power settings. The bleed air extraction levels analyzed included flow rates above the manufacturer's maximum specification limit. The measured relationship between thrust and bleed flow extraction was shown to be essentially linear at all power settings with an increase in bleed flow causing a corresponding decrease in thrust. A comparison with the F404-GE-400 steady-state engine simulation showed the estimation to be within +/- 1 percent of measured thrust losses for large increases in bleed flow rate.

  7. Effects of bleed air extraction of thrust levels on the F404-GE-400 turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuhas, Andrew J.; Ray, Ronald J.

    1992-01-01

    A ground test was performed to determine the effects of compressor bleed flow extraction on the performance of F404-GE-400 afterburning turbofan engines. The two engines were installed in the F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility. A specialized bleed ducting system was installed onto the aircraft to control and measure engine bleed airflow while the aircraft was tied down to a thrust measuring stand. The test was conducted on each engine and at various power settings. The bleed air extraction levels analyzed included flow rates above the manufacturer's maximum specification limit. The measured relationship between thrust and bleed flow extraction was shown to be essentially linear at all power settings with an increase in bleed flow causing a corresponding decrease in thrust. A comparison with the F404-GE-400 steady-state engine simulation showed the estimation to be within +/- 1 percent of measured thrust losses for large increases is bleed flow rate.

  8. A Regeneratively-Cooled Thrust Chamber for the Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kendall; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon; Jim Turner (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of presentation slides about the development of the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The Fastrac engine was originally developed to demonstrate low cost design and fabrication methods. It was intended to be used in an expendable booster. The regen thrust chamber enables a more cost efficient test program. Using the low cost design and fabrication methodology designed for the 12K regeneratively cooled chamber, the contractor designed, developed and fabricated a regeneratively cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine.

  9. Alloy design for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Tresa M.

    2016-08-01

    Metallic materials are fundamental to advanced aircraft engines. While perceived as mature, emerging computational, experimental and processing innovations are expanding the scope for discovery and implementation of new metallic materials for future generations of advanced propulsion systems.

  10. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility of potential reusable thrust chamber concepts is studied. Propellant condidates were examined and analytically combined with potential cooling schemes. A data base of engine data which would assist in a configuration selection was produced. The data base verification was performed by the demonstration of a thrust chamber of a selected coolant scheme design. A full scale insulated columbium thrust chamber was used for propellant coolant configurations. Combustion stability of the injectors and a reduced size thrust chamber were experimentally verified as proof of concept demonstrations of the design and study results.

  11. The Role of Modern Control Theory in the Design of Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J.; Lehtinen, B.; Merrill, W.

    1982-01-01

    Accomplishments in applying Modern Control Theory to the design of controls for advanced aircraft turbine engines were reviewed. The results of successful research programs are discussed. Ongoing programs as well as planned or recommended future thrusts are also discussed.

  12. 77 FR 36341 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... nitrogen (NO X ), compliance flexibilities, and other regulatory requirements for aircraft turbofan or... Exposure to Ozone, PM and NO X a. Deposition of Nitrogen b. Visibility Effects c. Plant and Ecosystem... nitrogen (NO X ) emission standards for aircraft engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kN...

  13. Thrust augmentation nozzle (TAN) concept for rocket engine booster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forde, Scott; Bulman, Mel; Neill, Todd

    2006-07-01

    Aerojet used the patented thrust augmented nozzle (TAN) concept to validate a unique means of increasing sea-level thrust in a liquid rocket booster engine. We have used knowledge gained from hypersonic Scramjet research to inject propellants into the supersonic region of the rocket engine nozzle to significantly increase sea-level thrust without significantly impacting specific impulse. The TAN concept overcomes conventional engine limitations by injecting propellants and combusting in an annular region in the divergent section of the nozzle. This injection of propellants at moderate pressures allows for obtaining high thrust at takeoff without overexpansion thrust losses. The main chamber is operated at a constant pressure while maintaining a constant head rise and flow rate of the main propellant pumps. Recent hot-fire tests have validated the design approach and thrust augmentation ratios. Calculations of nozzle performance and wall pressures were made using computational fluid dynamics analyses with and without thrust augmentation flow, resulting in good agreement between calculated and measured quantities including augmentation thrust. This paper describes the TAN concept, the test setup, test results, and calculation results.

  14. Unsteady thrust measurement techniques for pulse detonation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Dibesh Dhoj

    Thrust is a critical performance parameter and its correct determination is necessary to characterize an engine. Many conventional thrust measurement techniques prevail. However, further developments are required for correct measurement of thrust in the case of a pulse detonation engine (PDE), since the entire thrust generation process is intermittent. The significant effect of system dynamics in the form of inertial forces, stress wave propagation and reflections initiated in the structure due to detonations and pulse-to-pulse interaction in a fast operating PDE further complicate the thrust measurement process. These complications call for a further, detailed study of the unsteady thrust characteristics. A general approach was first developed to recover actual thrust from the measured thrust generated by the PDE. The developed approach consisted of two steps. The first step incorporated a deconvolution procedure using a pre-established system transfer function and measured input to reconstruct the output yielding the deconvolved thrust. The second step accounted for inertial forces through an acceleration compensation procedure. These two steps allowed the actual thrust to be determined. A small scale PDE operating at 10 and 20 Hz with varied filling fractions and mixture equivalence ratios was used for the experimental application of the general approach. The analytical study of gas dynamics in the PDE while in operation and the measured pressure histories at the exit of the engine allowed the generated thrust during a cycle to be determined semi-empirically. The thrust values determined semi-empirically were compared against the experimental results. A dynamical model of the PDE was created for the study of the unsteady thrust characteristics using finite element analysis. The results from finite element analysis were compared against semi-empirical and experimental results. In addition, finite element analysis also facilitated to numerically determine the

  15. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  16. Aircraft and Engine Development Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Control in Flight * Integrated Inlet- engine * Power/weight Exceeds Unity F-lll * Advanced Engines * Augmented Turbofan * High Turbine Temperature...residence times). Also, fabrication of a small scale "hot" engine with rotating components such as compressors and turbines with cooled blades , is...capabil- ities are essential to meet the needs of current and projected aircraft and engine programs. The required free jet nozzles should be capable of

  17. The 727 airplane target thrust reverser static performance model test for refanned JT8D engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, C. T. P.; Atkey, E. N.

    1974-01-01

    The results of a scale model static performance test of target thrust reverser configurations for the Pratt and Whitney Aircraft JT8D-100 series engine are presented. The objective of the test was to select a series of suitable candidate reverser configurations for the subsequent airplane model wind tunnel ingestion and flight controls tests. Test results indicate that adequate reverse thrust performance with compatible engine airflow match is achievable for the selected configurations. Tapering of the lips results in loss of performance and only minimal flow directivity. Door pressure surveys were conducted on a selected number of lip and fence configurations to obtain data to support the design of the thrust reverser system.

  18. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Flight Control Using Engine Differentials: Regulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Liu; Xidong, Tang; Gang, Tao; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of using engine thrust differentials to compensate for rudder and aileron failures in aircraft flight control is addressed in this paper in a new framework. A nonlinear aircraft model that incorporates engine di erentials in the dynamic equations is employed and linearized to describe the aircraft s longitudinal and lateral motion. In this model two engine thrusts of an aircraft can be adjusted independently so as to provide the control flexibility for rudder or aileron failure compensation. A direct adaptive compensation scheme for asymptotic regulation is developed to handle uncertain actuator failures in the linearized system. A design condition is specified to characterize the system redundancy needed for failure compensation. The adaptive regulation control scheme is applied to the linearized model of a large transport aircraft in which the longitudinal and lateral motions are coupled as the result of using engine thrust differentials. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the adaptive compensation scheme.

  19. Energy efficient engine: Propulsion system-aircraft integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight performance and operating economics of future commercial transports utilizing the energy efficient engine were assessed as well as the probability of meeting NASA's goals for TSFC, DOC, noise, and emissions. Results of the initial propulsion systems aircraft integration evaluation presented include estimates of engine performance, predictions of fuel burns, operating costs of the flight propulsion system installed in seven selected advanced study commercial transports, estimates of noise and emissions, considerations of thrust growth, and the achievement-probability analysis.

  20. 14 CFR 33.97 - Thrust reversers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Thrust reversers. 33.97 Section 33.97 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.97 Thrust reversers. (a) If...

  1. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. A simulator investigation of engine failure compensation for powered-lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieuwenhuijse, A. W.; Franklin, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A piloted simulator investigation of various engine failure compensation concepts for powered-lift STOL aircraft was carried out at the Ames Research Center. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of engine failure compensation on recovery from an engine failure during the landing approach and on the precision of the STOL landing. The various concepts include: (1) cockpit warning lights to cue the pilot of an engine failure, (2) programmed thrust and roll trim compensation, (3) thrust command and (4) flight-path stabilization. The aircraft simulated was a 150 passenger four-engine, externally blown flap civil STOL transport having a 90 psf wing loading and a .56 thrust to weight ratio. Results of the simulation indicate that the combination of thrust command and flight-path stabilization offered the best engine-out landing performance in turbulence and did so over the entire range of altitudes for which engine failures occurred.

  3. Flight evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation technique using an F100 turbofan engine in an F-15 airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtenbach, F. J.; Burcham, F. W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation technique was evaluated in flight tests on an F-15 aircraft using prototype F100-PW-100 engines. The technique relies on afterburner duct pressure measurements and empirical corrections to an ideal one-dimensional analysis to determine thrust. In-flight gross thrust calculated by the simplified method is compared to gross thrust calculated by the engine manufacturer's gas generator model. The evaluation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.5 and at altitudes from 6000 meters to 13,700 meters. The flight evaluation shows that the simplified gross thrust method and the gas generator method agreed within plus or minus 3 percent. The discrepancies between the data generally fell within an uncertainty band derived from instrumentation errors and recording system resolution.

  4. Real-Time Aircraft Engine-Life Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This project developed an inservice life-monitoring system capable of predicting the remaining component and system life of aircraft engines. The embedded system provides real-time, inflight monitoring of the engine's thrust, exhaust gas temperature, efficiency, and the speed and time of operation. Based upon this data, the life-estimation algorithm calculates the remaining life of the engine components and uses this data to predict the remaining life of the engine. The calculations are based on the statistical life distribution of the engine components and their relationship to load, speed, temperature, and time.

  5. Aircraft ground test and subscale model results of axial thrust loss caused by thrust vectoring using turning vanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Steven A.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA-Dryden F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle was modified to incorporate three independently controlled turning vanes located aft of the primary nozzle of each engine to vector thrust for pitch and yaw control. Ground measured axial thrust losses were compared with the results from a 14.25 pct. cold jet model for single and dual vanes inserted up to 25 degs into the engine exhaust. Data are presented for nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0 and 3.0 and nozzle exit areas of 253 and 348 sq in. The results indicate that subscale nozzle test results properly predict trends but underpredict the full scale results by approx. 1 to 4.5 pct. in thrust loss.

  6. Microphone Boom for Aircraft-Engine Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, R.; Economu, M.; Albrecht, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microphone for measuring aircraft engine noise mounted on lengthwise boom supported away from fuselage and engine. This configuration minimizes boundary-layer effects and pressure doubling that is present if microphone were mounted in aircraft fuselage.

  7. Fretting in aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. L.; Bill, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of fretting in aircraft turbine engines is discussed. Critical fretting can occur on fan, compressor, and turbine blade mountings, as well as on splines, rolling element bearing races, and secondary sealing elements of face type seals. Structural fatigue failures have been shown to occur at fretted areas on component parts. Methods used by designers to reduce the effects of fretting are given.

  8. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Senneff, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Reusable thrust chamber and injector concepts were evaluated for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine (OME). Parametric engine calculations were carried out by computer program for N2O4/amine, LOX/amine and LOX/hydrocarbon propellant combinations for engines incorporating regenerative cooled and insulated columbium thrust chambers. The calculation methods are described including the fuel vortex film cooling method of combustion gas temperature control, and performance prediction. A method of acceptance of a regeneratively cooled heat rejection reduction using a silicone oil additive was also demonstrated by heated tube heat transfer testing. Regeneratively cooled thrust chamber operation was also demonstrated where the injector was characterized for the OME application with a channel wall regenerative thrust chamber. Bomb stability testing of the demonstration chambers/injectors demonstrated recovery for the nominal design of acoustic cavities. Cavity geometry changes were also evaluated to assess their damping margin. Performance and combustion stability was demonstrated of the originally developed 10 inch diameter combustion pattern operating in an 8 inch diameter thrust chamber.

  9. Experimental Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Deere, Karen A.; Mason, Mary L.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    An axisymmetric version of the Dual Throat Nozzle concept with a variable expansion ratio has been studied to determine the impacts on thrust vectoring and nozzle performance. The nozzle design, applicable to a supersonic aircraft, was guided using the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code, PAB3D. The axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept was tested statically in the Jet Exit Test Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The nozzle geometric design variables included circumferential span of injection, cavity length, cavity convergence angle, and nozzle expansion ratio for conditions corresponding to take-off and landing, mid climb and cruise. Internal nozzle performance and thrust vectoring performance was determined for nozzle pressure ratios up to 10 with secondary injection rates up to 10 percent of the primary flow rate. The 60 degree span of injection generally performed better than the 90 degree span of injection using an equivalent injection area and number of holes, in agreement with computational results. For injection rates less than 7 percent, thrust vector angle for the 60 degree span of injection was 1.5 to 2 degrees higher than the 90 degree span of injection. Decreasing cavity length improved thrust ratio and discharge coefficient, but decreased thrust vector angle and thrust vectoring efficiency. Increasing cavity convergence angle from 20 to 30 degrees increased thrust vector angle by 1 degree over the range of injection rates tested, but adversely affected system thrust ratio and discharge coefficient. The dual throat nozzle concept generated the best thrust vectoring performance with an expansion ratio of 1.0 (a cavity in between two equal minimum areas). The variable expansion ratio geometry did not provide the expected improvements in discharge coefficient and system thrust ratio throughout the flight envelope of typical a supersonic aircraft. At mid-climb and cruise conditions, the variable geometry

  10. Pollution reduction technology program for small jet aircraft engines: Class T1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, T. W.; Davis, F. G.; Mongia, H. C.

    1977-01-01

    Small jet aircraft engines (EPA class T1, turbojet and turbofan engines of less than 35.6 kN thrust) were evaluated with the objective of attaining emissions reduction consistent with performance constraints. Configurations employing the technological advances were screened and developed through full scale rig testing. The most promising approaches in full-scale engine testing were evaluated.

  11. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport.

    PubMed

    Winther, Morten; Kousgaard, Uffe; Oxbøl, Arne

    2006-07-31

    In a new approach the odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport are calculated using actual fuel flow and emission measurements (one main engine and one APU: Auxiliary Power Unit), odour panel results, engine specific data and aircraft operational data for seven busy days. The calculation principle assumes a linear relation between odour and HC emissions. Using a digitalisation of the aircraft movements in the airport area, the results are depicted on grid maps, clearly reflecting aircraft operational statistics as single flights or total activity during a whole day. The results clearly reflect the short-term temporal fluctuations of the emissions of odour (and exhaust gases). Aircraft operating at low engine thrust (taxiing, queuing and landing) have a total odour emission share of almost 98%, whereas the shares for the take off/climb out phases (2%) and APU usage (0.5%) are only marginal. In most hours of the day, the largest odour emissions occur, when the total amount of fuel burned during idle is high. However, significantly higher HC emissions for one specific engine cause considerable amounts of odour emissions during limited time periods. The experimentally derived odour emission factor of 57 OU/mg HC is within the range of 23 and 110 OU/mg HC used in other airport odour studies. The distribution of odour emission results between aircraft operational phases also correspond very well with the results for these other studies. The present study uses measurement data for a representative engine. However, the uncertainties become large when the experimental data is used to estimate the odour emissions for all aircraft engines. More experimental data is needed to increase inventory accuracy, and in terms of completeness it is recommended to make odour emission estimates also for engine start and the fuelling of aircraft at Copenhagen Airport in the future.

  12. An engine trade study for a supersonic STOVL fighter-attack aircraft, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beard, B. B.; Foley, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    The best main engine for an advanced STOVL aircraft flight demonstrator was studied. The STOVL aircraft uses ejectors powered by engine bypass flow together with vectored core exhaust to achieve vertical thrust capability. Bypass flow and core flow are exhausted through separate nozzles during wingborne flight. Six near term turbofan engines were examined for suitability for this aircraft concept. Fan pressure ratio, thrust split between bypass and core flow, and total thrust level were used to compare engines. One of the six candidate engines was selected for the flight demonstrator configuration. Propulsion related to this aircraft concept was studied. A preliminary candidate for the aircraft reaction control system for hover attitude control was selected. A mathematical model of transfer of bypass thrust from ejectors to aft directed nozzle during the transition to wingborne flight was developed. An equation to predict ejector secondary air flow rate and ram drag is derived. Additional topics discussed include: nozzle area control, ejector to engine inlet reingestion, bypass/core thrust split variation, and gyroscopic behavior during hover.

  13. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. Propeller study. Part 3: Experimental determination of thrust and torque on the YO-3A aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsbee, A. I.; Siddiqi, S. A.; Sivier, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and procedures for obtaining in-flight measurements of the torque and thrust of a propeller mounted on a YO-3A aircraft are described. Problems encountered in the study are discussed and methods for eliminating these difficulties are suggested.

  15. A Regeneratively Cooled Thrust Chamber For The Fastrac Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Kendall K.; Sparks, Dave; Woodcock, Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the development of a low-cost, regeneratively-cooled thrust chamber for the Fastrac engine. The chamber was fabricated using hydraformed copper tubing to form the coolant jacket and wrapped with a fiber reinforced polymer composite Material to form a structural jacket. The thrust chamber design and fabrication approach was based upon Space America. Inc.'s 12,000 lb regeneratively-cooled LOX/kerosene rocket engine. Fabrication of regeneratively cooled thrust chambers by tubewall construction dates back to the early US ballistic missile programs. The most significant innovations in this design was the development of a low-cost process for fabrication from copper tubing (nickel alloy was the usual practice) and use of graphite composite overwrap as the pressure containment, which yields an easily fabricated, lightweight pressure jacket around the copper tubes A regeneratively-cooled reusable thrust chamber can benefit the Fastrac engine program by allowing more efficient (cost and scheduler testing). A proof-of-concept test article has been fabricated and will he tested at Marshall Space Flight Center in the late Summer or Fall of 2000.

  16. Eigenstructure assignment for a thrust-vectored high angle-of-attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, Kenneth M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1988-01-01

    Eigenstructure assignment is utilized to design flight control laws for a thrust-vectored aircraft at several different angles of attack. An interesting characteristic of the aircraft model is that the control distribution matrix is rank-deficient. Also, the effectiveness of the control inputs varies with the angle of attack. A pseudocontrol strategy is used to reduce the control space to two dimensions. After the eigenstructure assignment design is complete, the controller is mapped back to the original five-dimensional control space. The designs are shown to exhibit acceptable multivariable stability margins at the aircraft inputs.

  17. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.79 Fuel burning thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff...

  18. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.79 Fuel burning thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff...

  19. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.79 Fuel burning thrust augmentor. Each fuel burning thrust augmentor, including the nozzle, must— (a) Provide cutoff...

  20. Preliminary study of VTO thrust requirements for a V/STOL aircraft with lift plus lift/cruise propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Allen, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the VTO thrust requirements for a supersonic (Type B) aircraft with a Lift plus Lift/Cruise propulsion system. A baseline aircraft with a takeoff gross weight (TOGW) of 13 608 kg (30,000 lb) was assumed. Pitch, roll, and yaw control thrusts (i.e., the thrusts needed for aircraft attitude control in the flight hover mode) were estimated based on a specified set of maneuver acceleration requirements for V/STOL aircraft. Other effects (such as installation losses, suckdown, reingestion, etc.), which add to the thrust requirements for VTO were also estimated. For the baseline aircraft, the excess thrust required for attitude control of the aircraft during VTO and flight hover was estimated to range from 36.9 to 50.9 percent of the TOGW. It was concluded that the total thrust requirements for the aircraft/propulsion system are large and significant. In order to achieve the performance expected of this aircraft/propulsion system, reductions must be made in the excess thrust requirements.

  1. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael; Thomas, Robert; Crofton, Mark; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground-in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  2. High Thrust-to-Power Annular Engine Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael J.; Thomas, Robert E.; Crofton, Mark W.; Young, Jason A.; Foster, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Gridded ion engines have the highest efficiency and total impulse of any mature electric propulsion technology, and have been successfully implemented for primary propulsion in both geocentric and heliocentric environments with excellent ground/in-space correlation of performance. However, they have not been optimized to maximize thrust-to-power, an important parameter for Earth orbit transfer applications. This publication discusses technology development work intended to maximize this parameter. These activities include investigating the capabilities of a non-conventional design approach, the annular engine, which has the potential of exceeding the thrust-to-power of other EP technologies. This publication discusses the status of this work, including the fabrication and initial tests of a large-area annular engine. This work is being conducted in collaboration among NASA Glenn Research Center, The Aerospace Corporation, and the University of Michigan.

  3. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  4. Low-Thrust Bipropellant Engine Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    Engine MON-X Propellant Blend N204 + NO (% By Weight) MR Mixture Ratio = O/F Ratio By Weight ms (msec) Millisecond NO Nitric Oxide (additive to N2O4) NDT ...draulic stroke X plus the required seat preload. The magnitude of the armature rotation is governed by the geometry of the torque motor (see Figure 1...h .- .. , ... . . .o,..k 7 : ,: __ Where S - Hydraulic Stroke 6 - Flapper "wind up" X -1/2- (.00o) + .003 UOU Therefore 0 . : .0082 hadians 41

  5. Compact and High Thrust Air Turbo Ram Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Hiroaki; Kitahara, Kazuki; Inukai, Yasuo

    The Air Turbo Ramjet (ATR) is a combined cycle engine which performs like a turbojet engine at subsonic speeds and a ramjet at supersonic speeds and therefore the ATR is an attractive propulsion system for the wide operation range (e.g. Mach 0 to Mach 4). The ATR can provide a higher specific impulse than a solid fuel rocket engine and a higher thrust per frontal area than a turbojet engine. The major ATR components are the inlet, fan (compressor), turbine, gas generator, combustor and exhaust nozzle. In the ATR, the turbine drive gas is generated by a decomposed liquid or solid fuel gas generator. In order to carry heavier payloads and to attain shorter flight time, the compact and high thrust engine is required. In this study, the ram combustor with the double-staged flameholders and the fan with tandem blade were introduced to shorten the engine length and to increase the fan pressure ratio, respectively. Furthermore, the engine testing was carried out on sea level static condition to confirm the engine component integration technologies for the ATR propulsion system.

  6. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  7. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  8. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  9. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  10. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  12. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  13. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  14. 14 CFR 25.934 - Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. 25.934 Section 25.934 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Turbojet engine thrust reverser system tests. Thrust reversers installed on turbojet engines must meet...

  15. 14 CFR 23.934 - Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust... CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant General § 23.934 Turbojet and turbofan engine thrust reverser systems tests. Thrust reverser systems of turbojet or turbofan engines must meet the requirements of § 33.97 of...

  16. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A data dump is presented containing space shuttle orbiter maneuvering engine performance, weight, envelope, and interface pressure requirements for candidate propellant combinations (NTO/MMH, NTO50-50, LOX/MMH, LOX/50-50, LOX/N2H4, LOX/C3H8, and LOX/RP-1) and cooling concepts (regenerative and dump/film). These data are presented parametrically for the thrust, chamber pressure, nozzle expansion ratio, and engine mixture ratio ranges of interest. Also included is information describing sensitivity to system changes; reliability, maintainability and safety; development programs and associated critical technology areas; engine cost comparisons during development and operation; and ecological effects.

  17. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  18. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  19. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  20. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  1. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  2. Aeroservoelastic Modeling and Validation of a Thrust-Vectoring F/A-18 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenner, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    An F/A-18 aircraft was modified to perform flight research at high angles of attack (AOA) using thrust vectoring and advanced control law concepts for agility and performance enhancement and to provide a testbed for the computational fluid dynamics community. Aeroservoelastic (ASE) characteristics had changed considerably from the baseline F/A-18 aircraft because of structural and flight control system amendments, so analyses and flight tests were performed to verify structural stability at high AOA. Detailed actuator models that consider the physical, electrical, and mechanical elements of actuation and its installation on the airframe were employed in the analysis to accurately model the coupled dynamics of the airframe, actuators, and control surfaces. This report describes the ASE modeling procedure, ground test validation, flight test clearance, and test data analysis for the reconfigured F/A-18 aircraft. Multivariable ASE stability margins are calculated from flight data and compared to analytical margins. Because this thrust-vectoring configuration uses exhaust vanes to vector the thrust, the modeling issues are nearly identical for modem multi-axis nozzle configurations. This report correlates analysis results with flight test data and makes observations concerning the application of the linear predictions to thrust-vectoring and high-AOA flight.

  3. 75 FR 32315 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ..., 912 F, and 912 S series engines. Versions of the 912 F series and 912 S series engines are type... not have an engine type certificate; instead, the engine is part of the aircraft type design. You may... Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  4. Airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, at selected flight conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, T. J.; Lee, D.; Rodriguez, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    An airflow and thrust calibration of an F100 engine, S/N P680059, was conducted to study airframe propulsion system integration losses in turbofan-powered high-performance aircraft. The tests were conducted with and without thrust augmentation for a variety of simulated flight conditions with emphasis on the transonic regime. The resulting corrected airflow data generalized into one curve with corrected fan speed while corrected gross thrust increased as simulated flight conditions increased. Overall agreement between measured data and computed results was 1 percent for corrected airflow and -1 1/2 percent for gross thrust. The results of an uncertainty analysis are presented for both parameters at each simulated flight condition.

  5. Jet-Engine Exhaust Nozzle With Thrust-Directing Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent/divergent jet-engine exhaust nozzle has cruciform divergent passage containing flaps that move to deflect flow of exhaust in either or both planes perpendicular to main fore-and-aft axis of undeflected flow. Prototype of thrust-vector-control nozzles installed in advanced, high-performance airplanes to provide large pitching (usually, vertical) and yawing (usually, horizontal) attitude-control forces independent of attitude-control forces produced by usual aerodynamic control surfaces.

  6. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, W. H.; Sheridan, A. E.; Smith, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    A conceptual design and analysis on a single engine VSTOL fighter/attack aircraft is completed. The aircraft combines a NASA/deHavilland ejector with vectored thrust and is capable of accomplishing the mission and point performance of type Specification 169, and a flight demonstrator could be built with an existing F101/DFE engine. The aerodynamic, aero/propulsive, and propulsive uncertainties are identified, and a wind tunnel program is proposed to address those uncertainties associated with wing borne flight.

  7. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  8. Numerical simulation of variable thrust engine combustion chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Tsung L.; Chiang, Wei-Tang; Jang, Shyh-Dihng

    1992-07-01

    Numerical computations have been conducted for the combustion and fluid-dynamic processes of a variable thrust engine's combustion chamber at the choking condition for two different power levels. The engine in question is to be used by an orbital-maneuvering vehicle. Physical submodels are used in order to account for the two-phase interaction between bipropellant droplet flows and gas-phase flow; nozzle throat conditions are determined by both mass-conservation and thermodynamic relations. In view of the results obtained, the conventional association between fineness of fuel spray and the maximization of combustor efficiency requires reassessment.

  9. An Extended Combustion Model for the Aircraft Turbojet Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Andres-Mihăilă, Mihai; Matei, Pericle Gabriel

    2014-08-01

    The paper consists in modelling and simulation of the combustion in a turbojet engine in order to find optimal characteristics of the burning process and the optimal shape of combustion chambers. The main focus of this paper is to find a new configuration of the aircraft engine combustion chambers, namely an engine with two main combustion chambers, one on the same position like in classical configuration, between compressor and turbine and the other, placed behind the turbine but not performing the role of the afterburning. This constructive solution could allow a lower engine rotational speed, a lower temperature in front of the first stage of the turbine and the possibility to increase the turbine pressure ratio by extracting the flow stream after turbine in the inner nozzle. Also, a higher thermodynamic cycle efficiency and thrust in comparison to traditional constant-pressure combustion gas turbine engines could be obtained.

  10. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    A methodical design study was conducted to arrive at new diesel engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed and the description of each engine includes concept drawings. A performance analysis, stress and weight prediction, and a cost study were also conducted. This information was then applied to two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consisted of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data shows a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft. At the completion of this basic study, the program was expanded to evaluate a third engine configuration. This third engine incorporates the best features of the original two, and its design is currently in progress. Preliminary information on this engine is presented.

  11. Effects of an in-flight thrust reverser on the stability and control characteristics of a single-engine fighter airplane model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercer, C. E.; Maiden, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    The changes in thrust minus drag performance as well as longitudinal and directional stability and control characteristics of a single-engine jet aircraft attributable to an in-flight thrust reverser of the blocker-deflector door type were investigated in a 16-foot transonic wind tunnel. The longitudinal and directional stability data are presented. Test conditions simulated landing approach conditions as well as high speed maneuvering such as may be required for combat or steep descent from high altitude.

  12. Adaptive Optimization of Aircraft Engine Performance Using Neural Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Long, Theresa W.

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented on the development of an adaptive neural network based control algorithm to enhance aircraft engine performance. This work builds upon a previous National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) effort known as Performance Seeking Control (PSC). PSC is an adaptive control algorithm which contains a model of the aircraft's propulsion system which is updated on-line to match the operation of the aircraft's actual propulsion system. Information from the on-line model is used to adapt the control system during flight to allow optimal operation of the aircraft's propulsion system (inlet, engine, and nozzle) to improve aircraft engine performance without compromising reliability or operability. Performance Seeking Control has been shown to yield reductions in fuel flow, increases in thrust, and reductions in engine fan turbine inlet temperature. The neural network based adaptive control, like PSC, will contain a model of the propulsion system which will be used to calculate optimal control commands on-line. Hopes are that it will be able to provide some additional benefits above and beyond those of PSC. The PSC algorithm is computationally intensive, it is valid only at near steady-state flight conditions, and it has no way to adapt or learn on-line. These issues are being addressed in the development of the optimal neural controller. Specialized neural network processing hardware is being developed to run the software, the algorithm will be valid at steady-state and transient conditions, and will take advantage of the on-line learning capability of neural networks. Future plans include testing the neural network software and hardware prototype against an aircraft engine simulation. In this paper, the proposed neural network software and hardware is described and preliminary neural network training results are presented.

  13. Evaluation of an Outer Loop Retrofit Architecture for Intelligent Turbofan Engine Thrust Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane

    2006-01-01

    The thrust control capability of a retrofit architecture for intelligent turbofan engine control and diagnostics is evaluated. The focus of the study is on the portion of the hierarchical architecture that performs thrust estimation and outer loop thrust control. The inner loop controls fan speed so the outer loop automatically adjusts the engine's fan speed command to maintain thrust at the desired level, based on pilot input, even as the engine deteriorates with use. The thrust estimation accuracy is assessed under nominal and deteriorated conditions at multiple operating points, and the closed loop thrust control performance is studied, all in a complex real-time nonlinear turbofan engine simulation test bed. The estimation capability, thrust response, and robustness to uncertainty in the form of engine degradation are evaluated.

  14. Thrust Augmentation Measurements Using a Pulse Detonation Engine Ejector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Pal, Sibtosh

    2003-01-01

    The present NASA GRC-funded three-year research project is focused on studying PDE driven ejectors applicable to a hybrid Pulse Detonation/Turbofan Engine. The objective of the study is to characterize the PDE-ejector thrust augmentation. A PDE-ejector system has been designed to provide critical experimental data for assessing the performance enhancements possible with this technology. Completed tasks include demonstration of a thrust stand for measuring average thrust for detonation tube multi-cycle operation, and design of a 72-in.-long, 2.25-in.-diameter (ID) detonation tube and modular ejector assembly. This assembly will allow testing of both straight and contoured ejector geometries. Initial ejectors that have been fabricated are 72-in.-long-constant-diameter tubes (4-, 5-, and 6-in.-diameter) instrumented with high-frequency pressure transducers. The assembly has been designed such that the detonation tube exit can be positioned at various locations within the ejector tube. PDE-ejector system experiments with gaseous ethylene/ nitrogen/oxygen propellants will commence in the very near future. The program benefits from collaborations with Prof. Merkle of University of Tennessee whose PDE-ejector analysis helps guide the experiments. The present research effort will increase the TRL of PDE-ejectors from its current level of 2 to a level of 3.

  15. Experiments on heat transfer in a cryogenic engine thrust chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugathan, N.; Srinivasan, K.; Srinivasa Murthy, S.

    1993-04-01

    Tests are conducted on a cryogenic engine using liquid oxygen as oxidizer and gaseous hydrogen as fuel with water as a coolant. The coolant flow passage of the thrust chamber is of milled channel configuration. Measured heat transfer results compare well with those predicted by a thermal analysis using the standard Bartz correlation and the Hess and Kunz correlation for hot gas side and coolant side heat transfer coefficients, respectively. This confirms the conclusions of a recent theoretical study by the authors in which a comparison of various heat transfer correlations was made.

  16. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  17. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  18. Design and analysis report for the RL10-2B breadboard low thrust engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. R.; Foust, R. R.; Galler, D. E.; Kanic, P. G.; Kmiec, T. D.; Limerick, C. D.; Peckham, R. J.; Swartwout, T.

