Science.gov

Sample records for aircraft factory mojave

  1. Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1923-01-01

    Douglas DT-2 (Naval Aircraft Factory): This example of the Douglas DT-2 torpedo plane, which flew as 'NACA 11,' was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania by the Naval Aircraft Factory. Langley's NACA staff studied the take-off characteristics of a twin-float seaplane with this aircraft.

  2. Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1929-01-01

    Naval Aircraft Factory (Curtiss) H-16: The Naval Aircraft Factory H-16 flying boat, seen here on a beaching dolly on the Langley seaplane ramp, was one of 150 built by the Naval Aircraft Factory in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Most H-16s built were made by Curtiss, so the type is more readily known under that name. The NACA performed hull pressure distribution tests at Langley during 1929.

  3. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The aircraft is designed to

  4. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taking Off from Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely-shaped Proteus high-altitude research aircraft lifts off from the runway at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS

  5. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft Taxiing on Runway at Mojave Airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A frontal view of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft on the ramp at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California in July 1999. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera

  6. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  7. Eclipse program F-106 aircraft takeoff from airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shot of QF-106 aircraft taking off from Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  8. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The uniquely shaped Proteus high-altitude aircraft soars over California's Mojave Desert during a July 1999 flight. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the show only moments after they were taken. This was the second successful demonstration of the ARTIS camera. The

  9. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft taxies at airport in Mojave, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    View of QF-106 airplane for the Eclipse project taxiing on the runway at Mojave Airport, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator-01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  10. Wind-Tunnel Tests of a 1/4-Scale Model of the Naval Aircraft Factory Float-Wing Convoy Interceptor, TED No. NACA 2314

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wells, Evalyn G.; McKinney, Elizabeth G.

    1947-01-01

    A 1/4 - scale model of the Naval Aircraft Factory float-wing convoy interceptor was tested in the Langley 7-by 10-foot tunnel to determine the longitudinal and lateral stability characteristics. The model was tested in the presence of a ground board to determine the effect of simulating the ground on the longitudinal characteristics.

  11. Mojave Desert Diary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breed, Allen F.

    1974-01-01

    This is an account of a trip to the Mojave Desert sponsored by the California Youth Authority's Community Parole Center for wards who are selected on the basis of their potential for growth and their ability to make a connection between what they do in the wilderness and what they do on the streets. (PD)

  12. F-15 HiDEC in flight over Mojave desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's F-15 HIDEC (Highly Integrated Digital Electronic Control) research aircraft cruises over California's Mojave Desert at sunset on a flight out of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The aircraft was used to carry out research on engine and flight control systems and most recently demonstrated the use of computer-assisted engine controls as a means of landing an aircraft safely with only engine power if its normal control surfaces such as elevators, rudders or ailerons are disabled. The aircraft also tested and evaluated a computerized self-repair flight control system for the Air Force that detects damaged or failed flight control surfaces, and then reconfigures undamaged flight surfaces so the mission can continue or the aircraft is landed safely. Nearly all research being carried out in the HIDEC program is applicable to future civilian and military aircraft.

  13. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  14. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  15. Mojave remote sensing field experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.; Petroy, S. B.; Plaut, J. J.; Shepard, Michael K.; Evans, D.; Farr, T.; Greeley, Ronald; Gaddis, L.; Lancaster, N.

    1991-01-01

    The Mojave Remote Sensing Field Experiment (MFE), conducted in June 1988, involved acquisition of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS); C, L, and P-band polarimetric radar (AIRSAR) data; and simultaneous field observations at the Pisgah and Cima volcanic fields, and Lavic and Silver Lake Playas, Mojave Desert, California. A LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) scene is also included in the MFE archive. TM-based reflectance and TIMS-based emissivity surface spectra were extracted for selected surfaces. Radiative transfer procedures were used to model the atmosphere and surface simultaneously, with the constraint that the spectra must be consistent with field-based spectral observations. AIRSAR data were calibrated to backscatter cross sections using corner reflectors deployed at target sites. Analyses of MFE data focus on extraction of reflectance, emissivity, and cross section for lava flows of various ages and degradation states. Results have relevance for the evolution of volcanic plains on Venus and Mars.

  16. Imaging Radar in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    2001-01-01

    The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region has had a long history as a test bed for remote sensing techniques. Along with visible-near infrared and thermal IR sensors, imaging radars have flown and orbited over the area since the 1970's, yielding new insights into the geologic applications of these technologies. More recently, radar interferometry has been used to derive digital topographic maps of the area, supplementing the USGS 7.5' digital quadrangles currently available for nearly the entire area. As for their shorter-wavelength brethren, imaging radars were tested early in their civilian history in the Mojave Desert-Death Valley region because it contains a variety of surface types in a small area without the confounding effects of vegetation. The earliest imaging radars to be flown over the region included military tests of short-wavelength (3 cm) X-band sensors. Later, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory began its development of imaging radars with an airborne sensor, followed by the Seasat orbital radar in 1978. These systems were L-band (25 cm). Following Seasat, JPL embarked upon a series of Space Shuttle Imaging Radars: SIRA (1981), SIR-B (1984), and SIR-C (1994). The most recent in the series was the most capable radar sensor flown in space and acquired large numbers of data swaths in a variety of test areas around the world. The Mojave Desert-Death Valley region was one of those test areas, and was covered very well with 3 wavelengths, multiple polarizations, and at multiple angles. At the same time, the JPL aircraft radar program continued improving and collecting data over the Mojave Desert Death Valley region. Now called AIRSAR, the system includes 3 bands (P-band, 67 cm; L-band, 25 cm; C-band, 5 cm). Each band can collect all possible polarizations in a mode called polarimetry. In addition, AIRSAR can be operated in the TOPSAR mode wherein 2 antennas collect data interferometrically, yielding a digital elevation model (DEM). Both L-band and C-band can be

  17. Transport aloft drives peak ozone in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanCuren, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Transport of anthropogenic pollution eastward out of the Los Angeles megacity region in California has been periodically observed to reach the Colorado River and the Colorado Plateau region beyond. In the 1980s, anthropogenic halocarbon tracers measured in and near the Las Angeles urban area and at a mountain-top site near the Colorado River, 400 km downwind, were shown to have a correlated seven-day cycle explainable by transport from the urban area with a time lag of 1-2 days. Recent short term springtime intensive studies using aircraft observations and regional modeling of long range transport of ozone from the Southern California megacity region showed frequent and persistent ozone impacts at surface sites across the Colorado Plateau and Southern Rocky Mountain region, at distances up to 1500 km, also with time lags of 1-2 days. However, the timing of ozone peaks at low altitude monitoring sites within the Mojave Desert, at distances from 100 to 400 km from the South Coast and San Joaquin Valley ozone source regions, does not show the expected time-lag behavior seen in the larger transport studies. This discrepancy is explained by recognizing ozone transport across the Mojave Desert to occur in a persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere with a base level at approximately 1 km MSL. This layer impacts elevated downwind sites directly, but only influences low altitude surface ozone maxima through deep afternoon mixing. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), from long-range transport from Asia, and stratospheric down-mixing. Recognition of the role of afternoon mixing during spring and summer over the Mojave explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, and resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to

  18. Neutrino Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2010-06-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(1021) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source : a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  19. 78 FR 35960 - Minor Boundary Revision at Mojave National Preserve

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... National Park Service Minor Boundary Revision at Mojave National Preserve AGENCY: National Park Service....S.C. 460l- 9(c)(1), the boundary of Mojave National Preserve is modified to include 7.12 acres of..., California, immediately adjacent to the current northern boundary of Mojave National Preserve. ] Notice...

  20. STOL Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Michael E. Fisher, President of AeroVisions International, has introduced the Culex light twin engine aircraft which offers economy of operation of a single engine plane, the ability to fly well on one engine, plus the capability of flying from short, unimproved fields of takeoff and landing distances less than 35 feet. Key element of design is an airfoil developed by Langley. Culex was originally intended to be factory built aircraft for special utility markets. However, it is now offered as a build-it-yourself kit plane.

  1. Modeling Soil Moisture in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David M.; Hughson, Debra; Schmidt, Kevin M.

    2008-01-01

    The Mojave Desert is an arid region of southeastern California and parts of Nevada, Arizona, and Utah; the desert occupies more than 25,000 square miles (fig. 1). Ranging from below sea level to over 5,000 feet (1,524 m) in elevation, the Mojave Desert is considered a ?high desert.? On the west and southwest it is bounded by the Sierra Nevada, the San Gabriel, and the San Bernardino Mountains. These imposing mountains intercept moisture traveling inland from the Pacific Ocean, producing arid conditions characterized by extreme fluctuations in daily temperatures, strong seasonal winds, and an average annual precipitation of less than six inches. The Mojave Desert lies farther south and at a lower elevation than the cooler Great Basin Desert and grades southward into the even lower and hotter Sonoran Desert.

  2. Slime Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity using slime, a colloid: it behaves like both a solid and liquid. Explains how slime can be produced from guar gum. An activity where students work in teams and become a slime factory is presented. (PR)

  3. Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate O(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This prepares the way for a Neutrino Factory (NF) in which high energy muons decay within the straight sections of a storage ring to produce a beam of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos. The NF concept was proposed in 1997 at a time when the discovery that the three known types of neutrino ({nu}{sub e}, {nu}{sub {mu}}, {nu}{sub {tau}}) can change their flavor as they propagate through space (neutrino oscillations) was providing a first glimpse of physics beyond the Standard Model. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source: a Neutrino Factory. This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for a Neutrino Factory.

  4. Neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-15

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ{sub 13}. The accelerator facility will deliver 10{sup 21} muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δ{sub CP} that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δ{sub CP} coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  5. Neutrino factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler, F. J. P.