    1984-01-01

    The breadboard low thrust RL10-2B engine is described. A summary of the analysis and design effort to define the multimode thrust concept applicable to the requirements for the upper stage vehicles is provided. Baseline requirements were established for operation of the RL10-2B engine under the following conditions: (1) tank head idle at low propellant tank pressures without vehicle propellant conditioning or settling thrust; (2) pumped idle at a ten percent thrust level for low G deployment and/or vehicle tank pressurization; and (3) full thrust (15,000 lb.). Several variations of the engine configuration were investigated and results of the analyses are included.

  19. Technology for reducing aircraft engine pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.; Kempke, E. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Programs have been initiated by NASA to develop and demonstrate advanced technology for reducing aircraft gas turbine and piston engine pollutant emissions. These programs encompass engines currently in use for a wide variety of aircraft from widebody-jets to general aviation. Emission goals for these programs are consistent with the established EPA standards. Full-scale engine demonstrations of the most promising pollutant reduction techniques are planned within the next three years. Preliminary tests of advanced technology gas turbine engine combustors indicate that significant reductions in all major pollutant emissions should be attainable in present generation aircraft engines without adverse effects on fuel consumption. Fundamental-type programs are yielding results which indicate that future generation gas turbine aircraft engines may be able to utilize extremely low pollutant emission combustion systems.

  20. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Tobin, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    Analyses and preliminary designs of candidate OME propellant combinations and corresponding engine designs were conducted and evaluated in terms of performance, operating limits, program cost, risk, inherent life and maintainability. For the Rocketdyne recommended and NASA approved propellant combination and cooling concept (NTO/MMH regeneratively cooled engine), a demonstration thrust chamber was designed, fabricated, and experimentally evaluated to define operating characteristics and limits. Alternate fuel (50-50) operating characteristics were also investigated with the demonstration chamber. Adverse operating effects on regenerative cooled operation were evaluated using subscale electrically heated tubes and channels. An investigation of like doublet element characteristics using subscale tests was performed. Full scale 8- and 10-inch diameter like-doublet injectors for the OME were designed, fabricated, and tested. Injector stability was evaluated analytically and experimentally.

  1. Integrated engine generator for aircraft secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    An integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power generation is described. The concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. This configuration reduces or eliminates the need for an external gear box on the engine and permits reduction in the nacelle diameter.

  2. Cycle Counting Methods of the Aircraft Engine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedorchenko, Dmitrii G.; Novikov, Dmitrii K.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of condition-based gas turbine-powered aircraft operation is realized all over the world, which implementation requires knowledge of the end-of-life information related to components of aircraft engines in service. This research proposes an algorithm for estimating the equivalent cyclical running hours. This article provides analysis…

  3. Uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Steurer, John W.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    Methods for estimating the measurement error or uncertainty of in-flight thrust determination in aircraft employing conventional turbofan/turbojet engines are reviewed. While the term 'in-flight thrust determination' is used synonymously with 'in-flight thrust measurement', in-flight thrust is not directly measured but is determined or calculated using mathematical modeling relationships between in-flight thrust and various direct measurements of physical quantities. The in-flight thrust determination process incorporates both ground testing and flight testing. The present text is divided into the following categories: measurement uncertainty methodoogy and in-flight thrust measurent processes.

  4. Review of Aircraft Engine Fan Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanZante, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Aircraft turbofan engines incorporate multiple technologies to enhance performance and durability while reducing noise emissions. Both careful aerodynamic design of the fan and proper installation of the fan into the system are requirements for achieving the performance and acoustic objectives. The design and installation characteristics of high performance aircraft engine fans will be discussed along with some lessons learned that may be applicable to spaceflight fan applications.

  5. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  6. Feedback control for counterflow thrust vectoring with a turbine engine: Experiment design and robust control design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dores, Delfim Zambujo Das

    2005-11-01

    Engineering research over the last few years has successfully demonstrated the potential of thrust vector control using counterflow at conditions up to Mach 2. Flow configurations that include the pitch vectoring of rectangular jets and multi-axis vector control in diamond and axisymmetric nozzle geometries have been studied. Although bistable (on-off) fluid-based control has been around for some time, the present counterflow thrust vector control is unique because proportional and continuous jet response can be achieved in the absence of moving parts, while avoiding jet attachment, which renders most fluidic approaches unacceptable for aircraft and missile control applications. However, before this study, research had been limited to open-loop studies of counterflow thrust vectoring. For practical implementation it was vital that the counterflow scheme be used in conjunction with feedback control. Hence, the focus of this research was to develop and experimentally demonstrate a feedback control design methodology for counterflow thrust vectoring. This research focused on 2-D (pitch) thrust vectoring and addresses four key modeling issues. The first issue is to determine the measured variable to be commanded since the thrust vector angle is not measurable in real time. The second related issue is to determine the static mapping from the thrust vector angle to this measured variable. The third issue is to determine the dynamic relationship between the measured variable and the thrust vector angle. The fourth issue is to develop dynamic models with uncertainty characterizations. The final and main goal was the design and implementation of robust controllers that yield closed-loop systems with fast response times, and avoid overshoot in order to aid in the avoidance of attachment. These controllers should be simple and easy to implement in real applications. Hence, PID design has been chosen. Robust control design is accomplished by using ℓ1 control theory in

  7. Computational analysis of Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giridharan, M. G.; Krishnan, A.; Przekwas, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    The Variable Thrust Engine (VTE) of the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) uses a hypergolic propellant combination of Monomethyl Hydrazine (MMH) and Nitrogen Tetroxide (NTO) as fuel and oxidizer, respectively. The performance of the VTE depends on a number of complex interacting phenomena such as atomization, spray dynamics, vaporization, turbulent mixing, convective/radiative heat transfer, and hypergolic combustion. This study involved the development of a comprehensive numerical methodology to facilitate detailed analysis of the VTE. An existing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code was extensively modified to include the following models: a two-liquid, two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian spray model; a chemical equilibrium model; and a discrete ordinate radiation heat transfer model. The modified code was used to conduct a series of simulations to assess the effects of various physical phenomena and boundary conditions on the VTE performance. The details of the models and the results of the simulations are presented.

  8. Engine selection for transport and combat aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dugan, J. F., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    The procedures that are used to select engines for transport and combat aircraft are discussed. In general, the problem is to select the engine parameters including engine size in such a way that all constraints are satisfied and airplane performance is maximized. This is done for four different classes of aircraft: (1) a long haul conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) transport, (2) a short haul vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) transport, (3) a long range supersonic transport (SST), and (4) a fighter aircraft. For the commercial airplanes the critical constraints have to do with noise while for the fighter, maneuverability requirements define the engine. Generally, the resultant airplane performance (range or payload) is far less than that achievable without these constraints and would suffer more if nonoptimum engines were selected.

  9. 77 FR 44429 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... this AD: Aeromot AMT 300 Turbo Super Ximango and Stemme S10 VT have a Rotax 914 engine installed, not a... certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica...

  10. 77 FR 39623 - Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Part 33 [Amendment No. 33-33] Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Technical Amendment AGENCY... amendment clarifies aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness standards. The clarification is in response to inquiries from applicants requesting FAA engine type certifications...

  11. Development and Flight Test of an Emergency Flight Control System Using Only Engine Thrust on an MD-11 Transport Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John J.; Maine, Trindel A.; Fullerton, C. Gordon

    1997-01-01

    An emergency flight control system that uses only engine thrust, called the propulsion-controlled aircraft (PCA) system, was developed and flight tested on an MD-11 airplane. The PCA system is a thrust-only control system, which augments pilot flightpath and track commands with aircraft feedback parameters to control engine thrust. The PCA system was implemented on the MD-11 airplane using only software modifications to existing computers. Results of a 25-hr flight test show that the PCA system can be used to fly to an airport and safely land a transport airplane with an inoperative flight control system. In up-and-away operation, the PCA system served as an acceptable autopilot capable of extended flight over a range of speeds, altitudes, and configurations. PCA approaches, go-arounds, and three landings without the use of any normal flight controls were demonstrated, including ILS-coupled hands-off landings. PCA operation was used to recover from an upset condition. The PCA system was also tested at altitude with all three hydraulic systems turned off. This paper reviews the principles of throttles-only flight control, a history of accidents or incidents in which some or all flight controls were lost, the MD-11 airplane and its systems, PCA system development, operation, flight testing, and pilot comments.

  12. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, J. R.; Bear, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A viable, single engine, supersonic V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft concept was defined. This vectored thrust, canard wing configuration utilizes an advanced technology separated flow engine with fan stream burning. The aerodynamic characteristics of this configuration were estimated and performance evaluated. Significant aerodynamic and aerodynamic propulsion interaction uncertainties requiring additional investigation were identified. A wind tunnel model concept and test program to resolve these uncertainties and validate the aerodynamic prediction methods were defined.

  13. The STOL performance of a two-engine, USB powered-lift aircraft with cross-shafted fans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, V. C.; Wilson, S. B., III; Zola, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The short takeoff and landing capabilities that characterize the performance of powered-lift aircraft are dependent on engine thrust and are, therefore, severely affected by loss of an engine. This paper shows that the effects of engine loss on the short takeoff and landing performance of powered-lift aircraft can be effectively mitigated by cross-shafting the engine fans in a twin-engine configuration. Engine-out takeoff and landing performances are compared for three powered-lift aircraft configurations: one with four engines, one with two engines, and one with two engines in which the fans are cross-shafted. The results show that the engine-out takeoff and landing performance of the cross-shafted two-engine configuration is significantly better than that of the two-engine configuration without cross-shafting.

  14. Centaur engine gimbal friction characteristics under simulated thrust load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Askew, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the friction characteristics of the engine gimbal system of the Centaur upper stage rocket. Because the Centaur requires low-gain autopilots in order to meet all stability requirements for some configurations, control performance (response to transients and limit-cycle amplitudes) depends highly on these friction characteristics. Forces required to rotate the Centaur engine gimbal system were measured under a simulated thrust load of 66,723 N (15,000 lb) and in an altitude/thermal environment. A series of tests was performed at three test conditions; ambient temperature and pressure, ambient temperature and vacuum, and cryogenic temperature and vacuum. Gimbal rotation was controlled, and tests were performed in which rotation amplitude and frequency were varied by using triangular and sinusoidal waveforms. Test data revealed an elastic characteristic of the gimbal, independent of the input signal, which was evident prior to true gimbal sliding. The torque required to initiate gimbal sliding was found to decrease when both pressure and temperature decreased. Results from the low amplitude and low frequency data are currently being used in mathematically modeling the gimbal friction characteristics for Centaur autopilot performance studies.

  15. Thrust Vectoring for Advanced Fighter Aircraft - High Angle of Attack Intake Investigations -

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    radius Tt total temperature Numerical flow calculations ( CFD ) were to be performed to WAT normalized engine mass flow support the analysis of the... CFD ) investigations will be but could also result in damages of the engine and/or aircraft detailed. Results and comparisons between flows at small...dominated measured, by the shielding of the fuselage and the canard. 4.4 Data analysis During all the testing the intake lip position has been held fixed at

  16. Orbital transfer rocket engine technology 7.5K-LB thrust rocket engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harmon, T. J.; Roschak, E.

    1993-01-01

    A preliminary design of an advanced LOX/LH2 expander cycle rocket engine producing 7,500 lbf thrust for Orbital Transfer vehicle missions was completed. Engine system, component and turbomachinery analysis at both on design and off design conditions were completed. The preliminary design analysis results showed engine requirements and performance goals were met. Computer models are described and model outputs are presented. Engine system assembly layouts, component layouts and valve and control system analysis are presented. Major design technologies were identified and remaining issues and concerns were listed.

  17. Real-time measurements of jet aircraft engine exhaust.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Fred; Arnott, Pat; Zielinska, Barbara; Sagebiel, John; Kelly, Kerry E; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn S; Sarofim, Adel F

    2005-05-01

    Particulate-phase exhaust properties from two different types of ground-based jet aircraft engines--high-thrust and turboshaft--were studied with real-time instruments on a portable pallet and additional time-integrated sampling devices. The real-time instruments successfully characterized rapidly changing particulate mass, light absorption, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content. The integrated measurements included particulate-size distributions, PAH, and carbon concentrations for an entire test run (i.e., "run-integrated" measurements). In all cases, the particle-size distributions showed single modes peaking at 20-40nm diameter. Measurements of exhaust from high-thrust F404 engines showed relatively low-light absorption compared with exhaust from a turboshaft engine. Particulate-phase PAH measurements generally varied in phase with both net particulate mass and with light-absorbing particulate concentrations. Unexplained response behavior sometimes occurred with the real-time PAH analyzer, although on average the real-time and integrated PAH methods agreed within the same order of magnitude found in earlier investigations.

  18. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... crankcase surface to remove any oil. (ii) Warm up the engine to a minimum oil temperature of 50 degrees C (120 degrees F). Information about warming up the engine can be found in the applicable line... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N...

  19. A Study on Aircraft Engine Control Systems for Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamane, Hideaki; Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kusakawa, Takeshi

    A flyable FADEC system engineering model incorporating Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC) concept is developed for a highly maneuverable aircraft and a fighter-class engine. An overview of the FADEC system and functional assignments for its components such as the Engine Control Unit (ECU) and the Integrated Control Unit (ICU) are described. Overall system reliability analysis, convex analysis and multivariable controller design for the engine, fault detection/redundancy management, and response characteristics of a fuel system are addressed. The engine control performance of the FADEC is demonstrated by hardware-in-the-loop simulation for fast acceleration and thrust transient characteristics.

  20. Investigation of Thrust Augmentation of a 1600-pound Thrust Centrifugal-flow-type Turbojet Engine by Injection of Refrigerants at Compressor Inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William L.; Dowman, Harry W.

    1947-01-01

    Investigations were conducted to determine effectiveness of refrigerants in increasing thrust of turbojet engines. Mixtures of water an alcohol were injected for a range of total flows up to 2.2 lb/sec. Kerosene was injected into inlets covering a range of injected flows up to approximately 30% of normal engine fuel flow. Injection of 2.0 lb/sec of water alone produced an increase in thrust of 35.8% of rate engine conditions and kerosene produced a negligible increase in thrust. Carbon dioxide increased thrust 23.5 percent.

  1. Primary VOC emissions from Commercial Aircraft Jet Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilic, Dogushan; Huang, Rujin; Slowik, Jay; Brem, Benjamin; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre

    2014-05-01

    Air traffic is growing continuously [1]. The increasing number of airplanes leads to an increase of aviation emissions giving rise to environmental concerns globally by high altitude emissions and, locally on air quality at the ground level [2]. The overall impact of aviation emissions on the environment is likely to increase when the growing air transportation trend [2] is considered. The Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiment (APRIDE)-5 campaign took place at Zurich Airport in 2013. In this campaign, aircraft exhaust is sampled during engine acceptance tests after engine overhaul at the facilities of SR Technics. Direct sampling from the engine core is made possible due to the unique fixed installation of a retractable sampling probe and the use of a standardized sampling system designed for the new particulate matter regulation in development for aircraft engines. Many of the gas-phase aircraft emissions, e.g. CO2, NOX, CO, SO2, hydrocarbons, and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were detected by the instruments in use. This study, part of the APRIDE-5 campaign, focuses on the primary VOC emissions in order to produce emission factors of VOC species for varying engine operating conditions which are the surrogates for the flight cycles. Previously, aircraft plumes were sampled in order to quantify VOCs by a proton transfer reaction quadrupole mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) [3]. This earlier study provided a preliminary knowledge on the emission of species such as methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene and toluene by varying engine thrust levels. The new setup was (i) designed to sample from the diluted engine exhaust and the new tool and (ii) used a high resolution time of flight PTR-MS with higher accuracy for many new species, therefore providing a more detailed and accurate inventory. We will present the emission factors for species that were quantified previously, as well as for many additional VOCs detected during the campaign

  2. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  3. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  4. 14 CFR 21.6 - Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS General § 21.6 Manufacture of new aircraft, aircraft engines, and propellers. (a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b)...

  5. Price-Weight Relationships of General Aviation, Helicopters, Transport Aircraft and Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Joseph L.

    1981-01-01

    The NASA must assess its aeronautical research program with economic as well as performance measures. It thus is interested in what price a new technology aircraft would carry to make it attractive to the buyer. But what price a given airplane or helicopter will carry is largely a reflection of the manufacturer's assessment of the competitive market into which the new aircraft will be introduced. The manufacturer must weigh any new aerodynamic or system technology innovation he would add to an aircraft by the impact of this innovation upon the aircraft's cost to manufacture, economic attractiveness and price. The intent of this paper is to give price standards against which new technologies and the NASA's research program can be assessed. Using reported prices for sailplanes, general aviation, agriculture, helicopter, business and transport aircraft, price estimating relations in terms of engine and airframe characteristics have been developed. The relations are given in terms of the aircraft type, its manufactured empty weight, engine weight, horsepower or thrust. Factors for the effects of inflation are included to aid in making predictions of future aircraft prices. There are discussions of aircraft price in terms of number of passenger seats, airplane size and research and development costs related to an aircraft model, and indirectly how new technologies, aircraft complexity and inflation have affected these.

  6. A Sensitivity Study of Commercial Aircraft Engine Response for Emergency Situations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This paper contains the details of a sensitivity study in which the variation in a commercial aircraft engine's outputs is observed for perturbations in its operating condition inputs or control parameters. This study seeks to determine the extent to which various controller limits can be modified to improve engine performance, while capturing the increased risk that results from the changes. In an emergency, the engine may be required to produce additional thrust, respond faster, or both, to improve the survivability of the aircraft. The objective of this paper is to propose changes to the engine controller and determine the costs and benefits of the additional capabilities produced by the engine. This study indicates that the aircraft engine is capable of producing additional thrust, but at the cost of an increased risk of an engine failure due to higher turbine temperatures and rotor speeds. The engine can also respond more quickly to transient commands, but this action reduces the remaining stall margin to possibly dangerous levels. To improve transient response in landing scenarios, a control mode known as High Speed Idle is proposed that increases the responsiveness of the engine and conserves stall margin

  7. Development of Aluminum Composites for a Rocket Engine's Lightweight Thrust Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.; Elam, Sandy; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aerospike liquid fueled rocket engine for the X-33 aerospace vehicle consists of several thrust cells, which can comprise as much as 25% of the engine weight. The interior wall of the thrust cell chamber is exposed to high temperature combustion products and must be cooled by using liquid hydrogen. Ultimately, reducing engine weight would increase vehicle performance and allow heavier payload capabilities. Currently, the thrust cell's structural jacket and manifolds are made of stainless steel 347, which can potentially be replaced by a lighter material such as an Aluminum (Al) Metal Matrix Composites (MMC). Up to 50% weight reduction can be expected for each of the thrust cell chambers using particulate SiC reinforced Al MMC. Currently, several Al MMC thrust cell structural jackets have been produced, using cost-effective processes such as gravity casting and plasma spray deposition, to demonstrate MMC technology readiness for NASA's advanced propulsion systems.

  8. Dynamics of high-bypass-engine thrust reversal using a variable-pitch fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J. W.; Sagerser, D. R.; Stakolich, E. G.

    1977-01-01

    The test program demonstrated that successful and rapid forward-to reverse-thrust transients can be performed without any significant engine operational limitations for fan blade pitch changes through either feather pitch or flat pitch. For through-feather-pitch operation with a flight inlet, fan stall problems were encountered, and a fan blade overshoot technique was used to establish reverse thrust.

  9. Aircraft engine mathematical model - linear system approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotaru, Constantin; Roateşi, Simona; Cîrciu, Ionicǎ

    2016-06-01

    This paper examines a simplified mathematical model of the aircraft engine, based on the theory of linear and nonlinear systems. The dynamics of the engine was represented by a linear, time variant model, near a nominal operating point within a finite time interval. The linearized equations were expressed in a matrix form, suitable for the incorporation in the MAPLE program solver. The behavior of the engine was included in terms of variation of the rotational speed following a deflection of the throttle. The engine inlet parameters can cover a wide range of altitude and Mach numbers.

  10. 78 FR 54385 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... condition exists and is likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type design. FAA's.... Table 1 of Paragraph (c)--Affected Airplanes Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond Aircraft Industries...... HK 36 R...

  11. Aircraft Engineering Conference 1934 - Full Scale Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Gathered together in the only facility big enough to hold them, attendees at Langleys 1934 aircraft Engineering Conference pose in the Full Scale Wind Tunnel underneath a Boeing P-26A Peashooter. Present, among other notables, were Orville Wright, Charles Lindbergh, and Howard Hughes.

  12. Electronic materials testing in commercial aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Dieter

    A device for the electronic testing of materials used in commercial aircraft engines is described. The instrument can be used for ferromagnetic, ferrimagnetic, and nonferromagnetic metallic materials, and it functions either optically or acoustically. The design of the device is described and technical data are given. The device operates under the principle of controlled self-inductivity. Its mode of operation is described.

  13. Flow Forming of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Canada 1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA jean.Savoie@pwc.ca ABSTRACT Aircraft engine components are often an assembly of...1000 Marie Victorin, Longueuil Québec J4G 1A1 CANADA 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES

  14. Aircraft Piston Engine Exhaust Emission Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A 2-day symposium on the reduction of exhaust emissions from aircraft piston engines was held on September 14 and 15, 1976, at the Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. Papers were presented by both government organizations and the general aviation industry on the status of government contracts, emission measurement problems, data reduction procedures, flight testing, and emission reduction techniques.

  15. Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Ian

    2001-01-01

    The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accomodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part I-Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2-Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25.800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3-Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine, two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and BPR

  16. Exoskeletal Engine Concept: Feasibility Studies for Medium and Small Thrust Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halliwell, Ian

    2001-01-01

    The exoskeletal engine concept is one in which the shafts and disks are eliminated and are replaced by rotating casings that support the blades in spanwise compression. Omission of the shafts and disks leads to an open channel at the engine centerline. This has immense potential for reduced jet noise and for the accommodation of an alternative form of thruster for use in a combined cycle. The use of ceramic composite materials has the potential for significantly reduced weight as well as higher working temperatures without cooling air. The exoskeletal configuration is also a natural stepping-stone to complete counter-rotating turbomachinery. Ultimately this will lead to reductions in weight, length, parts count and improved efficiency. The feasibility studies are in three parts. Part 1: Systems and Component Requirements addressed the mechanical aspects of components from a functionality perspective. This effort laid the groundwork for preliminary design studies. Although important, it is not felt to be particularly original, and has therefore not been included in the current overview. Part 2: Preliminary Design Studies turned to some of the cycle and performance issues inherent in an exoskeletal configuration and some initial attempts at preliminary design of turbomachinery were described. Twin-spoon and single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofans were used as reference vehicles in a mid-size commercial subsonic category in addition to a single-spool 5,000-lbf-thrust turbofan that represented a general aviation application. The exoskeletal engine, with its open centerline, has tremendous potential for noise suppression and some preliminary analysis was done which began to quantify the benefits. Part 3: Additional Preliminary Design Studies revisited the design of single-spool 25,800-lbf-thrust turbofan configurations, but in addition to the original FPR = 1.6 and BPR = 5.1 reference engine. two additional configurations used FPR = 2.4 and BPR = 3.0 and FPR = 3.2 and

  17. Potential applications of skip SMV with thrust engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Savvaris, Al

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the potential applications of Space Maneuver Vehicles (SMV) with skip trajectory. Due to soaring space operations over the past decades, the risk of space debris has considerably increased such as collision risks with space asset, human property on ground and even aviation. Many active debris removal methods have been investigated and in this paper, a debris remediation method is first proposed based on skip SMV. The key point is to perform controlled re-entry. These vehicles are expected to achieve a trans-atmospheric maneuver with thrust engine. If debris is released at altitude below 80 km, debris could be captured by the atmosphere drag force and re-entry interface prediction accuracy is improved. Moreover if the debris is released in a cargo at a much lower altitude, this technique protects high value space asset from break up by the atmosphere and improves landing accuracy. To demonstrate the feasibility of this concept, the present paper presents the simulation results for two specific mission profiles: (1) descent to predetermined altitude; (2) descent to predetermined point (altitude, longitude and latitude). The evolutionary collocation method is adopted for skip trajectory optimization due to its global optimality and high-accuracy. This method is actually a two-step optimization approach based on the heuristic algorithm and the collocation method. The optimal-control problem is transformed into a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) which can be efficiently and accurately solved by the sequential quadratic programming (SQP) procedure. However, such a method is sensitive to initial values. To reduce the sensitivity problem, genetic algorithm (GA) is adopted to refine the grids and provide near optimum initial values. By comparing the simulation data from different scenarios, it is found that skip SMV is feasible in active debris removal and the evolutionary collocation method gives a truthful re-entry trajectory that satisfies the

  18. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Scott C; Jayne, John T; Lobo, Prem; Onasch, Timothy B; Fleming, Gregg; Hagen, Donald E; Whitefield, Philip D; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2008-03-15

    The emissions from in-use commercial aircraft engines have been analyzed for selected gas-phase species and particulate characteristics using continuous extractive sampling 1-2 min downwind from operational taxi- and runways at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Using the aircraft tail numbers, 376 plumes were associated with specific engine models. In general, for takeoff plumes, the measured NOx emission index is lower (approximately 18%) than that predicted by engine certification data corrected for ambient conditions. These results are an in-service observation of the practice of "reduced thrust takeoff". The CO emission index observed in ground idle plumes was greater (up to 100%) than predicted by engine certification data for the 7% thrust condition. Significant differences are observed in the emissions of black carbon and particle number among different engine models/technologies. The presence of a mode at approximately 65 nm (mobility diameter) associated with takeoff plumes and a smaller mode at approximately 25 nm associated with idle plumes has been observed. An anticorrelation between particle mass loading and particle number concentration is observed.

  19. Quiet Clean Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) acoustic and aerodynamic tests on a scale model over-the-wing thrust reverser and forward thrust nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stimpert, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    An acoustic and aerodynamic test program was conducted on a 1/6.25 scale model of the Quiet, Clean, Short-Haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE) forward thrust over-the-wing (OTW) nozzle and OTW thrust reverser. In reverse thrust, the effect of reverser geometry was studied by parametric variations in blocker spacing, blocker height, lip angle, and lip length. Forward thrust nozzle tests determined the jet noise levels of the cruise and takeoff nozzles, the effect of opening side doors to achieve takeoff thrust, and scrubbing noise of the cruise and takeoff jet on a simulated wing surface. Velocity profiles are presented for both forward and reverse thrust nozzles. An estimate of the reverse thrust was made utilizing the measured centerline turning angle.

  20. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79 Section 33.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.79 Fuel...

  1. 14 CFR 33.79 - Fuel burning thrust augmentor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel burning thrust augmentor. 33.79 Section 33.79 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.79 Fuel...

  2. 14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Power or thrust response. 33.73 Section 33.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.73 Power...

  3. 14 CFR 33.73 - Power or thrust response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Power or thrust response. 33.73 Section 33.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.73 Power...

  4. Engine Yaw Augmentation for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft via Optimal Control Allocation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.; Yoo, Seung-Yeun

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetric engine thrust was implemented in a hybrid-wing-body non-linear simulation to reduce the amount of aerodynamic surface deflection required for yaw stability and control. Hybrid-wing-body aircraft are especially susceptible to yaw surface deflection due to their decreased bare airframe yaw stability resulting from the lack of a large vertical tail aft of the center of gravity. Reduced surface deflection, especially for trim during cruise flight, could reduce the fuel consumption of future aircraft. Designed as an add-on, optimal control allocation techniques were used to create a control law that tracks total thrust and yaw moment commands with an emphasis on not degrading the baseline system. Implementation of engine yaw augmentation is shown and feasibility is demonstrated in simulation with a potential drag reduction of 2 to 4 percent. Future flight tests are planned to demonstrate feasibility in a flight environment.

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  6. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21... engines. (a) Each person manufacturing aircraft engines under a type certificate only shall subject each engine (except rocket engines for which the manufacturer must establish a sampling technique) to...

  7. Method and apparatus for rapid thrust increases in a turbofan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, J. E.; Corley, R. C.; Fraley, T. O.; Saunders, A. A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Upon a landing approach, the normal compressor stator schedule of a fan speed controlled turbofan engine is temporarily varied to substantially close the stators to thereby increase the fuel flow and compressor speed in order to maintain fan speed and thrust. This running of the compressor at an off-design speed substantially reduces the time required to subsequently advance the engine speed to the takeoff thrust level by advancing the throttle and opening the compressor stators.

  8. A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on short and long haul cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, A. L., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A brief study of the effects of turbofan-engine bypass ratio on Breguet cruise range and take-off distance for subsonic cruise aircraft showed significant differences between short- and long-haul aircraft designs. Large thrust lapse rates at high bypass ratios caused severe reductions in cruise range for short-haul aircraft because of increases in propulsion system weight. Long-haul aircraft, with a higher fuel fraction (ratio of propulsion weight plus total fuel weight to gross take-off weight), are less sensitive to propulsion-system weight and, accordingly, were not significantly affected by bypass-ratio variations. Both types of aircraft have shorter take-off distances at higher bypass ratios because of higher take-off thrust-weight ratios.

  9. Advanced aircraft engine materials trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Gray, H. R.; Levine, S. R.; Signorelli, R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent activities of the Lewis Research Center are reviewed which are directed toward developing materials for rotating hot section components for aircraft gas turbines. Turbine blade materials activities are directed at increasing metal temperatures approximately 100 C compared to current directionally solidified alloys by use of oxide dispersion strengthening or tungsten alloy wire reinforcement of nickel or iron base superalloys. The application of thermal barrier coatings offers a promise of increasing gas temperatures an additional 100 C with current cooling technology. For turbine disk alloys, activities are directed toward reducing the cost of turbine disks by 50 percent through near net shape fabrication of prealloyed powders as well as towards improved performance. In addition, advanced alloy concepts and fabrication methods for dual alloy disks are being studied as having potential for improving the life of future high performance disks and reducing the amount of strategic materials required in these components.

  10. Diesel engine catalytic combustor system. [aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, L. W. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A low compression turbocharged diesel engine is provided in which the turbocharger can be operated independently of the engine to power auxiliary equipment. Fuel and air are burned in a catalytic combustor to drive the turbine wheel of turbine section which is initially caused to rotate by starter motor. By opening a flapper value, compressed air from the blower section is directed to catalytic combustor when it is heated and expanded, serving to drive the turbine wheel and also to heat the catalytic element. To start, engine valve is closed, combustion is terminated in catalytic combustor, and the valve is then opened to utilize air from the blower for the air driven motor. When the engine starts, the constituents in its exhaust gas react in the catalytic element and the heat generated provides additional energy for the turbine section.

  11. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber. Task 10: Data dump comparison of 8- and 10- inch diameter thrust chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.; Tobin, R. D.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and design study was conducted to compare the high and low contraction ratio thrust chambers for regenratively cooled orbit maneuvering engines for the space shuttle was conducted. The design concepts were evaluated on the basis of weight, pressure drop, and performance. Only the basic thrust chamber assembly was considered. The assembly consists of the injector, the regeneratively cooled thrust chamber, and the radiation cooled nozzle. A two dimensional thermal analysis of the channel section is provided.

  12. Polymer, metal, and ceramic matrix composites for advanced aircraft engine applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mc Daniels, D.L.; Serafini, T.T.; Di Carlo, J.A.

    1986-06-01

    Advanced aircraft engine research within NASA Lewis focuses on propulsion systems for subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic aircraft. Each of these flight regimes requires different types of engines, but all require advanced materials to meet their goals of performance, thrust-to-weight ratio, and fuel efficiency. The high strength/weight and stiffness/weight properties of resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites will play an increasingly key role in meeting these performance requirements. At NASA Lewis, research is ongoing to apply graphite/polyimide composites to engine components and to develop polymer matrices with higher operating temperature capabilities. Metal matrix composites, using magnesium, aluminum, titanium, and superalloy matrices, are being developed for application to static and rotating engine components, as well as for space applications, over a broad temperature range. Ceramic matrix composites are also being examined to increase the toughness and reliability of ceramics for application to high-temperature engine structures and components.

  13. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering.

  14. Helping Aircraft Engines Lighten Up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    High-temperature polyimide/carbon fiber matrix composites are developed by the Polymers Branch at NASA's Glenn Research Center. These materials can withstand high temperatures and have good processing properties, which make them particularly useful for jet and rocket engines and for components such as fan blades, bushings, and duct segments. Applying polyimide composites as components for aerospace structures can lead to substantial vehicle weight reductions. A typical polyimide composite is made up of layers of carbon or glass fibers glued together by a high-temperature polymer to make the material strong, stiff, and lightweight. Organic molecules containing carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen within the polyimide keep the material s density low, resulting in the light weight. The strength of a component or part made from a polyimide comes mainly from the reinforcing high-strength fibers. The strength of the carbon fibers coupled with the stiffness of polyimides allows engineers to make a very rigid structure without it being massive. Another benefit of a polyimide s suitability for aerospace applications is its reduced need for machining. When polyimide parts are removed from a mold, they are nearly in their final shape. Usually, very little machining is needed before a part is ready for use.

  15. The Effect of Modified Control Limits on the Performance of a Generic Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csank, Jeffrey T.; May, Ryan D.; Gou, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of modifying the control limits of an aircraft engine to obtain additional performance. In an emergency situation, the ability to operate an engine above its normal operating limits and thereby gain additional performance may aid in the recovery of a distressed aircraft. However, the modification of an engine s limits is complex due to the risk of an engine failure. This paper focuses on the tradeoff between enhanced performance and risk of either incurring a mechanical engine failure or compromising engine operability. The ultimate goal is to increase the engine performance, without a large increase in risk of an engine failure, in order to increase the probability of recovering the distressed aircraft. The control limit modifications proposed are to extend the rotor speeds, temperatures, and pressures to allow more thrust to be produced by the engine, or to increase the rotor accelerations and allow the engine to follow a fast transient. These modifications do result in increased performance; however this study indicates that these modifications also lead to an increased risk of engine failure.

  16. Aircraft Engine Exhaust Nozzle System for Jet Noise Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H. (Inventor); Czech, Michael J. (Inventor); Elkoby, Ronen (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The aircraft exhaust engine nozzle system includes a fan nozzle to receive a fan flow from a fan disposed adjacent to an engine disposed above an airframe surface of the aircraft, a core nozzle disposed within the fan nozzle and receiving an engine core flow, and a pylon structure connected to the core nozzle and structurally attached with the airframe surface to secure the engine to the aircraft.

  17. Model-Based Control of an Aircraft Engine using an Optimal Tuner Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Chicatelli, Amy; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) method- ology applied to an aircraft turbofan engine. Here, a linear model extracted from the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) at a cruise operating point serves as the engine and the on-board model. The on-board model is up- dated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. MBEC provides the ability for a tighter control bound of thrust over the entire life cycle of the engine that is not achievable using traditional control feedback, which uses engine pressure ratio or fan speed. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC tighter thrust control. In addition, investigations of using the MBEC to provide a surge limit for the controller limit logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in engine control architectures.

  18. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  19. Multiaxis control power from thrust vectoring for a supersonic fighter aircraft model at Mach 0.20 to 2.47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Bare, E. Ann

    1987-01-01

    The aeropropulsive characteristics of an advanced twin-engine fighter aircraft designed for supersonic cruise have been studied in the Langley 16-Foot Tansonic Tunnel and the Lewis 10- by 10-Foot Supersonic Tunnel. The objective was to determine multiaxis control-power characteristics from thrust vectoring. A two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle was designed to provide yaw vector angles of 0, -10, and -20 deg combined with geometric pitch vector angles of 0 and 15 deg. Yaw thrust vectoring was provided by yaw flaps located in the nozzle sidewalls. Roll control was obtained from differential pitch vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 2.47. Angle of attack was varied from 0 to about 19 deg, and nozzle pressure ratio was varied from about 1 (jet off) to 28, depending on Mach number. Increments in force or moment coefficient that result from pitch or yaw thrust vectoring remain essentially constant over the entire angle-of-attack range of all Mach numbers tested. There was no effect of pitch vectoring on the lateral aerodynamic forces and moments and only very small effects of yaw vectoring on the longitudinal aerodynamic forces and moments. This result indicates little cross-coupling of control forces and moments for combined pitch-yaw vectoring.

  20. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icinig. Flight data wre reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured 'iced' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower. Previously announced in STAR as N84-13173

  1. Performance degradation of a typical twin engine commuter type aircraft in measured natural icing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranaudo, R. J.; Mikkelsen, K. L.; Mcknight, R. C.; Perkins, P. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The performance of an aircraft in various measured icing conditions was investigated. Icing parameters such as liquid water content, temperature, cloud droplet sizes and distributions were measured continuously while in icing. Flight data were reduced to provide plots of the aircraft drag polars and lift curves (CL vs. alpha) for the measured ""iced'' condition as referenced to the uniced aircraft. These data were also reduced to provide plots of thrust horsepower required vs. single engine power available to show how icing affects engine out capability. It is found that performance degradation is primarily influenced by the amount and shape of the accumulated ice. Glaze icing caused the greatest aerodynamic performance penalties in terms of increased drag and reduction in lift while aerodynamic penalties due to rime icing were significantly lower.

  2. Space transportation booster engine thrust chamber technology, large scale injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Large Scale Injector (LSI) program was to deliver a 21 inch diameter, 600,000 lbf thrust class injector to NASA/MSFC for hot fire testing. The hot fire test program would demonstrate the feasibility and integrity of the full scale injector, including combustion stability, chamber wall compatibility (thermal management), and injector performance. The 21 inch diameter injector was delivered in September of 1991.

  3. Life-Extending Control for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Te-Huei

    2002-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide both performance and stability margins. However, the standard method of operation results in significant wear and tear on the engine and negatively affects the on-wing life--the time between cycles when the engine must be physically removed from the aircraft for maintenance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward a new control concept that will include engine life usage as part of the control function. The resulting controller will be able to significantly extend the engine's on-wing life with little or no impact on engine performance and operability. The new controller design will utilize damage models to estimate and mitigate the rate and overall accumulation of damage to critical engine parts. The control methods will also provide a means to assess tradeoffs between performance and structural durability on the basis of mission requirements and remaining engine life. Two life-extending control methodologies were studied to reduce the overall life-cycle cost of aircraft engines. The first methodology is to modify the baseline control logic to reduce the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) damage of cooled stators during acceleration. To accomplish this, an innovative algorithm limits the low-speed rotor acceleration command when the engine has reached a threshold close to the requested thrust. This algorithm allows a significant reduction in TMF damage with only a very small increase in the rise time to reach the commanded rotor speed. The second methodology is to reduce stress rupture/creep damage to turbine blades and uncooled stators by incorporating an engine damage model into the flight mission. Overall operation cost is reduced by an optimization among the flight time, fuel consumption, and component damages. Recent efforts have focused on applying life-extending control technology to an existing commercial turbine engine

  4. Effect of forward velocity and crosswind on the reverse-thrust performance of a variable-pitch fan engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reemsnyder, D. C.; Sagerser, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    A full-size variable-pitch fan engine was tested in the Ames 40 by 80 foot wind tunnel to determine the effect of forward velocity and crosswind on reverse-thrust performance. Two flight-type inlet configurations were tested, and a flared fan nozzle was installed as an inlet for reverse-thrust operation. Steady-state reverse-thrust performance was obtained up to 54 m/s (105 knots). An abrupt decrease in reverse thrust occurred at about 30 m/s (60 knots). Reverse thrust was established following forward-to-reverse thrust transients both statically and with forward velocities only up to 30 m/s.

  5. IR signature study of aircraft engine for variation in nozzle exit area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Nidhi; Mahulikar, Shripad P.

    2016-01-01

    In general, jet engines operate with choked nozzle during take-off, climb and cruise, whereas unchoking occurs while landing and taxiing (when engine is not running at full power). Appropriate thrust in an aircraft in all stages of the flight, i.e., take-off, climb, cruise, descent and landing is achieved through variation in the nozzle exit area. This paper describes the effect on thrust and IR radiance of a turbojet engine due to variation in the exit area of a just choked converging nozzle (Me = 1). The variations in the nozzle exit area result in either choking or unchoking of a just choked converging nozzle. Results for the change in nozzle exit area are analyzed in terms of thrust, mass flow rate and specific fuel consumption. The solid angle subtended (Ω) by the exhaust system is estimated analytically, for the variation in nozzle exit area (Ane), as it affects the visibility of the hot engine parts from the rear aspect. For constant design point thrust, IR radiance is studied from the boresight (ϕ = 0°, directly from the rear side) for various percentage changes in nozzle exit area (%ΔAne), in the 1.9-2.9 μm and 3-5 μm bands.

  6. Tribological systems as applied to aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tribological systems as applied to aircraft are reviewed. The importance of understanding the fundamental concepts involved in such systems is discussed. Basic properties of materials which can be related to adhesion, friction and wear are presented and correlated with tribology. Surface processes including deposition and treatment are addressed in relation to their present and future application to aircraft components such as bearings, gears and seals. Lubrication of components with both liquids and solids is discussed. Advances in both new liquid molecular structures and additives for those structures are reviewed and related to the needs of advanced engines. Solids and polymer composites are suggested for increasing use and ceramic coatings containing fluoride compounds are offered for the extreme temperatures encountered in such components as advanced bearings and seals.

  7. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations,...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1155 - Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 23.1155 Turbine engine reverse thrust and propeller pitch settings below the flight regime. For turbine engine installations,...

  9. Study of unconventional aircraft engines designed for low energy consumption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Declining U.S. oil reserves and escalating energy costs underline the need for reducing fuel consumption in aircraft engines. The most promising unconventional aircraft engines based on their potential for fuel savings and improved economics are identified. The engines installed in both a long-range and medium-range aircraft were evaluated. Projected technology advances are identified and evaluated for their state-of-readiness for application to a commercial transport. Programs are recommended for developing the necessary technology.

  10. High-speed engine/component performance assessment using exergy and thrust-based methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggins, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    This investigation summarizes a comparative study of two high-speed engine performance assessment techniques based on energy (available work) and thrust-potential (thrust availability). Simple flow-fields utilizing Rayleigh heat addition and one-dimensional flow with friction are used to demonstrate the fundamental inability of conventional energy techniques to predict engine component performance, aid in component design, or accurately assess flow losses. The use of the thrust-based method on these same examples demonstrates its ability to yield useful information in all these categories. Energy and thrust are related and discussed from the stand-point of their fundamental thermodynamic and fluid dynamic definitions in order to explain the differences in information obtained using the two methods. The conventional definition of energy is shown to include work which is inherently unavailable to an aerospace Brayton engine. An engine-based energy is then developed which accurately accounts for this inherently unavailable work; performance parameters based on this quantity are then shown to yield design and loss information equivalent to the thrust-based method.

  11. Maximum thrust mode evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    Measured reductions in acceleration times which resulted from the application of the F-15 performance seeking control (PSC) maximum thrust mode during the dual-engine test phase is presented as a function of power setting and flight condition. Data were collected at altitudes of 30,000 and 45,000 feet at military and maximum afterburning power settings. The time savings for the supersonic acceleration is less than at subsonic Mach numbers because of the increased modeling and control complexity. In addition, the propulsion system was designed to be optimized at the mid supersonic Mach number range. Recall that even though the engine is at maximum afterburner, PSC does not trim the afterburner for the maximum thrust mode. Subsonically at military power, time to accelerate from Mach 0.6 to 0.95 was cut by between 6 and 8 percent with a single engine application of PSC, and over 14 percent when both engines were optimized. At maximum afterburner, the level of thrust increases were similar in magnitude to the military power results, but because of higher thrust levels at maximum afterburner and higher aircraft drag at supersonic Mach numbers the percentage thrust increase and time to accelerate was less than for the supersonic accelerations. Savings in time to accelerate supersonically at maximum afterburner ranged from 4 to 7 percent. In general, the maximum thrust mode has performed well, demonstrating significant thrust increases at military and maximum afterburner power. Increases of up to 15 percent at typical combat-type flight conditions were identified. Thrust increases of this magnitude could be useful in a combat situation.

  12. Damage Propagation Modeling for Aircraft Engine Prognostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, Abhinav; Goebel, Kai; Simon, Don; Eklund, Neil

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how damage propagation can be modeled within the modules of aircraft gas turbine engines. To that end, response surfaces of all sensors are generated via a thermo-dynamical simulation model for the engine as a function of variations of flow and efficiency of the modules of interest. An exponential rate of change for flow and efficiency loss was imposed for each data set, starting at a randomly chosen initial deterioration set point. The rate of change of the flow and efficiency denotes an otherwise unspecified fault with increasingly worsening effect. The rates of change of the faults were constrained to an upper threshold but were otherwise chosen randomly. Damage propagation was allowed to continue until a failure criterion was reached. A health index was defined as the minimum of several superimposed operational margins at any given time instant and the failure criterion is reached when health index reaches zero. Output of the model was the time series (cycles) of sensed measurements typically available from aircraft gas turbine engines. The data generated were used as challenge data for the Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) data competition at PHM 08.

  13. Static internal performance of a single-engine onaxisymmetric-nozzle vaned-thrust-reverser design with thrust modulation capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leavitt, L. D.; Burley, J. R., II

    1985-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted at wind-off conditions in the stati-test facility of the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. The tests were conducted on a single-engine reverser configuration with partial and full reverse-thrust modulation capabilities. The reverser design had four ports with equal areas. These ports were angled outboard 30 deg from the vertical impart of a splay angle to the reverse exhaust flow. This splaying of reverser flow was intended to prevent impingement of exhaust flow on empennage surfaces and to help avoid inlet reingestion of exhaust gas when the reverser is integrated into an actual airplane configuration. External vane boxes were located directly over each of the four ports to provide variation of reverser efflux angle from 140 deg to 26 deg (measured forward from the horizontal reference axis). The reverser model was tested with both a butterfly-type inner door and an internal slider door to provide area control for each individual port. In addition, main nozzle throat area and vector angle were varied to examine various methods of modulating thrust levels. Other model variables included vane box configuration (four or six vanes per box), orientation of external vane boxes with respect to internal port walls (splay angle shims), and vane box sideplates. Nozzle pressure ratio was varied from 2.0 approximately 7.0.

  14. Test Results for a Non-toxic, Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.; Turpin, Alicia A.

    2005-01-01

    A non-toxic, dual thrust reaction control engine (RCE) was successfully tested over a broad range of operating conditions at the Aerojet Sacramento facility. The RCE utilized LOX/Ethanol propellants; and was tested in steady state and pulsing modes at 25-lbf thrust (vernier) and at 870-lbf thrust (primary). Steady state vernier tests vaned chamber pressure (Pc) from 0.78 to 5.96 psia, and mixture ratio (MR) from 0.73 to 1.82, while primary steady state tests vaned Pc from 103 to 179 psia and MR from 1.33 to 1.76. Pulsing tests explored EPW from 0.080 to 10 seconds and DC from 5 to 50 percent at both thrust levels. Vernier testing accumulated a total of 6,670 seconds of firing time, and 7,215 pulses, and primary testing accumulated a total of 2,060 seconds of firing time and 3,646 pulses.

  15. 77 FR 1626 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ... determined the unsafe condition exists and is likely to exist or develop on other products of the same type... 40507; and (2) Certificated in any category. Table 1--Affected Airplanes Type certificate holder Aircraft model Engine model Aeromot-Ind stria AMT-200 912 A2 Mec nico- Metal rgica Ltda. Diamond...

  16. Reducing Conservatism in Aircraft Engine Response Using Conditionally Active Min-Max Limit Regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Garg, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Current aircraft engine control logic uses a Min-Max control selection structure to prevent the engine from exceeding any safety or operational limits during transients due to throttle commands. This structure is inherently conservative and produces transient responses that are slower than necessary. In order to utilize the existing safety margins more effectively, a modification to this architecture is proposed, referred to as a Conditionally Active (CA) limit regulator. This concept uses the existing Min-Max architecture with the modification that limit regulators are active only when the operating point is close to a particular limit. This paper explores the use of CA limit regulators using a publicly available commercial aircraft engine simulation. The improvement in thrust response while maintaining all necessary safety limits is demonstrated in a number of cases.

  17. 77 FR 22187 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards-Aircraft Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 33 Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards--Aircraft.... SUMMARY: This amendment corrects a number of errors in the airworthiness standards for aircraft engine... additional burden on any person. List of Subjects 14 CFR Part 33 Air transportation, Aircraft,...

  18. Multiphysics Computational Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate computational heat transfer methodology to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine - the Small Engine. In addition, the effects of power profile and hydrogen conversion on heat transfer efficiency and thrust performance were also investigated. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics platform, while formulations of conjugate heat transfer were implemented to describe the heat transfer from solid to hydrogen inside the solid-core reactor. The computational domain covers the entire thrust chamber so that the afore-mentioned heat transfer effects impact the thrust performance directly. The result shows that the computed core-exit gas temperature, specific impulse, and core pressure drop agree well with those of design data for the Small Engine. Finite-rate chemistry is very important in predicting the proper energy balance as naturally occurring hydrogen decomposition is endothermic. Locally strong hydrogen conversion associated with centralized power profile gives poor heat transfer efficiency and lower thrust performance. On the other hand, uniform hydrogen conversion associated with a more uniform radial power profile achieves higher heat transfer efficiency, and higher thrust performance.

  19. Studies of Operating Frequency Effects On Ejector-based Thrust Augmentation in a Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landry, K.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were performed in order to characterize the thrust augmentation potential of an ejector in a Pulse Detonation Engine application. A 49-mm diameter tube of 0.914-m length was constructed with one open end and one closed end. Ethylene, oxygen, and nitrogen were introduced into the tube at the closed end through the implementation of a fast mixing injector. The tube was completely filled with a stoichiometric mixture containing a one to one molar ratio of nitrogen to oxygen. Ethylene was selected as the fuel due to its detonation sensitivity and the molar ratio of the oxidizer was chosen for heat transfer purposes. Detonations were initiated in the tube through the use of a spark ignition system. The PDE was operated in a multi-cycle mode at frequencies ranging from 20-Hz to 50-Hz. Baseline thrust measurements with no ejector present were performed while operating the engine at various frequencies and compared to theoretical estimates. The baseline values were observed to agree with the theoretical model at low operating frequencies and proved to be increasingly lower than the predicted values as the operating frequency was increased. The baseline thrust measurements were observed to agree within 15 percent of the model for all operating frequencies. A straight 152-mm diameter ejector was installed and thrust augmentation percentages were measured. The length of the ejector was varied while the overlap percentage (percent of the ejector length which overlapped the tube) was maintained at 25 percent for all tests. In addition, the effect of ejector inlet geometry was investigated by comparing results with a straight inlet to those of a 38-mm inlet diameter. The thrust augmentation of the straight inlet ejector proved to be independent of engine operating frequency, augmenting thrust by 40 percent for the 0.914-m length ejector. In contrast, the rounded lip ejector of the same length seemed to be highly dependent on the engine operating frequency. An optimum

  20. Potential Applications of the Ceramic Thrust Chamber Technology for Future Transpiration Cooled Rocket Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbertz, Armin; Ortelt, Markus; Müller, Ilja; Hald, Hermann

    The long-term development of ceramic rocket engine thrust chambers at the German Aerospace Center(DLR) currently leads to designs of self-sustaining, transpiration-cooled, fiber-reinforced ceramic rocket engine chamber structures.This paper discusses characteristic issues and potential benefits introduced by this technology. Achievable benefits are the reduction of weight and manufacturing cost, as well as an increased reliability and higher lifetime due to thermal cycle stability.Experiments with porous Ceramic Matrix Composite(CMC) materials for rocket engine chamber walls have been conducted at the DLR since the end of the 1990s.This paper discusses the current status of DLR's ceramic thrust chamber technology and potential applications for high thrust engines.The manufacturing process and the design concept are explained.The impact of variations of engine parameters(chamber pressure and diam-eter)on the required coolant mass flow are discussed.Due to favorable scaling effects a high thrust application utilizes all benefits of the discussed technology, while avoiding the most significant performance drawbacks.

  1. PM emissions measurements of in-service commercial aircraft engines during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald E.; Whitefield, Philip D.; Raper, David

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the results of the physical characterization of aircraft engine PM emission measurements conducted during the Delta-Atlanta Hartsfield Study at the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Engine exit plane PM emissions were sampled from on-wing engines on several in-service commercial transport aircraft from the fleet of Delta Airlines. The size distributions were lognormal in nature with a single mode. The geometric mean diameter was found to increase with increasing engine thrust, ranging from 15 nm at idle to 40 nm at takeoff. PM number- and mass-based emission indices were observed to be higher at the idle conditions (4% and 7%), lowest at 15%-30% thrust, and then increase with increasing thrust. Emissions measurements were also conducted during an advected plume study where over 300 exhaust plumes generated by a broad mix of commercial transports were sampled 100-350 m downwind from aircraft operational runways during normal airport operations. The range of values measured at take-off for the different engine types in terms of PM number-based emission index was between 7 × 1015-9 × 1017 particles/kg fuel burned, and that for PM mass-based emission index was 0.1-0.6 g/kg fuel burned. PM characteristics of aircraft engine specific exhaust were found to evolve over time as the exhaust plume expands, dilutes with ambient air, and cools. The data from these measurements will enhance the emissions inventory development for a subset of engines operating in the commercial fleet and improve/validate current environmental impact predictive tools with real world aircraft engine specific PM emissions inputs.

  2. Flow Visualization of Thrust-Vectoring Lightcraft Engines with ˜1μs Pulsed TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, D. A.; Salvador, I. I.; Notaro, S. N.; Myrabo, L. N.

    2011-11-01

    The thrust-vectoring performance of four laser propulsion engine geometries were visualized using a twin Lumonics K922M pulsed TEA CO2 laser system, with a Cordin® high speed digital camera and Schlieren photography. Airbreathing mode engines were used to explore engine thrust-vectoring behavior, as a function of: a) laser beam lateral offset from the engine axis of symmetry; b) laser pulse duration (˜50 ns spike with selectable 1.5 or 2.5 μs tail, depending upon laser gas mixture); and c) engine geometry (Lightcraft Type ♯150, ♯200, ♯250, and parabolic bell). The resulting Schlieren images visually prove thrust vectoring if the exhaust plume is responsible for the beam-riding phenomenon. Parabolic bell engines demonstrate very little thrust vectoring ability, even at the large offsets nominal for beam-riding and thrust-vectoring in other geometries.

  3. Development of Improved Rhenium Coatings for Fluorine Engine Thrust Chambers. [hydrazine-fluorine rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, K. J.; Yurkewycz, R.; Harada, Y.; Daniels, I.

    1981-01-01

    Coating trials were undertaken to evaluate the application of rhenium to carbon-carbon composite sheet by plasma spraying. Optimum spray parameters and coating thickness were identified for production of coatings free from continuous defects and with adequate adherence to the substrate. A tungsten underlayer was not beneficial and possibly detracted from coating integrity. Stress calculations indicated that the proposed operating cycle of the rocket engine would not cause spalling of the rhenium coating. Calculations indicated that permeation of gases through the coating would not be significant during the expected life of the thrust chamber. The feasibility of applying rhenium coatings by laser melting was also studied. Poor wetting of the composite surface by the liquid rhenium precluded production of uniform coatings. Borate/carborate fluxes did not improve wetting characteristics.

  4. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  5. Computational Study of an Axisymmetric Dual Throat Fluidic Thrust Vectoring Nozzle for a Supersonic Aircraft Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deere, Karen A.; Flamm, Jeffrey D.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Johnson, Stuart K.

    2007-01-01

    A computational investigation of an axisymmetric Dual Throat Nozzle concept has been conducted. This fluidic thrust-vectoring nozzle was designed with a recessed cavity to enhance the throat shifting technique for improved thrust vectoring. The structured-grid, unsteady Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes flow solver PAB3D was used to guide the nozzle design and analyze performance. Nozzle design variables included extent of circumferential injection, cavity divergence angle, cavity length, and cavity convergence angle. Internal nozzle performance (wind-off conditions) and thrust vector angles were computed for several configurations over a range of nozzle pressure ratios from 1.89 to 10, with the fluidic injection flow rate equal to zero and up to 4 percent of the primary flow rate. The effect of a variable expansion ratio on nozzle performance over a range of freestream Mach numbers up to 2 was investigated. Results indicated that a 60 circumferential injection was a good compromise between large thrust vector angles and efficient internal nozzle performance. A cavity divergence angle greater than 10 was detrimental to thrust vector angle. Shortening the cavity length improved internal nozzle performance with a small penalty to thrust vector angle. Contrary to expectations, a variable expansion ratio did not improve thrust efficiency at the flight conditions investigated.

  6. Thrust Augmentation with Mixer/Ejector Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presz, Walter M., Jr.; Reynolds, Gary; Hunter, Craig

    2002-01-01

    Older commercial aircraft often exceed FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) sideline noise regulations. The major problem is the jet noise associated with the high exhaust velocities of the low bypass ratio engines on such aircraft. Mixer/ejector exhaust systems can provide a simple means of reducing the jet noise on these aircraft by mixing cool ambient air with the high velocity engine gases before they are exhausted to ambient. This paper presents new information on thrust performance predictions, and thrust augmentation capabilities of mixer/ejectors. Results are presented from the recent development program of the patented Alternating Lobe Mixer Ejector Concept (ALMEC) suppressor system for the Gulfstream GII, GIIB and GIII aircraft. Mixer/ejector performance procedures are presented which include classical control volume analyses, compound compressible flow theory, lobed nozzle loss correlations and state of the art computational fluid dynamic predictions. The mixer/ejector thrust predictions are compared to subscale wind tunnel test model data and actual aircraft flight test measurements. The results demonstrate that a properly designed mixer/ejector noise suppressor can increase effective engine bypass ratio and generate large thrust gains at takeoff conditions with little or no thrust loss at cruise conditions. The cruise performance obtained for such noise suppressor systems is shown to be a strong function of installation effects on the aircraft.

  7. 78 FR 65554 - Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 34 and 45 RIN 2120-AK15 Exhaust Emission Standards for New Aircraft Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for Aircraft Engines Correction In rule document 2013-24712, appearing on pages 63015-63017...

  8. State-space analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Lin

    This paper states the application of state-space method to the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of a variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engine and presents a set of state equations for describing the dynamic process of the engine. An efficient numerical method for solving these system equations is developed. The theoretical solutions agree well with the experimental data. The analysis leads to the following conclusion: the set coefficient of the pulse width, the working frequency of the solenoid valves and the deviation of the critical working points of these valves are important parameters for determining the dynamic response time and the control precision of this engine. The methods developed in this paper may be used effectively in the analysis of dynamic characteristics of variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engines.

  9. A Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation of a Large Commercial Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Frederick, Dean K.

    2008-01-01

    A simulation of a commercial engine has been developed in a graphical environment to meet the increasing need across the controls and health management community for a common research and development platform. This paper describes the Commercial Modular Aero Propulsion System Simulation (C-MAPSS), which is representative of a 90,000-lb thrust class two spool, high bypass ratio commercial turbofan engine. A control law resembling the state-of-the-art on board modern aircraft engines is included, consisting of a fan-speed control loop supplemented by relevant engine limit protection regulator loops. The objective of this paper is to provide a top-down overview of the complete engine simulation package.

  10. Static performance and noise tests on a thrust reverser for an augmentor wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harkonen, D. L.; Marrs, C. C.; Okeefe, J. V.

    1974-01-01

    A 1/3 scale model static test program was conducted to measure the noise levels and reverse thrust performance characteristics of wing-mounted thrust reverser that could be used on an advanced augmentor wing airplane. The configuration tested represents only the most fundamental designs where installation and packaging restraints are not considered. The thrust reverser performance is presented in terms of horizontal, vertical, and resultant effectiveness ratios and the reverser noise is compared on the basis of peak perceived noise level (PNL) and one-third octave band data (OASPL). From an analysis of the model force and acoustic data, an assessment is made on the stopping distance versus noise for a 90,900 kg (200,000 lb) airplane using this type of thrust reverser.

  11. F-15B ACTIVE with thrust vectoring nozzles in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA Dryden Flight Research Center's F-15 ACTIVE (Advanced Control Technology for Integrated Vehicles) research aircraft takes off from Edwards, California. The twin-engine F-15 is equipped with new Pratt & Whitney nozzles that can turn up to 20 degrees in any direction, giving the aircraft thrust control in the pitch (up and down) and yaw (left and right) directions. On March 27, 1996, NASA began flight testing a new thrust vectoring concept on the F-15 research aircraft to improve performance and aircraft control. The new concept should lead to signifigant increases in performance of both civil and military aircraft flying at subsonic and supersonic speeds.

  12. Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a deflected-thrust propulsive-lift transport model. [wind tunnel tests of aircraft models of jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoad, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the effect of deflecting the engine exit of a four-engine double-slotted flap transport to provide STOL performance. Longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained at various engine exit positions and deflections. The data were obtained at three flap deflections representing cruise, take-off, and landing conditions for a range of angles of attack and various thrust coefficients. Downwash angles at the location of the horizontal tail were measured. The data are presented without analysis or discussion. Photographs of the test configurations are shown.

  13. Microfog lubrication for aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis and system study was performed to provide design information regarding lubricant and coolant flow rates and flow paths for effective utilization of the lubricant and coolant in a once through bearing oil mist (microfog) and coolant air system. Both static and dynamic tests were performed. Static tests were executed to evaluate and calibrate the mist supply system. A total of thirteen dynamic step speed bearing tests were performed using four different lubricants and several different mist and air supply configurations. The most effective configuration consisted of supplying the mist and the major portion of the cooling air axially through the bearing. The results of these tests have shown the feasibility of using a once through oil mist and cooling air system to lubricate and cool a high speed, high temperature aircraft engine mainshaft bearing.

  14. 76 FR 72128 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-22

    ... Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... engines installed on, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft Industries Model DA 42 airplanes. The existing... the PPRV, part number (P/N) 05-7212- E002801, on TAE 125-02-99 engines, from 300 hours to 600...

  15. Multiphysics Analysis of a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this effort is to develop an efficient and accurate thermo-fluid computational methodology to predict environments for a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine thrust chamber. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based computational fluid dynamics methodology. Formulations for heat transfer in solids and porous media were implemented and anchored. A two-pronged approach was employed in this effort: A detailed thermo-fluid analysis on a multi-channel flow element for mid-section corrosion investigation; and a global modeling of the thrust chamber to understand the effect of hydrogen dissociation and recombination on heat transfer and thrust performance. The formulations and preliminary results on both aspects are presented.

  16. Development of the Junkers-diesel Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasterstadt,

    1930-01-01

    The working process of the Junkers engine has resulted from a series of attempts to attain high performance and to control the necessarily rapid and complete combustion at extremely high speeds. The two main problems of Diesel engines in aircraft are addressed; namely, incomplete combustion and the greater weight of Diesel engine parts compared to gasoline engines.

  17. Status on the Verification of Combustion Stability for the J-2X Engine Thrust Chamber Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casiano, Matthew; Hinerman, Tim; Kenny, R. Jeremy; Hulka, Jim; Barnett, Greg; Dodd, Fred; Martin, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Development is underway of the J -2X engine, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen rocket engine for use on the Space Launch System. The Engine E10001 began hot fire testing in June 2011 and testing will continue with subsequent engines. The J -2X engine main combustion chamber contains both acoustic cavities and baffles. These stability aids are intended to dampen the acoustics in the main combustion chamber. Verification of the engine thrust chamber stability is determined primarily by examining experimental data using a dynamic stability rating technique; however, additional requirements were included to guard against any spontaneous instability or rough combustion. Startup and shutdown chug oscillations are also characterized for this engine. This paper details the stability requirements and verification including low and high frequency dynamics, a discussion on sensor selection and sensor port dynamics, and the process developed to assess combustion stability. A status on the stability results is also provided and discussed.

  18. 78 FR 47228 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of engine power loss due to engine coolant contaminating the engine clutch. The design of the...

  19. Experimental investigation and modeling of time resolved thrust of a flapping wing aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apker, Thomas B.

    This work presents a novel method of measuring the unsteady thrust of a hovering flapping wing vehicle and the development of phenomenological models to simulate it. The measurements were taken using a balance beam with the flapping wings mounted at one end and a counterweight plus an accelerometer mounted at the other. The trust axis of the flapping wings was mounted vertically, and the counterweight was adjusted to balance the weight and average thrust of the flapping wings. An accelerometer mounted above the counterweight measured the unsteady thrust. This method decoupled the force sensing element from the mass of the flapping wings, as opposed to standard force sensors that use a linear spring. This study showed that the spectral content of the flapping wings extended to 15 times the flapping frequency, well above the resonant frequency of the mass-spring-damper system formed by a load cell and flapping mechanism. High speed video of the wings was used to determine the motion of the flexible structure. This motion was used to develop phenomenological linear models of flapping wing thrust generation. The results show that this approach to linear modeling produces a system of equations that can be used for flight dynamics simulation and controller design.

  20. A simulator investigation of the influence of engine response characteristics on the approach and landing for an externally blown flap aircraft. Part 2: Aerodynamic model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Robinson, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the influence of engine response characteristics on the approach and landing of an externally blown flap aircraft was conducted using flight simulator facilities. The configuration of the aerodynamic model is described. The aerodynamic characteristics as a function of angle of attack, thrust coefficient, and flap deflection are presented in tabular form and as graphs.

  1. Supersonic through-flow fan engine and aircraft mission performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C.; Maldonado, Jaime J.

    1989-01-01

    A study was made to evaluate potential improvement to a commercial supersonic transport by powering it with supersonic through-flow fan turbofan engines. A Mach 3.2 mission was considered. The three supersonic fan engines considered were designed to operate at bypass ratios of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 at supersonic cruise. For comparison a turbine bypass turbojet was included in the study. The engines were evaluated on the basis of aircraft takeoff gross weight with a payload of 250 passengers for a fixed range of 5000 N.MI. The installed specific fuel consumption of the supersonic fan engines was 7 to 8 percent lower than that of the turbine bypass engine. The aircraft powered by the supersonic fan engines had takeoff gross weights 9 to 13 percent lower than aircraft powered by turbine bypass engines.

  2. Re-engining - The sound case for aircraft noise reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K.

    1991-06-01

    The paper reviews the history of legislation to reduce jet-powered aircraft noise, particularly in the U.S.A. Recently introduced legislation is discussed and the paper goes on to explain the fundamental advantage of re-engining as a means of reducing aircraft noise. Th Rolls-Royce Tay engine is introduced and the two re-engine programs already launched are described. The expected large reductions in noise level which result from re-engining are illustrated. The paper concludes with a discussion on new programs, on the current airline business scene and on some aspects of the economics of re-engining.

  3. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  4. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  5. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  6. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  7. 14 CFR 21.128 - Tests: aircraft engines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tests: aircraft engines. 21.128 Section 21.128 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Under Type Certificate § 21.128 Tests:...

  8. 76 FR 68636 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ...-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Thielert Aircraft Engines...