    2015-07-01

    The Neutrino Factory is a facility that produces neutrino beams with a well-defined flavour content and energy spectrum from the decay of intense, high-energy, stored muon beams to establish CP violation in the neutrino sector. The International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) is providing a Reference Design Report (RDR) for the facility. The present design is optimised for the recent measurements of θ13. The accelerator facility will deliver 1021 muon decays per year from 10 GeV stored muon beams. The straight sections of the storage ring point to a 100 kton Magnetised Iron Neutrino Detector (MIND) at a distance of 2000-2500 km from the source. The accuracy in the value of δCP that a Neutrino Factory can achieve and the δCP coverage is unrivalled by other future facilities. Staging scenarios for the Neutrino Factory deliver facilities that can carry out physics at each stage. In the context of Fermilab, such a scenario would imply in the first stage the construction of a small storage ring, nuSTORM, to carry out neutrino cross-section and sterile neutrino measurements and to perform a programme of 6D muon cooling R&D. The second stage is the construction of a 5 GeV Neutrino Factory (nuMAX) pointing to the Sanford Underground Research Facility at Homestake and the final stage would use many of the components of this facility to construct a Muon Collider, initially as a 126 GeV CM Higgs Factory, which may be upgraded to a multi-TeV Muon Collider if required.

  6. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  7. Neutrino factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; Kuno, Y.; Benedetto, E.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoini, S.; Martini, M.; Wildner, E.; Prior, G.; Blondel, A.; Karadzhow, Y.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Bayes, R.; Laing, A.; Soler, F. J. P.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Aslaninejad, M.; Bontoiu, C.; Jenner, L. J.; Kurup, A.; Long, K.; Pasternak, J.; Zarrebini, A.; Poslimski, J.; Blackmore, V.; Cobb, J.; Tunnell, C.; Andreopoulos, C.; Bennett, J. R.J.; Brooks, S.; Caretta, O.; Davenne, T.; Densham, C.; Edgecock, T. R.; Fitton, M.; Kelliher, D.; Loveridge, P.; McFarland, A.; Machida, S.; Prior, C.; Rees, G.; Rogers, C.; Rooney, M.; Thomason, J.; Wilcox, D.; Booth, C.; Skoro, G.; Back, J. J.; Harrison, P.; Berg, J. S.; Fernow, R.; Gallardo, J. C.; Gupta, R.; Kirk, H.; Simos, N.; Stratakis, D.; Souchlas, N.; Witte, H.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Makhov, N.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Strait, J.; Striganov, S.; Morfín, J. G.; Wands, R.; Snopok, P.; Bagacz, S. A.; Morozov, V.; Roblin, Y.; Cline, D.; Ding, X.; Bromberg, C.; Hart, T.; Abrams, R. J.; Ankenbrandt, C. M.; Beard, K. B.; Cummings, M. A.C.; Flanagan, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Roberts, T. J.; Yoshikawa, C. Y.; Graves, V. B.; McDonald, K. T.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable of making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.

  8. Neutrino factory

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bogomilov, M.; Matev, R.; Tsenov, R.; Dracos, M.; Bonesini, M.; Palladino, V.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Planche, T.; Lagrange, J. B.; et al

    2014-12-08

    The properties of the neutrino provide a unique window on physics beyond that described by the standard model. The study of subleading effects in neutrino oscillations, and the race to discover CP-invariance violation in the lepton sector, has begun with the recent discovery that theta(13) > 0. The measured value of theta(13) is large, emphasizing the need for a facility at which the systematic uncertainties can be reduced to the percent level. The neutrino factory, in which intense neutrino beams are produced from the decay of muons, has been shown to outperform all realistic alternatives and to be capable ofmore » making measurements of the requisite precision. Its unique discovery potential arises from the fact that only at the neutrino factory is it practical to produce high-energy electron (anti) neutrino beams of the required intensity. This paper presents the conceptual design of the neutrino factory accelerator facility developed by the European Commission Framework Programme 7 EURO nu. Design Study consortium. EURO nu coordinated the European contributions to the International Design Study for the Neutrino Factory (the IDS-NF) collaboration. The EURO nu baseline accelerator facility will provide 10(21) muon decays per year from 12.6 GeV stored muon beams serving a single neutrino detector situated at a source-detector distance of between 1 500 km and 2 500 km. A suite of near detectors will allow definitive neutrino-scattering experiments to be performed.« less

  9. Nitrate distribution in Mojave Desert soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.B.; Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.

    1982-07-01

    Extensive sampling shows high variability in nitrate concentration within profiles of Mojave Desert soils. This high variability greatly complicates studies of desert soil N and its ecological role. Patterns in nitrate distribution suggest effects of litter decomposition under shrubs, surface leaching in bare areas, and plant uptake in the root zone. Two mechanisms proposed to explain high concentrations found at seemingly random depths are concentration at drying fronts and distribution along water potential gradients.

  10. Elevation Derivatives for Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Gass, Leila

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the methods used to derive various elevation-derivative grids that were inputted to the Mojave Desert Tortoise Habitat model (L. Gass and others, unpub. data). These grids, which capture information on surface roughness and topographic characteristics, are a subset of the environmental datasets evaluated for the tortoise habitat model. This habitat model is of major importance to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which is charged with management of this threatened population, including relocating displaced tortoises to areas identified as suitable habitat.

  11. Eclipse program QF-106 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This photo shows two QF-106 aircraft that were used for the Eclipse project, both parked at the Mojave Airport in Mojave, California. In 1997 and 1998, the Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, supported and hosted a Kelly Space & Technology, Inc. project called Eclipse, which sought to demonstrate the feasibility of a reusable tow-launch vehicle concept. The project goal was to successfully tow, inflight, a modified QF-106 delta-wing aircraft with an Air Force C-141A transport aircraft. This would demonstrate the possibility of towing and launching an actual launch vehicle from behind a tow plane. Dryden was the responsible test organization and had flight safety responsibility for the Eclipse project. Dryden provided engineering, instrumentation, simulation, modification, maintenance, range support, and research pilots for the test program. The Air Force Flight Test Center (AFFTC), Edwards, California, supplied the C-141A transport aircraft and crew and configured the aircraft as needed for the tests. The AFFTC also provided the concept and detail design and analysis as well as hardware for the tow system and QF-106 modifications. Dryden performed the modifications to convert the QF-106 drone into the piloted EXD-01 (Eclipse eXperimental Demonstrator -01) experimental aircraft. Kelly Space & Technology hoped to use the results gleaned from the tow test in developing a series of low-cost, reusable launch vehicles. These tests demonstrated the validity of towing a delta-wing aircraft having high wing loading, validated the tow simulation model, and demonstrated various operational procedures, such as ground processing of in-flight maneuvers and emergency abort scenarios.

  12. Clustering of GPS velocities in the Mojave Block, southeastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    We find subdivisions within the Mojave Block using cluster analysis to identify groupings in the velocities observed at GPS stations there. The clusters are represented on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. The most significant representation as judged by the gap test involves 4 clusters within the Mojave Block. The fault systems bounding the clusters from east to west are 1) the faults defining the eastern boundary of the Northeast Mojave Domain extended southward to connect to the Hector Mine rupture, 2) the Calico-Paradise fault system, 3) the Landers-Blackwater fault system, and 4) the Helendale-Lockhart fault system. This division of the Mojave Block is very similar to that proposed by Meade and Hager. However, no cluster boundary coincides with the Garlock Fault, the northern boundary of the Mojave Block. Rather, the clusters appear to continue without interruption from the Mojave Block north into the southern Walker Lane Belt, similar to the continuity across the Garlock Fault of the shear zone along the Blackwater-Little Lake fault system observed by Peltzer et al. Mapped traces of individual faults in the Mojave Block terminate within the block and do not continue across the Garlock Fault [Dokka and Travis, ].

  13. Clockwise rotation of the western Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, Matthew P.; Brown, Laurie L.

    1988-01-01

    A study of paleomagnetic data from Miocene volcanic rocks in the western Mojave Desert, which suggests about 25 deg of clockwise rotation, is presented. A total of 166 oriented core samples of two types of basalt were taken from 19 sites in the region. After demagnetization to 40 or 60 mT, application of structural corrections, and inversion of reversed sites, the data yielded an average direction of 51.6 deg inclination and 15.6 deg declination. When compared with the expected direction for Miocene rocks for stable North America, the direction for these Mojave rocks shows a clockwise rotation of 23.8 deg + or - 11.3 deg and a flattening of about 2.1 deg, a rotation which agrees in direction with oroclinal bending of the southern Sierra Nevada due to right-lateral shear along the western margin of North America. Most of this rotation is constrained by other paleomagnetic and strucural information to have occurred soon after the sampled basalts were deposited (about 20 Ma) and before about 16 Ma. These clockwise declination anomalies indicate that any subsequent counterclockwise rotation is small and/or compensated by previous clockwise rotation.

  14. Assessing the Benefits of Urban Forestry in Mojave Desert Communities

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the climate and environment change due to human activity, an understanding of the existing natural resources becomes paramount. Urban forests of Mojave Desert communities have the potential to reduce air pollution, heat island effects, and energy consumption. Regions throughou...

  15. Rodent-denuded areas of the northern Mojave desert

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.B.; Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.

    1980-01-01

    Populations of pocket gophers and rabbits regulate or control the perennial vegetation on relatively large sites in the northern Mojave Desert. Aboveground shoots are pruned and whole plants are killed by complete cutting of main roots.

  16. Clustering of GPS velocities in the Mojave Block, southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2013-04-01

    find subdivisions within the Mojave Block using cluster analysis to identify groupings in the velocities observed at GPS stations there. The clusters are represented on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. The most significant representation as judged by the gap test involves 4 clusters within the Mojave Block. The fault systems bounding the clusters from east to west are 1) the faults defining the eastern boundary of the Northeast Mojave Domain extended southward to connect to the Hector Mine rupture, 2) the Calico-Paradise fault system, 3) the Landers-Blackwater fault system, and 4) the Helendale-Lockhart fault system. This division of the Mojave Block is very similar to that proposed by Meade and Hager []. However, no cluster boundary coincides with the Garlock Fault, the northern boundary of the Mojave Block. Rather, the clusters appear to continue without interruption from the Mojave Block north into the southern Walker Lane Belt, similar to the continuity across the Garlock Fault of the shear zone along the Blackwater-Little Lake fault system observed by Peltzer et al. []. Mapped traces of individual faults in the Mojave Block terminate within the block and do not continue across the Garlock Fault [Dokka and Travis, ].