  9. Thrust-reverser flow investigation on a twin-engine transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatlin, Gregory M.; Quinto, P. Frank

    1988-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 14 x 22 foot Subsonic Tunnel to study the effects of engine thrust reversing on an aft-mounted twin-engine transport and to develop effective testing techniques. Testing was done over a fixed and a moving-belt ground plane and over a pressure instrumented ground board. Free-stream dynamic pressure was set at values up to 12.2 psf, which corresponded to a maximum Reynolds number based on the mean aerodynamic chord of 765,000. The thrust reversers examined included cascade, target and four-door configurations. The investigation focused on the range of free-stream velocities and engine thrust-reverser flow rates that would be typical for landing ground-roll conditions. Flow visualization techniques were investigated, and the use of water or smoke injected into the reverser flow proved effective to determine the forward progression of the reversed flow and reingestion limits. When testing over a moving-belt ground plane, as opposed to a fixed ground plane, forward penetration of the reversed flow was reduced. The use of a pressure-instrumented ground board enabled reversed flow ground velocities to be obtained, and it provided a means by which to identify the reversed flow impingement point on the ground.

  10. Flutter of aircraft engine turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovsky, Josef, Jr.

    1997-11-01

    The goal of this research is to eliminate occurrences of flutter of low-pressure turbine blades in aircraft engines. Fundamental unsteady aerodynamic experiments in an annular cascade plus correlating analyses are conducted to improve the understanding of the flutter mechanism in these blades and to identify the key flutter parameters. The use of two- and three-dimensional linearized Euler methods for the calculation of the unsteady pressures due to the blade motion are validated through detailed comparison with the experimental data. Unexpected features of the steady and unsteady flows are also investigated using these computational tools. The validated computer codes are used to extend the range of the experimental data in a series of parametric studies, where the influence of mode shape, reduced frequency, and blade loading are investigated. Mode shape is identified as the most important contributor to determining the stability of a blade design. A new stability parameter is introduced to gain additional insight into the key contributors to flutter. This stability parameter is derived from the influence coefficient representation of the cascade, and includes only contributions from the reference blade and its immediate neighbors. This has the effect of retaining the most important contributions while filtering out terms of less significance. Design rules for the preliminary concept phase and procedures for the detailed analysis phase of the typical blade design process are defined. Utilization of these procedures will lead to blade designs which are free of flutter.

  11. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  12. Studies for determining rapid thrust response requirements and techniques for use in a long range transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newirth, D. M.; Ferguson, W. W.

    1973-01-01

    Propulsion systems proposed for the next generation of long-range transport aircraft will utilize advanced technology to reduce the noise to levels that will be inoffensive to the community. Additional reductions can be realized by adopting steeper glide slopes during the landing approach. The aircraft dynamic characteristics and methods of obtaining rapid engine response during the go-around maneuver from an aborted landing approach are identified and discussed. The study concludes that the present levels of flight safety will not be compromised by the steeper approach.

  13. Study on development of ejector of Bubble Jet Engine (BJE) - measurement of thrust -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, B.; Nakashima, K.; Shigematsu, T.; Morishita, K.

    2009-02-01

    The AUV (Autonomous Under-water Vehicle), which is used for the present seabed investigations, has obtained the thrust with the screw driven by the battery. However, it has a disadvantage because of its size and cost. Therefore, this research is carried out to propose the Bubble Jet Engine (BJE) as an alternative propulsion device. It can directly transform combustion energy into kinetic energy, so it is expected that BJE can also rise the level of propulsion efficiency. This research aims at measuring exhaled mass flow rate and thrust to design ejectors, which become the core of BJE, and exploring practical possibility of BJE. Vertical type gas-water ejector experimental apparatus for measuring water entrainment was employed in order to understand the characteristics of operation conditions, such as inlet distance, air pressure of nozzle, diameter of nozzle, and so on. In addition, experiments for measuring the thrust in the condition of ejector were executed with horizontal type apparatus in water. However, the influence of the ejector to improve thrust can't have been recognized with high-pressure air at room temperature yet.

  14. Cascade Optimization Strategy with Neural Network and Regression Approximations Demonstrated on a Preliminary Aircraft Engine Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopkins, Dale A.; Patnaik, Surya N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary aircraft engine design methodology is being developed that utilizes a cascade optimization strategy together with neural network and regression approximation methods. The cascade strategy employs different optimization algorithms in a specified sequence. The neural network and regression methods are used to approximate solutions obtained from the NASA Engine Performance Program (NEPP), which implements engine thermodynamic cycle and performance analysis models. The new methodology is proving to be more robust and computationally efficient than the conventional optimization approach of using a single optimization algorithm with direct reanalysis. The methodology has been demonstrated on a preliminary design problem for a novel subsonic turbofan engine concept that incorporates a wave rotor as a cycle-topping device. Computations of maximum thrust were obtained for a specific design point in the engine mission profile. The results (depicted in the figure) show a significant improvement in the maximum thrust obtained using the new methodology in comparison to benchmark solutions obtained using NEPP in a manual design mode.

  15. Study of ejector geometry on thrust augmentation for pulse detonation engine ejector systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehadeh, Ra'fat

    Pulse detonation engine (PDE) technology is a novel form of propulsion that offers the potential of high efficiency combustion with reduced hardware complexity. Although the primary interest of the research in the pulse detonation engine field is directed towards overcoming the problems associated with operating a pure PDE system, there are other worthy options to be considered for these engines. The PDE driven ejector concept is one such option where the system would be part of a hybrid PD/Turbofan engine. This system offers the promise of replacing the high-pressure turbine sections of the core of a high bypass turbofan engine. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the thrust augmentation capabilities of a PDE driven ejector and provide experimental data that would assist in understanding the behavior of such a system. The major potential advantages of the PDE-ejector include reduced costs due to the reduced engine weight, along with improved specific fuel consumption and specific power inherent in the incorporation of a PDE component. To achieve the goal of this research, the thrust augmentation of a PDE driven ejector was characterized for a set of configurations. Two separate PDE's were utilized in this study. The first PDE was capable of operating at a constant frequency of 10 Hz de to flow rate limitations, and another PDE built to have an operational frequency range of 10 Hz-70 Hz to test the effect of operational frequency on PDE-ejector systems. Optical diagnostics were employed at specific positions of interest to understand the physical behavior of the flow. Baseline experimental results helped define and understand the operational characteristics of the PDE's utilized in this study. Thrust measurements were then made for PDE driven ejector configurations. The parameters that were independently changed were the inlet geometry of a constant diameter ejector, as well as the overlap distance between the PDE tube exit and ejector tube inlet

  16. Comparison of the rocket engines efficiency in the case of low thrust orbit-to-orbit transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiforenko, Boris M.; Pasechnik, Zoya V.; Vasil'ev, Igor Yu.

    2007-05-01

    The main task of this paper is to compare two types of low thrust rocket engines: constant thrust vs. variable-thrust engines. We will be concerned with efficiency, where efficiency is evaluated in the case of the orbit-to-orbit transfer with maximum payload mass in the central Newtonian gravity field. The launch mass of the space vehicle is supposed to be fixed. The traditional solution is the decomposition of the problem into parametric and dynamical parts. The corresponding variational problems differ for two rocket thruster types under consideration. We propose change of variables, which makes it possible to reduce averaged equations of optimal motion of a spacecraft with the mentioned engines to the unified form. Using this unified form comparison of the performance of constant- and variable-thrust engines is conducted.

  17. Prediction of engine performance and wall erosion due to film cooling for the 'fast track' ablative thrust chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.

    1994-01-01

    Efforts have been made at the Propulsion Laboratory (MSFC) to design and develop new liquid rocket engines for small-class launch vehicles. Emphasis of the efforts is to reduce the engine development time with the use of conventional designs while meeting engine reliability criteria. Consequently, the engine cost should be reduced. A demonstrative ablative thrust chamber, called 'fast-track', has been built. To support the design of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber, predictions of the wall temperature and ablation erosion rate of the 'fast-track' thrust chamber have been performed using the computational fluid dynamics program REFLEQS (Reactive Flow Equation Solver). The analysis is intended to assess the amount of fuel to be used for film cooling so that the erosion rate of the chamber ablation does not exceed its allowable limit. In addition, the thrust chamber performance loss due to an increase of the film cooling is examined.

  18. Fiber-Optic Circuits For Aircraft Engine Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glomb, Walter L.

    1987-12-01

    This paper describes environmental effects which impact the design of interfaces to fiber-optic sensors and data buses in aircraft engine controls. Emphasis is placed on selection of components and designs which maintain their performance and reliability in the harsh environment of an electronics enclosure mounted on a modern aircraft turbine engine. Particular attention is given to the effects of temperature on electro-optical component and system performance. The main conclusion is that electro-optical interfaces to a variety of fiber-optic systems can be installed in an engine-mounted control if the designs and components are selected after careful analysis of the effects of the engine environment.

  19. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  20. NACA Conference on Turbojet-Engine Thrust Augmentation Research: A Compilation of the Papers Presented by NACA Staff Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1948-01-01

    The conference on Turbojet-Engine Thrust-Augmentation Research was organized by the NACA to present in summarized form the results of the latest experimental and analytical investigations conducted at the Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory on methods of augmenting the thrust of turbojet engines. The technical discussions are reproduced herewith in the same form in which they were presented. The original presentation in this record are considered as complementary to, rather than substitutes for, the committee's system of complete and formal reports.

  1. Non-Toxic Dual Thrust Reaction Control Engine Development for On-Orbit APS Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Philip J.; Veith, Eric M.

    2003-01-01

    A non-toxic dual thrust proof-of-concept demonstration engine was successfully tested at the Aerojet Sacramento facility under a technology contract sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The goals of the NASA MSFC contract (NAS8-01109) were to develop and expand the technical maturity of a non-toxic, on-orbit auxiliary propulsion system (APS) thruster under the Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program. The demonstration engine utilized the existing Kistler K-1 870 lbf LOX/Ethanol orbital maneuvering engine ( O m ) coupled with some special test equipment (STE) that enabled engine operation at 870 lbf in the primary mode and 25 lbf in the vernier mode. Ambient testing in primary mode varied mixture ratio (MR) from 1.28 to 1.71 and chamber pressure (P(c) from 110 to 181 psia, and evaluated electrical pulse widths (EPW) of 0.080, 0.100 and 0.250 seconds. Altitude testing in vernier mode explored igniter and thruster pulsing characteristics, long duration steady state operation (greater than 420 sec) and the impact of varying the percent fuel film cooling on vernier performance and chamber thermal response at low PC (4 psia). Data produced from the testing provided calibration of the performance and thermal models used in the design of the next version of the dual thrust Reaction Control Engine (RCE).

  2. A Roadmap for Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2001-01-01

    The concept of Aircraft Engine Life Extending Control is introduced. A brief description of the tradeoffs between performance and engine life are first explained. The overall goal of the life extending controller is to reduce the engine operating cost by extending the on-wing engine life while improving operational safety. The research results for NASA's Rocket Engine life extending control program are also briefly described. Major building blocks of the Engine Life Extending Control architecture are examined. These blocks include: life prediction models, engine operation models, stress and thermal analysis tools, control schemes, and intelligent control systems. The technology areas that would likely impact the successful implementation of an aircraft engine life extending control are also briefly described. Near, intermediate, and long term goals of NASA's activities are also presented.

  3. Thrust performance of a variable-geometry, divergent exhaust nozzle on a turbojet engine at altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Straight, D. M.; Collom, R. R.

    1983-01-01

    A variable geometry, low aspect ratio, nonaxisymmetric, two dimensional, convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle was tested at simulated altitude on a turbojet engine to obtain baseline axial, dry thrust performance over wide ranges of operating nozzle pressure ratios, throat areas, and internal expansion area ratios. The thrust data showed good agreement with theory and scale model test results after the data were corrected for seal leakage and coolant losses. Wall static pressure profile data were also obtained and compared with one dimensional theory and scale model data. The pressure data indicate greater three dimensional flow effects in the full scale tests than with models. The leakage and coolant penalties were substantial, and the method to determine them is included.

  4. 78 FR 70216 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This AD requires applying sealant to close the engine clutch...

  5. Characterization of Gas-Phase Organics Using Proton Transfer Reaction Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: Aircraft Turbine Engines.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Dogushan; Brem, Benjamin T; Klein, Felix; El-Haddad, Imad; Durdina, Lukas; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Setyan, Ari; Huang, Rujin; Wang, Jing; Slowik, Jay G; Baltensperger, Urs; Prevot, Andre S H

    2017-04-04

    Nonmethane organic gas emissions (NMOGs) from in-service aircraft turbine engines were investigated using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) at an engine test facility at Zurich Airport, Switzerland. Experiments consisted of 60 exhaust samples for seven engine types (used in commercial aviation) from two manufacturers at thrust levels ranging from idle to takeoff. Emission indices (EIs) for more than 200 NMOGs were quantified, and the functional group fractions (including acids, carbonyls, aromatics, and aliphatics) were calculated to characterize the exhaust chemical composition at different engine operation modes. Total NMOG emissions were highest at idling with an average EI of 7.8 g/kg fuel and were a factor of ∼40 lower at takeoff thrust. The relative contribution of pure hydrocarbons (particularly aromatics and aliphatics) of the engine exhaust decreased with increasing thrust while the fraction of oxidized compounds, for example, acids and carbonyls increased. Exhaust chemical composition at idle was also affected by engine technology. Older engines emitted a higher fraction of nonoxidized NMOGs compared to newer ones. Idling conditions dominated ground level organic gas emissions. Based on the EI determined here, we estimate that reducing idle emissions could substantially improve air quality near airports.

  6. Intelligent Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Engines Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Ten-Huei

    2005-01-01

    Current aircraft engine controllers are designed and operated to provide desired performance and stability margins. Except for the hard limits for extreme conditions, engine controllers do not usually take engine component life into consideration during the controller design and operation. The end result is that aircraft pilots regularly operate engines under unnecessarily harsh conditions to strive for optimum performance. The NASA Glenn Research Center and its industrial and academic partners have been working together toward an intelligent control concept that will include engine life as part of the controller design criteria. This research includes the study of the relationship between control action and engine component life as well as the design of an intelligent control algorithm to provide proper tradeoffs between performance and engine life. This approach is expected to maintain operating safety while minimizing overall operating costs. In this study, the thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) of a critical component was selected to demonstrate how an intelligent engine control algorithm can significantly extend engine life with only a very small sacrifice in performance. An intelligent engine control scheme based on modifying the high-pressure spool speed (NH) was proposed to reduce TMF damage from ground idle to takeoff. The NH acceleration schedule was optimized to minimize the TMF damage for a given rise-time constraint, which represents the performance requirement. The intelligent engine control scheme was used to simulate a commercial short-haul aircraft engine.

  7. Lightweight, low compression aircraft diesel engine. [converting a spark ignition engine to the diesel cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, T. L.; Bottrell, M. S.; Eagle, C. D.; Bachle, C. F.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of converting a spark ignition aircraft engine to the diesel cycle was investigated. Procedures necessary for converting a single cylinder GTS10-520 are described as well as a single cylinder diesel engine test program. The modification of the engine for the hot port cooling concept is discussed. A digital computer graphics simulation of a twin engine aircraft incorporating the diesel engine and Hot Fort concept is presented showing some potential gains in aircraft performance. Sample results of the computer program used in the simulation are included.

  8. Thrust vectoring for lateral-directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peron, Lee R.; Carpenter, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of using thrust vectoring for lateral-directional control and the effects of reducing the tail size of a single-engine aircraft were investigated. The aerodynamic characteristics of the F-16 aircraft were generated by using the Aerodynamic Preliminary Analysis System II panel code. The resulting lateral-directional linear perturbation analysis of a modified F-16 aircraft with various tail sizes and yaw vectoring was performed at several speeds and altitudes to determine the stability and control trends for the aircraft compared to these trends for a baseline aircraft. A study of the paddle-type turning vane thrust vectoring control system as used on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration F/A-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle is also presented.

  9. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least-squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  10. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2007-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs, such as thrust. The engine's performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends on knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined that accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  11. An Optimal Orthogonal Decomposition Method for Kalman Filter-Based Turbofan Engine Thrust Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    A new linear point design technique is presented for the determination of tuning parameters that enable the optimal estimation of unmeasured engine outputs such as thrust. The engine s performance is affected by its level of degradation, generally described in terms of unmeasurable health parameters related to each major engine component. Accurate thrust reconstruction depends upon knowledge of these health parameters, but there are usually too few sensors to be able to estimate their values. In this new technique, a set of tuning parameters is determined which accounts for degradation by representing the overall effect of the larger set of health parameters as closely as possible in a least squares sense. The technique takes advantage of the properties of the singular value decomposition of a matrix to generate a tuning parameter vector of low enough dimension that it can be estimated by a Kalman filter. A concise design procedure to generate a tuning vector that specifically takes into account the variables of interest is presented. An example demonstrates the tuning parameters ability to facilitate matching of both measured and unmeasured engine outputs, as well as state variables. Additional properties of the formulation are shown to lend themselves well to diagnostics.

  12. Determination of PM mass emissions from an aircraft turbine engine using particle effective density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durdina, L.; Brem, B. T.; Abegglen, M.; Lobo, P.; Rindlisbacher, T.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.; Hagen, D. E.; Sierau, B.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Inventories of particulate matter (PM) emissions from civil aviation and air quality models need to be validated using up-to-date measurement data corrected for sampling artifacts. We compared the measured black carbon (BC) mass and the total PM mass determined from particle size distributions (PSD) and effective density for a commercial turbofan engine CFM56-7B26/3. The effective density was then used to calculate the PM mass losses in the sampling system. The effective density was determined using a differential mobility analyzer and a centrifugal particle mass analyzer, and increased from engine idle to take-off by up to 60%. The determined mass-mobility exponents ranged from 2.37 to 2.64. The mean effective density determined by weighting the effective density distributions by PM volume was within 10% of the unit density (1000 kg/m3) that is widely assumed in aircraft PM studies. We found ratios close to unity between the PM mass determined by the integrated PSD method and the real-time BC mass measurements. The integrated PSD method achieved higher precision at ultra-low PM concentrations at which current mass instruments reach their detection limit. The line loss model predicted ∼60% PM mass loss at engine idle, decreasing to ∼27% at high thrust. Replacing the effective density distributions with unit density lead to comparable estimates that were within 20% and 5% at engine idle and high thrust, respectively. These results could be used for the development of a robust method for sampling loss correction of the future PM emissions database from commercial aircraft engines.

  13. Integrated engine-generator for aircraft secondary power.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Secunde, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept consists of an electric generator located inside a turbojet or turbofan engine and both concentric with and driven by one of the main engine shafts. The electric power-conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. When properly rated, the generator serves as an engine starter as well as a source of electric power. The available generating capacity permits use of electrically driven engine accessories. This reduces or eliminates the need for an external gearbox on the engine, thereby simplifying the engine and nacelle assembly and increasing aircraft design flexibility. The nacelle diameter can then be decreased, resulting in less aerodynamic drag and reduced takeoff gross weight.

  14. 76 FR 82110 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16906; AD 2010-06-12R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft.... SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. That AD currently requires replacing...

  15. Further studies of methods for reducing community noise around airports. [aircraft noise - aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, R. H.; Barry, D. J.; Kline, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified method of analysis was used in which all flights at a 'simulated' airport were assumed to operate from one runway in a single direction. For this simulated airport, contours of noise exposure forecast were obtained and evaluated. A flight schedule of the simulated airport which is representative of the 23 major U. S. airports was used. The effect of banning night-time operations by four-engine, narrow-body aircraft in combination with other noise reduction options was studied. The reductions in noise which would occur of two- and three-engine, narrow-body aircraft equipped with a refanned engine was examined. A detailed comparison of the effects of engine cutback on takeoff versus the effects of retrofitting quiet nacelles for narrow-body aircraft was also examined. A method of presenting the effects of various noise reduction options was treated.

  16. Lifecycle Information of Aircraft Engine Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-14

    commercial aircraft, the industry generated a number of potential RFID-based applications for airlines, air- freight carriers, aircraft maintenance and...adoption of RFID technologies to track serially controlled items requires careful planning and design. Data overload and data noise also affect the...performance of RFID systems. Data overload results from continuously scanning the RFID tags within reader range and sending the repeated information

  17. 77 FR 58301 - Technical Amendment; Airworthiness Standards: Aircraft Engines; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... technical amendment, the FAA clarified aircraft engine vibration test requirements in the airworthiness... amendment, the FAA intended to clarify vibration test requirements in Sec. 33.83 of 14 Code of Federal... read as follows: Sec. 33.83 Vibration test. (a) Each engine must undergo vibration surveys to...

  18. Condensed data on the aircraft engines of the world

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fliedner, C S

    1929-01-01

    This compilation of the outstanding characteristics of the available aircraft engines of the world was prepared as a compact ready reference for desk use. It does not pretend to be anything but a skeleton outline of the characteristics of engines reported in the technical press as being in either the experimental, development, or production stage.

  19. Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chown Chou (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In response to the National Research Council (NRC) recommendations, the Workshop on Aerosols and Particulates from Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines was organized by the NASA Lewis Research Center and held on July 29-30, 1997 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute in Cleveland, Ohio. The objective is to develop consensus among experts in the field of aerosols from gas turbine combustors and engines as to important issues and venues to be considered. Workshop participants' expertise included engine and aircraft design, combustion processes and kinetics, atmospheric science, fuels, and flight operations and instrumentation.

  20. QCGAT aircraft/engine design for reduced noise and emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanson, L.; Terrill, K. M.

    1980-01-01

    The high bypass ratio QCGAT engine played an important role in shaping the aircraft design. The aircraft which evolved is a sleek, advanced design, six-place aircraft with 3538 kg (7,800 lb) maximum gross weight. It offers a 2778 kilometer (1500 nautical mile) range with cruise speed of 0.5 Mach number and will take-off and land on the vast majority of general aviation airfields. Advanced features include broad application of composite materials and a supercritical wing design with winglets. Full-span fowler flaps were introduced to improve landing capability. Engines are fuselage-mounted with inlets over the wing to provide shielding of fan noise by the wing surfaces. The design objectives, noise, and emission considerations, engine cycle and engine description are discussed as well as specific design features.

  1. Aircraft stress sequence development: A complex engineering process made simple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrader, K. H.; Butts, D. G.; Sparks, W. A.

    1994-01-01

    Development of stress sequences for critical aircraft structure requires flight measured usage data, known aircraft loads, and established relationships between aircraft flight loads and structural stresses. Resulting cycle-by-cycle stress sequences can be directly usable for crack growth analysis and coupon spectra tests. Often, an expert in loads and spectra development manipulates the usage data into a typical sequence of representative flight conditions for which loads and stresses are calculated. For a fighter/trainer type aircraft, this effort is repeated many times for each of the fatigue critical locations (FCL) resulting in expenditure of numerous engineering hours. The Aircraft Stress Sequence Computer Program (ACSTRSEQ), developed by Southwest Research Institute under contract to San Antonio Air Logistics Center, presents a unique approach for making complex technical computations in a simple, easy to use method. The program is written in Microsoft Visual Basic for the Microsoft Windows environment.

  2. The Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Energy Bypass on Specific Thrust for a Supersonic Turbojet Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benyo, Theresa L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary results of a thermodynamic cycle analysis of a supersonic turbojet engine with a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass system that explores a wide range of MHD enthalpy extraction parameters. Through the analysis described here, it is shown that applying a magnetic field to a flow path in the Mach 2.0 to 3.5 range can increase the specific thrust of the turbojet engine up to as much as 420 N/(kg/s) provided that the magnitude of the magnetic field is in the range of 1 to 5 Tesla. The MHD energy bypass can also increase the operating Mach number range for a supersonic turbojet engine into the hypersonic flight regime. In this case, the Mach number range is shown to be extended to Mach 7.0.

  3. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  4. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  5. Thrust chamber performance using Navier-Stokes solution. [space shuttle main engine viscous nozzle calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, J. S.; Freeman, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The viscous, axisymmetric flow in the thrust chamber of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) was computed on the CRAY 205 computer using the general interpolants method (GIM) code. Results show that the Navier-Stokes codes can be used for these flows to study trends and viscous effects as well as determine flow patterns; but further research and development is needed before they can be used as production tools for nozzle performance calculations. The GIM formulation, numerical scheme, and computer code are described. The actual SSME nozzle computation showing grid points, flow contours, and flow parameter plots is discussed. The computer system and run times/costs are detailed.

  6. Formation of Vortex Structures in the Prenozzle Space of an Engine with a Vectorable Thrust Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, K. N.; Emel'yanov, V. N.; Denisikhin, S. V.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical simulation of the hydrodynamic effects arising in the process of work of the vectorable thrust nozzle of a solid-propellant rocket engine has been performed. The fields of the flows of combustion products in the channel of a charge, the prenozzle space, and the nozzle unit were calculated for different angles of vectoring of the nozzle. The distributions of the gasdynamic parameters of the flow of combustion products in the prenozzle space, corresponding to their efflux from the cylindrical and star-shaped channels of charges, were compared. The formation of a vortex flow in the neighborhood of the back cover of the nozzle was considered.

  7. The thrust generated by a T6 ion engine hollow cathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessini, Paolo; Coletti, Michele; Gabriel, Stephen B.

    2014-09-01

    The thrust produced by a T6 ion engine main discharge hollow cathode was characterized using different propellants with a target-based measurement system, for discharge current values of 5-25 A and a wide range of mass flow rates. The calculated values of specific impulse are far in excess of those that could be attributed to the heating of a gas to thermal equilibrium with the walls, as in a resistojet. This would suggest an operation mechanism more similar to that of an arcjet. The main scaling parameter for the specific impulse appears to be the discharge power per unit mass flow rate (specific power).

  8. Space shuttle maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program. Task 11: Low Epsilon stability test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    The performance and heat transfer characteristics of a doublet element type injector for the space shuttle orbiter maneuvering engine thrust chamber were investigated. Ths stability characteristics were evaluated over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. The specific objectives of the test were: (1) to determine whether stability has been influenced by injection of boundary layer coolant across the cavity entrance, (2) if the injector is stable, to determine the minimum cavity area required to maintain stability, and (3) if the injector is unstable, to determine the effects of entrance geometry and increased area on stability.

  9. Conceptual design of single turbofan engine powered light aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, F. S.; Voorhees, C. G.; Heinrich, A. M.; Baisden, D. N.

    1977-01-01

    The conceptual design of a four place single turbofan engine powered light aircraft was accomplished utilizing contemporary light aircraft conventional design techniques as a means of evaluating the NASA-Ames General Aviation Synthesis Program (GASP) as a preliminary design tool. In certain areas, disagreement or exclusion were found to exist between the results of the conventional design and GASP processes. Detail discussion of these points along with the associated contemporary design methodology are presented.

  10. Effects of Structural Flexibility on Aircraft-Engine Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, W. H.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis extends technique for design of widely used type of vibration-isolating mounts for aircraft engines, in which rubber mounting pads located in plane behind center of gravity of enginepropeller combination. New analysis treats problem in statics. Results of simple approach useful in providing equations for design of vibrationisolating mounts. Equations applicable in usual situation in which engine-mount structure itself relatively light and placed between large mass of engine and other heavy components of airplane.

  11. Emission Reduction of Fuel-Staged Aircraft Engine Combustor Using an Additional Premixed Fuel Nozzle.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Shimodaira, Kazuo; Yoshida, Seiji; Kurosawa, Yoji

    2013-03-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) is conducting research and development on aircraft engine technologies to reduce environmental impact for the Technology Development Project for Clean Engines (TechCLEAN). As a part of the project, combustion technologies have been developed with an aggressive target that is an 80% reduction over the NOx threshold of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection (CAEP)/4 standard. A staged fuel nozzle with a pilot mixer and a main mixer was developed and tested using a single-sector combustor under the target engine's landing and takeoff (LTO) cycle conditions with a rated output of 40 kN and an overall pressure ratio of 25.8. The test results showed a 77% reduction over the CAEP/4 NOx standard. However, the reduction in smoke at thrust conditions higher than the 30% MTO condition and of CO emission at thrust conditions lower than the 85% MTO condition are necessary. In the present study, an additional fuel burner was designed and tested with the staged fuel nozzle in a single-sector combustor to control emissions. The test results show that the combustor enables an 82% reduction in NOx emissions relative to the ICAO CAEP/4 standard and a drastic reduction in smoke and CO emissions.

  12. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    This lecture will provide an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the current state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. The traditional engine control problem has been to provide a means to safely transition the engine from one steady-state operating point to another based on the pilot throttle inputs. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance and affordability, and the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects in partnership with other organizations within GRC and across NASA, other government agencies, the U.S. aerospace industry, and academia to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA programs under the Aeronautics Research Mission. The second part of the lecture provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges and the key progress to date are summarized. The technologies to be discussed include system level engine control concepts, gas path diagnostics, active component control, and distributed engine control architecture. The lecture will end with a futuristic perspective of how the various current technology developments will lead to an Intelligent and Autonomous Propulsion System requiring none to very minimum pilot interface

  13. Multi-fuel rotary engine for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies of advanced multifuel general aviation and commuter aircraft rotary stratified charge engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies were performed at two levels of technology, on advanced general aviation engines sized to provide 186/250 shaft kW/hp under cruise conditions at 7620 (25000 m/ft) altitude. A follow on study extended the results to larger (2500 hp max.) engine sizes suitable for applications such as commuter transports and helicopters. The study engine designs were derived from relevant engine development background including both prior and recent engine test results using direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 27 to 33 percent fuel economy improvement for the rotary engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  14. The Aerothermodynamics of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-07-01

    line and staggered tube ~ anks . Another way to get the coolant out of the trailing edge is to use drilled holes. These are normally calculated using...Pittsburgh, PA, 1976. 20.35 Butze, H. F., and Ehlers , R. C., "Effect of FUel Properties on Performance of a Single Aircraft Turbojet Combustor," NASA-Tl~-X...20.75 Butze, H. F .. and Ehlers , R. C., "Effect of Fuel Properties on Performance of A Single Aircraft Turboj et Combustor," NASA-TM-X-71789

  15. 77 FR 13488 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Engines GmbH (TAE) Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final... TAE 125-02-99 reciprocating engines installed on, but not limited to, Diamond Aircraft Industries...-E002801, on TAE 125-02-99 engine. This AD was prompted by TAE increasing the life of the PPRV, part...

  16. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02- 99, and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. That AD...

  17. 77 FR 4217 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) ] TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by in-flight...

  18. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD requires inspection of the oil...

  19. Aircraft Turbine Engine Control Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garg, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the aircraft turbine engine control research at the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). A brief introduction to the engine control problem is first provided with a description of the state-of-the-art control law structure. A historical aspect of engine control development since the 1940s is then provided with a special emphasis on the contributions of GRC. With the increased emphasis on aircraft safety, enhanced performance, and affordability, as well as the need to reduce the environmental impact of aircraft, there are many new challenges being faced by the designers of aircraft propulsion systems. The Controls and Dynamics Branch (CDB) at GRC is leading and participating in various projects to develop advanced propulsion controls and diagnostics technologies that will help meet the challenging goals of NASA Aeronautics Research Mission programs. The rest of the paper provides an overview of the various CDB technology development activities in aircraft engine control and diagnostics, both current and some accomplished in the recent past. The motivation for each of the research efforts, the research approach, technical challenges, and the key progress to date are summarized.

  20. Some aspects of aircraft jet engine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekiesinski, R.

    1979-01-01

    Technologies are reviewed for improving the thermal stability of jet fuels, with reference to the overheating of fuel tanks in supersonic aircraft. Consideration is given to the development of a jet fuel with high thermal stability by the Polish petroleum industry.

  1. Recent Progress in Engine Noise Reduction for Commercial Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2003-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the past ten years developing technologies for reducing aircraft noise. Engine noise continues to be a dominate source, particularly for aircraft departing from airports. Research efforts have concentrated on developing noise prediction methods, experimental validation, and developing noise reduction concepts that have been verified through model scale and static engine tests. Most of the work has concentrated on fan and jet components for commercial turbofan engines. In this seminar, an overview of the engine noise reduction work that was sponsored by NASA s Advanced Subsonic Technology Noise Reduction Program will be given, along with background information on turbofan noise sources and certification procedures. Concepts like "chevron" nozzles for jet noise reduction and swept stators for fan noise reduction will be highlighted. A preliminary assessment on how the new technologies will impact future engines will be given.

  2. Development of a simplified procedure for rocket engine thrust chamber life prediction with creep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badlani, M. L.; Porowski, J. S.; Odonnell, W. J.; Peterson, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical method for predicting engine thrust chamber life is developed. The method accounts for high pressure differentials and time-dependent creep effects both of which are significant in limiting the useful life of the shuttle main engine thrust chamber. The hot-gas-wall ligaments connecting adjacent cooling channels ribs and separating the coolant flow from the combustion gas are subjected to a high pressure induced primary stress superimposed on an alternating cyclic thermal strain field. The pressure load combined with strain-controlled cycling produces creep ratcheting and consequent bulging and thinning of these ligaments. This mechanism of creep-enhanced ratcheting is analyzed for determining the hot-gas-wall deformation and accumulated strain. Results are confirmed by inelastic finite element analysis. Fatigue and creep rupture damage as well as plastic tensile instability are evaluated as potential failure modes. It is demonstrated for the NARloy Z cases analyzed that when pressure differentials across the ligament are high, creep rupture damage is often the primary failure mode for the cycle times considered.