  17. Evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy G.; Inman, Richard D.; Barr, Kelly R.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Hathaway, Stacie A.; Wood, Dustin A.; Medica, Philip A.; Breinholt, Jesse W.; Stephen, Catherine L.; Gottscho, Andrew D.; Marks, Sharyn B.; Jennings, W. Bryan; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic diversity within species provides the raw material for adaptation and evolution. Just as regions of high species diversity are conservation targets, identifying regions containing high genetic diversity and divergence within and among populations may be important to protect future evolutionary potential. When multiple co-distributed species show spatial overlap in high genetic diversity and divergence, these regions can be considered evolutionary hotspots. We mapped spatial population genetic structure for 17 animal species across the Mojave Desert, USA. We analyzed these in concurrence and located 10 regions of high genetic diversity, divergence or both among species. These were mainly concentrated along the western and southern boundaries where ecotones between mountain, grassland and desert habitat are prevalent, and along the Colorado River. We evaluated the extent to which these hotspots overlapped protected lands and utility-scale renewable energy development projects of the Bureau of Land Management. While 30–40% of the total hotspot area was categorized as protected, between 3–7% overlapped with proposed renewable energy project footprints, and up to 17% overlapped with project footprints combined with transmission corridors. Overlap of evolutionary hotspots with renewable energy development mainly occurred in 6 of the 10 identified hotspots. Resulting GIS-based maps can be incorporated into ongoing landscape planning efforts and highlight specific regions where further investigation of impacts to population persistence and genetic connectivity may be warranted.

  18. X-36 in Flight over Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The unusual lines of the X-36 technology demonstrator contrast sharply with the desert floor as the remotely piloted aircraft scoots across the California desert at low altitude during a research flight on October 30, 1997. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with

  19. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for the Mojave desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii.

    PubMed

    Hagerty, B E; Peacock, M M; Kirchoff, V S; Tracy, C R

    2008-09-01

    We describe primers and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) conditions to amplify 14 tri- and tetranucleotide microsatellite loci for the Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Across three populations (87 individuals) located in the Mojave Desert, USA, the markers yielded a range of four to 33 alleles and an average observed heterozygosity of 0.733 (range 0.433 to 0.933). We neither detected linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci nor did we find a consistent pattern of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellites are designed for PCR multiplexing, and provide higher throughput capacity to aid in conservation genetics studies for this threatened species. PMID:21585998

  20. Recovery of compacted soils in Mojave Desert ghost towns.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Steiger, J.W.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Residual compaction of soils was measured at seven sites in five Mojave Desert ghost towns. Soils in these Death Valley National Monument townsites were compacted by vehicles, animals, and human trampling, and the townsites had been completely abandoned and the buildings removed for 64 to 75 yr. Recovery times extrapolated using a linear recovery model ranged from 80 to 140 yr and averaged 100 yr. The recovery times were related to elevation, suggesting freeze-thaw loosening as an important factor in ameliorating soil compaction in the Mojave Desert. -from Authors

  1. X-36 in Flight over Mojave Desert during 5th Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The unusual lines of the X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft contrast sharply with the desert floor as the remotely-piloted aircraft flies over the Mojave Desert on a June 1997 research flight. The NASA/Boeing X-36 Tailless Fighter Agility Research Aircraft program successfully demonstrated the tailless fighter design using advanced technologies to improve the maneuverability and survivability of possible future fighter aircraft. The program met or exceeded all project goals. For 31 flights during 1997 at the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, the project team examined the aircraft's agility at low speed / high angles of attack and at high speed / low angles of attack. The aircraft's speed envelope reached up to 206 knots (234 mph). This aircraft was very stable and maneuverable. It handled very well. The X-36 vehicle was designed to fly without the traditional tail surfaces common on most aircraft. Instead, a canard forward of the wing was used as well as split ailerons and an advanced thrust-vectoring nozzle for directional control. The X-36 was unstable in both pitch and yaw axes, so an advanced, single-channel digital fly-by-wire control system (developed with some commercially available components) was put in place to stabilize the aircraft. Using a video camera mounted in the nose of the aircraft and an onboard microphone, the X-36 was remotely controlled by a pilot in a ground station virtual cockpit. A standard fighter-type head-up display (HUD) and a moving-map representation of the vehicle's position within the range in which it flew provided excellent situational awareness for the pilot. This pilot-in-the-loop approach eliminated the need for expensive and complex autonomous flight control systems and the risks associated with their inability to deal with unknown or unforeseen phenomena in flight. Fully fueled the X-36 prototype weighed approximately 1,250 pounds. It was 19 feet long and three feet high with a wingspan of

  2. AMPHIBIAN DECLINES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE EASTERN "MOJAVE DESERT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert, USA, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distribution of amphibians were investigated in a 20...

  3. MOJAVE DESERT SPRING: THE AMPHIBIAN POINT OF VIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous springs are scattered throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, most of which are concentrated near the bases of mountain ranges. Spring-fed wetlands in this region comprise nearly all the available habitat for amphibians. We surveyed 128 springs for amphibians and habitat t...

  4. Summary Report of Fort Mojave Tribe Comprehensive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calnimptewa, Gerald; And Others

    Recognition of tribal attitudes and goals is considered to be a most important phase of the Fort Mojave Tribe Comprehensive Plan. Meetings with the tribal council, committees, and a household survey shows employment opportunities, education, transportation, and cultural awareness to be the key issues dominating the concerns of the people. Among…

  5. Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midlands Technical Coll., Columbia, SC.

    In 1987, Midlands Technical College (MTC), in Columbia, South Carolina, initiated a Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) project, the Midlands Teaching Factory, LTD, which integrated various college departments with the goal of manufacturing a high quality, saleable product. The faculty developed a teaching factory model which was designed to…

  6. A probabilistic model of insolation for the Mojave Desert area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hester, O. V.; Reid, M. S.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of mathematical models of insolation characteristics suitable for use in analysis of solar energy systems is presented and shows why such models are essential for solar energy system design. A model of solar radiation for the Mojave Desert area is presented with probabilistic and deterministic components which reflect the occurrence and density of clouds and haze, and mimic their effects on both direct and indirect radiation. Multiple comparisons were made between measured total energy received per day and the corresponding simulated totals. The simulated totals were all within 11 percent of the measured total. The conclusion is that a useful probabilistic model of solar radiation for the Goldstone, California, area of the Mojave Desert has been constructed.

  7. NEUTRINO FACTORIES - PHYSICS POTENTIALS.

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2001-02-16

    The recent results from Super-Kamiokande atmospheric and solar neutrino observations opens a new era in neutrino physics and has sparked a considerable interest in the physics possibilities with a Neutrino Factory based on the muon storage ring. We present physics opportunities at a Neutrino Factory, and prospects of Neutrino oscillation experiments. Using the precisely known flavor composition of the beam, one could envision an extensive program to measure the neutrino oscillation mixing matrix, including possible CP violating effects. These and Neutrino Interaction Rates for examples of a Neutrino Factory at BNL (and FNAL) with detectors at Gran Sasso, SLAC and Sudan are also presented.

  8. Photon collider Higgs factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telnov, V. I.

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of the Higgs boson (and still nothing else) have triggered appearance of many proposals of Higgs factories for precision measurement of the Higgs properties. Among them there are several projects of photon colliders (PC) without e+e- in addition to PLC based on e+e- linear colliders ILC and CLIC. In this paper, following a brief discussion of Higgs factories physics program I give an overview of photon colliders based on linear colliders ILC and CLIC, and of the recently proposed photon-collider Higgs factories with no e+e- collision option based on recirculation linacs in ring tunnels.

  9. Fencing enhances shrub survival and growth for Mojave desert revegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.B.; Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.

    1980-01-01

    Fourteen species of native shrubs were transplanted to bare areas of the northern Mojave Desert in 1972 and 1973. By 1978 plants surrounded by small fences were larger (0.26 vs 0.11 m/sup 3/ overall average for several species) and survived better (42 percent versus 23 percent) than unfenced plants. These effects are primarily due to reduced grazing of shoots. Loss of shrubs to pocket gophers or other burrowing rodents was not prevented by fencing.

  10. The Mojave vadose zone: a subsurface biosphere analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Abbey, William; Salas, Everett; Bhartia, Rohit; Beegle, Luther W

    2013-07-01

    If life ever evolved on the surface of Mars, it is unlikely that it would still survive there today, but as Mars evolved from a wet planet to an arid one, the subsurface environment may have presented a refuge from increasingly hostile surface conditions. Since the last glacial maximum, the Mojave Desert has experienced a similar shift from a wet to a dry environment, giving us the opportunity to study here on Earth how subsurface ecosystems in an arid environment adapt to increasingly barren surface conditions. In this paper, we advocate studying the vadose zone ecosystem of the Mojave Desert as an analogue for possible subsurface biospheres on Mars. We also describe several examples of Mars-like terrain found in the Mojave region and discuss ecological insights that might be gained by a thorough examination of the vadose zone in these specific terrains. Examples described include distributary fans (deltas, alluvial fans, etc.), paleosols overlain by basaltic lava flows, and evaporite deposits. PMID:23848498

  11. Assessment of aerosol transport into the Mojave Desert. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Myrup, L.O.; Flocchini, R.G.

    1986-02-01

    The objective of the project was to assess the transport of atmospheric aerosols into the Mojave Desert from the San Joaquin Valley (via Techachapi Pass), Los Angeles (via Soledad Canyon), and San Bernadino (via Cajon Pass). The authors conducted a field study in summer, 1983 to measure the concentrations of aerosols and the meteorology at these three sites. They measured particles in five size ranges with a six-hour time resolution, hourly average wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity at two meters and ten meters above ground, upper air winds (pibals) at four-hour intervals, and boundary layer structure with continuous acoustic sounder. The upper air data were not used in the analysis. The authors developed two new analytical methods for the data set, the 8-sector binary method and the shaped acceptance window method. Both methods proved useful in analyzing the data. As expected, there is a net transport of aerosol from the population centers to the Mojave Desert at each of the three passes studied. Lead and sulfur aerosol transport was highest at night, and was primarily from the direction of the passes. Crustal elements did not show a directional influence, so most likely were generated locally from wind-dust in the Mojave Desert.

  12. e+ e- Factory Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Michael; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    The impressive performance of current (KEKB) and recent (PEP-II) B-Factory colliders has increased interest in developing even higher luminosity B-factories. Two new designs are being developed (SuperKEKB and SuperB). Both designs plan to deliver a luminosity in the range of 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, nearly 100 times the present B-factory level. Achieving this high luminosity requires high-current beams and short bunch lengths and/or a new way of colliding the beams. The SuperB design employs a crabbed magnetic waist with a large crossing angle and the SuperKEKB design is looking at crab cavities with high-current beams and/or a travelling focus. I describe the designs being studied to achieve the high luminosity needed for the next generation of B-Factories.

  13. Manning the Unmanned Factory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebel, Karl-H.

    1989-01-01

    Suggests that total factory integration through computer networks, even when technically feasible, might be unwieldy, inefficient, and uneconomical because the human factor and accumulated know-how of the work force tend to be overlooked. (Author/JOW)

  14. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  15. 76 FR 50494 - Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National Preserve, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... National Park Service Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Mojave National... Scoping Period for Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement for Mojave National... National Park Service is preparing a Water Resources Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement...

  16. 78 FR 13374 - Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: 14X1109] Notice of Public Meetings: Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council, Nevada AGENCY... U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Mojave- Southern Great Basin... transmission, and desert tortoise. Managers' reports of field office activities will be given at each...

  17. 77 FR 47581 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern Sierra, Sacramento...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert, Northern... Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Mojave...

  18. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St. (Duplicate Color view of HAER MI-334-1) - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  19. Perspective view of threestory reinforced concrete factory. The factory is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of three-story reinforced concrete factory. The factory is painted pink with factory windows infilling the structural frame exposed on the exterior facade. On the east facade of the three-story factory is a two-story, seven bay addition that is painted the same tone as the larger factory. The last two bays of the two-story addition are newer. A brick base surrounds both the factory and the addition and runs the entire length of the building on Clay Ave. and Morrow St - Ivan Doverspike Company, 1925 Clay Avenue, Detroit, MI

  20. B-52H Flying over the Mojave Desert in California

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA obtained a B-52H bomber from the U.S. Air Force in 2001, intending to use the aircraft as an air-launch and testbed aircraft to support NASA, Air Force and industry flight research and advance...

  1. A contribution of groundwater to Mojave Desert shrub transpiration

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.B.

    1988-12-31

    Soil moisture was measured to 1-m depths in the northern Mojave Desert on two plots, one of which was denuded of shrubs. The pattern of wetting-drying near the surface and below the depth wet by rainfall suggested roughly 2 mm per month of transpired water was supplied by percolation upward from below the root zone. This deep moisture built up during fall and winter and depleted in spring and summer, which correlates well with local shrub phenology. 10 refs., 3 figs.

  2. The nature of the landers-mojave earthquake line.

    PubMed

    Nur, A; Ron, H; Beroza, G C

    1993-07-01

    The Landers, California, earthquake of 28 June 1992 (magnitude = 7.3) is the latest of six significant earthquakes in the past 60 years whose epicenters and slip directions define a 100-kilometer alignment running approximately N15 degrees W across the central Mojave region. This pattern may indicate a geologically young throughgoing fault that replaces numerous older strike-slip faults by obliquely cutting across them. These older faults, and perhaps also the bend in the San Andreas fault, may be losing their ability to accommodate upper crustal deformation because they have become unfavorably oriented with respect to the regional stress field. PMID:17829278

  3. Fire Impacts on the Mojave Desert Ecosystem: Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermaker Lynn

    2012-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) is located within the Mojave Desert, which is the driest region in North America. Precipitation on the NNSS varies from an annual average of 130 millimeters (mm; 5.1 inches) with a minimum of 47 mm (1.9 inches) and maximum of 328 mm (12.9 inches) over the past 15 year period to an annual average of 205 mm (8.1 inches) with an annual minimum of 89 mm (3.5 inches) and maximum of 391 mm (15.4 inches) for the same time period; for a Frenchman Flat location at 970 meters (m; 3182 feet) and a Pahute Mesa location at 1986 m (6516 feet), respectively. The combination of aridity and temperature extremes has resulted in sparsely vegetated basins (desert shrub plant communities) to moderately vegetated mountains (mixed coniferous forest plant communities); both plant density and precipitation increase with increasing elevation. Whereas some plant communities have evolved under fire regimes and are dependent upon fire for seed germination, plant communities within the Mojave Desert are not dependent on a fire regime and therefore are highly impacted by fire (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 1999). As noted by Johansen (2003) natural range fires are not prevalent in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts because there is not enough vegetation present (too many shrub interspaces) to sustain a fire. Fire research and hence publications addressing fires in the Southwestern United States (U.S.) have therefore focused on forest, shrub-steppe and grassland fires caused by both natural and anthropogenic ignition sources. In the last few decades, however, invasion of mid-elevation shrublands by non-native Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Bromus tectorum (Hunter, 1991) have been highly correlated with increased fire frequency (Brooks and Berry, 2006; Brooks and Matchett, 2006). Coupled with the impact of climate change, which has already been shown to be playing a role in increased forest fires (Westerling et al., 2006), it is likely that the fire

  4. The Invention Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speitel, Thomas W.; Scott, Neil G.; Gabrielli, Sandy D.

    2007-01-01

    The Invention Factory is a nontraditional youth-based, after-school program in Honolulu that teaches information technology and mechanics to teenagers through interactive, hands-on projects that improve human computer interaction for individuals with disabilities. One objective of the program is to stimulate interest in science and engineering…

  5. Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-23

    We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.

  6. The Old Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2007-01-01

    Technology education is not just about things, systems, and processes. It can also be about history, people, technological change, and impacts on society. In this design challenge, one uses technology education principles and ideas to convert an old factory into a museum and learning center. The challenge with this historical resource is to think…

  7. The Clone Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoddard, Beryl

    2005-01-01

    Have humans been cloned? Is it possible? Immediate interest is sparked when students are asked these questions. In response to their curiosity, the clone factory activity was developed to help them understand the process of cloning. In this activity, students reenact the cloning process, in a very simplified simulation. After completing the…

  8. Paleozoic cratonal/miogeoclinal stratigraphy in the western Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.W.; Walker, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    Detailed mapping of metasedimentary rocks by many workers in the western Mojave Desert, California, has revealed Paleozoic lithologies of cratonal/miogeoclinal affinity. These exposures are metamorphosed, highly strained, and dismembered, and sit as roof pendants to Mesozoic and Tertiary intrusive rocks. In most outcrops no diagnosis fossils are preserved. Age correlation of these units is based, therefore, solely on similarities to lithologic packages outside the region. Despite the complex tectonic history this area has suffered since the late Paleozoic paleogeographic elements trend southwest into the region from where they are last clearly defined near the California-Nevada border. Dolomitic and calcitic marbles, quartzites, and biotite schists make up a major part of the stratigraphy in many areas. The stratigraphy and lithology of these units strongly suggest that they are correlative with late Precambrian-Cambrian units in the Death Valley region. Possible Ordovician and Devonian marbles also are present within some sections; at least one locality contains stromatoporoids of probable Devonian age. Calcite marbles tentatively correlated with lithologically similar Permian units in the Death Valley area are also represented and appear to be depositionally overlain by Mesozoic( ) shallow-marine and are-derived clastic rocks. Although the western Mojave Desert region has experienced compressional, transcurrent, and extensional deformation since late Paleozoic, our current understanding and restoration of this deformation history does not significantly alter the general southwest Paleozoic paleogeographic trends known to exist farther east.

  9. The Mojave Subsurface Bio-Geochemistry Explorer (MOSBE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, J.; Beegle, L.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Kounaves, S.; Russell, M.; Towles, D.

    2012-01-01

    The MOSBE Team has developed a terrestrial field campaign to explore two subsurface biological habitats under the Mojave Desert. This field campaign will not only help us understand terrestrial desert biology, but also will develop methodologies and strategies for potential future Mars missions that would seek to explore the Martian subsurface. We have proposed to the ASTEP program to integrate a suite of field demonstrated instruments with a 20 m subsurface drill as a coherent unit, the Mojave Subsurface Bio-geochemistry Explorer. The ATK Space Modular Planetary Drill System (MPDS) requires no drilling fluid, which allows aseptic sampling, can penetrate lithic ground up to 20 meters of depth, and utilizes less than 100 Watts throughout the entire depth. The drill has been developed and demonstrated in field testing to a depth of 10 meters in Arizona, December 2002. In addition to caching a continuous core throughout the drilling depth, it also generates and caches cuttings and fines that are strata-graphically correlated with the core. As a core segment is brought to the surface, it will be analyzed for texture and structure by a color microscopic imager and for relevant chemistry and mineralogy with a UV fluorescence/Raman spectrometer. Organic and soluble ionic species will be identified through two instruments -- a microcapillary electrophoresis, and an ion trap mass spectrometer that have been developed under PIDDP, ASTID and MIDP funding.

  10. Mapping selected trace elements and major ions, 2000-2012, Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Landon, Matthew K.; House, Sally F.; Olsen, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    The population of the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins has grown rapidly during the last several decades, increasing from an estimated population of almost 273,000 in 1990 (Mojave Water Agency, 2004) to more than 453,000 in 2010 (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Groundwater is the primary source of potable water in both basins (Mojave Water Agency, 2014). Previous studies noted elevated concentrations of several trace elements, nitrate, and total dissolved solids in groundwater in portions of the two basins (Christensen and Fields-Garland, 2001; Ball and Izbicki, 2004; Izbicki and others, 2008; Mathany and Belitz, 2009; Wright and Belitz, 2010; Dawson and Belitz, 2012; and Izbicki and others, 2012). Since 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has collected water-quality data annually from a network of wells and has provided quality-assurance for Mojave Water Agency (MWA) data that are stored in the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The new data and results from the joint State of California and USGS Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program assessments of regional water quality (these data are also stored in NWIS), in combination with ongoing MWA/USGS groundwater-quality monitoring provide a timely opportunity for mapping of groundwater quality in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. The purpose of this report is to provide maps and time-series plots of concentrations of selected water-quality constituents (arsenic, boron, chromium-6, total chromium, dissolved oxygen, fluoride, iron, manganese, nitriate plus nitrite as nitrogen, total dissolved solids, uranium, and vanadium) in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins using data collected by the USGS and MWA from 2000 to 2012. These maps and plots can be accessed on this website.