  3. Application of a Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter for In-Flight Estimation of Aircraft Engine Performance Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2005-01-01

    An approach based on the Constant Gain Extended Kalman Filter (CGEKF) technique is investigated for the in-flight estimation of non-measurable performance parameters of aircraft engines. Performance parameters, such as thrust and stall margins, provide crucial information for operating an aircraft engine in a safe and efficient manner, but they cannot be directly measured during flight. A technique to accurately estimate these parameters is, therefore, essential for further enhancement of engine operation. In this paper, a CGEKF is developed by combining an on-board engine model and a single Kalman gain matrix. In order to make the on-board engine model adaptive to the real engine s performance variations due to degradation or anomalies, the CGEKF is designed with the ability to adjust its performance through the adjustment of artificial parameters called tuning parameters. With this design approach, the CGEKF can maintain accurate estimation performance when it is applied to aircraft engines at offnominal conditions. The performance of the CGEKF is evaluated in a simulation environment using numerous component degradation and fault scenarios at multiple operating conditions.

  4. Characterization of chemical and particulate emissions from aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Harshit; Sawant, Aniket A.; Jansen, Karel; Wayne Miller, J.; Cocker, David R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a series of measurements from four on-wing, commercial aircraft engines, including two newer CFM56-7 engines and two earlier CFM56-3 engines. Samples were collected from each engine using a probe positioned behind the exhaust nozzle of the aircraft, chocked on a concrete testing pad. The emission factors for particulate matter mass, elemental and organic carbon, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, dioxins, metals and ions are reported for four different engine power setting modes. The emissions indices of particulate matter, elemental and organic carbon are highly power dependent for these engines. Particulate matter emission indices (g kg-1 fuel) are found to increase from 1.1E-02 to 2.05E-01 with increase in power from idle to 85%. The elemental carbon to organic carbon varies from 0.5 to 3.8 with change in power from idle to 85%. The carbonyl emissions are dominated by formaldehyde. The emission index of formaldehyde ranges from 2.3E-01 to 4.8E-01 g kg-1 fuel. The distribution of metals depends on the difference in the various engines. The dioxin emissions from the aircraft engines are observed to be below detection limit.

  5. Advanced control for airbreathing engines, volume 2: General Electric aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Indar

    1993-01-01

    The application of advanced control concepts to air breathing engines may yield significant improvements in aircraft/engine performance and operability. Screening studies of advanced control concepts for air breathing engines were conducted by three major domestic aircraft engine manufacturers to determine the potential impact of concepts on turbine engine performance and operability. The purpose of the studies was to identify concepts which offered high potential yet may incur high research and development risk. A target suite of proposed advanced control concepts was formulated and evaluated in a two phase study to quantify each concept's impact on desired engine characteristics. To aid in the evaluation specific aircraft/engine combinations were considered: a Military High Performance Fighter mission, a High Speed Civil Transport mission, and a Civil Tiltrotor mission. Each of the advanced control concepts considered in the study are defined and described. The concept potential impact on engine performance was determined. Relevant figures of merit on which to evaluate the concepts are determined. Finally, the concepts are ranked with respect to the target aircraft/engine missions. A final report describing the screening studies was prepared by each engine manufacturer. Volume 2 of these reports describes the studies performed by GE Aircraft Engines.

  6. Multi-Fuel Rotary Engine for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C.; Ellis, D. R.; Meng, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    Design studies, conducted for NASA, of Advanced Multi-fuel General Aviation and Commuter Aircraft Rotary Stratified Charge Engines are summarized. Conceptual design studies of an advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft KW/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft. altitude were performed. Relevant engine development background covering both prior and recent engine test results of the direct injected unthrottled rotary engine technology, including the capability to interchangeably operate on gasoline, diesel fuel, kerosene, or aviation jet fuel, are presented and related to growth predictions. Aircraft studies, using these resultant growth engines, define anticipated system effects of the performance and power density improvements for both single engine and twin engine airplanes. The calculated results indicate superior system performance and 30 to 35% fuel economy improvement for the Rotary-engine airplanes as compared to equivalent airframe concept designs with current baseline engines. The research and technology activities required to attain the projected engine performance levels are also discussed.

  7. The 7.5K lbf thrust engine preliminary design for Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Warren R.; Sabiers, Ralph; Schneider, Judy

    1994-01-01

    This document summarizes the preliminary design of the Aerojet version of the Orbit Transfer Vehicle main engine. The concept of a 7500 lbf thrust LO2/GH2 engine using the dual expander cycle for optimum efficiency is validated through power balance and thermal calculations. The engine is capable of 10:1 throttling from a nominal 2000 psia to a 200 psia chamber pressure. Reservations are detailed on the feasibility of a tank head start, but the design incorporates low speed turbopumps to mitigate the problem. The mechanically separate high speed turbopumps use hydrostatic bearings to meet engine life requirements, and operate at sub-critical speed for better throttling ability. All components were successfully packaged in the restricted envelope set by the clearances for the extendible/retractable nozzle. Gimbal design uses an innovative primary and engine out gimbal system to meet the +/- 20 deg gimbal requirement. The hydrogen regenerator and LOX/GH2 heat exchanger uses the Aerojet platelet structures approach for a highly compact component design. The extendible/retractable nozzle assembly uses an electric motor driven jack-screw design and a one segment carbon-carbon or silicide coated columbium nozzle with an area ratio, when extended, of 1430:1. A reliability analysis and risk assessment concludes the report.

  8. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  9. Research on hypersonic aircraft using pre-cooled turbojet engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Takayuki; Ueno, Atsushi; Imamura, Shunsuke; Hongoh, Motoyuki; Harada, Kenya

    2012-04-01

    Systems analysis of a Mach 5 class hypersonic aircraft is performed. The aircraft can fly across the Pacific Ocean in 2 h. A multidisciplinary optimization program for aerodynamics, structure, propulsion, and trajectory is used in the analysis. The result of each element model is improved using higher accuracy analysis tools. The aerodynamic performance of the hypersonic aircraft is examined through hypersonic wind tunnel tests. A thermal management system based on the data of the wind tunnel tests is proposed. A pre-cooled turbojet engine is adopted as the propulsion system for the hypersonic aircraft. The engine can be operated continuously from take-off to Mach 5. This engine uses a pre-cooling cycle using cryogenic liquid hydrogen. The high temperature inlet air of hypersonic flight would be cooled by the same liquid hydrogen used as fuel. The engine is tested under sea level static conditions. The engine is installed on a flight test vehicle. Both liquid hydrogen fuel and gaseous hydrogen fuel are supplied to the engine from a tank and cylinders installed within the vehicle. The designed operation of major components of the engine is confirmed. A large amount of liquid hydrogen is supplied to the pre-cooler in order to make its performance sufficient for Mach 5 flight. Thus, fuel rich combustion is adopted at the afterburner. The experiments are carried out under the conditions that the engine is mounted upon an experimental airframe with both set up either horizontally or vertically. As a result, the operating procedure of the pre-cooled turbojet engine is demonstrated.

  10. Evaluation of a simplified gross thrust calculation method for a J85-21 afterburning turbojet engine in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified gross thrust calculation method was evaluated on its ability to predict the gross thrust of a modified J85-21 engine. The method used tailpipe pressure data and ambient pressure data to predict the gross thrust. The method's algorithm is based on a one-dimensional analysis of the flow in the afterburner and nozzle. The test results showed that the method was notably accurate over the engine operating envelope using the altitude facility measured thrust for comparison. A summary of these results, the simplified gross thrust method and requirements, and the test techniques used are discussed in this paper.

  11. A Systems Engineering Approach to Aircraft Kinetic Kill Countermeasures Technology: Development of an Active Aircraft Defense System for the C/KC-135 Aircraft. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    AFIT/GSE/ENY/95D-01 A SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO AIRCRAFT KINETIC KILL COUNTERMEASURE TECHNOLOGY: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM...AFIT/GSE/ENY/95D-01 A SYSTEMS ENGINEERING APPROACH TO AIRCRAFT KINETIC KILL COUNTERMEASURE TECHNOLOGY: DEVELOPMENT OF AN ACTIVE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEM FOR...THE C/KC-135 AIRCRAFT THESIS (1 of2) Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air

  12. Review of the Rhein-Flugzeugbau Wankel powered aircraft program. [ducted fan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riethmueller, M.

    1978-01-01

    The development of light aircraft with special emphasis on modern propulsion systems and production is discussed in terms of the application of rotary engines to aircraft. Emphasis is placed on the integrated ducted-fan propulsion system using rotary engines.

  13. Emergency Flight Control Using Only Engine Thrust and Lateral Center-of-Gravity Offset: A First Look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Burken, John; Maine, Trindel A.; Bull, John

    1997-01-01

    Normally, the damage that results in a total loss of the primary flight controls of a jet transport airplane, including all engines on one side, would be catastrophic. In response, NASA Dryden has conceived an emergency flight control system that uses only the thrust of a wing-mounted engine along with a lateral center-of-gravity (CGY) offset from fuel transfer. Initial analysis and simulation studies indicate that such a system works, and recent high-fidelity simulation tests on the MD-11 and B-747 suggest that the system provides enough control for a survivable landing. This paper discusses principles of flight control using only a wing engine thrust and CGY offset, along with the amount of CGY offset capability of some transport airplanes. The paper also presents simulation results of the throttle-only control capability and closed-loop control of ground track using computer-controlled thrust.

  14. NO(x) reduction additives for aircraft gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, Henry G.; Menees, Gene P.; Cambier, Jean-Luc

    1993-01-01

    The reduction of oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines is a vital part of the NASA High Speed Research Program. Emissions reductions are critical to the feasibility of future High Speed Civil Transports which operate at supersonic speeds in the stratosphere. It is believed that large fleets of such aircraft using conventional gas turbine engines would emit levels of NO(x) that would be harmful to the stratospheric ozone layer. Previous studies have shown that NO(x) emissions can be reduced from stationary powerplant exhausts by the addition of additives such as ammonia to the exhaust gases. Since the exhaust residence times, pressures and temperatures may be different for aircraft gas turbines, a study has been made of additive effectiveness for high speed, high altitude flight.

  15. Last ion engine thrust puts ESA's SMART-1 on the right track for its Moon encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    SMART-1, on its way to the Moon, has now covered more than 80 million kilometres. Its journey started on 27 September 2003, when the spacecraft was launched on board an Ariane 5 rocket from Europe’s spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana. Since then, it has been spiralling in progressively larger orbits around Earth, to eventually be captured by the lunar gravity and enter into orbit around the Moon in November this year. The SMART-1 mission was designed to pursue two main objectives. The first is purely technological: to demonstrate and test a number of space techniques to be applied to future interplanetary exploration missions. The second goal is scientific, mainly dedicated to lunar science. It is the technology demonstration goal, in particular the first European flight test of a solar-powered ion engine as a spacecraft’s main propulsion system, that gave shape to the peculiar route and duration (13 months) of the SMART-1 journey to the Moon. The long spiralling orbit around Earth, which is bringing the spacecraft closer and closer to the Moon, is needed for the ion engine to function and be tested over a distance comparable to that a spacecraft would travel during a possible interplanetary trip. The SMART-1 mission is also testing the response of a spacecraft propelled by such an engine during gravity-assisted manoeuvres. These are techniques currently used on interplanetary journeys, which make use of the gravitational pull of celestial objects (e.g. planets) for the spacecraft to gain acceleration and reach its final target while saving fuel. In SMART-1’s case, the Moon’s gravitational pull has been exploited in three “lunar resonance” manoeuvres. The first two successfully took place in August and September 2004. The last resonance manoeuvre was on 12 October, during the last major ion engine thrust, which lasted nearly five days, from 10 to 14 October. Thanks to this final thrust, SMART-1 will make two more orbits around Earth without any further

  16. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patt, R. F.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  17. Energy efficient engine flight propulsion system: Aircraft/engine integration evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, R.F.

    1980-06-01

    Results of aircraft/engine integration studies conducted on an advanced flight propulsion system are reported. Economic evaluations of the preliminary design are included and indicate that program goals will be met. Installed sfc, DOC, noise, and emissions were evaluated. Aircraft installation considerations and growth were reviewed.

  18. Calculation of the pressures on aircraft engine bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steigenberger, O

    1929-01-01

    For aircraft engines the three principal operating conditions are idling speed, cruising speed, and diving with the engine stopped. In what follows, we will discuss a method which affords a good idea of the course of pressure for the above mentioned operating conditions. The pressures produced in the driving gear are of three kinds; namely, the pressure due to gases, the pressure due to the inertia of the rotating masses, and the pressure due to the inertia of the reciprocating masses.

  19. Combustion system CFD modeling at GE Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burrus, D.; Mongia, H.; Tolpadi, Anil K.; Correa, S.; Braaten, M.

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation discusses key features of current combustion system CFD modeling capabilities at GE Aircraft Engines provided by the CONCERT code; CONCERT development history; modeling applied for designing engine combustion systems; modeling applied to improve fundamental understanding; CONCERT3D results for current production combustors; CONCERT3D model of NASA/GE E3 combustor; HYBRID CONCERT CFD/Monte-Carlo modeling approach; and future modeling directions.

  20. Optimal Discrete Event Supervisory Control of Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Ray, Asok

    2004-01-01

    This report presents an application of the recently developed theory of optimal Discrete Event Supervisory (DES) control that is based on a signed real measure of regular languages. The DES control techniques are validated on an aircraft gas turbine engine simulation test bed. The test bed is implemented on a networked computer system in which two computers operate in the client-server mode. Several DES controllers have been tested for engine performance and reliability.

  1. Exhaust emissions reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Stuckas, K. J.; Tucker, J. R.; Meyers, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Three concepts which, to an aircraft piston engine, provide reductions in exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide while simultaneously improving fuel economy. The three chosen concepts, (1) an improved fuel injection system, (2) an improved cooling cylinder head, and (3) exhaust air injection, when combined, show a synergistic relationship in achieving these goals. In addition, the benefits of variable ignition timing were explored and both dynamometer and flight testing of the final engine configuration were accomplished.

  2. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  3. The Power of Aircraft Engines at Altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragazzi, Paolo

    1939-01-01

    The subject of the present paper is confined to the investigations and methods employed by the Fiat company in their studies on the altitude performance of an air-cooled engine of the production type. The experimental set-up as well as test engine data are provided.

  4. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  5. Advanced Technology Spark-Ignition Aircraft Piston Engine Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckas, K. J.

    1980-01-01

    The advanced technology, spark ignition, aircraft piston engine design study was conducted to determine the improvements that could be made by taking advantage of technology that could reasonably be expected to be made available for an engine intended for production by January 1, 1990. Two engines were proposed to account for levels of technology considered to be moderate risk and high risk. The moderate risk technology engine is a homogeneous charge engine operating on avgas and offers a 40% improvement in transportation efficiency over present designs. The high risk technology engine, with a stratified charge combustion system using kerosene-based jet fuel, projects a 65% improvement in transportation efficiency. Technology enablement program plans are proposed herein to set a timetable for the successful integration of each item of required advanced technology into the engine design.

  6. Stratified charge rotary aircraft engine technology enablement program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P. R.; Irion, C. E.; Myers, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The multifuel stratified charge rotary engine is discussed. A single rotor, 0.7L/40 cu in displacement, research rig engine was tested. The research rig engine was designed for operation at high speeds and pressures, combustion chamber peak pressure providing margin for speed and load excursions above the design requirement for a high is advanced aircraft engine. It is indicated that the single rotor research rig engine is capable of meeting the established design requirements of 120 kW, 8,000 RPM, 1,379 KPA BMEP. The research rig engine, when fully developed, will be a valuable tool for investigating, advanced and highly advanced technology components, and provide an understanding of the stratified charge rotary engine combustion process.

  7. Study of advanced rotary combustion engines for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.

    1983-01-01

    Performance, weight, size, and maintenance data for advanced rotary aircraft engines suitable for comparative commuter aircraft system evaluation studies of alternate engine candidates are provided. These are turbocharged, turbocompounded, direct injected, stratified charge rotary engines. Hypothetical engines were defined (an RC4-74 at 895 kW and an RC6-87 at 1490 kW) based on the technologies and design approaches used in the highly advanced engine of a study of advanced general aviation rotary engines. The data covers the size range of shaft power from 597 kW (800 hp) to 1865 kW (2500 hp) and is in the form of drawings, tables, curves and written text. These include data on internal geometry and configuration, installation information, turbocharging and turbocompounding arrangements, design features and technologies, engine cooling, fuels, scaling for weight size BSFC and heat rejection for varying horsepower, engine operating and performance data, and TBO and maintenance requirements. The basic combustion system was developed and demonstrated; however the projected power densities and performance efficiencies require increases in engine internal pressures, thermal loading, and rotative speed.

  8. A 150 and 300 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The diesel engine was reinvestigated as an aircraft powerplant through design study conducted to arrive at engine configurations and applicable advanced technologies. Two engines are discussed, a 300 kW six-cylinder engine for twin engine general aviation aircraft and a 150 kW four-cylinder engine for single engine aircraft. Descriptions of each engine include concept drawings, a performance analysis, stress and weight data, and a cost study. This information was used to develop two airplane concepts, a six-place twin and a four-place single engine aircraft. The aircraft study consists of installation drawings, computer generated performance data, aircraft operating costs, and drawings of the resulting airplanes. The performance data show a vast improvement over current gasoline-powered aircraft.

  9. Aircraft Turbine Engine Reliability and Inspection Investigations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    controls and accessories typically produced the largest number of in-flight flameouts, compressor stalls , and engine shutdowns. In addition to the actuarial...typically produced the largest number of in-flight flameouts, compressor stalls , and engine shutdowns. Diagnostic troubleshooting procedures for controls...airfoils suffer because these * materials are damaged during compressor stalls when cooling air flows are disrupted. 3. Fuel/oil system failures are

  10. Very Low Thrust Gaseous Oxygen-hydrogen Rocket Engine Ignition Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bjorklund, Roy A.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental program was performed to determine the minimum energy per spark for reliable and repeatable ignition of gaseous oxygen (GO2) and gaseous hydrogen (GH2) in very low thrust 0.44 to 2.22-N (0.10 to 0.50-lb sub f) rocket engines or spacecraft and satellite attitude control systems (ACS) application. Initially, the testing was conducted at ambient conditions, with the results subsequently verified under vacuum conditions. An experimental breadboard electrical exciter that delivered 0.2 to 0.3 mj per spark was developed and demonstrated by repeated ignitions of a 2.22-N (0.50-lb sub f) thruster in a vacuum chamber with test durations up to 30 min.

  11. Noise of model target type thrust reversers for engine-over-the-wing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1974-01-01

    The present work reports on experiments concerning the noise generated by V-gutter and semicylindrical target reversers with circular and short-aspect-ratio slot nozzles having equivalent diameters of about 5 cm. At subsonic jet velocities of interest for engine-over-the-wing (OTW) powered-lift aircraft, the reversers were noisier than the nozzles alone and had a more uniform directional distribution and more high-frequency noise. Reverser shape was more important than nozzle shape in determining the reverser noise characteristics. An estimate is made of perceived noise level along the 152-m sideline for a hypothetical OTW powered-lift airplane.

  12. Cabin Noise Control for Twin Engine General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaicaitis, R.; Slazak, M.

    1982-01-01

    An analytical model based on modal analysis was developed to predict the noise transmission into a twin-engine light aircraft. The model was applied to optimize the interior noise to an A-weighted level of 85 dBA. To achieve the required noise attenuation, add-on treatments in the form of honeycomb panels, damping tapes, acoustic blankets, septum barriers and limp trim panels were added to the existing structure. The added weight of the noise control treatment is about 1.1 percent of the total gross take-off weight of the aircraft.

  13. Toward improved durability in advanced aircraft engine hot sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokolowski, Daniel E. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The conference on durability improvement methods for advanced aircraft gas turbine hot-section components discussed NASA's Hot Section Technology (HOST) project, advanced high-temperature instrumentation for hot-section research, the development and application of combustor aerothermal models, and the evaluation of a data base and numerical model for turbine heat transfer. Also discussed are structural analysis methods for gas turbine hot section components, fatigue life-prediction modeling for turbine hot section materials, and the service life modeling of thermal barrier coatings for aircraft gas turbine engines.

  14. Advanced Development Program for a 625 lbf thrust engine for Ares First Stage Roll Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Matt; Chenevert, Blake; Brewster, Gerry; Frei, Tom; Bullard, Brad; Fuller, Ray

    2009-01-01

    NASA's new Ares Launch Vehicle will require twelve thrusters to provide roll control of the vehicle during the first stage firing. All twelve roll control thrusters will be located at the inter-stage segment that separates the solid rocket booster first stage from the second stage. NASA selected a mono propellant hydrazine solution and as a result awarded Aerojet-General a contract in 2007 for an advanced development program for an MR-80- series 625 Ibf vacuum thrust monopropellant hydrazine thruster. This thruster has heritage dating back to the 1976 Viking Landers and most recently for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory. Prior to the Ares application, the MR-80-series thrusters had been equipped with throttle valves and not typically operated in pulse mode. The primary objective of the advanced development program was to increase the technology readiness level and retire major technical risks for the future flight qualification test program. Aerojet built on their heritage MR-80 rocket engine designs to achieve the design and performance requirements. Significant improvements to cost and lead-time were achieved by applying Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA) principles. AerojetGeneral has completed Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews, followed by two successful rocket engine development test programs. The test programs included qualification random vibration and firing lite that significantly exceed the flight qualification requirements. This paper discusses the advanced development program and the demonstrated capability of the MR-80C engine. Y;

  15. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  16. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, W.R.; Fusaro, R.L.

    1992-08-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  17. Liquid lubricants for advanced aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, William R.; Fusaro, Robert L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of liquid lubricants for use in current and projected high performance turbojet engines is discussed. Chemical and physical properties are reviewed with special emphasis placed on the oxidation and thermal stability requirements imposed upon the lubrication system. A brief history is given of the development of turbine engine lubricants which led to the present day synthetic oils with their inherent modification advantages. The status and state of development of some eleven candidate classes of fluids for use in advanced turbine engines are discussed. Published examples of fundamental studies to obtain a better understanding of the chemistry involved in fluid degradation are reviewed. Alternatives to high temperature fluid development are described. The importance of continuing work on improving current high temperature lubricant candidates and encouraging development of new and improved fluid base stocks are discussed.

  18. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  19. Effectiveness of combined aircraft engine noise suppressors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaletskiy, Yu. D.

    2012-07-01

    We consider the design features of fan noise suppressors in application to air intakes and the bypass duct of a turbofan engine. A combined liner is developed that has increased acoustic efficiency in comparison to conventional honeycomb liner. We demonstrate the important role of the area of the sound-absorbing liner between fan Rotor and Stator ensuring significant noise reduction.

  20. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA's current Fundamental Aeronautics research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today's aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA's aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  1. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This report reviews all engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASA's long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  2. NASA Glenn's Contributions to Aircraft Engine Noise Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Dennis L.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation reviews engine noise research conducted at the NASA Glenn Research Center over the past 70 years. This report includes a historical perspective of the Center and the facilities used to conduct the research. Major noise research programs are highlighted to show their impact on industry and on the development of aircraft noise reduction technology. Noise reduction trends are discussed, and future aircraft concepts are presented. Since the 1960s, research results show that the average perceived noise level has been reduced by about 20 decibels (dB). Studies also show that, depending on the size of the airport, the aircraft fleet mix, and the actual growth in air travel, another 15 to 17 dB reduction will be required to achieve NASAs long-term goal of providing technologies to limit objectionable noise to the boundaries of an average airport.

  3. Aircraft Engine Technology for Green Aviation to Reduce Fuel Burn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Christopher E.; VanZante, Dale E.; Heidmann, James D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program Subsonic Fixed Wing Project and Integrated Systems Research Program Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project in the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate are conducting research on advanced aircraft technology to address the environmental goals of reducing fuel burn, noise and NOx emissions for aircraft in 2020 and beyond. Both Projects, in collaborative partnerships with U.S. Industry, Academia, and other Government Agencies, have made significant progress toward reaching the N+2 (2020) and N+3 (beyond 2025) installed fuel burn goals by fundamental aircraft engine technology development, subscale component experimental investigations, full scale integrated systems validation testing, and development validation of state of the art computation design and analysis codes. Specific areas of propulsion technology research are discussed and progress to date.

  4. Engine Conceptual Design Studies for a Hybrid Wing Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Jones, Scott M.; Haller, William J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide concerns of air quality and climate change have made environmental protection one of the most critical issues in aviation today. NASA s current Fundamental Aeronautics Research program is directed at three generations of aircraft in the near, mid and far term, with initial operating capability around 2015, 2020, and 2030, respectively. Each generation has associated goals for fuel burn, NOx, noise, and field-length reductions relative to today s aircrafts. The research for the 2020 generation is directed at enabling a hybrid wing body (HWB) aircraft to meet NASA s aggressive technology goals. This paper presents the conceptual cycle and mechanical designs of the two engine concepts, podded and embedded systems, which were proposed for a HWB cargo freighter. They are expected to offer significant benefits in noise reductions without compromising the fuel burn.

  5. A hydrogen-oxygen rocket engine coolant passage design program (RECOP) for fluid-cooled thrust chambers and nozzles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    The design of coolant passages in regeneratively cooled thrust chambers is critical to the operation and safety of a rocket engine system. Designing a coolant passage is a complex thermal and hydraulic problem requiring an accurate understanding of the heat transfer between the combustion gas and the coolant. Every major rocket engine company has invested in the development of thrust chamber computer design and analysis tools; two examples are Rocketdyne's REGEN code and Aerojet's ELES program. In an effort to augment current design capabilities for government and industry, the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing a computer model to design coolant passages for advanced regeneratively cooled thrust chambers. The RECOP code incorporates state-of-the-art correlations, numerical techniques and design methods, certainly minimum requirements for generating optimum designs of future space chemical engines. A preliminary version of the RECOP model was recently completed and code validation work is in progress. This paper introduces major features of RECOP and compares the analysis to design points for the first test case engine; the Pratt & Whitney RL10A-3-3A thrust chamber.

  6. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Experience: Implications for the F100 Engine Diagnostic System Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-01

    malfunction re- port data were obtained from the Program Office. -8- EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 76 - MAY 77 INSTRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL...interesting to note that the J85 was a mature engine and that the number of engine problems encountered was not very great. Also, the EHMS was not a new...copyright notation hereon. Library of Congress Cataloging In PObNiation Data Birkier, John L Aircraft turbine engine monitoring experience. ([Report

  7. Static Performance of a Wing-Mounted Thrust Reverser Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asbury, Scott C.; Yetter, Jeffrey A.

    1998-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted in the Jet-Exit Test Facility at NASA Langley Research Center to study the static aerodynamic performance of a wing-mounted thrust reverser concept applicable to subsonic transport aircraft. This innovative engine powered thrust reverser system is designed to utilize wing-mounted flow deflectors to produce aircraft deceleration forces. Testing was conducted using a 7.9%-scale exhaust system model with a fan-to-core bypass ratio of approximately 9.0, a supercritical left-hand wing section attached via a pylon, and wing-mounted flow deflectors attached to the wing section. Geometric variations of key design parameters investigated for the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept included flow deflector angle and chord length, deflector edge fences, and the yaw mount angle of the deflector system (normal to the engine centerline or parallel to the wing trailing edge). All tests were conducted with no external flow and high pressure air was used to simulate core and fan engine exhaust flows. Test results indicate that the wing-mounted thrust reverser concept can achieve overall thrust reverser effectiveness levels competitive with (parallel mount), or better than (normal mount) a conventional cascade thrust reverser system. By removing the thrust reverser system from the nacelle, the wing-mounted concept offers the nacelle designer more options for improving nacelle aero dynamics and propulsion-airframe integration, simplifying nacelle structural designs, reducing nacelle weight, and improving engine maintenance access.

  8. Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion Engine Cycle Analysis for Hybrid-Wing-Body Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Felder, James L.; Kim, Hyun Dae; Brown, Gerald V.

    2009-01-01

    possibilities. The Boeing N2 hybrid-wing-body (HWB) is used as a baseline aircraft for this study. The two pylon mounted conventional turbofans are replaced by two wing-tip mounted turboshaft engines, each driving a superconducting generator. Both generators feed a common electrical bus which distributes power to an array of superconducting motor-driven fans in a continuous nacelle centered along the trailing edge of the upper surface of the wing-body. A key finding was that traditional inlet performance methodology has to be modified when most of the air entering the inlet is boundary layer air. A very thorough and detailed propulsion/airframe integration (PAI) analysis is required at the very beginning of the design process since embedded engine inlet performance must be based on conditions at the inlet lip rather than freestream conditions. Examination of a range of fan pressure ratios yielded a minimum Thrust-specific-fuel-consumption (TSFC) at the aerodynamic design point of the vehicle (31,000 ft /Mach 0.8) between 1.3 and 1.35 FPR. We deduced that this was due to the higher pressure losses prior to the fan inlet as well as higher losses in the 2-D inlets and nozzles. This FPR is likely to be higher than the FPR that yields a minimum TSFC in a pylon mounted engine. 1

  9. LOX-Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines and Thrust Chamber Technologies for Future Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeseler, Dietrich; Mäding, Chris

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations into the use of hydrocarbon fuels for launcher propulsion and in-orbit propulsion show the potential to satisfy the market's performance and cost requirements. The main expected advantages compared to current cryogenic and storable propellants are reduced handling effort and reduced safety precautions. Large liquid boosters or first stages for expendable and reusable vehicles are seen today as major application areas. Engine and stage concepts have been compared assuming various possible propellant combinations with hydrocarbon fuels. The expected characteristics like performance, dry mass, and development status are compared. Both expendable as well as reusable vehicle stages were considered. Investigations aiming at identifying the optimum hydrocarbon propellant in view of thrust chamber performance and engine system have been performed. System studies were performed to conclude on propellant selection, the propulsion system configuration, and the most economic engine cycle for the considered applications. The chamber cooling was assessed for envisaged chamber operational conditions in view of cooling limitations by propellant dissociation and coking. Since 1993 injector and combustion chamber technologies for the applications of different hydrocarbon propellant combinations are investigated by Astrium Space Infrastructure. The operation with hydrocarbon propellants was already demonstrated with an existing Aestus engine in cooperation with Boeing Propulsion and Power. Test have been performed with a subscale combustion chamber with the selected propellants LOX-methane and LOX-kerosene to confirm operation feasibility, cooling, and performance in a cooperation of Astrium with Chemieautomatics Design Bureau in Russia. Several injection concepts have been studied to allow a comparison and down-selection for future application. A continuation of this program is currently under preparation.

  10. Cobalt: A vital element in the aircraft engine industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    Recent trends in the United States consumption of cobalt indicate that superalloys for aircraft engine manufacture require increasing amounts of this strategic element. Superalloys consume a lion's share of total U.S. cobalt usage which was about 16 million pounds in 1980. In excess of 90 percent of the cobalt used in this country was imported, principally from the African countries of Zaire and Zambia. Early studies on the roles of cobalt as an alloying element in high temperature alloys concentrated on the simple Ni-Cr and Nimonic alloy series. The role of cobalt in current complex nickel base superalloys is not well defined and indeed, the need for the high concentration of cobalt in widely used nickel base superalloys is not firmly established. The current cobalt situation is reviewed as it applies to superalloys and the opportunities for research to reduce the consumption of cobalt in the aircraft engine industry are described.

  11. Active Combustion Control for Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Saus, Joseph R.; Paxson, Daniel E.

    2000-01-01

    Lean-burning combustors are susceptible to combustion instabilities. Additionally, due to non-uniformities in the fuel-air mixing and in the combustion process, there typically exist hot areas in the combustor exit plane. These hot areas limit the operating temperature at the turbine inlet and thus constrain performance and efficiency. Finally, it is necessary to optimize the fuel-air ratio and flame temperature throughout the combustor to minimize the production of pollutants. In recent years, there has been considerable activity addressing Active Combustion Control. NASA Glenn Research Center's Active Combustion Control Technology effort aims to demonstrate active control in a realistic environment relevant to aircraft engines. Analysis and experiments are tied to aircraft gas turbine combustors. Considerable progress has been shown in demonstrating technologies for Combustion Instability Control, Pattern Factor Control, and Emissions Minimizing Control. Future plans are to advance the maturity of active combustion control technology to eventual demonstration in an engine environment.

  12. Carbureting conditions characteristics of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tice, Percival S

    1920-01-01

    Tests were conducted at the altitude laboratory erected at the Bureau of Standards for the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics to determine the changes in engine performance with changes in atmospheric temperature and pressure at various levels above the earth's surface, with special reference to (a) the variables affecting the functioning of the carburetor and (b) the changes in performance resulting from variables in the carburetor itself. This report constitutes a concise statement of the difficulties to be encountered in this branch of carburetion.

  13. Rapid Measurement of Emissions From Military Aircraft Turbine Engines by Downstream Extractive Sampling of Aircraft on the Ground: Results for C-130 and F-15 Aircraft (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    engines were tested using indoor engine test facilities (F110, F101, J85 -GE-5M, PT6A-68, TF41-A2, TF30-P103 and TF30- P109), while others were studied while...afterburning). Engine T56-A-15 F100-PW-100 F110 F101 J85 -GE-5M PT6A-68 TF-39-1C CFM-56-3 TF41-A2 TF30-P103 TF30-P109 Misc. Type Turboprop Turbofan...AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES BY DOWNSTREAM EXTRACTIVE SAMPLING OF AIRCRAFT ON THE GROUND: RESULTS FOR C-130 AND F-15 AIRCRAFT Chester Spicer and

  14. 76 FR 19903 - Special Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-11

    ... Conditions: Diamond Aircraft Industry Model DA-40NG; Diesel Cycle Engine AGENCY: Federal Aviation... conditions are issued for the Diamond Aircraft Industry (DAI) GmbH model DA-40NG the Austro Engine GmbH model... the postcard and mail it back to you. Background On May 11, 2010 Diamond Aircraft Industry...