  11. North-South contraction of the mojave block and strike-slip tectonics in southern california.

    PubMed

    Bartley, J M; Glazner, A F; Schermer, E R

    1990-06-15

    The Mojave block of southern California has undergone significant late Cenozoic north-south contraction. This previously unappreciated deformation may account for part of the discrepancy between neotectonic and plate-tectonic estimates of Pacific-North American plate motion, and for part of the Big Bend in the San Andreas fault. In the eastern Mojave block, contraction is superimposed on early Miocene crustal extension. In the western Mojave block, contractional folds and reverse faults have been mistaken for extensional structures. The three-dimensional complexity of the contractional structures may mean that rigid-block tectonic models of the region based primarily on paleomagnetic data are unreliable. PMID:17747526

  12. Sequence Factorial and Its Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties…

  13. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unusual design of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft, incorporating a gull-wing shape for its main wing and a long, slender forward canard, is clearly visible in this view of the aircraft in flight over the Mojave Desert in California. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer

  14. B-factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, E.D.

    1988-04-01

    We briefly review the physics of CP violation and the interest of studying this phenomenon in the B-meson system. The need for very large numbers of B-decays is shown, and a number of approaches for B-factories are compared. In particular, e/sup +/e/sup /minus// linear and circular colliders are discussed in some detail, with specific examples presented. 31 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. SLAC B Factory computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.F.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the research and development program in preparation for a possible B Factory at SLAC, a group has been studying various aspects of HEP computing. In particular, the group is investigating the use of UNIX for all computing, from data acquisition, through analysis, and word processing. A summary of some of the results of this study will be given, along with some personal opinions on these topics.

  16. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  17. Aircraft Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Ulf; Dobrzynski, Werner; Splettstoesser, Wolf; Delfs, Jan; Isermann, Ullrich; Obermeier, Frank

    Aircraft industry is exposed to increasing public pressure aiming at a continuing reduction of aircraft noise levels. This is necessary to both compensate for the detrimental effect on noise of the expected increase in air traffic and improve the quality of living in residential areas around airports.

  18. DISTRIBUTIONAL CHANGES AND POPULATION STATUS FOR AMPHIBIANS IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert of western North America, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distributional changes for amphi...

  19. Late Holocene vegetation changes in Greenwater Valley, Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Webb, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Small-scale late Holocene vegetation changes were determined from a series of 13 modern and fossil packrat middens collected from a site in the Greenwater Valley, northern Mojave Desert, California. Although the site is above the modern lower limit of Coleogyne ramosissima (black-brush), macrofossils of this shrub are only present in samples younger than 270 yr B.P. In order to measure changes more subtle than presence vs absence, macrofossil concentrations were quantified, and principal components and factor analyses were used to distinguish midden plant assemblages. Both the presence/absence data and the statistical analyses suggest a downward shift of 50 to 100 m for Coleogyne (blackbrush) communities between 1435 and 1795 A.D. ?? 1985.

  20. Environmental impacts of pipeline corridors in the Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Wilshire, H.G. )

    1992-01-01

    Three recently-built gas and oil pipelines that cross the Mojave Desert have graded constructed zones averaging 107 feet wide (range 68--200) on terrain of low relief, and 135 feet (range 77--273) on steeper terrain. Where corridors overlap, the graded width of two pipelines combined averages 157 feet (range 100--388). Right Of Way (ROW) Grants stipulate ROWs 50 feet wide, with an extra 25 feet allowed for construction. Pre- and post-construction measurements on one pipeline show that the width of the graded corridor exceeds the surveyed width by about 21%. A moderate rainstorm of 4 hr duration in the Tehachapi Mtns. eroded about 120 tons/ac to 250 tons/ac of soil from one pipeline corridor, measured on 3 transects across steep slopes. Especially in the western Mojave Desert, the pipeline corridors remain vulnerable to wind erosion for at least 5 years, and thus pose hazards to traffic on nearby highways. Pipeline corridors that pass through areas of stable eolian deposits are undergoing active erosion that expands by undercutting roots and sandblasting plants on downwind sides of the corridors, and by burial of plants beneath drifts. Techniques used to clear vegetation from construction corridors range from deep bulldozing to those designed to remove foliage while leaving root systems intact; the former technique guarantees long-term impacts, but the latter technique may have been defeated by final grading. Problems arise from failure to implement existing mitigations, inadequacies in environmental stipulations, and inadequacies in engineering oversight. Environmental benefits can be achieved by reducing or eliminating the practice of mechanical grading of the corridor, and by placing ditch lines of subsequent pipelines within existing 50 ft. ROWs and limiting construction disturbance to the existing disturbed zone.

  1. Factory Cost Model

    1996-12-17

    The Factory Cost Model (FCM) is an economic analysis tool intended to provide flat panel display (FPD) and other similar discrete component manufacturers with the ability to make first-order estimates of the cost of unit production. This software has several intended uses. Primary among these is the ability to provide first-order economic analysis for future factories. Consequently, the model requires a minimal level of input detail, and accomodates situations where actual production data are notmore » available. This software is designed to be activity based such that most of the calculated direct costs are associated with the steps of a manufacturibg process. The FCM architecture has the ability to accomodate the analysis of existing manufacturing facilities. The FCM can provide assistance with strategic economic decisions surrounding production related matters. For instance, the program can project the effect on costs and resources of a new product''s introduction, or it can assess the potential cost reduction produced by step yield improvements in the manufacturing process.« less

  2. The Japanese Positron Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, S.; Sunaga, H.; Kaneko, H.; Takizawa, H.; Kawasuso, A.; Yotsumoto, K.; Tanaka, R.

    1999-06-01

    The Positron Factory has been planned at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The factory is expected to produce linac-based monoenergetic positron beams having world-highest intensities of more than 1010e+/sec, which will be applied for R&D of materials science, biotechnology and basic physics & chemistry. In this article, results of the design studies are demonstrated for the following essential components of the facilities: 1) Conceptual design of a high-power electron linac with 100 MeV in beam energy and 100 kW in averaged beam power, 2) Performance tests of the RF window in the high-power klystron and of the electron beam window, 3) Development of a self-driven rotating electron-to-positron converter and the performance tests, 4) Proposal of multi-channel beam generation system for monoenergetic positrons, with a series of moderator assemblies based on a newly developed Monte Carlo simulation and the demonstrative experiment, 5) Proposal of highly efficient moderator structures, 6) Conceptual design of a local shield to suppress the surrounding radiation and activation levels.

  3. Sequence factorial and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2012-06-01

    In this note, we introduce sequence factorial and use this to study generalized M-bonomial coefficients. For the sequence of natural numbers, the twin concepts of sequence factorial and generalized M-bonomial coefficients, respectively, extend the corresponding concepts of factorial of an integer and binomial coefficients. Some latent properties of generalized M-bonomial coefficients by which a vast majority of practical problems involving generalized M-bonomial coefficients can be solved are derived.

  4. A Classroom of Polymer Factories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.; Van Natta, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    Provides an activity in which students create small classroom factories and investigate several aspects of production including design, engineering, quality control, waste management, packaging, shipment, and communication. (DDR)

  5. Late Cenozoic structure and tectonics of the northern Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schermer, E. R.; Luyendyk, B. P.; Cisowski, S.

    1996-10-01

    In the Fort Irwin region of the northern Mojave desert, late Cenozoic east striking sinistral faults predominate over northwest striking dextral faults of the same age. Kinematic indicators and offset marker units indicate dominantly sinistral strike slip on the east striking portions of the faults and sinistral-thrust slip on northwest striking, moderately dipping segments at the east ends of the blocks. Crustal blocks ˜7-10 km wide by ˜50 km long are bounded by complex fault zones up to 2 km wide at the edges and ends of each block. Faulting initiated after ˜11 Ma, and Quaternary deposits are faulted and folded. We document a minimum of 13 km cumulative sinistral offset in a north-south transect from south of the Bicycle Lake fault to north of the Drinkwater Lake fault. Paleomagnetic results from 50 sites reveal two direction groups in early and middle Miocene rocks. The north-to-northwest declinations of the first group are close to the middle Miocene reference pole. However, rock magnetic studies suggest that both primary and remagnetized directions are present in this group. The northeast declinations of the second group are interpreted as primary and 63.5° ± 7.6° clockwise from the reference pole and suggest net post middle Miocene clockwise rotation of several of the east trending blocks in the northeast Mojave domain. The Jurassic Independence Dike Swarm in Fort Irwin may be rotated 25-80° clockwise relative to the swarm north of the Garlock fault, thus supporting the inference of clockwise rotation. Using a simple-shear model that combines sinistral slip and clockwise rotation of elongate crustal blocks, we predict ˜23° clockwise rotation using the observed fault slip, or one-third that inferred from the paleomagnetic results. The discrepancy between slip and rotation may reflect clockwise bending at the ends of fault blocks, where most of our paleomagnetic sites are located. However, at least 25°-40° of clockwise tectonic rotation is consistent

  6. F-111 TACT Flight Over the Mojave Desert

    NASA Video Gallery

    Transonic aircraft technology (TACT/F-111A) added an highly efficient supercritical wing and later the third phase applied advanced wing (Mission Adaptive Wing-MAW) flight control technologies and ...