  15. Cooling Air Inlet and Exit Geometries on Aircraft Engine Installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph; Corsiglia, Victor R.; Barlow, Philip R.

    1982-01-01

    A semispan wing and nacelle of a typical general aviation twin-engine aircraft was tested to evaluate the cooling capability and drag or several nacelle shapes; the nacelle shapes included cooling air inlet and exit variations. The tests were conducted in the Ames Research Center 40 x 80-ft Wind Tunnel. It was found that the cooling air inlet geometry of opposed piston engine installations has a major effect on inlet pressure recovery, but only a minor effect on drag. Exit location showed large effect on drag, especially for those locations on the sides of the nacelle where the suction characteristics were based on interaction with the wing surface pressures.

  16. Computation of Engine Noise Propagation and Scattering Off an Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents a comparison of experimental noise data measured in flight on a two-engine business jet aircraft with Kulite microphones placed on the suction surface of the wing with computational results. Both a time-domain discontinuous Galerkin spectral method and a frequency-domain spectral element method are used to simulate the radiation of the dominant spinning mode from the engine and its reflection and scattering by the fuselage and the wing. Both methods are implemented in computer codes that use the distributed memory model to make use of large parallel architectures. The results show that trends of the noise field are well predicted by both methods.

  17. TCM aircraft piston engine emission reduction program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    The technology necessary to safely reduce general aviation piston engine exhaust emissions to meet the EPA 1980 Emission Standards with minimum adverse effects on cost, weight, fuel economy, and performance was demonstrated. A screening and assessment of promising emission reduction concepts was provided, and the preliminary design and development of those concepts was established. A system analysis study and a decision making procedure were used by TCM to evaluate, trade off, and rank the candidate concepts from a list of 14 alternatives. Cost, emissions, and 13 other design criteria considerations were defined and traded off against each candidate concept to establish its merit and emission reduction usefulness. A computer program was used to aid the evaluators in making the final choice of three concepts.

  18. Technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immich, H.; Alting, J.; Kretschmer, J.; Preclik, D.

    2003-08-01

    In this paper an overview of recent technology developments for thrust chambers of future launch vehicle liquid rocket engines at Astrium, Space Infrastructure Division (SI), is shown. The main technology. developments shown in this paper are: Technologies Technologies for enhanced heat transfer to the coolant for expander cycle engines Advanced injector head technologies Advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies. The main technologies for enhanced heat transfer investigated by subscale chamber hot-firing tests are: Increase of chamber length Hot gas side ribs in the chamber Artificially increased surface roughness. The developments for advanced injector head technologies were focused on the design of a new modular subscale chamber injector head. This injector head allows for an easy exchange of different injection elements: By this, cost effective hot-fire tests with different injection element concepts can be performed. The developments for advanced combustion chamber manufacturing technologies are based on subscale chamber tests with a new design of the Astrium subscale chamber. The subscale chamber has been modified by introduction of a segmented cooled cylindrical section which gives the possibility to test different manufacturing concepts for cooled chamber technologies by exchanging the individual segments. The main technology efforts versus advanced manufacturing technologies shown in this paper are: Soldering techniques Thermal barrier coatings for increased chamber life. A new technology effort is dedicated especially to LOX/Hydrocarbon propellant combinations. Recent hot fire tests on the subscale chamber with Kerosene and Methane as fuel have already been performed. A comprehensive engine system trade-off between the both propellant combinations (Kerosene vs. Methane) is presently under preparation.

  19. Effective density measurements of fresh particulate matter emitted by an aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegglen, Manuel; Durdina, Lukas; Mensah, Amewu; Brem, Benjamin; Corbin, Joel; Rindlisbacher, Theo; Wang, Jing; Lohmann, Ulrike; Sierau, Berko

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Carbonaceous particulate matter (commonly referred to as soot), once emitted into the atmosphere affects the global radiation budget by absorbing and scattering solar radiation. Furthermore, it can alter the formation, lifetime and distribution of clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN). The ability of soot particles to act as CCN and IN depends on their size, morphology and chemical composition. Soot particles are known to consist of spherical, primary particles that tend to arrange in chain-like structures. The structure of soot particles typically changes in the atmosphere when the particles are coated with secondary material, thus changing their radiative and cloud microphysical properties. Bond et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, 2013: Bounding the Role of Black Carbon in the Climate System.) estimated the total industrial-era (1750 to 2005) climate forcing of black carbon to be 1.1 W/m2 ranging from the uncertainty bonds of 0.17 W/m2 to 2.1 W/m2. Facing the large uncertainty range, there is a need for a better characterization of soot particles abundant in the atmosphere. We provide experimental data on physical properties such as size, mass, density and morphology of freshly produced soot particles from a regularly used aircraft engine and from four laboratory generated soot types. This was done using a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Centrifugal Particle Mass Analyzer (CPMA), a relatively new instrument that records mass distributions of aerosol particles. Experimental Aircraft engine exhaust particles were collected and analysed during the Aviation Particle Regulatory Instrumentation Demonstration Experiments (A-PRIDE) campaigns in a test facility at the Zurich airport in November 2012 and August 2013. The engines were operated at different relative thrust levels spanning 7 % to 100 %. The sample was led into a heated line in order to prevent condensation of water and evolution of secondary

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A SUPERSONIC TRANSPORT AIRCRAFT ENGINE - PHASE II-A.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    JET TRANSPORT PLANES, *SUPERSONIC AIRCRAFT ) (U) TURBOJET ENGINES , PERFORMANCE( ENGINEERING ), TURBOFAN ENGINES , AFTERBURNING, SPECIFICATIONS...COMPRESSORS, GEOMETRY, TURBOJET INLETS, COMBUSTION, TEST EQUIPMENT, TURBINE BLADES , HEAT TRANSFER, AIRFOILS , CASCADE STRUCTURES, EVAPOTRANSPIRATION, PLUG NOZZLES, ANECHOIC CHAMBERS, BEARINGS, SEALS, DESIGN, FATIGUE(MECHANICS)

  1. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine, reusable thrust chamber program. Task 6: Data dump hot fuel element investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nurick, W. H.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of reusable thrust chambers for the space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine was conducted. Tests were conducted using subscale injector hot-fire procedures for the injector configurations designed for a regenerative cooled engine. The effect of operating conditions and fuel temperature on combustion chamber performance was determined. Specific objectives of the evaluation were to examine the optimum like-doublet element geometry for operation at conditions consistent with a fuel regeneratively cooled engine (hot fuel, 200 to 250 F) and the sensitivity of the triplet injector element to hot fuels.

  2. Control of geostationary spacecraft in orbital plane using a low thrust engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vadim V.; Chetverikov, Alexey S.

    2017-01-01

    The control algorithm for the parameters of the geostationary spacecraft orbit was developed using low-thrust engine. We consider only flat parameters determining the geostationary spacecraft's position in the orbit plane, namely, orbital period, eccentricity and longitude point of standing. The terminal control problem of geostationary spacecraft has been stated. It is assumed that the corrective maneuver is implemented by creating a small transversal acceleration using electric low-thruster. There is a developed discrete model of the geostationary spacecraft motion in the orbit plane under the influence of small transversal acceleration. The solution of this problem involving the use of the traditional dynamic programming method based on the use of Bellman equation is difficult to obtain, because the discrete model of geostationary spacecraft motion is a nonlinear system of equations. Therefore, the paper proposes approximate scheme for solving the problem based on the three-step algorithm of terminal control of the orbital period, eccentricity and longitude point of standing. The solution of the plane problem of the terminal control has been obtained in the analytical form. Analytical expressions for the cost estimate of characteristic speed of corrective maneuver have been obtained. When modeling the motion of a geostationary spacecraft under the influence of a small transversal acceleration the algorithm has showed high accuracy of solving the terminal control problem.

  3. Characterization of emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions eXperiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fine particulate matter emissions from aircraft operations at large airports located in areas of the U. S. designated as non-attainment for the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-2.5 are of major environmental concern. PM emissions data for commercial aircraft engin...

  4. 76 FR 45011 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft... AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 and 1068 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0687; FRL-9437-2] RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution... engines which in her judgment causes or contributes to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated...

  5. 77 FR 65823 - Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 87 RIN 2060-AO70 Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Emission Standards and Test Procedures Correction In rule document 2012-13828 appearing on pages...

  6. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  7. Conceptual Engine System Design for NERVA derived 66.7KN and 111.2KN Thrust Nuclear Thermal Rockets

    SciTech Connect

    Fittje, James E.; Buehrle, Robert J.

    2006-01-20

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket concept is being evaluated as an advanced propulsion concept for missions to the moon and Mars. A tremendous effort was undertaken during the 1960's and 1970's to develop and test NERVA derived Nuclear Thermal Rockets in the 111.2 KN to 1112 KN pound thrust class. NASA GRC is leveraging this past NTR investment in their vehicle concepts and mission analysis studies, and has been evaluating NERVA derived engines in the 66.7 KN to the 111.2 KN thrust range. The liquid hydrogen propellant feed system, including the turbopumps, is an essential component of the overall operation of this system. The NASA GRC team is evaluating numerous propellant feed system designs with both single and twin turbopumps. The Nuclear Engine System Simulation code is being exercised to analyze thermodynamic cycle points for these selected concepts. This paper will present propellant feed system concepts and the corresponding thermodynamic cycle points for 66.7 KN and 111.2 KN thrust NTR engine systems. A pump out condition for a twin turbopump concept will also be evaluated, and the NESS code will be assessed against the Small Nuclear Rocket Engine preliminary thermodynamic data.

  8. Aircraft Engine Noise Scattering - A Discontinuous Spectral Element Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanescu, D.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Farassat, F.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a time-domain method for computation of sound radiation from aircraft engine sources to the far-field. The effects of nonuniform flow around the aircraft and scattering of sound by fuselage and wings are accounted for in the formulation. Our approach is based on the discretization of the inviscid flow equations through a collocation form of the Discontinuous Galerkin spectral element method. An isoparametric representation of the underlying geometry is used in order to take full advantage of the spectral accuracy of the method. Largescale computations are made possible by a parallel implementation based on message passing. Results obtained for radiation from an axisymmetric nacelle alone are compared with those obtained when the same nacelle is installed in a generic con.guration, with and without a wing.

  9. Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.; Borguet, Sebastien; Leonard, Olivier; Zhang, Xiaodong (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed.

  10. Lightweight diesel engine designs for commuter type aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    Conceptual designs and performance of advanced technology lightweight diesel engines, suitable for commuter type aircraft power plants are defined. Two engines are discussed, a 1491 kW (2000 SHP) eight-cylinder engine and a 895 kW (1200 SHP) six-cylinder engine. High performance and related advanced technologies are proposed such as insulated cylinders, very high injection pressures and high compressor and turbine efficiencies. The description of each engine includes concept drawings, a performance analysis, and weight data. Fuel flow data are given for full and partial power up to 7620m altitude. The performance data are also extrapolated over a power range from 671 kW(900SHP) to 1864 kW (2500 SHP). The specific fuel consumption of the 1491 kW (2000 SHP) engine is 182 g/hWh (.299 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 620 kg (1365 lb.) and specific weight .415 kg/kW (.683 lb/HP). The specific fuel consumption of the 895 kW (1200 SHP) engine is 187 g/hWh (.308 lb/HPh) at cruise altitude, its weight 465 kg (1025 lb.) and specific weight .520 kg/kW (.854 lb/HP).

  11. The knocking characteristics of fuels in relation to maximum permissible performance of aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1939-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the relationship of various engine factors to knock in preignition in an aircraft engine. From this analysis and from the available experimental data, a method of evaluating the knocking characteristics of the fuel in an aircraft-engine cylinder is suggested.

  12. A simulation evaluation of a four-engine jet transport using engine thrust modulation for flightpath control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph L.; Le, Jeanette; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The use of throttle control laws to provide adequate flying qualities for flightpath control in the event of a total loss of conventional flight control surface use was evaluated. The results are based on a simulation evaluation by transport research pilots of a B-720 transport with visual display. Throttle augmentation control laws can provide flightpath control capable of landing a transport-type aircraft with up to moderate levels of turbulence. The throttle augmentation mode dramatically improves the pilots' ability to control flightpath for the approach and landing flight condition using only throttle modulation. For light turbulence, the average Cooper-Harper pilot rating improved from unacceptable to acceptable (a pilot rating improvement of 4.5) in going from manual to augmented control. The low frequency response characteristics of the engines require a considerably different piloting technique. The various techniques used by the pilots resulted in considerable scatter in the data. Many pilots readily adapted to a good piloting technique while some has difficulty. The research demonstrates a new and viable approach to providing an independent means of redundancy or increasing the redundancy capability of transport aircraft flightpath control.

  13. A simulation evaluation of a four-engine jet transport using engine thrust modulation for flightpath control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph L.; Le, Jeanette; Burcham, Frank W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The use of throttle control laws to provide adequate flying qualities for flight path control in the event of a total loss of conventional flight control surface use was evaluated. The results are based on a simulation evaluation by transport research pilots of a B-720 transport with visual display. Throttle augmentation control laws can provide flight path control capable of landing a transport-type aircraft with up to moderate levels of turbulence. The throttle augmentation mode dramatically improves the pilots' ability to control flight path for the approach and landing flight condition using only throttle modulation. For light turbulence, the average Cooper-Harper pilot rating improved from unacceptable to acceptable (a pilot rating improvement of 4.5) in going from manual to augmented control. The low frequency response characteristics of the engines require a considerably different piloting technique. The various techniques used by the pilot resulted in considerable scatter in data. Many pilots readily adapted to a good piloting technique while some had difficulty. A new viable approach is shown to provide independent means of redundancy of transport aircraft flight path control.

  14. A Study of Bird Ingestions Into Large High Bypass Ratio Turbine Aircraft Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    into large high bypass ratio turbine aircraft engines on a worldwide basis and what damage , if any, resulted. This interim report presents a summary...operations. These aircraft experienced 289 engine ingestion events during the initial contract * period, May 1961 through April 1982. The FAA is...Airports involved 88 3. Total events 289 4. hngine damage , minor and/or major 188 5. Multiple engine ingestions per aircraft 11 6. MuLtiple bird

  15. Experimental Studies of Coal and Biomass Fuel Synthesis and Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-31

    Synthesis and Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-10-1-0344 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F... Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines AFOSR Grant Number: FA9550-10-1-0344 Final Performance Report Report Period: September 1, 2008 to... Flame Characterization for Aircraft Engines (Final Performance Report) Project Period: September 1, 2008 to March 31, 2012 Report Period

  16. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling.

    PubMed

    Carslaw, David C; Ropkins, Karl; Laxen, Duncan; Moorcroft, Stephen; Marner, Ben; Williams, Martin L

    2008-03-15

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations were measured in individual plumes from aircraft departing on the northern runway at Heathrow Airport in west London. Over a period of four weeks 5618 individual plumes were sampled by a chemiluminescence monitor located 180 m from the runway. Results were processed and matched with detailed aircraft movement and aircraft engine data using chromatographic techniques. Peak concentrations associated with 29 commonly used engines were calculated and found to have a good relationship with N0x emissions taken from the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) databank. However, it is found that engines with higher reported NOx emissions result in proportionately lower NOx concentrations than engines with lower emissions. We show that it is likely that aircraft operational factors such as takeoff weight and aircraftthrust setting have a measurable and important effect on concentrations of N0x. For example, NOx concentrations can differ by up to 41% for aircraft using the same airframe and engine type, while those due to the same engine type in different airframes can differ by 28%. These differences are as great as, if not greater than, the reported differences in NOx emissions between different engine manufacturers for engines used on the same airframe.

  17. Effect of thrust on the aeroelastic instability of a composite swept wing with two engines in subsonic compressible flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouz-Abadi, R. D.; Askarian, A. R.; Zarifian, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate aeroelastic stability boundary of subsonic wings under the effect of thrust of two engines. The wing structure is modeled as a tapered composite box-beam. Moreover, an indicial function based model is used to calculate the unsteady lift and moment distribution along the wing span in subsonic compressible flow. The two jet engines mounted on the wing are modeled as concentrated masses and the effect of thrust of each engine is applied as a follower force. Using Hamilton's principle along with Galerkin's method, the governing equations of motion are derived, then the obtained equations are solved in frequency domain using the K-method and the aeroelastic instability conditions are determined. The flutter analysis results of four example wings are compared with the experimental and analytical results in the literature and good agreements are achieved which validate the present model. Furthermore, based on several case studies on a reference wing, some attempts are performed to analyze the effect of thrust on the stability margin of the wing and some conclusions are outlined.

  18. NACA's 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1934-01-01

    Eight of the twelve members of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics attending the 9th Annual Aircraft Engineering Research Conference posed for this photograph at Langley Field, Virginia, on May 23, 1934. Those pictured are (left to right): Brig. Gen. Charles A. Lindbergh, USAFR Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN Charles G. Abbot, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution Dr. Joseph S. Ames, Committee Chairman Orville Wright Edward P. Warner Fleet Admiral Ernest J. King, USN Eugene L. Vidal, Director, Bureau of Air Commerce.

  19. Exhaust emission reduction for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, R. N.

    1979-01-01

    Three concepts for optimizing the performance, increasing the fuel economy, and reducing exhaust emission of the piston aircraft engine were investigated. High energy-multiple spark discharge and spark plug tip penetration, ultrasonic fuel vaporization, and variable valve timing were evaluated individually. Ultrasonic fuel vaporization did not demonstrate sufficient improvement in distribution to offset the performance loss caused by the additional manifold restriction. High energy ignition and revised spark plug tip location provided no change in performance or emissions. Variable valve timing provided some performance benefit; however, even greater performance improvement was obtained through induction system tuning which could be accomplished with far less complexity.

  20. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-01-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  1. Structureborne noise measurements on a small twin-engine aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, J. E., III; Martini, K. F.

    1988-06-01

    Structureborne noise measurements performed on a twin-engine aircraft (Beechcraft Baron) are reported. There are two overall objectives of the test program. The first is to obtain data to support the development of analytical models of the wing and fuselage, while the second is to evaluate effects of structural parameters on cabin noise. Measurements performed include structural and acoustic responses to impact excitation, structural and acoustic loss factors, and modal parameters of the wing. Path alterations include added mass to simulate fuel, variations in torque of bolts joining wing and fuselage, and increased acoustic absorption. Conclusions drawn regarding these measurements are presented.

  2. A technique for integrating engine cycle and aircraft configuration optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiselhart, Karl A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for conceptual aircraft design that incorporates the optimization of major engine design variables for a variety of cycle types was developed. The methodology should improve the lengthy screening process currently involved in selecting an appropriate engine cycle for a given application or mission. The new capability will allow environmental concerns such as airport noise and emissions to be addressed early in the design process. The ability to rapidly perform optimization and parametric variations using both engine cycle and aircraft design variables, and to see the impact on the aircraft, should provide insight and guidance for more detailed studies. A brief description of the aircraft performance and mission analysis program and the engine cycle analysis program that were used is given. A new method of predicting propulsion system weight and dimensions using thermodynamic cycle data, preliminary design, and semi-empirical techniques is introduced. Propulsion system performance and weights data generated by the program are compared with industry data and data generated using well established codes. The ability of the optimization techniques to locate an optimum is demonstrated and some of the problems that had to be solved to accomplish this are illustrated. Results from the application of the program to the analysis of three supersonic transport concepts installed with mixed flow turbofans are presented. The results from the application to a Mach 2.4, 5000 n.mi. transport indicate that the optimum bypass ratio is near 0.45 with less than 1 percent variation in minimum gross weight for bypass ratios ranging from 0.3 to 0.6. In the final application of the program, a low sonic boom fix a takeoff gross weight concept that would fly at Mach 2.0 overwater and at Mach 1.6 overland is compared with a baseline concept of the same takeoff gross weight that would fly Mach 2.4 overwater and subsonically overland. The results indicate that for the design mission

  3. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  4. An Integrated Architecture for Aircraft Engine Performance Monitoring and Fault Diagnostics: Engine Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinehart, Aidan W.; Simon, Donald L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a model-based architecture for performance trend monitoring and gas path fault diagnostics designed for analyzing streaming transient aircraft engine measurement data. The technique analyzes residuals between sensed engine outputs and model predicted outputs for fault detection and isolation purposes. Diagnostic results from the application of the approach to test data acquired from an aircraft turbofan engine are presented. The approach is found to avoid false alarms when presented nominal fault-free data. Additionally, the approach is found to successfully detect and isolate gas path seeded-faults under steady-state operating scenarios although some fault misclassifications are noted during engine transients. Recommendations for follow-on maturation and evaluation of the technique are also presented.

  5. Improving safety of aircraft engines: a consortium approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasche, Lisa J. H.

    1996-11-01

    With over seven million departures per year, air transportation has become not a luxury, but a standard mode of transportation for the United States. A critical aspect of modern air transport is the jet engine, a complex engineered component that has enabled the rapid travel to which we have all become accustomed. One of the enabling technologies for safe air travel is nondestructive evaluation, or NDE, which includes various inspection techniques used to assess the health or integrity of a structure, component, or material. The Engine Titanium Consortium (ETC) was established in 1993 to respond to recommendations made by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Titanium Rotating Components Review Team (TRCRT) for improvements in inspection of engine titanium. Several recent accomplishments of the ETC are detailed in this paper. The objective of the Engine Titanium Consortium is to provide the FAAand the manufacturers with reliable and costeffective new methods and/or improvements in mature methods for detecting cracks, inclusions, and imperfections in titanium. The consortium consists of a team of researchers from academia and industry-namely, Iowa State University, Allied Signal Propulsion Engines, General Electric Aircraft Engines, and Pratt & Whitney Engines-who work together to develop program priorities, organize a program plan, conduct the research, and implement the solutions. The true advantage of the consortium approach is that it brings together the research talents of academia and the engineering talents of industry to tackle a technology-base problem. In bringing industrial competitors together, the consortium ensures that the research results, which have safety implications and result from FAA funds, are shared and become part of the public domain.

  6. Charged particle measurements on a 30-CM diameter mercury ion engine thrust beam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellen, J. M., Jr.; Komatsu, G. K.; Hoffmaster, D. K.; Kemp, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements of both thrust ions and charge exchange ions were made in the beam of a 30 centimeter diameter electron bombardment mercury ion thruster. A qualitative model is presented which describes magnitudes of charge exchange ion formation and motions of these ions in the weak electric field structure of the neutralized thrust beam plasma. Areas of agreement and discrepancy between observed and modeled charge exchange properties are discussed.

  7. Fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baumbick, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    NASA programs that focus on the use of fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control are reviewed. Fiber optics for aircraft control is attractive because of its inherent immunity to EMI and RFI noise. Optical signals can be safely transmitted through areas that contain flammable or explosive materials. The use of optics also makes remote sensing feasible by eliminating the need for electrical wires to be connected between sensors and computers. Using low-level optical signals to control actuators is also feasible when power is generated at the actuator. Each application of fiber optics for aircraft control has different requirements for both the optical cables and the optical connectors. Sensors that measure position and speed by using slotted plates can use lossy cables and bundle connectors if data transfer is in the parallel mode. If position and speed signals are multiplexed, cable and connector requirements change. Other sensors that depend on changes in transmission through materials require dependable characteristics of both the optical cables and the optical connectors. A variety of sensor types are reviewed, including rotary position encoders, tachometers, temperature sensors, and blade tip clearance sensors for compressors and turbines. Research on a gallium arsenide photoswitch for optically switched actuators that operate at 250 C is also described.

  8. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  9. Noise measurements for a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft during 3 deg approaches and level flyovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, E. C., Jr.; Shanks, R. E.; Mueller, A. W.

    1976-01-01

    Noise measurements have been made with a twin-engine commercial jet aircraft making 3 deg approaches and level flyovers. The flight-test data showed that, in the standard 3 deg approach configuration with 40 deg flaps, effective perceived noise level (EPNL) had a value of 109.5 effective perceived noise decibels (EPNdB). This result was in agreement with unpublished data obtained with the same type of aircraft during noise certification tests; the 3 deg approaches made with 30 deg flaps and slightly reduced thrust reduced the EPNL value by 1 EPNdB. Extended center-line noise determined during the 3 deg approaches with 40 deg flaps showed that the maximum reference A-weighted sound pressure level (LA,max)ref varied from 100.0 A-weighted decibels 2.01 km (108 n. mi.) from the threshold to 87.4 db(A) at 6.12 km (3.30 n. mi.) from the threshold. These test values were about 3 db(A) higher than estimates used for comparison. The test data along the extended center line during approaches with 30 deg flaps were 1 db(A) lower than those for approaches with 40 deg flaps. Flight-test data correlating (LA,max)ref with thrust at altitudes of 122 m (400 ft) and 610 m (2000 ft) were in agreement with reference data used for comparison.

  10. Study of aerodynamic technology for single-cruise-engine V/STOL fighter/attack aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mark, L.

    1982-01-01

    Conceptual designs and analyses were conducted on two V/STOL supersonic fighter/attack aircraft. These aircraft feature low footprint temperature and pressure thrust augmenting ejectors in the wings for vertical lift, combined with a low wing loading, low wave drag airframe for outstanding cruise and supersonic performance. Aerodynamic, propulsion, performance, and mass properties were determined and are presented for each aircraft. Aerodynamic and Aero/Propulsion characteristics having the most significant effect on the success of the up and away flight mode were identified, and the certainty with which they could be predicted was defined. A wind tunnel model and test program are recommended to resolve the identified uncertainties.

  11. Aerospike thrust chamber program. [cumulative damage and maintenance of structural members in hydrogen oxygen engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, J., Jr.; Cobb, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    An existing, but damaged, 25,000-pound thrust, flightweight, oxygen/hydrogen aerospike rocket thrust chamber was disassembled and partially repaired. A description is presented of the aerospike chamber configuration and of the damage it had suffered. Techniques for aerospike thrust chamber repair were developed, and are described, covering repair procedures for lightweight tubular nozzles, titanium thrust structures, and copper channel combustors. Effort was terminated prior to completion of the repairs and conduct of a planned hot fire test program when it was found that the copper alloy walls of many of the thrust chamber's 24 combustors had been degraded in strength and ductility during the initial fabrication of the thrust chamber. The degradation is discussed and traced to a reaction between oxygen and/or oxides diffused into the copper alloy during fabrication processes and the hydrogen utilized as a brazing furnace atmosphere during the initial assembly operation on many of the combustors. The effects of the H2/O2 reaction within the copper alloy are described.

  12. Structural Optimization Methodology for Rotating Disks of Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armand, Sasan C.

    1995-01-01

    In support of the preliminary evaluation of various engine technologies, a methodology has been developed for structurally designing the rotating disks of an aircraft engine. The structural design methodology, along with a previously derived methodology for predicting low-cycle fatigue life, was implemented in a computer program. An interface computer program was also developed that gathers the required data from a flowpath analysis program (WATE) being used at NASA Lewis. The computer program developed for this study requires minimum interaction with the user, thus allowing engineers with varying backgrounds in aeropropulsion to successfully execute it. The stress analysis portion of the methodology and the computer program were verified by employing the finite element analysis method. The 10th- stage, high-pressure-compressor disk of the Energy Efficient Engine Program (E3) engine was used to verify the stress analysis; the differences between the stresses and displacements obtained from the computer program developed for this study and from the finite element analysis were all below 3 percent for the problem solved. The computer program developed for this study was employed to structurally optimize the rotating disks of the E3 high-pressure compressor. The rotating disks designed by the computer program in this study were approximately 26 percent lighter than calculated from the E3 drawings. The methodology is presented herein.

  13. Application of superalloy powder metallurgy for aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Miner, R. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    In the last decade, Government/Industry programs have advanced powder metallurgy-near-net-shape technology to permit the use of hot isostatic pressed (HIP) turbine disks in the commercial aircraft fleet. These disks offer a 30% savings of input weight and an 8% savings in cost compared in cast-and-wrought disks. Similar savings were demonstrated for other rotating engine components. A compressor rotor fabricated from hot-die-forged-HIP superalloy billets revealed input weight savings of 54% and cost savings of 35% compared to cast-and-wrought parts. Engine components can be produced from compositions such as Rene 95 and Astroloy by conventional casting and forging, by forging of HIP powder billets, or by direct consolidation of powder by HIP. However, each process produces differences in microstructure or introduces different defects in the parts. As a result, their mechanical properties are not necessarily identical. Acceptance methods should be developed which recognize and account for the differences.

  14. Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Experience Relating to Engine External Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soditus, Sharon M.

    2006-01-01

    Airlines are extremely sensitive to the amount of dollars spent on maintaining the external engine hardware in the field. Analysis reveals that many problems revolve around a central issue, reliability. Fuel and oil leakage due to seal failure and electrical fault messages due to wire harness failures play a major role in aircraft delays and cancellations (D&C's) and scheduled maintenance. Correcting these items on the line requires a large investment of engineering resources and manpower after the fact. The smartest and most cost effective philosophy is to build the best hardware the first time. The only way to do that is to completely understand and model the operating environment, study the field experience of similar designs and to perform extensive testing.

  15. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  16. Simulation of Aircraft Engine Blade-Out Structural Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Charles; Carney, Kelly; Gallardo, Vicente

    2001-01-01

    A primary concern of aircraft structure designers is the accurate simulation of the blade-out event and the subsequent windmilling of the engine. Reliable simulations of the blade-out event are required to insure structural integrity during flight as well as to guarantee successful blade-out certification testing. The system simulation includes the lost blade loadings and the interactions between the rotating turbomachinery and the remaining aircraft structural components. General-purpose finite element structural analysis codes such as MSC NASTRAN are typically used and special provisions are made to include transient effects from the blade loss and rotational effects resulting from the engine's turbomachinery. The present study provides the equations of motion for rotordynamic response including the effect of spooldown speed and rotor unbalance and examines the effects of these terms on a cantilevered rotor. The effect of spooldown speed is found to be greater with increasing spooldown rate. The parametric term resulting from the mass unbalance has a more significant effect on the rotordynamic response than does the spooldown term. The parametric term affects both the peak amplitudes as well as the resonant frequencies of the rotor.

  17. Advanced Propulsion System Studies for General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eisenberg, Joseph D. (Technical Monitor); Elliott, Kathryn A.; Huebner, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, new technology engines were defined in two power classes: a 200 hp class, for a light, 4-place personal aircraft, and a 1500 pound thrust class for a twin-engined, 6 place business jet type aircraft. The engines were evaluated for retrofitting suitable current production aircraft for comparison to the existing engines. The engines were evaluated for performance using a typical mission for each aircraft, as well as a variant mission to further appraise performance.Issues of cost, safety, maintenance, and reliability were also addressed. Manufacturing plans were then constructed.

  18. Highly integrated digital electronic control: Digital flight control, aircraft model identification, and adaptive engine control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Landy, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program at NASA Ames Research Center, Dryden Flight Research Facility is a multiphase flight research program to quantify the benefits of promising integrated control systems. McDonnell Aircraft Company is the prime contractor, with United Technologies Pratt and Whitney Aircraft, and Lear Siegler Incorporated as major subcontractors. The NASA F-15A testbed aircraft was modified by the HIDEC program by installing a digital electronic flight control system (DEFCS) and replacing the standard F100 (Arab 3) engines with F100 engine model derivative (EMD) engines equipped with digital electronic engine controls (DEEC), and integrating the DEEC's and DEFCS. The modified aircraft provides the capability for testing many integrated control modes involving the flight controls, engine controls, and inlet controls. This paper focuses on the first two phases of the HIDEC program, which are the digital flight control system/aircraft model identification (DEFCS/AMI) phase and the adaptive engine control system (ADECS) phase.

  19. Comparison of predicted engine core noise with current and proposed aircraft noise certification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonglahn, U. H.; Groesbeck, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    Predicted engine core noise levels are compared with measured total aircraft noise levels and with current and proposed federal noise certification requirements. Comparisons are made at the FAR-36 measuring stations and include consideration of both full- and cutback-power operation at takeoff. In general, core noise provides a barrier to achieving proposed EPA stage 5 noise levels for all types of aircraft. More specifically, core noise levels will limit further reductions in aircraft noise levels for current widebody commercial aircraft.

  20. Failure Investigation of WB-57 Aircraft Engine Cowling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. E.; Gafka, T.; Figert, J.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas is the home of the NASA WB-57 High Altitude Research Program. Three fully operational WB-57 aircraft are based near JSC at Ellington Field. The aircraft have been flying research missions since the early 1960's, and continue to be an asset to the scientific community with professional, reliable, customer-oriented service designed to meet all scientific objectives. The NASA WB-57 Program provides unique, high-altitude airborne platforms to US Government agencies, academic institutions, and commercial customers in order to support scientific research and advanced technology development and testing at locations around the world. Mission examples include atmospheric and earth science, ground mapping, cosmic dust collection, rocket launch support, and test bed operations for future airborne or spaceborne systems. During the return from a 6 hour flight, at 30,000 feet, in the clean configuration, traveling at 175 knots indicated airspeed, in un-accelerated flight with the auto pilot engaged, in calm air, the 2-man crew heard a mechanical bang and felt a slight shudder followed by a few seconds of high frequency vibration. The crew did not notice any other abnormalities leading up to, or for the remaining 1 hour of flight and made an uneventful landing. Upon taxi into the chocks, the recovery ground crew noticed the high frequency long wire antenna had become disconnected from the vertical stabilizer and was trailing over the left inboard wing, and that the left engine upper center removable cowling panel was missing, with noticeable damage to the left engine inboard cowling fixed structure. The missing cowling panel was never recovered. Each engine cowling panel is attached to the engine nacelle using six bushings made of 17-4 PH steel. The cylinder portions of four of the six bushings were found still attached to the aircraft (Fig 1). The other two bushings were lost with the panel. The other four bushings exhibited

  1. Energy efficient engine program contributions to aircraft fuel conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batterton, P. G.