  7. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon; Bright, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17–14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45–40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45–40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45–40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  8. Geochronology and paleoenvironment of pluvial Harper Lake, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Anna L.; Knott, Jeffrey R.; Mahan, Shannon A.; Bright, Jordon

    2014-03-01

    Accurate reconstruction of the paleo-Mojave River and pluvial lake (Harper, Manix, Cronese, and Mojave) system of southern California is critical to understanding paleoclimate and the North American polar jet stream position over the last 500 ka. Previous studies inferred a polar jet stream south of 35°N at 18 ka and at ~ 40°N at 17-14 ka. Highstand sediments of Harper Lake, the upstream-most pluvial lake along the Mojave River, have yielded uncalibrated radiocarbon ages ranging from 24,000 to > 30,000 14C yr BP. Based on geologic mapping, radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating, we infer a ~ 45-40 ka age for the Harper Lake highstand sediments. Combining the Harper Lake highstand with other Great Basin pluvial lake/spring and marine climate records, we infer that the North American polar jet stream was south of 35°N about 45-40 ka, but shifted to 40°N by ~ 35 ka. Ostracodes (Limnocythere ceriotuberosa) from Harper Lake highstand sediments are consistent with an alkaline lake environment that received seasonal inflow from the Mojave River, thus confirming the lake was fed by the Mojave River. The ~ 45-40 ka highstand at Harper Lake coincides with a shallowing interval at downstream Lake Manix.

  9. Potential overflow of Mojave Creek near disposal site, Edwards Air Force Base, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinehart, Randy L.; Harmon, Jerry G.

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentological evidence in Mojave Creek near Edwards, California, indicates that the largest discharge in the last hundred years near the disposal site of the Main Base Landfill at Edwards Air Force Base was a few hundred cubic feet per second. The distal ends of two alluvial fans on the Mojave Creek floodplain near the Main Base Landfill have not been eroded substantially since sediment supply was cut off by a railroad grade completed in 1884. Previous estimates of flood discharges were 4,000 cubic feet per second and larger in this reach; the estimates were calculated by regression equations derived from regional characteristics. However, a 100-year rainfall in 1983 failed to produce erosion in Mojave Creek commensurate with discharges of greater than about 100 cubic feet per second. To test the potential for the creek to overflow and reach the disposal site, a hypothetical discharge was used to determine the depth of flooding at local cross sections. Although the access road from Mojave Boulevard to the Main Base Landfill may be inundated during a flood, the artificial grade at the disposal site would not be reached at a discharge of 2,000 cubic feet per second, which is an order of magnitude greater than the apparent flood discharges that occurred during the past hundred years in Mojave Creek near the present Main Base Landfill.

  10. Patton's tracks in the Mojave Desert, USA: An ecological legacy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, J.; Warren, S.D.

    2002-01-01

    Recovery of soil properties from World War II-era military training exercises in the Mojave Desert was measured approximately 55 years following disturbance. Tracks from military vehicles were still visible, particularly in areas of desert pavement. Soil penetrability was much lower in visible tracks than outside the tracks. Soils in tracks had fewer rocks in the top 10 cm of the soil profile than adjacent untracked soils. Larger particles (> 4.8 mm) formed a moderately well-developed pavement outside of the tracks, while smaller, loose particles (???4.8 mm) dominated the surface of the tracks. The time required to restore the desert pavement is likely to be measured in centuries. Based on biomass estimates, the cyanobacterial component of biological soil crusts had recovered 46-65% in tracks, compared to outside the tracks. Overall recovery of lichen cover has been much slower. Under plant canopies, cover of Collema tenax was not significantly different between areas inside and outside the tracks; however, recovery of Catapyrenium squamulosum was only 36%. In plant interspaces with less favorable moisture and temperature conditions, C. tenax showed a 6% recovery and C. squamulosum a 3% recovery. Assuming recovery of the biological soil crust is linear, and complete only when the most sensitive species (C. squamulosum) has fully recovered in the most limiting microhabitats (plant interspaces), it may require almost two millennia for full recovery of these areas.

  11. Characterization of Mojave Desert aerosols: Their effect on radiometer performance

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, L.A.; Salgado, D.P.; Walker, P.L.

    1994-12-31

    The Antelope Valley is part of the southwestern Mojave Desert lying fifty miles north of Los Angeles International Airport. The Antelope Valley is separated from the Los Angeles and San Fernando Valley air basins by the San Gabriel Mountains. The Tehachapi Mountains, to the west, separate the Antelope Valley from the San Joaquin Valley. Combustion aerosols are transported from the San Joaquin Valley through the Tehachapi Pass and through the Soledad and Cajun passes from the Los Angeles air basin. Thus the valley`s atmosphere contains a spatially and temporally complex mixture of aerosols of urban, industrial and desert origin. The Visibility Impact Summer Study held from July to September 1990 was an intense, comprehensive study intended to measure aerosol size and chemical composition and to ascertain their optical effects. Size distributions for particle diameters from 0.01 to 10 {micro} were measured at hourly intervals and particle samplers were used to obtain chemical compositions at daily intervals at Tehachapi Pass and Edwards AFB, California. The extracted aerosol characteristics are discussed and compared to the desert aerosol model in LOWTRAN and the size and estimated composition of aerosols at China Lake reported upon earlier. The authors obtain relationships between aerosol mass and wind speed, diurnal size changes, and meteorological effects. Secondarily, extinction was calculated and used with LOWTRAN and radiosonde data for examination of aerosol effects on narrow band 3--5 and 8--12 {micro} imaging radiometer performance.

  12. Renewable Energy Development on Fort Mojave Reservation Feasiblity Study

    SciTech Connect

    Russell Gum, ERCC analytics LLC

    2008-03-17

    The Ft. Mojave tribe, whose reservation is located along the Colorado River in the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada near the point where all three states meet, has a need for increased energy supplies. This need is a direct result of the aggressive and successful economic development projects undertaken by the tribe in the last decade. While it is possible to contract for additional energy supplies from fossil fuel sources it was the desire of the tribal power company, AHA MACAV Power Service (AMPS) to investigate the feasibility and desirability of producing power from renewable sources as an alternative to increased purchase of fossil fuel generated power and as a possible enterprise to export green power. Renewable energy generated on the reservation would serve to reduce the energy dependence of the tribal enterprises on off reservation sources of energy and if produced in excess of reservation needs, add a new enterprise to the current mix of economic activities on the reservation. Renewable energy development would also demonstrate the tribe’s support for improving environmental quality, sustainability, and energy independence both on the reservation and for the larger community.

  13. 76 FR 40722 - Mojave Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Mojave Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Mojave Solar LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  14. THE POTENTIAL BIOAVAILABILITY OF ORGANIC C, N, AND P THROUGH ENZYME HYDROLYSIS IN SOILS OF THE MOJAVE DESERT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increases in the growth rate of plants and microbes in the Mojave Desert in response to predicted increases in precipitation and CO2 due to global climate change may induce nutrient limitations. This study was designed to measure the pool of potentially bioavailable nutrients in soils of the Mojave ...

  15. The eldercare factory.

    PubMed

    Sharkey, Noel; Sharkey, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Rapid advances in service robotics together with dramatic shifts in population demographics have led to the notion that technology may be the answer to our eldercare problems. Robots are being developed for feeding, washing, lifting, carrying and mobilising the elderly as well as monitoring their health. They are also being proposed as a substitute for companionship. While these technologies could accrue major benefits for society and empower the elderly, we must balance their use with the ethical costs. These include a potential reduction in human contact, increased feeling of objectification and loss of control, loss of privacy and personal freedom as well as deception and infantilisation. With appropriate guidelines in place before the introduction of robots en masse into the care system, robots could improve the lives of the elderly, reducing their dependence and creating more opportunities for social interaction. Without forethought, the elderly may find themselves in a barren world of machines, a world of automated care: a factory for the elderly. PMID:21952502

  16. The nearby supernova factory

    SciTech Connect

    Wood-Vasey, W.M.; Aldering, G.; Lee, B.C.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Perlmutter, S.; Siegrist, J.; Wang, L.; Antilogus, P.; Astier, P.; Hardin, D.; Pain, R.; Copin, Y.; Smadja, G.; Gangler, E.; Castera, A.; Adam, G.; Bacon, R.; Lemonnier, J.-P.; Pecontal, A.; Pecontal, E.; Kessler, R.

    2004-01-23

    The Nearby Supernova Factory (SNfactory) is an ambitious project to find and study in detail approximately 300 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) at redshifts 0.03 < z < 0.08. This program will provide an exceptional data set of well-studied SNe in the nearby smooth Hubble flow that can be used as calibration for the current and future programs designed to use SNe to measure the cosmological parameters. The first key ingredient for this program is a reliable supply of Hubble-flow SNe systematically discovered in unprecedented numbers using the same techniques as those used in distant SNe searches. In 2002, 35 SNe were found using our test-bed pipeline for automated SN search and discovery. The pipeline uses images from the asteroid search conducted by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking group at JPL. Improvements in our subtraction techniques and analysis have allowed us to increase our effective SN discovery rate to {approx}12 SNe/month in 2003.

  17. Extending the western North American Proterozoic and Paleozoic continental crust through the Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.W.; Walker, J.D. )

    1992-08-01

    Data supporting the existence of Proterozoic basement in the central and western Mojave Desert include U-Pb zircon geochronology and Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic values of quartzofeldspathic gneisses, detrital zircon provenance ages, and the presence of basement clasts in Paleozoic and Mesozoic conglomerates. These data corroborate existing isotopic data from Mesozoic and Tertiary intrusive rocks that suggest involvement of Proterozoic crust in their genesis. Exposures of Proterozoic basement and Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic transitional miogeoclinal-cratonal facies trends in the central and western Mojave Desert consistently imply that cratonal North America continues westward uninterrupted through this region to the San Andreas fault. These data place geographic limits on the position of several pre-Tertiary tectonic elements speculated to exist in the Mojave Desert.

  18. AutoPyFactory: A Scalable Flexible Pilot Factory Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, J.; Hover, J.; Love, P.; Stewart, G. A.