    1984-01-01

    Significant advances in high bypass turbofan technologies that enhance fuel efficiency have been demonstrated in the NASA Energy Efficient Engine Program. This highly successful second propulsion element of the NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program included major contract efforts with both General Electric and Pratt & Whitney. Major results of these efforts will be presented including highlights from the NASA/General Electric E3 research turbofan engine test. Direct application of all the E3 technologies could result in fuel savings of over 18% compared to the CF6-50 and JT9D-7. Application of the E3 technologies to new and derivative engines such as the CF6-80C and PW 2037, as well as others, will be discussed. Significant portions of the fuel savings benefit for these new products can be directly related to the E3 technology program. Finally, results of a study looking at far term advanced turbofan engines will be briefly described. The study shows that substantial additional fuel savings over E3 are possible with additional turbofan technology programs.

  2. Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Proposed Rule and Related Materials for Control of Emissions of Air Pollution From Nonroad Diesel Engines Control of Air Pollution From Aircraft and Aircraft Engines; Proposed Emission Standards and Test Procedures

  3. Combustion Stability Verification for the Thrust Chamber Assembly of J-2X Developmental Engines 10001, 10002, and 10003

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, C. J.; Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.; Kenny, R. J.; Hinerman, T. D.; Scholten, N.

    2015-01-01

    The J-2X engine, a liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propellant rocket engine available for future use on the upper stage of the Space Launch System vehicle, has completed testing of three developmental engines at NASA Stennis Space Center. Twenty-one tests of engine E10001 were conducted from June 2011 through September 2012, thirteen tests of the engine E10002 were conducted from February 2013 through September 2013, and twelve tests of engine E10003 were conducted from November 2013 to April 2014. Verification of combustion stability of the thrust chamber assembly was conducted by perturbing each of the three developmental engines. The primary mechanism for combustion stability verification was examining the response caused by an artificial perturbation (bomb) in the main combustion chamber, i.e., dynamic combustion stability rating. No dynamic instabilities were observed in the TCA, although a few conditions were not bombed. Additional requirements, included to guard against spontaneous instability or rough combustion, were also investigated. Under certain conditions, discrete responses were observed in the dynamic pressure data. The discrete responses were of low amplitude and posed minimal risk to safe engine operability. Rough combustion analyses showed that all three engines met requirements for broad-banded frequency oscillations. Start and shutdown transient chug oscillations were also examined to assess the overall stability characteristics, with no major issues observed.

  4. 75 FR 28504 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ...) Perform a leak check as follows: (i) Clean the crankcase surface to remove any oil. (ii) Warm up the engine to a minimum oil temperature of 50 degrees C (120 degrees F). Information about warming up the... crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N 27811, certificated in any category: Type certificate...

  5. Model-Based Control of a Nonlinear Aircraft Engine Simulation using an Optimal Tuner Kalman Filter Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Csank, Jeffrey Thomas; Chicatelli, Amy; Kilver, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the development of a model-based engine control (MBEC) methodology featuring a self tuning on-board model applied to an aircraft turbofan engine simulation. Here, the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40,000 (CMAPSS40k) serves as the MBEC application engine. CMAPSS40k is capable of modeling realistic engine performance, allowing for a verification of the MBEC over a wide range of operating points. The on-board model is a piece-wise linear model derived from CMAPSS40k and updated using an optimal tuner Kalman Filter (OTKF) estimation routine, which enables the on-board model to self-tune to account for engine performance variations. The focus here is on developing a methodology for MBEC with direct control of estimated parameters of interest such as thrust and stall margins. Investigations using the MBEC to provide a stall margin limit for the controller protection logic are presented that could provide benefits over a simple acceleration schedule that is currently used in traditional engine control architectures.

  6. Fatigue Lifetime Assessment of Aircraft Engine Disc via Multi-source Information Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Zhong; Cui, Ping-Liang; Peng, Weiwen; Gao, Hui-Ying; Wang, Hai-Kun

    2014-06-01

    Fatigue lifetime assessment for aircraft engine discs is an important issue for the operation and health management of aircraft engines. Due to the lack of field test data, traditional methods can hardly meet the requirements of fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. By combining a multi-source information fusion method with a Bayesian inference technique, this paper develops a practical approach for fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Subjective information and historical data are combined coherently with the sparse test data to generate a credible fatigue lifetime assessment of aircraft engine discs. Methods for quantifying subjective information, checking different experts' information, and fusing multiple prior distributions are presented to facilitate the implementation of fatigue lifetime assessment. An illustrative example is presented to demonstrate the procedures and the implication of the proposed method.

  7. An integrated systems engineering approach to aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, M.; Raghunathan, S.; Curran, R.

    2006-06-01

    The challenge in Aerospace Engineering, in the next two decades as set by Vision 2020, is to meet the targets of reduction of nitric oxide emission by 80%, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide both by 50%, reduce noise by 50% and of course with reduced cost and improved safety. All this must be achieved with expected increase in capacity and demand. Such a challenge has to be in a background where the understanding of physics of flight has changed very little over the years and where industrial growth is driven primarily by cost rather than new technology. The way forward to meet the challenges is to introduce innovative technologies and develop an integrated, effective and efficient process for the life cycle design of aircraft, known as systems engineering (SE). SE is a holistic approach to a product that comprises several components. Customer specifications, conceptual design, risk analysis, functional analysis and architecture, physical architecture, design analysis and synthesis, and trade studies and optimisation, manufacturing, testing validation and verification, delivery, life cycle cost and management. Further, it involves interaction between traditional disciplines such as Aerodynamics, Structures and Flight Mechanics with people- and process-oriented disciplines such as Management, Manufacturing, and Technology Transfer. SE has become the state-of-the-art methodology for organising and managing aerospace production. However, like many well founded methodologies, it is more difficult to embody the core principles into formalised models and tools. The key contribution of the paper will be to review this formalisation and to present the very latest knowledge and technology that facilitates SE theory. Typically, research into SE provides a deeper understanding of the core principles and interactions, and helps one to appreciate the required technical architecture for fully exploiting it as a process, rather than a series of events. There are major issues as

  8. Design study of a dual-cycle turbofan-ramjet engine for a hypersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, G. W.; Suwanprasert, S.

    1983-01-01

    Computer modelling was used with two different designs of an advanced turbofan-ramjet in order to derive performance predictions. The engine would enable an aircraft to take-off, accelerate to Mach 5.0, and climb to 90,000 ft. The two concepts included a turbofan with a ramjet annularly wrapped around it and a side-by-side configuration with the ramjet having a rectangular shape and mounted alongside the turbofan. The studies were performed to model weight, length, fuel efficiency, and the requirements of the thrust/drag ratio to exceed unity over the entire flight path. LH2 would be used for fuel and to regeneratively cool the combustion chamber. Turbofan operation with and without afterburner and with and without the ramjet inlet open were examined, as were variable areas for the burners. A side-by-side configuration displayed the best performance predictions, with a ramjet mass flow being 75 percent that of the turbofan and maximum temperatures being equal.

  9. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of a 3000-Pound-Thrust Axial-Flow Turbojet Engine. 6; Analysis of Effects of Inlet Pressure Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Newell D.; Palasics, John

    1948-01-01

    The losses in the inlet air ducts, the diffusers, and the de-icing equipment associated with turbojet engine installations cause a reduction in the total pressure at the inlet of the engine and result in reduced thrust and increased specific fuel consumption. An analytical evaluation of the effects of inlet losses on the net thrust and the fuel economy of a 3000-pound-thrust axial flow turbojet engine with a two-stage turbine is presented. The analysis is based on engine performance characteristics that were determined from experiments in the NACA Cleveland altitude wind tunnel. The experimental investigation did not include tests in which inlet losses were systematically varied, but the effects of these losses can be accurately estimated from the experimentally determined performance characteristics of the engine.

  10. Investigation on Novel Methods to Increase Specific Thrust in Pulse Detonation Engines via Imploding Detonations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    to-Detonation Transition, Specific Thrust 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS...hydrocarbon fuel-air mixtures such as acetylene -air, ethylene-air, propane-air and even JP10-air mixtures based on the required length of the induction zone

  11. Aircraft Turbine Engine Monitoring Systems: Overview and Lessons Learned from Six Case Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    engines of both groups. EHMS (T-38 / J85 ) ACTIVITY OUTCOMES JULY 󈨐 - MAY 󈨑 INSIRUMENTED ENGINES CONTROL ENGINES NUMBER OF ENGINES 26 26 TOTAL...Kreviews the experience gained from several aircraft turbine engine monitoring systems used over the last decade and a half and examines the...the supporting research. -,Two different approaches to engine monitoring have evolved in attempts to achieve the goals of improved engine operations

  12. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  13. ADAM: An Axisymmetric Duct Aeroacoustic Modeling system. [aircraft turbofan engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, A. L.

    1983-01-01

    An interconnected system of computer programs for analyzing the propagation and attenuation of sound in aeroengine ducts containing realistic compressible subsonic mean flows, ADAM was developed primarily for research directed towards the reduction of noise emitted from turbofan aircraft engines. The two basic components are a streamtube curvature program for determination of the mean flow, and a finite element code for solution of the acoustic propagation problem. The system, which has been specifically tailored for ease of use, is presently installed at NASA Langley Reseach Center on a Control Data Cyber 175 Computer under the NOS Operating system employing a Tektronix terminal for interactive graphics. The scope and organization of the ADAM system is described. A users guide, examples of input data, and results for selected cases are included.

  14. Aircraft engine with inter-turbine engine frame supported counter rotating low pressure turbine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seda, Jorge F. (Inventor); Dunbar, Lawrence W. (Inventor); Gliebe, Philip R. (Inventor); Szucs, Peter N. (Inventor); Brauer, John C. (Inventor); Johnson, James E. (Inventor); Moniz, Thomas (Inventor); Steinmetz, Gregory T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An aircraft gas turbine engine assembly includes an inter-turbine frame axially located between high and low pressure turbines. Low pressure turbine has counter rotating low pressure inner and outer rotors with low pressure inner and outer shafts which are at least in part rotatably disposed co-axially within a high pressure rotor. Inter-turbine frame includes radially spaced apart radially outer first and inner second structural rings disposed co-axially about a centerline and connected by a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart struts. Forward and aft sump members having forward and aft central bores are fixedly joined to axially spaced apart forward and aft portions of the inter-turbine frame. Low pressure inner and outer rotors are rotatably supported by a second turbine frame bearing mounted in aft central bore of aft sump member. A mount for connecting the engine to an aircraft is located on first structural ring.

  15. Rotating and positive-displacement pumps for low-thrust rocket engines. Volume 2: Fabrication and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csomor, A.

    1974-01-01

    Rotating and positive displacement pumps of various types were studied for pumping liquid fluorine for low thrust high performance rocket engines. Included in the analysis were: centrifugal, pitot, Barske, Tesla, drag, gear, vane, axial piston, radial piston, diaphragm and helirotor pump concepts. The centrifugal and gear pumps were carried through detail design and fabrication. After preliminary testing in Freon 12, the centrifugal pump was selected for further testing and development. It was tested in Freon 12 to obtain the hydrodynamic performance. Tests were also conducted in liquid fluorine to demonstrate chemical compatibility.

  16. Engine Performance and Knock Rating of Fuels for High-output Aircraft Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothbrock, A M; Biermann, Arnold E

    1938-01-01

    Data are presented to show the effects of inlet-air pressure, inlet-air temperature, and compression ratio on the maximum permissible performance obtained on a single-cylinder test engine with aircraft-engine fuels varying from a fuel of 87 octane number to one 100 octane number plus 1 ml of tetraethyl lead per gallon. The data were obtained on a 5-inch by 5.75-inch liquid-cooled engine operating at 2,500 r.p.m. The compression ratio was varied from 6.50 to 8.75. The inlet-air temperature was varied from 120 to 280 F. and the inlet-air pressure from 30 inches of mercury absolute to the highest permissible. The limiting factors for the increase in compression ratio and in inlet-air pressure was the occurrence of either audible or incipient knock. The data are correlated to show that, for any one fuel,there is a definite relationship between the limiting conditions of inlet-air temperature and density at any compression ratio. This relationship is dependent on the combustion-gas temperature and density relationship that causes knock. The report presents a suggested method of rating aircraft-engine fuels based on this relationship. It is concluded that aircraft-engine fuels cannot be satisfactorily rated by any single factor, such as octane number, highest useful compression ratio, or allowable boost pressure. The fuels should be rated by a curve that expresses the limitations of the fuel over a variety of engine conditions.

  17. Role of structural noise in aircraft pressure cockpit from vibration action of new-generation engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baklanov, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    The evolution of new-generation aircraft engines is transitioning from a bypass ratio of 4-6 to an increased ratio of 8-12. This is leading to substantial broadening of the vibration spectrum of engines with a shift to the low-frequency range due to decreased rotation speed of the fan rotor, in turn requiring new solutions to decrease structural noise from engine vibrations to ensure comfort in the cockpits and cabins of aircraft.

  18. Design, analysis and control of large transports so that control of engine thrust can be used as a back-up of the primary flight controls. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, Jan; Ackers, Deane E.; Gerren, Donna S.

    1995-01-01

    A propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) system has been developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, California, to provide safe, emergency landing capability should the primary flight control system of the aircraft fail. As a result of the successful PCA work being done at NASA Dryden, this project investigated the possibility of incorporating the PCA system as a backup flight control system in the design of a large, ultra-high capacity megatransport in such a way that flight path control using only the engines is not only possible, but meets MIL-Spec Level 1 or Level 2 handling quality requirements. An 800 passenger megatransport aircraft was designed and programmed into the NASA Dryden simulator. Many different analysis methods were used to evaluate the flying qualities of the megatransport while using engine thrust for flight path control, including: (1) Bode and root locus plot analysis to evaluate the frequency and damping ratio response of the megatransport; (2) analysis of actual simulator strip chart recordings to evaluate the time history response of the megatransport; and (3) analysis of Cooper-Harper pilot ratings by two NaSA test pilots.

  19. Modern design methodology and problems in training aircraft engineers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liseitsev, N. K.

    1989-01-01

    A brief report on the problem of modern aircraft specialist education is presented that is devoted to the content and methods of teaching a course in General Aircraft Design in the Moscow Aviation Institute.

  20. Boundary layer effects on liners for aircraft engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabard, Gwénaël

    2016-10-01

    The performance of acoustic treatments installed on aircraft engines is strongly influenced by the boundary layer of the grazing flow on the surface of the liner. The parametric study presented in this paper illustrates the extent of this effect and identifies when it is significant. The acoustic modes of a circular duct with flow are calculated using a finite difference method. The parameters are representative of the flow conditions, liners and sound fields found in current turbofan engines. Both the intake and bypass ducts are considered. Results show that there is a complex interplay between the boundary layer thickness, the direction of propagation and the liner impedance and that the boundary layer can have a strong impact on liner performance for typical configurations (including changes of the order of 30 dB on the attenuation of modes associated with tonal fan noise). A modified impedance condition including the effect of a small but finite boundary layer thickness is considered and compared to the standard Myers condition based on an infinitely thin boundary layer. We show how this impedance condition can be implemented in a mode calculation method by introducing auxiliary variables. This condition is able to capture the trends associated with the boundary layer effects and in most cases provides improved predictions of liner performance.

  1. Effect of Target-type Thrust Reverser on Transonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Single-engine Fighter Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihert, John M

    1958-01-01

    A brief investigation of a target-type thrust reverser on a single-engine fighter model has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.05.At Mach numbers of 0.80, 0.92, and 1.05, a hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was operated with the thrust reverser extended. The angle of attack was varied from 0 degrees to 5 degrees at these Mach numbers. The Reynolds number of the free stream, based on the mean aerodynamic chord, was about 5 x 10(6). It was estimated that reversed jet operations separated the model boundary-layer flow over the upper surface of the horizontal tail and upper part of the afterbody. This resulted in a positive pitch increment due to reversed jet operation. Jet-on operation also tended to stabilize the severe lateral oscillations which occurred with the reverser extended and the jet off. It appeared that these jet-off oscillations were the result of an alternating separation and reattachment of the flow on the rearmost portions of the fuselage afterbody.

  2. Small Engine Technology (SET) Task 24 Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieber, Lysbeth

    2003-01-01

    This final report has been prepared by Honeywell Engines & Systems, Phoenix, Arizona, a unit of Honeywell International Inc., documenting work performed during the period June 1999 through December 1999 for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio, under the Small Engine Technology (SET) Program, Contract No. NAS3-27483, Task Order 24, Business and Regional Aircraft System Studies. The work performed under SET Task 24 consisted of evaluating the noise reduction benefits compared to the baseline noise levels of representative 1992 technology aircraft, obtained by applying different combinations of noise reduction technologies to five business and regional aircraft configurations. This report focuses on the selection of the aircraft configurations and noise reduction technologies, the prediction of noise levels for those aircraft, and the comparison of the noise levels with those of the baseline aircraft.

  3. Noise generated by a flight weight, air flow control valve in a vertical takeoff and landing aircraft thrust vectoring system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huff, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    Tests were conducted in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Powered Lift Facility to experimentally evaluate the noise generated by a flight weight, 12 in. butterfly valve installed in a proposed vertical takeoff and landing thrust vectoring system. Fluctuating pressure measurements were made in the circular duct upstream and downstream of the valve. This data report presents the results of these tests. The maximum overall sound pressure level is generated in the duct downstream of the valve and reached a value of 180 dB at a valve pressure ratio of 2.8. At the higher valve pressure ratios the spectra downstream of the valve is broad banded with its maximum at 1000 Hz.

  4. Thrust Augmentation of a Turbojet Engine at Simulated Flight Conditions by Introduction of a Water-Alcohol Mixture into the Compressor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Useller, James W.; Auble, Carmon M.; Harvey, Ray W., Sr.

    1952-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at simulated high-altitude flight conditions to evaluate the use of compressor evaporative cooling as a means of turbojet-engine thrust augmentation. Comparison of the performance of the engine with water-alcohol injection at the compressor inlet, at the sixth stage of the compressor, and at the sixth and ninth stages was made. From consideration of the thrust increases achieved, the interstage injection of the coolant was considered more desirable preferred over the combined sixth- and ninth-stage injection because of its relative simplicity. A maximum augmented net-thrust ratio of 1.106 and a maximum augmented jet-thrust ratio of 1.062 were obtained at an augmented liquid ratio of 2.98 and an engine-inlet temperature of 80 F. At lower inlet temperatures (-40 to 40 F), the maximum augmented net-thrust ratios ranged from 1.040 to 1.076 and the maximum augmented jet-thrust ratios ranged from 1.027 to 1.048, depending upon the inlet temperature. The relatively small increase in performance at the lower inlet-air temperatures can be partially attributed to the inadequate evaporation of the water-alcohol mixture, but the more significant limitation was believed to be caused by the negative influence of the liquid coolant on engine- component performance. In general, it is concluded that the effectiveness of the injection of a coolant into the compressor as a means of thrust augmentation is considerably influenced by the design characteristics of the components of the engine being used.

  5. Data Fusion for Enhanced Aircraft Engine Prognostics and Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volponi, Al

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft gas-turbine engine data is available from a variety of sources, including on-board sensor measurements, maintenance histories, and component models. An ultimate goal of Propulsion Health Management (PHM) is to maximize the amount of meaningful information that can be extracted from disparate data sources to obtain comprehensive diagnostic and prognostic knowledge regarding the health of the engine. Data fusion is the integration of data or information from multiple sources for the achievement of improved accuracy and more specific inferences than can be obtained from the use of a single sensor alone. The basic tenet underlying the data/ information fusion concept is to leverage all available information to enhance diagnostic visibility, increase diagnostic reliability and reduce the number of diagnostic false alarms. This report describes a basic PHM data fusion architecture being developed in alignment with the NASA C-17 PHM Flight Test program. The challenge of how to maximize the meaningful information extracted from disparate data sources to obtain enhanced diagnostic and prognostic information regarding the health and condition of the engine is the primary goal of this endeavor. To address this challenge, NASA Glenn Research Center, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, and Pratt & Whitney have formed a team with several small innovative technology companies to plan and conduct a research project in the area of data fusion, as it applies to PHM. Methodologies being developed and evaluated have been drawn from a wide range of areas including artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, statistical estimation, and fuzzy logic. This report will provide a chronology and summary of the work accomplished under this research contract.

  6. Test and evaluation of the HIDEC engine uptrim algorithm. [Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. J.; Myers, L. P.

    1986-01-01

    The highly integrated digital electronic control (HIDEC) program will demonstrate and evaluate the improvements in performance and mission effectiveness that result from integrated engine-airframe control systems. Performance improvements will result from an adaptive engine stall margin mode, a highly integrated mode that uses the airplane flight conditions and the resulting inlet distortion to continuously compute engine stall margin. When there is excessive stall margin, the engine is uptrimmed for more thrust by increasing engine pressure ratio (EPR). The EPR uptrim logic has been evaluated and implemente into computer simulations. Thrust improvements over 10 percent are predicted for subsonic flight conditions. The EPR uptrim was successfully demonstrated during engine ground tests. Test results verify model predictions at the conditions tested.

  7. Development potential of Intermittent Combustion (I.C.) aircraft engines for commuter transport applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    An update on general aviation (g/a) and commuter aircraft propulsion research effort is reviewed. The following topics are discussed: on several advanced intermittent combustion engines emphasizing lightweight diesels and rotary stratified charge engines. The current state-of-the-art is evaluated for lightweight, aircraft suitable versions of each engine. This information is used to project the engine characteristics that can be expected on near-term and long-term time horizons. The key enabling technology requirements are identified for each engine on the long-term time horizon.

  8. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.

    1985-01-01

    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  9. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 2: Users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. A user oriented description of the program input requirements, program output, deck setup, and operating instructions is presented.

  10. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 1: Final report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data is described. The method estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag.

  11. Determination of optimal trajectories for an aircraft returning to the runway following a complete loss of thrust after takeoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Craig A.

    This thesis examines the ability of a small, single-engine airplane to return to the runway following an engine failure shortly after takeoff. Two sets of trajectories are examined. One set of trajectories has the airplane fly a straight climb on the runway heading until engine failure. The other set of trajectories has the airplane perform a 90° turn at an altitude of 500 feet and continue until engine failure. Various combinations of wind speed, wind direction, and engine failure times are examined. The runway length required to complete the entire flight from the beginning of the takeoff roll to wheels stop following the return to the runway after engine failure is calculated for each case. The optimal trajectories following engine failure consist of three distinct segments: a turn back toward the runway using a large bank angle and angle of attack; a straight glide; and a reversal turn to align the airplane with the runway. The 90° turn results in much shorter required runway lengths at lower headwind speeds. At higher headwind speeds, both sets of trajectories are limited by the length of runway required for the landing rollout, but the straight climb cases generally require a lower angle of attack to complete the flight. The glide back to the runway is performed at an airspeed below the best glide speed of the airplane due to the need to conserve potential energy after the completion of the turn back toward the runway. The results are highly dependent on the rate of climb of the airplane during powered flight. The results of this study can aid the pilot in determining whether or not a return to the runway could be performed in the event of an engine failure given the specific wind conditions and runway length at the time of takeoff. The results can also guide the pilot in determining the takeoff profile that would offer the greatest advantage in returning to the runway.

  12. Results and status of the NASA aircraft engine emission reduction technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. E.; Diehl, L. A.; Petrash, D. A.; Grobman, J.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an aircraft engine emission reduction study are reviewed in detail. The capability of combustor concepts to produce significantly lower levels of exhaust emissions than present production combustors was evaluated. The development status of each combustor concept is discussed relative to its potential for implementation in aircraft engines. Also, the ability of these combustor concepts to achieve proposed NME and NCE EPA standards is discussed.

  13. Development of EPA aircraft piston engine emission standards. [for air quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houtman, W.

    1976-01-01

    Piston engine light aircraft are significant sources of carbon monoxide in the vicinity of high activity general aviation airports. Substantial reductions in carbon monoxide were achieved by fuel mixture leaning using improved fuel management systems. The air quality impact of the hydrocarbon and oxides of nitrogen emissions from piston engine light aircraft were insufficient to justify the design constraints being confronted in present control system developments.

  14. Fault mechanism analysis and simulation for continuity resistance test of electrical components in aircraft engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xudong; Yin, Yaping; Wang, Jialin; Sun, Zhaorong

    2017-01-01

    A large number of electrical components are used in civil aircraft engines, whose electrical circuits are usually intricate and complicated. Continuity resistance is an important parameter for the operating state of electrical components. Electrical continuity fault has serious impact on the reliability of the aircraft engine. In this paper, mathematical models of electrical components are established, and simulation is made by Simulink to analyze the electrical continuity fault.

  15. Jet aircraft engine exhaust emissions database development: Year 1990 and 2015 scenarios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Z. Harry; Metwally, Munir; Vanalstyne, Richard; Ward, Clay A.

    1994-01-01

    Studies relating to environmental emissions associated with the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) military jet and charter jet aircraft were conducted by McDonnell Douglas Aerospace Transport Aircraft. The report includes engine emission results for baseline 1990 charter and military scenario and the projected jet engine emissions results for a 2015 scenario for a Mach 1.6 HSCT charter and military fleet. Discussions of the methodology used in formulating these databases are provided.

  16. Physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from commercial aircraft engines during the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX) 1 to 3

    EPA Science Inventory

    The f1me particulate matter (PM) emissions from nine commercial aircraft engine models were determined by plume sampling during the three field campaigns of the Aircraft Particle Emissions Experiment (APEX). Ground-based measurements were made primarily at 30 m behind the engine ...

  17. Thrust rollers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A thrust roller bearing system comprising an inner rotating member, an outer rotating member and multiple rollers coupling the inner rotating member with outer rotating member. The inner and outer rotating members include thrust lips to enable the rollers to act as thrust rollers. The rollers contact inner and outer rotating members at bearing contact points along a contact line. Consequently, the radial/tilt and thrust forces move synchronously and simultaneously to create a bearing action with no slipping.

  18. Experimental Investigation on Heating Kerosene Using Thrust Tube Waste Heat of Pulse Detonation Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiqiao; Yan, Yu; Mu, Yang; Zheng, Longxi; Chen, Le

    2013-12-01

    Performance of liquid hydrocarbon fueled pulse detonation engines are hindered by the time required to evaporate liquid fuel droplets within the mixture. Efforts such as heating the liquid fuel before introduced into the engine were made to overcome this problem. The engine wall suffered high temperature of gaseous detonative products, which is harmful to the engine. Therefore the waste heat of PDE engine wall was used here to heat the liquid kerosene of the engine by using two concentric heat-exchangers with helical slot inside mounted at the tail of the pulse detonation engine. The pulse detonation engine (PDE) used here are 110 mm in inner diameter and 1700 mm in length and liquid kerosene and gaseous air were used as fuel and oxidizer respectively. Heating liquid kerosene was found effective in enhancing the engine performance, which was helpful for deflagration to detonation transition process. It was found that the waste heat could elevate the kerosene temperature effectively and the wall temperature could also be decreased obviously.

  19. Adaptive Failure Compensation for Aircraft Tracking Control Using Engine Differential Based Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yu; Tang, Xidong; Tao, Gang; Joshi, Suresh M.

    2006-01-01

    An aircraft model that incorporates independently adjustable engine throttles and ailerons is employed to develop an adaptive control scheme in the presence of actuator failures. This model captures the key features of aircraft flight dynamics when in the engine differential mode. Based on this model an adaptive feedback control scheme for asymptotic state tracking is developed and applied to a transport aircraft model in the presence of two types of failures during operation, rudder failure and aileron failure. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the adaptive failure compensation scheme.

  20. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... data approved by the Administrator. (e) The holder of an air carrier operating certificate or an... holder of a repairman certificate (light-sport aircraft) with a maintenance rating may approve an aircraft issued a special airworthiness certificate in light-sport category for return to service,...

  1. Engineering and Technical Configuration Aspects of HIAPER, the new NSF/NCAR Research Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, R.; Laursen, K.

    2002-12-01

    The High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research, or HIAPER, is the new research aircraft presently being developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to serve the environmental research needs of the National Science Foundation (NSF) for the next several decades. The basic aircraft -- a Gulfstream V (G-V) business jet -- has been completed and will shortly undergo extensive modification to prepare it for future deployments in support of a variety of geosciences research missions. This presentation will focus on the many design and engineering considerations that have been made and are yet to come in converting a "green" business jet into a versatile research aircraft to serve the environmental research community. The project teams composed of engineers and scientists from NCAR and the scientific community at large are faced with trade offs involving costs of modifications, airframe structural integrity, aircraft performance (e.g. weight, drag), cabin environment, locations of inlet and sampling ports and FAA certification requirements. Many of the specific engineering specifications and modifications that have been made to date will be presented by way of engineering drawings, graphical depictions and actual photographs of the aircraft structure. Additionally, projected performance data of the modified-for-research aircraft will be presented along with some of the analyses performed to arrive at critical decisions (e.g. CFD airflow analysis). Finally, some of the details of the aircraft "infrastructure" such as signal and power wiring, generic cabin layout and data acquisition will be discussed.

  2. Full-scale thrust reverser testing in an altitude facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehalic, Charles M.; Lottig, Roy A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional convergent-divergent exhaust nozzle designed and fabricated by Pratt and Whitney Aircraft was installed on a PW1128 turbofan engine and tested during thrust reverser operation in an altitude facility at NASA Lewis Research Center. A unique collection system was used to capture the thrust reverser exhaust gas and transport it to the primary exhaust collector. Tests were conducted at three flight conditions with varying amounts of thrust reverse at each condition. Some reverser exhaust gas spillage by the collection system was encountered but engine performance was unaffected at all flight conditions tested. Based on the results of this test program, the feasibility of altitude testing of advanced multi-function exhaust nozzle systems has been demonstrated.

  3. 78 FR 63017 - Exhaust Emissions Standards for New Aircraft Gas Turbine Engines and Identification Plate for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... engines with rated thrusts greater than 26.7 kilonewtons (kN) (76 FR 45012). The EPA also proposed...). The final rule adopting these proposals was published on June 18, 2012 (77 FR 36342), and was... (77 FR 76842) adopting the EPA's new emissions standards in part 34. Although the EPA's NPRM...

  4. Maritime Patrol Aircraft Engine Study P&WA Derivative Engines. Volume II. Performance Data.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-04-30

    U) APR 79 R C NEWELL. P W HERRICK N62269-78C-0GIG UNCLASSIFIED PWA -FR-10966B/C"VOL-2 NAC-79132-60-VOL-2 NL mmEhE mhm 111 1 4;.c~ 111128 12.5 IIIIIII...MARITIME PATROL AIRCRAFT ENGINE STUDT PIWA DERIVATIVE ENGINES. --EC(U) APR 79 R C NEWELL. P W HERRICK N62269-78-C-010 UNCLASSIFIED PWA -FR-10966B/C-VOL-2 NADC...0.80 823. n. 524 -165. 51.3 5.8 1635. MAX .LIft 5.000. 0.85 6289 o 0.333 249. 125.3 17.*6 2535. MAX CKUISE 45000. 0.85 5629. 0.331 150.. 11,.6 16.3

  5. Thermal Hydraulics Design and Analysis Methodology for a Solid-Core Nuclear Thermal Rocket Engine Thrust Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ten-See; Canabal, Francisco; Chen, Yen-Sen; Cheng, Gary; Ito, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion is a leading candidate for in-space propulsion for human Mars missions. This chapter describes a thermal hydraulics design and analysis methodology developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in support of the nuclear thermal propulsion development effort. The objective of this campaign is to bridge the design methods in the Rover/NERVA era, with a modern computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer methodology, to predict thermal, fluid, and hydrogen environments of a hypothetical solid-core, nuclear thermal engine the Small Engine, designed in the 1960s. The computational methodology is based on an unstructured-grid, pressure-based, all speeds, chemically reacting, computational fluid dynamics and heat transfer platform, while formulations of flow and heat transfer through porous and solid media were implemented to describe those of hydrogen flow channels inside the solid24 core. Design analyses of a single flow element and the entire solid-core thrust chamber of the Small Engine were performed and the results are presented herein

  6. Engine-induced structural-borne noise in a general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unruh, J. F.; Scheidt, D. C.; Pomerening, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural borne interior noise in a single engine general aviation aircraft was studied to determine the importance of engine induced structural borne noise and to determine the necessary modeling requirements for the prediction of structural borne interior noise. Engine attached/detached ground test data show that engine induced structural borne noise is a primary interior noise source for the single engine test aircraft, cabin noise is highly influenced by responses at the propeller tone, and cabin acoustic resonances can influence overall noise levels. Results from structural and acoustic finite element coupled models of the test aircraft show that wall flexibility has a strong influence on fundamental cabin acoustic resonances, the lightweight fuselage structure has a high modal density, and finite element analysis procedures are appropriate for the prediction of structural borne noise.