    2012-12-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the CERN LHC is one of the largest users of grid computing infrastructure, which is a central part of the experiment's computing operations. Considerable efforts have been made to use grid technology in the most efficient and effective way, including the use of a pilot job based workload management framework. In this model the experiment submits ‘pilot’ jobs to sites without payload. When these jobs begin to run they contact a central service to pick-up a real payload to execute. The first generation of pilot factories were usually specific to a single Virtual Organization (VO), and were bound to the particular architecture of that VO's distributed processing. A second generation provides factories which are more flexible, not tied to any particular VO, and provide new and improved features such as monitoring, logging, profiling, etc. In this paper we describe this key part of the ATLAS pilot architecture, a second generation pilot factory, AutoPyFactory. AutoPyFactory has a modular design and is highly configurable. It is able to send different types of pilots to sites and exploit different submission mechanisms and queue characteristics. It is tightly integrated with the PanDA job submission framework, coupling pilot flow to the amount of work the site has to run. It gathers information from many sources in order to correctly configure itself for a site and its decision logic can easily be updated. Integrated into AutoPyFactory is a flexible system for delivering both generic and specific job wrappers which can perform many useful actions before starting to run end-user scientific applications, e.g., validation of the middleware, node profiling and diagnostics, and monitoring. AutoPyFactory also has a robust monitoring system that has been invaluable in establishing a reliable pilot factory service for ATLAS.

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. Mammal Inventory of the Mojave Network Parks-Death Valley and Joshua Tree National Parks, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, Charles A.; Hart, Jan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the results of a mammal inventory study of National Park Service units in the Mojave Desert Network, including Death Valley National Park, Joshua Tree National Park, Lake Mead National Recreation Area, Manzanar National Historic Site, and Mojave National Preserve. Fieldwork for the inventory focused on small mammals, primarily rodents and bats. Fieldwork for terrestrial small mammals used trapping with Sherman and Tomahawk small- and medium-sized mammal traps, along with visual surveys for diurnal species. The majority of sampling for terrestrial small mammals was carried out in 2002 and 2003. Methods used in field surveys for bats included mist-netting at tanks and other water bodies, along with acoustic surveys using Anabat. Most of the bat survey work was conducted in 2003. Because of extremely dry conditions in the first two survey years (and associated low mammal numbers), we extended field sampling into 2004, following a relatively wet winter. In addition to field sampling, we also reviewed, evaluated, and summarized museum and literature records of mammal species for all of the Park units. We documented a total of 59 mammal species as present at Death Valley National Park, with an additional five species that we consider of probable occurrence. At Joshua Tree, we also documented 50 species, and an additional four 'probable' species. At Lake Mead National Recreation Area, 57 mammal species have been positively documented, with 10 additional probable species. Manzanar National Historic Site had not been previously surveyed. We documented 19 mammal species at Manzanar, with an additional 11 probable species. Mojave National Preserve had not had a comprehensive list previously, either. There are now a total of 50 mammal species documented at Mojave, with three additional probable species. Of these totals, 23 occurrences are new at individual park units (positively documented for the first time), with most of these being at Manzanar

  1. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on Mojave artifacts and landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorn, R.I.; Bamforth, D.B.; Cahill, T.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Turrin, B.D.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Long, A.; Macko, M.E.; Weil, E.B.; Whitley, D.S.; Zabel, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The first accelerator radiocarbon dates of rock varnishes are reported along with potassium/argon ages of lava flows and conventional radiocarbon dates of pluvial lake shorelines, in an empirical calibration of rock varnish K + + Ca2+/Ti4+ ratios with age in the Mojave Desert, eastern California. This calibration was used to determine the cation-ratio dates of 167 artifacts. Although cation-ratio dating is an experimental method, some dates suggest human occupation of the Mojave Desert in the late Pleistocene.

  2. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on mojave artifacts and landforms.

    PubMed

    Dorn, R I; Bamforth, D B; Cahill, T A; Dohrenwend, J C; Turrin, B D; Donahue, D J; Jull, A J; Long, A; Macko, M E; Weil, E B; Whitley, D S; Zabel, T H

    1986-02-21

    The first accelerator radiocarbon dates of rock varnishes are reported along with potassium/argon ages of lava flows and conventional radiocarbon dates of pluvial lake shorelines, in an empirical calibration of rock varnish K(+) + Ca(2+)/Ti(4+) ratios with age in the Mojave Desert, eastern California. This calibration was used to determine the cation-ratio dates of 167 artifacts. Although cation-ratio dating is an experimental method, some dates suggest human occupation of the Mojave Desert in the late Pleistocene. PMID:17774077

  3. Cation-ratio and accelerator radiocarbon dating of rock varnish on Mojave artifacts and landforms

    SciTech Connect

    Dorn, R.I.; Bamforth, D.B.; Cahill, T.A.; Dohrenwend, J.C.; Turrin, B.D.; Donahue, D.J.; Jull, A.J.T.; Long, A.; Macko, M.E.; Weil, E.B.; Whitley, D.S.

    1986-02-21

    The first accelerator radiocarbon dates of rock varnishes are reported along with potassium/argon ages of lava flows and conventional radiocarbon dates of pluvial lake shorelines, in an empirical calibration of rock varnish K/sup +/ + Ca/sup 2 +//Ti/sup 4 +/ ratios with age in the Mojave Desert, eastern California. This calibration was used to determine the cation-ratio dates of 167 artifacts. Although cation-ratio dating is an experimental method, some dates suggest human occupation of the Mojave Desert in the late Pleistocene. 25 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, Steve; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  5. Muon colliders and neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-09-01

    Over the last decade there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture and accelerate {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This development prepares the way for a new type of neutrino source (Neutrino Factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (Muon Collider). This article reviews the motivation, design and R&D for Neutrino Factories and Muon Colliders.

  6. Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories *

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, Steve

    2009-11-01

    Over the past decade, there has been significant progress in developing the concepts and technologies needed to produce, capture, and accelerate O(1021) muons per year. These developments have paved the way for a new type of neutrino source (neutrino factory) and a new type of very high energy lepton-antilepton collider (muon collider). This article reviews the motivation, design, and research and development for future neutrino factories and muon colliders.

  7. Mid-to-Late Holocene Hydrologic Variability in the Southeastern Mojave Desert Using Sediments from Ford Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, S. A.; Kirby, M. E.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Stout, C.; Palermo, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The focal point of most lacustrine studies in the Mojave National Preserve (MNP) to date has been on lakes fed by the Mojave River. The source of the Mojave River is found on the northern flank of the San Bernardino Mountains. Consequently, the lakes that receive these waters are predominantly responding to the winter-only coastal southwest United States climate (e.g., Kirby et al., 2015 - Silver Lake); to a lesser degree, these lakes are also influenced by the Mojave's bimodal winter/summer climate. Ford Lake, located in the southeastern Mojave Desert is a small closed basin lake with its drainage basin located exclusively within the Mojave Desert. Therefore, sediment collected from Ford Lake contains a 100% Mojave-only climate signal. A 2.18 m sediment core was collected from the lake's depocenter in May 2015. Sediment analyses at 1 cm contiguous intervals include: magnetic susceptibility (MS), percent total organic matter, percent total carbonate content, and grain size analysis; C:N ratios, C and N isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analyses, and macrofossil counts are determined at 2 cm intervals. The site's age model is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon ages from discrete organic macrofossils or bulk organic carbon. To deconvolve the coastal climate, winter-only signal from the Mojave-only climate signal the data from Ford Lake will be compared to one Mojave River fed lake (Silver) and several southern California lakes (Lower Bear, Lake Elsinore, Dry Lake, and Zaca Lake). Our results will be analyzed in the context of climate forcings such as insolation and ocean - atmosphere dynamics.

  8. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at Mojave National Preserve: Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Mojave National Preserve in 2004-2005. Objectives for this inventory were to use fieldwork, museum collections, and literature review to document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at MOJA. Our goals were to document at least 90% of the species present, provide one voucher specimen for each species identified, provide GIS-referenced distribution information for sensitive species, and provide all deliverables, including NPSpecies entries, as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys and nighttime road driving. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 31 species during our surveys. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we found records for seven additional species from MOJA, elevating the documented species list to 38 (two amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 95% for Mojave National Preserve herpetofauna; 67% for amphibians and 97% for reptiles.

  9. STREAMS (POLYGON FEATURES) COVERAGE FOR THE FORT MOJAVE INDIAN RESERVATION IN ARIZONA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Streams (polygon features) coverage showing some double line rivers and river islands on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Arizona. This coverage was digitized off of USGS 7.5 minute quad maps by the Phoenix office of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

  10. 76 FR 29182 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-20

    ...EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the Mojave Desert Air Quality Management District (MDAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions concern negative declarations for volatile organic compound (VOC) source categories for the MDAQMD. We are proposing to approve these negative declarations under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the...

  11. LIVESTOCK GRAZING EFFECTS ON ANT COMMUNITIES IN THE EASTERN MOJAVE DESERT, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of livestock grazing on composition and structure of ant communities were examined in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA for the purpose of evaluating ant communities as potential indicators of rangeland condition. Metrics for ant communities, vegetation, and other groun...

  12. ELEVATED CO2 INCREASES MICROBIAL CARBON SUBSTRATE USE AND N CYCLING IN MOJAVE DESERT SOILS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on microbial carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in Mojave Desert soils using extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs), community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs), and gross N transformation rates. Soils were collected from unvegetated interspac...

  13. Fault tectonics and earthquake hazards in the peninsular Ranges, Southern California. [Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merifield, P. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Images of SL2 EREP Pass 2, S192 channels were generated, with six channels usable. Analysis of SL4 photographs of the Mojave Desert were continued. An overflight was made along several active faults. A number of topographic indicators of recent faulting are identifiable in Skylab photos, particularly S190B photos.

  14. Evidence for crustal degassing of CF4 and SF6 in Mojave Desert groundwaters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Deeds, D.A.; Vollmer, M.K.; Kulongoski, J.T.; Miller, B.R.; Muhle, J.; Harth, C.M.; Izbicki, J.A.; Hilton, David R.; Weiss, R.F.