  7. Effect of broadened-specification fuels on aircraft engines and fuel systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    A wide variety of studies on the potential effects of broadened-specification fuels on future aircraft engines and fuel systems are summarized. The compositions and characteristics of aircraft fuels that may be derived from current and future crude-oil sources are described, and the most critical properties that may effect aircraft engines and fuel systems are identified and discussed. The problems that are most likely to be encountered because of changes in selected fuel properties are explored; and the related effects on engine performance, component durability and maintenance, and aircraft fuel-system performance are examined. The ability of current technology to accept possible future fuel specification changes is assessed and selected technological advances that can reduce the severity of the potential problems are illustrated.

  8. Simulator evaluation of optimal thrust management/fuel conservation strategies for airbus aircraft on short haul routes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bochem, J. H.; Mossman, D. C.; Lanier, P. D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of incorporating optimal concepts into a practical system was determined. Various earlier theoretical analyses were confirmed, and insight was gained into the sensitivity of fuel conservation strategies to nonlinear and second order aerodynamic and engine characteristics. In addition to the investigation of optimal trajectories the study ascertained combined fuel savings by utilizing various procedure-oriented improvements such as delayed flap/decelerating approaches and great circle navigation.

  9. Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports: Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cherie; Lierens, Abigail

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing trend of charging for externalities and the aim of encouraging the sustainable development of the air transport industry, there is a need to evaluate the social costs of these undesirable side effects, mainly aircraft noise and engine emissions, for different airports. The aircraft noise and engine emissions social costs are calculated in monetary terms for five different airports, ranging from hub airports to small regional airports. The number of residences within different levels of airport noise contours and the aircraft noise classifications are the main determinants for accessing aircraft noise social costs. Whist, based on the damages of different engine pollutants on the human health, vegetation, materials, aquatic ecosystem and climate, the aircraft engine emissions social costs vary from engine types to aircraft categories. The results indicate that the relationship appears to be curvilinear between environmental costs and the traffic volume of an airport. The results and methodology of environmental cost calculation could input for to the proposed European wide harmonized noise charges as well as the social cost benefit analysis of airports.

  10. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  11. Advanced liquid-cooled, turbocharged and intercooled stratified charge rotary engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Robert E.; Bartel, John; Hady, William F.

    1987-01-01

    Developments concerning stratified-charge rotary (SCR) engines over the past 10 years are reviewed. Aircraft engines being developed using SCR technology are shown and described, and the ability of such technology to meet general aviation engine needs is considered. Production timing and availability of SCR technology for the development of aviation rotary engines are discussed, and continuing efforts toward improving this technology, including NASA efforts, are described.

  12. Lightweight two-stroke cycle aircraft diesel engine technology enablement program, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freen, P. D.; Berenyi, S. G.; Brouwers, A. P.; Moynihan, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental Single Cylinder Test Engine Program is conducted to confirm the analytically projected performance of a two-stroke cycle diesel engine for aircraft applications. Testing confirms the ability of a proposed 4-cylinder version of such an engine to reach the target power at altitude in a highly turbocharged configuration. The experimental program defines all necessary parameters to permit a design of a multicylinder engine for eventual flight applications.

  13. Thermodynamic efficiency of present types of internal combustion engines for aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucke, Charles E

    1917-01-01

    Report presents requirements of internal combustion engines suitable for aircraft. Topics include: (1) service requirements for aeronautic engines - power versus weight, reliability, and adaptability factors, (2) general characteristics of present aero engines, (3) aero engine processes and functions of parts versus power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability factors, and (4) general arrangement, form, proportions, and materials of aero parts - power-weight ratio, reliability, and adaptability.

  14. Results of T56 Engine Performance Monitoring Trial in Hercules Aircraft, February-July 1977.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    Engine Removals/Rejections 2 3.1.1 Resume 5 3.2 Faults not Associated with Engine Removals 5 * NOTATION REFERENCES I TABLES FIGURES APPENDIX 1 ANNEX A...in those cases in which performance monitoring could have been expected to reflect the fault , the appropriate engine performance trend plots were...the appropriate EL 500. (ihis form is used by aircrew and maiintenazice personnel to record any aircraft/ engine fault and its subsequent

  15. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  16. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  17. MPT Prediction of Aircraft-Engine Fan Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Stuart D.

    2004-01-01

    A collection of computer programs has been developed that implements a procedure for predicting multiple-pure-tone (MPT) noise generated by fan blades of an aircraft engine (e.g., a turbofan engine). MPT noise arises when the fan is operating with supersonic relative tip Mach No. Under this flow condition, there is a strong upstream running shock. The strength and position of this shock are very sensitive to blade geometry variations. For a fan where all the blades are identical, the primary tone observed upstream of the fan will be the blade passing frequency. If there are small variations in geometry between blades, then tones below the blade passing frequency arise MPTs. Stagger angle differences as small as 0.1 can give rise to significant MPT. It is also noted that MPT noise is more pronounced when the fan is operating in an unstarted mode. Computational results using a three-dimensional flow solver to compute the complete annulus flow with non-uniform fans indicate that MPT noise can be estimated in a relatively simple way. Hence, once the effect of a typical geometry variation of one blade in an otherwise uniform blade row is known, the effect of all the blades being different can be quickly computed via superposition. Two computer programs that were developed as part of this work are used in conjunction with a user s computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to predict MPT spectra for a fan with a specified set of geometric variations: (1) The first program ROTBLD reads the users CFD solution files for a single blade passage via an API (Application Program Interface). There are options to replicate and perturb the geometry with typical variations stagger, camber, thickness, and pitch. The multi-passage CFD solution files are then written in the user s file format using the API. (2) The second program SUPERPOSE requires two input files: the first is the circumferential upstream pressure distribution extracted from the CFD solution on the multi-passage mesh

  18. Modal analysis of an aircraft engine fan noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorodkova, Natalia; Chursin, Valeriy; Bersenev, Yuliy; Burdakov, Ruslan; Siner, Aleksandr; Viskova, Tatiana

    2016-10-01

    The fan is one of the main noise sources of an aircraft engine. To reduce fan noise and provide liner optimization in the inlet it is necessary to research modal structure of the fan noise. The present paper contains results of acoustic tests on installation for mode generation that consists of 34-channel generator and the inlet updated for mounting of 100 microphones, the experiments were provided in new anechoic chamber of Perm National Research Polytechnic University, the engine with the same inlet was also tested in the open test bench conditions, and results of the fan noise modal structure are presented. For modal structure educting, all 100 channels were synchronously registered in a given frequency range. The measured data were analyzed with PULSE analyzer using fast Fourier transform with a frequency resolution 8..16 Hz. Single modes with numbers from 0 to 35 at frequencies 500; 630; 800; 1000; 1250; 1600 Hz and different combinations of modes at frequencies 1000, 1600, 2000, 2500 Hz were set during tests. Modes with small enough numbers are generated well on the laboratory installation, high-number modes generate additional modes caused by a complicated interference pattern of sound field in the inlet. Open test bench results showed that there are also a lot of harmonic components at frequencies lower than fan BPF. Under 0.65 of cut off there is only one distinct mode, other modes with close and less numbers appear from 0.7 of cut off and above. At power regimes 0.76 and 0.94 of cut off the highest mode also changes from positive to negative mode number area. Numbers of the highest modes change smoothly enough with the growth of power regime. At power regimes with Mach>1 (0.7 of cut off and above) on circumference of blade wheel there is a well-defined noise of shock waves at rotor frequency harmonics that appears at the range between the first rotor frequency and fan blade passing frequency (BPF). It is planned to continue researching of sound field

  19. Study of LH2-fueled topping cycle engine for aircraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turney, G. E.; Fishbach, L. H.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made of a topping cycle aircraft engine system which uses a cryogenic fuel. This system consists of a main turboshaft engine which is mechanically coupled (by cross-shafting) to a topping loop which augments the shaft power output of the system. The thermodynamic performance of the topping cycle engine was analyzed and compared with that of a reference (conventional-type) turboshaft engine. For the cycle operating conditions selected, the performance of the topping cycle engine in terms of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was determined to be about 12 percent better than that of the reference turboshaft engine. Engine weights were estimated for both the topping cycle engine and the reference turboshaft engine. These estimates were based on a common shaft power output for each engine. Results indicate that the weight of the topping cycle engine is comparable to that of the reference turboshaft engine.

  20. Comparison of Mars Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system is a critical aspect of the performance and feasibility of a Mars aircraft. Propulsion system mass and performance greatly influence the aircraft s design and mission capabilities. Various propulsion systems were analyzed to estimate the system mass necessary for producing 35N of thrust within the Mars environment. Three main categories of propulsion systems were considered: electric systems, combustion engine systems and rocket systems. Also, the system masses were compared for mission durations of 1, 2, and 4 h.

  1. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  2. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  3. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  4. 14 CFR 43.7 - Persons authorized to approve aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or alteration. 43.7 Section 43.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE..., propellers, appliances, or component parts for return to service after maintenance, preventive...

  5. The impact of technology on fighter aircraft requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dollyhigh, S. M.; Foss, W. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Technology integration studies were made to examine the impact of emerging technologies on fighter aircraft. The technologies examined included advances in aerodynamics, controls, structures, propulsion, and systems and were those which appeared capable of being ready for application by the turn of the century. A primary impetus behind large increases in figher capability will be the rapid increase in fighter engine thrust-to-weight ratio. High thrust-weight engines, integrated with other advanced and emerging technologies, can result in small extremely maneuverable fighter aircraft that have thrust-weight ratios of 1.4+ and weight one-half as much as today's fighters. Future fighter aircraft requirements are likely to include a turn capability in excess of 7g's throughout much of the maneuver envelope, post-stall maneuverability, STOVL or VTOL, and a single engine for low cost.

  6. Flexible connector for use in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Hauser, Ambrose A. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    The invention concerns a connector, in an aircraft engine, for mounting a ring to a turbine rotor which the ring surrounds. The ring carries propeller blades, and the connector transmits both thrust and torque loads between the ring and the rotor, without significant deformation. However, the connector does deform in order to accommodate differential thermal growth between the ring and the rotor.

  7. Evaluation of Methods for the Determination of Black Carbon Emissions from an Aircraft Gas Turbine Engine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines consist of nanometer size black carbon (BC) particles plus gas-phase sulfur and organic compounds which undergo gas-to-particle conversion downstream of the engine as the plume cools and dilutes. In this study, four BC measurement ...

  8. Minimum time acceleration of aircraft turbofan engines by using an algorithm based on nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teren, F.

    1977-01-01

    Minimum time accelerations of aircraft turbofan engines are presented. The calculation of these accelerations was made by using a piecewise linear engine model, and an algorithm based on nonlinear programming. Use of this model and algorithm allows such trajectories to be readily calculated on a digital computer with a minimal expenditure of computer time.

  9. Electron microscopic study of soot particulate matter emissions from aircraft turbine engines.

    PubMed

    Liati, Anthi; Brem, Benjamin T; Durdina, Lukas; Vögtli, Melanie; Dasilva, Yadira Arroyo Rojas; Eggenschwiler, Panayotis Dimopoulos; Wang, Jing

    2014-09-16

    The microscopic characteristics of soot particulate matter (PM) in gas turbine exhaust are critical for an accurate assessment of the potential impacts of the aviation industry on the environment and human health. The morphology and internal structure of soot particles emitted from a CFM 56-7B26/3 turbofan engine were analyzed in an electron microscopic study, down to the nanoscale, for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65%, and ∼ 7% static engine thrust as a proxy for takeoff, cruising, and taxiing, respectively. Sampling was performed directly on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) grids with a state-of-the-art sampling system designed for nonvolatile particulate matter. The electron microscopy results reveal that ∼ 100% thrust produces the highest amount of soot, the highest soot particle volume, and the largest and most crystalline primary soot particles with the lowest oxidative reactivity. The opposite is the case for soot produced during taxiing, where primary soot particles are smallest and most reactive and the soot amount and volume are lowest. The microscopic characteristics of cruising condition soot resemble the ones of the ∼ 100% thrust conditions, but they are more moderate. Real time online measurements of number and mass concentration show also a clear correlation with engine thrust level, comparable with the TEM study. The results of the present work, in particular the small size of primary soot particles present in the exhaust (modes of 24, 20, and 13 nm in diameter for ∼ 100%, ∼ 65% and ∼ 7% engine thrust, respectively) could be a concern for human health and the environment and merit further study. This work further emphasizes the significance of the detailed morphological characteristics of soot for assessing environmental impacts.

  10. Emergency Flight Control Using Computer-Controlled Thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burcham, Frank W., Jr.; Fullerton, C. Gordon; Stewart, James F.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Conley, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) systems are digital electronic control systems undergoing development to provide limited maneuvering ability through variations of individual engine thrusts in multiple-engine airplanes. Provide landing capability when control surfaces inoperable. Incorporated on existing and future airplanes that include digital engine controls, digital flight controls, and digital data buses, adding no weight for additional hardware to airplane. Possible to handle total failure of hydraulic system, depending on how surfaces respond to loss of hydraulic pressure, and broken control cables or linkages. Future airplanes incorporate data from Global Positioning System for guidance to any suitable emergency runway in world.

  11. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    engine model is a detailed, physics-based engine model of a two-spool, non-augmented, low bypass ratio engine developed using MATLAB/ Simulink ® [9]. The...AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-218 A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE- EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT...SUBTITLE A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF LIFE-EXTENDING CONTROLS FOR AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES USING A GENERIC AIR FORCE MODEL (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  12. An experimental investigation of thrust vectoring two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzles installed in a twin-engine fighter model at high angles of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Capone, Francis J.; Mason, Mary L.; Leavitt, Laurence D.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine thrust vectoring capability of subscale 2-D convergent-divergent exhaust nozzles installed on a twin engine general research fighter model. Pitch thrust vectoring was accomplished by downward rotation of nozzle upper and lower flaps. The effects of nozzle sidewall cutback were studied for both unvectored and pitch vectored nozzles. A single cutback sidewall was employed for yaw thrust vectoring. This investigation was conducted at Mach numbers ranging from 0 to 1.20 and at angles of attack from -2 to 35 deg. High pressure air was used to simulate jet exhaust and provide values of nozzle pressure ratio up to 9.

  13. Lightweight aircraft engines, the potential and problems for use of automotive fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive data research and analysis for evaluating the use of automotive fuels as a substitute for aviation grade fuel by piston-type general aviation aircraft engines is presented. Historically known problems and potential problems with fuels were reviewed for possible impact relative to application to an aircraft operational environment. This report reviews areas such as: fuel specification requirements, combustion knock, preignition, vapor lock, spark plug fouling, additives for fuel and oil, and storage stability.

  14. Design study: A 186 kW lightweight diesel aircraft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brouwers, A. P.

    1980-01-01

    The design of an aircraft engine capable of developing 186 kW shaft power at a 7620 m altitude is described. The 186 kW design takes into account expected new developments in aircraft designs resulting in a reassessment of the power requirements at the cruise mode operation. Based on the results of this analysis a three phase technology development program is projected resulting in production dates of 1985, 1992, and 2000.

  15. Prediction of the Thrust Performance and the Flowfield of Liquid Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, T.-S.

    1990-01-01

    In an effort to improve the current solutions in the design and analysis of liquid propulsive engines, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model capable of calculating the reacting flows from the combustion chamber, through the nozzle to the external plume, was developed. The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) fired at sea level, was investigated as a sample case. The CFD model, FDNS, is a pressure based, non-staggered grid, viscous/inviscid, ideal gas/real gas, reactive code. An adaptive upwinding differencing scheme is employed for the spatial discretization. The upwind scheme is based on fourth order central differencing with fourth order damping for smooth regions, and second order central differencing with second order damping for shock capturing. It is equipped with a CHMQGM equilibrium chemistry algorithm and a PARASOL finite rate chemistry algorithm using the point implicit method. The computed flow results and performance compared well with those of other standard codes and engine hot fire test data. In addition, the transient nozzle flowfield calculation was also performed to demonstrate the ability of FDNS in capturing the flow separation during the startup process.

  16. Tests and analysis of a vented D thrust deflecting nozzle on a turbofan engine. [conducted at the outdoor aerodynamic research facility of the Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roseberg, E. W.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives were to: obtain nozzle performance characteristics in and out of ground effects; demonstrate the compatibility of the nozzle with a turbofan engine; obtain pressure and temperature distributions on the surface of the D vented nozzle; and establish a correlation of the nozzle performance between small scale and large scale models. The test nozzle was a boilerplate model of the MCAIR D vented nozzle configured for operation with a General Electric YTF-34-F5 turbofan engine. The nozzle was configured to provide: a thrust vectoring range of 0 to 115 deg; a yaw vectoring range of 0 to 10 deg; variable nozzle area control; and variable spacing between the core exit and nozzle entrance station. Compatibility between the YTF-34-T5 turbofan engine and the D vented nozzle was demonstrated. Velocity coefficients of 0.96 and greater were obtained for 90 deg of thrust vectoring. The nozzle walls remained cool during all test conditions.

  17. Control technology for future aircraft propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeller, J. R.; Szuch, J. R.; Merrill, W. C.; Lehtinen, B.; Soeder, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The need for a more sophisticated engine control system is discussed. The improvements in better thrust-to-weight ratios demand the manipulation of more control inputs. New technological solutions to the engine control problem are practiced. The digital electronic engine control (DEEC) system is a step in the evolution to digital electronic engine control. Technology issues are addressed to ensure a growth in confidence in sophisticated electronic controls for aircraft turbine engines. The need of a control system architecture which permits propulsion controls to be functionally integrated with other aircraft systems is established. Areas of technology studied include: (1) control design methodology; (2) improved modeling and simulation methods; and (3) implementation technologies. Objectives, results and future thrusts are summarized.

  18. A Study of Bird Ingestions Into Large High Bypass Ratio Turbine Aircraft Engines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    4. SUMMARY 37 5. CONCLUSIONS 39 6. UEFERENCES 41 APPENDICES A - Comparison of HBPR Engine Aircraft B - HIVE Engines C - Statistical Procesures D...allow a reliable assessment of the bird ingestion phenomenon. Sufficient data to conduct a statistical analysis based upon the numbers, weights, and...species of birds. Sufficient data to conduct a statistical analysis of the engine damage resulting from a bird ingestion - considering the bird number

  19. The impact of emissions standards on the design of aircraft gas turbine engine combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    Effective emission control techniques have been identified and a wide spectrum of potential applications for these techniques to existing and advanced engines are being considered. Results from advanced combustor concept evaluations and from fundamental experiments are presented and discussed and comparisons are made with existing EPA emission standards and recommended levels for high altitude cruise. The impact that the advanced low emission concepts may impose on future aircraft engine combustor designs and related engine components is discussed.

  20. An Object-oriented Computer Code for Aircraft Engine Weight Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, Michael T.; Naylor, Bret A.

    2008-01-01

    Reliable engine-weight estimation at the conceptual design stage is critical to the development of new aircraft engines. It helps to identify the best engine concept amongst several candidates. At NASA Glenn (GRC), the Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines (WATE) computer code, originally developed by Boeing Aircraft, has been used to estimate the engine weight of various conceptual engine designs. The code, written in FORTRAN, was originally developed for NASA in 1979. Since then, substantial improvements have been made to the code to improve the weight calculations for most of the engine components. Most recently, to improve the maintainability and extensibility of WATE, the FORTRAN code has been converted into an object-oriented version. The conversion was done within the NASA s NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) framework. This enables WATE to interact seamlessly with the thermodynamic cycle model which provides component flow data such as airflows, temperatures, and pressures, etc. that are required for sizing the components and weight calculations. The tighter integration between the NPSS and WATE would greatly enhance system-level analysis and optimization capabilities. It also would facilitate the enhancement of the WATE code for next-generation aircraft and space propulsion systems. In this paper, the architecture of the object-oriented WATE code (or WATE++) is described. Both the FORTRAN and object-oriented versions of the code are employed to compute the dimensions and weight of a 300- passenger aircraft engine (GE90 class). Both versions of the code produce essentially identical results as should be the case. Keywords: NASA, aircraft engine, weight, object-oriented

  1. A Retro-Fit Control Architecture to Maintain Engine Performance With Usage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Sowers, T. Shane; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-01-01

    An outer loop retrofit engine control architecture is presented which modifies fan speed command to obtain a desired thrust based on throttle position. This maintains the throttle-to-thrust relationship in the presence of engine degradation, which has the effect of changing the engine s thrust output for a given fan speed. Such an approach can minimize thrust asymmetry in multi-engine aircraft, and reduce pilot workload. The outer loop control is demonstrated under various levels of engine deterioration using a standard deterioration profile as well as an atypical profile. It is evaluated across various transients covering a wide operating range. The modified fan speed command still utilizes the standard engine control logic so all original life and operability limits remain in place. In all cases it is shown that with the outer loop thrust control in place, the deteriorated engine is able to match the thrust performance of a new engine up to the limits the controller will allow.

  2. Engine/airframe compatibility studies for supersonic cruise aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology assessment studies were conducted to provide an updated technology base from which an advanced supersonic cruise aircraft can be produced with a high probability of success. An assessment of the gains available through the application of advanced technologies in aerodynamics, propulsion, acoustics, structures, materials, and active controls is developed. The potential market and range requirements as well as economic factors including payload, speed, airline operating costs, and airline profitability are analyzed. The conceptual design of the baseline aircraft to be used in assessing the technology requirements is described.

  3. Combustion Chamber Fluid Dynamics and Hypergolic Gel Propellant Chemistry Simulations for Selectable Thrust Rocket Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    analysis indicates that there are represent finite-rate (nonequilibrium) chemical kinetics, 14 major products of combustion: 02, N 2 , C0 2 , CO, H2, multi...smaller than that for Engine No. 1. ( UDMH ) by NO2. These reactions hypothesized to be Figures 6 and 7 show contours of OH mass fraction rate limiting...phase reaction of UDMH and NO2 indicate that the first Table 1. Condensed-phase property and Isp estimates step is the abstraction of an H atom from a

  4. Space shuttle orbit maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber: Adverse operating conditions test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobin, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Test hardware, facilities, and procedures are described along with results of electrically heated tube and channel tests conducted to determine adverse operating condition limits for convectively cooled chambers typical of Space Shuttle Orbit Manuevering Engine designs. Hot-start tests were conducted with corrosion resistant steel and nickel tubes with both monomethylhydrazine and 50-50 coolants. Helium ingestion, in both bubble and froth form, was studied in tubular test sections. Helium bubble ingestion and burn-out limits in rectangular channels were also investigated.

  5. Computer code for estimating installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines. Volume 3: Library of maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalski, E. J.

    1979-01-01

    A computerized method which utilizes the engine performance data and estimates the installed performance of aircraft gas turbine engines is presented. This installation includes: engine weight and dimensions, inlet and nozzle internal performance and drag, inlet and nacelle weight, and nacelle drag. The use of two data base files to represent the engine and the inlet/nozzle/aftbody performance characteristics is discussed. The existing library of performance characteristics for inlets and nozzle/aftbodies and an example of the 1000 series of engine data tables is presented.

  6. Deployable Engine Air Brake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    On approach, next-generation aircraft are likely to have airframe noise levels that are comparable to or in excess of engine noise. ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) is developing a novel quiet engine air brake (EAB), a device that generates "equivalent drag" within the engine through stream thrust reduction by creating a swirling outflow in the turbofan exhaust nozzle. Two Phase II projects were conducted to mature this technology: (1) a concept development program (CDP) and (2) a system development program (SDP).

  7. Noise of model target type thrust reversers for engine-over-the-wing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. R.; Gutierrez, O. A.

    1974-01-01

    The results of experiments on the noise generated by V-gutter and semicylindrical target reversers with circular and short-aspect-ratio slot nozzles having diameters of about 5 cm are presented. The experiments were conducted with cold-flow jets at velocities from 190-290 m/sec. The reversers at subsonic jet velocities had a more uniform noise distribution and higher frequency than the nozzles alone. The reverser shape was shown to be more important than the nozzle shape in determining the noise characteristics. The maximum sideline pressure level varied with the sixth power of the jet velocity, and the data were correlated for angles along the sideline. An estimate of the noise level along the 152 m sideline for an engine-over-the-wing powered-lift airplane was made.

  8. In-flight thrust determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernethy, Robert B.; Adams, Gary R.; Ascough, John C.; Baer-Riedhart, Jennifer L.; Balkcom, George H.; Biesiadny, Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The major aspects of processes that may be used for the determination of in-flight thrust are reviewed. Basic definitions are presented as well as analytical and ground-test methods for gathering data and calculating the thrust of the propulsion system during the flight development program of the aircraft. Test analysis examples include a single-exhaust turbofan, an intermediate-cowl turbofan, and a mixed-flow afterburning turbofan.

  9. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  10. Computerized systems analysis and optimization of aircraft engine performance, weight, and life cycle costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishbach, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    The computational techniques are described which are utilized at Lewis Research Center to determine the optimum propulsion systems for future aircraft applications and to identify system tradeoffs and technology requirements. Cycle performance, and engine weight can be calculated along with costs and installation effects as opposed to fuel consumption alone. Almost any conceivable turbine engine cycle can be studied. These computer codes are: NNEP, WATE, LIFCYC, INSTAL, and POD DRG. Examples are given to illustrate how these computer techniques can be applied to analyze and optimize propulsion system fuel consumption, weight and cost for representative types of aircraft and missions.

  11. Jet engine exhaust emissions of high altitude commercial aircraft projected to 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.; Ingebo, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Projected minimum levels of engine exhaust emissions that may be practicably achievable for future commercial aircraft operating at high-altitude cruise conditions are presented. The forecasts are based on:(1) current knowledge of emission characteristics of combustors and augmentors; (2) the status of combustion research in emission reduction technology; and (3) predictable trends in combustion systems and operating conditions as required for projected engine designs that are candidates for advanced subsonic or supersonic commercial aircraft fueled by either JP fuel, liquefied natural gas, or hydrogen. Results are presented for cruise conditions in terms of both an emission index (g constituent/kg fuel) and an emission rate (g constituent/hr).

  12. Sonic IR crack detection of aircraft turbine engine blades with multi-frequency ultrasound excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Ding; Han, Xiaoyan; Newaz, Golam

    2014-02-18

    Effectively and accurately detecting cracks or defects in critical engine components, such as turbine engine blades, is very important for aircraft safety. Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging is such a technology with great potential for these applications. This technology combines ultrasound excitation and IR imaging to identify cracks and flaws in targets. In general, failure of engine components, such as blades, begins with tiny cracks. Since the attenuation of the ultrasound wave propagation in turbine engine blades is small, the efficiency of crack detection in turbine engine blades can be quite high. The authors at Wayne State University have been developing the technology as a reliable tool for the future field use in aircraft engines and engine parts. One part of the development is to use finite element modeling to assist our understanding of effects of different parameters on crack heating while experimentally hard to achieve. The development has been focused with single frequency ultrasound excitation and some results have been presented in a previous conference. We are currently working on multi-frequency excitation models. The study will provide results and insights of the efficiency of different frequency excitation sources to foster the development of the technology for crack detection in aircraft engine components.

  13. Low thrust vehicle concept study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low thrust chemical (hydrogen-oxygen) propulsion systems configured specifically for low acceleration orbit transfer of large space systems were defined. Results indicate that it is cost effective and least risk to combine the OTV and stowed spacecraft in a single 65 K Shuttle. The study shows that the engine for an optimized low thrust stage (1) does not require very low thrust; (2) 1-3 K thrust range appears optimum; (3) thrust transient is not a concern; (4) throttling probably not worthwhile; and (5) multiple thrusters complicate OTV/LSS design and aggravate LSS loads. Regarding the optimum vehicle for low acceleration missions, the single shuttle launch (LSS and expendable OTV) is most cost effective and least risky. Multiple shuttles increase diameter 20%. The space based radar structure short OTV (which maximizes space available for packaged LSS) favors use of torus tank. Propellant tank pressures/vapor residuals are little affected by engine thrust level or number of burns.

  14. Advanced stratified charge rotary aircraft engine design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badgley, P.; Berkowitz, M.; Jones, C.; Myers, D.; Norwood, E.; Pratt, W. B.; Ellis, D. R.; Huggins, G.; Mueller, A.; Hembrey, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A technology base of new developments which offered potential benefits to a general aviation engine was compiled and ranked. Using design approaches selected from the ranked list, conceptual design studies were performed of an advanced and a highly advanced engine sized to provide 186/250 shaft Kw/HP under cruise conditions at 7620/25,000 m/ft altitude. These are turbocharged, direct-injected stratified charge engines intended for commercial introduction in the early 1990's. The engine descriptive data includes tables, curves, and drawings depicting configuration, performance, weights and sizes, heat rejection, ignition and fuel injection system descriptions, maintenance requirements, and scaling data for varying power. An engine-airframe integration study of the resulting engines in advanced airframes was performed on a comparative basis with current production type engines. The results show airplane performance, costs, noise & installation factors. The rotary-engined airplanes display substantial improvements over the baseline, including 30 to 35% lower fuel usage.

  15. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  16. The horsepower of aircraft engines and their maximum frontal area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Precoul, Michel

    1936-01-01

    This adaptation of a Russian report reveals the effect of maximum cross section of an engine as well as the interest attaching to a choice not solely based on horsepower. The tabulation gives a comparison between different engines restored at 5,000 meters. Radial versus inverted in-line engines are also compared.

  17. Air Force F-16 Aircraft Engine Aerosol Emissions Under Cruise Altitude Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Bruce E.; Cofer, W. Randy, III; McDougal, David S.

    1999-01-01

    Selected results from the June 1997 Third Subsonic Assessment Near-Field Interactions Flight (SNIF-III) Experiment are documented. The primary objectives of the SNIF-III experiment were to determine the partitioning and abundance of sulfur species and to examine the formation and growth of aerosol particles in the exhaust of F-16 aircraft as a function of atmospheric and aircraft operating conditions and fuel sulfur concentration. This information is, in turn, being used to address questions regarding the fate of aircraft fuel sulfur impurities and to evaluate the potential of their oxidation products to perturb aerosol concentrations and surface areas in the upper troposphere. SNIF-III included participation of the Vermont and New Jersey Air National Guard F-16's as source aircraft and the Wallops Flight Facility T-39 Sabreliner as the sampling platform. F-16's were chosen as a source aircraft because they are powered by the modern F-100 Series 220 engine which is projected to be representative of future commercial aircraft engine technology. The T-39 instrument suite included sensors for measuring volatile and non-volatile condensation nuclei (CN), aerosol size distributions over the range from 0.1 to 3.0 (micro)m, 3-D winds, temperature, dewpoint, carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), sulfuric acid (H2SO4), and nitric acid (HNO3).

  18. Roles, uses, and benefits of general aviation aircraft in aerospace engineering education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonoghue, Dennis P.; Mcknight, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Many colleges and universities throughout the United States offer outstanding programs in aerospace engineering. In addition to the fundamentals of aerodynamics, propulsion, flight dynamics, and air vehicle design, many of the best programs have in the past provided students the opportunity to design and fly airborne experiments on board various types of aircraft. Sadly, however, the number of institutions offering such 'airborne laboratories' has dwindled in recent years. As a result, opportunities for students to apply their classroom knowledge, analytical skills, and engineering judgement to the development and management of flight experiments on an actual aircraft are indeed rare. One major reason for the elimination of flight programs by some institutions, particularly the smaller colleges, is the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining an aircraft as a flying laboratory. The purpose of this paper is to discuss simple, low-cost, relevant flight experiments that can be performed using readily available general aviation aircraft. This paper examines flight experiments that have been successfully conducted on board the NASA Lewis Research Center's T-34B aircraft, as part of the NASA/AIAA/University Flight Experiment Program for Students (NAUFEPS) and discusses how similar experiments could be inexpensively performed on other general aviation aircraft.

  19. Aircraft Design Considerations to Meet One Engine Inoperative (OEI) Safety Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Commercial airlines are obligated to operate such that an aircraft can suffer an engine failure at any point in its mission and terminate the flight without an accident. Only minimal aircraft damage is allowable, such as brake replacement due to very heavy application, or an engine inspection and/or possible removal due to use of an emergency rating. Such performance criteria are often referred to as zero exposure, referring to zero accident exposure to an engine failure. The critical mission segment for meeting one engine inoperative (OEI) criteria is takeoff. For a given weight, wind, and ambient condition, fixed wing aircraft require a balanced field length. This is the longer of the distance to take off if an engine fails at a predetermined critical point in the takeoff profile, or the distance to reject the takeoff and brake to a stop. Rotorcraft have requirements for horizontal takeoff procedures that are equivalent to a balanced field length requirements for fixed wing aircraft. Rotorcraft also perform vertical procedures where no runway or heliport distance is available. These were developed primarily for elevated heliports as found on oil rigs or rooftops. They are also used for ground level operations as might be found at heliports at the end of piers or other confined areas.

  20. Description and Laboratory Tests of a Roots Type Aircraft Engine Supercharger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ware, Marsden

    1926-01-01

    This report describes a roots type aircraft engine supercharger and presents the results of some tests made with it at the Langley Field Laboratories of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The supercharger used in these tests was constructed largely of aluminum, weighed 88 pounds and was arranged to be operated from the rear of a standard aircraft engine at a speed of 1 1/2 engine crankshaft speed. The rotors of the supercharger were cycloidal in form and were 11 inches long and 9 1/2 inches in diameter. The displacement of the supercharger was 0.51 cubic feet of air per revolution of the rotors. The supercharger was tested in the laboratory, independently and in combination with a Liberty-12 aircraft engine, under simulated altitude pressure conditions in order to obtain information on its operation and performance. From these tests it seems evident that the Roots blower compares favorably with other compressor types used as aircraft engine superchargers and that it has several features that make it particularly attractive for such use.