    2008-01-01

    Dissolved tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in groundwater samples from the Eastern Morongo Basin (EMB) and Mojave River Basin (MRB) located in the southern Mojave Desert, California. Both CF4 and SF6 are supersaturated with respect to equilibrium with the preindustrial atmosphere at the recharge temperatures and elevations of the Mojave Desert. These observations provide the first in situ evidence for a flux of CF4 from the lithosphere. A gradual basin-wide enhancement in dissolved CF4 and SF6 concentrations with groundwater age is consistent with release of these gases during weathering of the surrounding granitic alluvium. Dissolved CF4 and SF6 concentrations in these groundwaters also contain a deeper crustal component associated with a lithospheric flux entering the EMB and MRB through the underlying basement. The crustal flux of CF4, but not of SF6, is enhanced in the vicinity of local active fault systems due to release of crustal fluids during episodic fracture events driven by local tectonic activity. When fluxes of CF4 and SF6 into Mojave Desert groundwaters are extrapolated to the global scale they are consistent, within large uncertainties, with the fluxes required to sustain the preindustrial atmospheric abundances of CF4 and SF6. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cenozoic crustal rotations in the Mojave Desert from paleomagnetic studies around Barstow, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Michael J.; Brown, Laurie L.; Golombek, Matthew P.

    1993-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from the Mojave Desert around Barstow, California, suggest 55 to 75 deg of clockwise rotation of this area in earliest Miocene time, followed by 23 deg of counterclockwise rotation in the Early Miocene, and no rotation after 18 Ma. Earliest Miocene clockwise rotation of the Barstow area is suggested by data from nine sites in the Oligocene-Miocene Lane Mountain Quartz Latite and Jackhammer Formation and may be related to oroclinal bending of the southern Sierra Nevada batholith. Data from 13 sites in the Early Miocene Pickhandle Formation indicate counterclockwise rotation, which coincides with Early Miocene E-NE - W-SW extension and detachment faulting in the Mojave Desert. These results suggest that Miocene extension in the Mojave Desert is related to similarly oriented extension in the Colorado River extensional corridor. Early Miocene to Pliocene rocks of the Andesite and Dacite of the Calico Mountains, Barstow Formation, Andesite of Murphy's Well, and Black Mountain Basalt show no evidence for significant rotation of the Barstow area after 18 Ma. Most other paleomagnetic data from elsewhere in the Mojave are consistent with a lack of significant post-18 Ma rotations, suggesting that post-10 Ma right-lateral faulting there has produced relatively little crustal rotation.

  16. 75 FR 4582 - Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ... Rock Canyon National Conservation Area fees. March 24-25, BLM Southern Nevada District Office, 4701 N...: 14X1109] Mojave-Southern Great Basin Resource Advisory Council Meetings, Nevada AGENCY: Bureau of Land...), will hold three meetings in Nevada in fiscal year 2010. All meetings are open to the public. DATES...

  17. 1992 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency, constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River ground-water basin for ground-water levels measured in November 1992. Water-level data were collected from approximately 300 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:125,000. The contour interval ranges from 3,200 to 1,600 feet above sea level.

  18. CO2 EFFECTS ON MOJAVE DESERT PLANT INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; G. C. FERNANDEZ; S. D. SMITH; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Seasonal and interannual droughts characteristic of deserts have the potential to modify plant interactions as atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations continue to rise. At the Nevada Desert FACE (free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment) facility in the northern Mojave Desert, the effects of elevated atmospheric C02 (550 vs. ambient {approx}360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1}) on plant interactions were examined during two years of high and low rainfall. Results suggest that CO{sub 2} effects on the interaction between native species and their understory herbs are dependent on the strength of competition when rainfall is plentiful, but are unimportant during annual drought. Seasonal rainfall for 1999 was 23% the long-term average for the area, and neither elevated CO{sub 2} nor the low production of herbaceous neighbors had an effect on relative growth rate (RGR, d{sup -1}) and reproductive effort (RE, number of flowers g{sup -1}) for Achnatherum hymenoides (early season perennial C{sub 3} grass), Pleuraphis rigida (late season perennial C{sub 4} grass), and Larrea tridentata (evergreen C{sub 3} shrub). In contrast, 1998 received 213% the average rainfall. Consequently, the decrease in RGR and increase in RE for Achnatherum, whose period of growth overlaps directly with that of its neighbors, was exaggerated at elevated CO{sub 2}. However, competitive effects of neighbors on Eriogonum trichopes (a winter annual growing in shrub interspaces), Pleuraphis and Larrea were not affected by elevated CO{sub 2}, and possible explanations are discussed. Contrary to expectations, the invasive annual neighbor Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens had little influence on target plant responses because densities in 1998 and 1999 at this site were well below those found in other studies where it has negatively affected perennial plant growth. The extent that elevated CO{sub 2} reduces the performance of Achnatherum in successive years to cause its loss from the plant community depends more on future pressure

  19. HIGHER LUMINOSITY B-FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, John T

    2002-08-20

    The present B-factories PEP-II and KEKB have reached luminosities of 3-4 x 10{sup 33}/cm{sup 2}/s and delivered integrated luminosity at rates in excess of 4fb{sup -1} per month [1,2]. The recent turn on of these two B-Factories has shown that modern accelerator physics, design, and engineering can produce colliders that rapidly reach their design luminosities and deliver integrated luminosities capable of frontier particle physics discoveries. PEP-II and KEK-B with ongoing upgrade programs should reach luminosities of over 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s in a few years and with more aggressive improvements may reach luminosities of order 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}/s by the end of the decade. However, due to particle physics requirements, the next generation B-Factory may require significantly more luminosity. Initial parameters of a very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} B-Factory or Super B-Factory (SBF) are being developed incorporating several new ideas from the successful operation of the present generation e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerators [3,4]. A luminosity approaching 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s{sup -1} appears possible. Furthermore, the ratio of average to peak luminosity may be increased by 30% due to continuous injection. The operation of this accelerator will be qualitatively different from present e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders due to this continuous injection.

  20. Interseismic strain and rotation rates in the northeast Mojave domain, eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Prescott, II W.

    2004-01-01

    The northeast Mojave domain, a type locality for bookshelf faulting, is a region of east striking, left-lateral faults in the northeast comer of the Mojave block, a block otherwise dominated by ??N40??W striking, right-lateral faults. Paleomagnetic evidence suggests that blocks within the domain have rotated clockwise about a vertical axis as much as 60?? since 12.8 Ma [Schermer et al., 1996]. In 1994, and again in 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey surveyed an array of 14 geodetic monuments distributed across the northeast Mojave domain. The 2002 survey results were adjusted to remove the coseismic offsets imposed by the nearby Hector Mine earthquake (16 October 1999, Mw = 7.1). The adjusted deformation across the array appears to be uniform and can be approximated by the principal strain rates ??:1 = 28.9 ?? 9.1 N77.2??W ?? 4.8?? and ??2 = -48.2 ?? 8.9 N12.8??E ?? 4.8?? nstrain yr-1; extension reckoned positive, and quoted uncertainties are standard deviations. That strain accumulation could be released by slip . on faults striking N32??W but not by bookshelf faulting on the east striking faults alone. The vertical axis rotation rate of the northeast Mojave domain as a whole relative to fixed North America is 71.0 ?? 6.4 nrad yr-1 (4.07?? ?? 0.37?? Myr-1) clockwise, about twice the maximum tenser shear strain rate. The observed rotation rate acting over 12.8 Myr would produce'a clockwise rotation of 52.1?? ?? 4.7??, exclusive of possible coseismic rotations. That rotation is in rough agreement with the paleomagnetic rotation accumulated in the individual fault blocks within the northeast Mojave domain since 12.8 Ma.

  1. The Low Energy Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; Geer, Steve; Ellis, Malcolm; Fernandez Martinez, Enrique; Li, Tracey; Pascoli, Silvia; Mena, Olga

    2010-03-30

    We show that a low energy neutrino factory with a baseline of 1300 km and muon energy of 4.5 GeV has an excellent physics reach. The results of our optimisation studies demonstrate that such a setup can have remarkable sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -4}, and to the mass hierarchy for sin{sup 2}(2theta{sub 13})>10{sup -3}. We also illustrate the power of the unique combination of golden and platinum channels accessible to the low energy neutrino factory. We have considered both a 20 kton totally active scintillating detector and a 100 kton liquid argon detector as possible detector technologies, finding that a liquid argon detector with very good background rejection can produce sensitivity to theta{sub 13} and delta with that of the International Design Study neutrino factory.

  2. Mortality among aircraft manufacturing workers

    PubMed Central

    Boice, J. D.; Marano, D. E.; Fryzek, J. P.; Sadler, C. J.; McLaughlin, J. K.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the risk of cancer and other diseases among workers engaged in aircraft manufacturing and potentially exposed to compounds containing chromate, trichloroethylene (TCE), perchloroethylene (PCE), and mixed solvents. METHODS: A retrospective cohort mortality study was conducted of workers employed for at least 1 year at a large aircraft manufacturing facility in California on or after 1 January 1960. The mortality experience of these workers was determined by examination of national, state, and company records to the end of 1996. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were evaluated comparing the observed numbers of deaths among workers with those expected in the general population adjusting for age, sex, race, and calendar year. The SMRs for 40 cause of death categories were computed for the total cohort and for subgroups defined by sex, race, position in the factory, work duration, year of first employment, latency, and broad occupational groups. Factory job titles were classified as to likely use of chemicals, and internal Poisson regression analyses were used to compute mortality risk ratios for categories of years of exposure to chromate, TCE, PCE, and mixed solvents, with unexposed factory workers serving as referents. RESULTS: The study cohort comprised 77,965 workers who accrued nearly 1.9 million person-years of follow up (mean 24.2 years). Mortality follow up, estimated as 99% complete, showed that 20,236 workers had died by 31 December 1996, with cause of death obtained for 98%. Workers experienced low overall mortality (all causes of death SMR 0.83) and low cancer mortality (SMR 0.90). No significant increases in risk were found for any of the 40 specific cause of death categories, whereas for several causes the numbers of deaths were significantly below expectation. Analyses by occupational group and specific job titles showed no remarkable mortality patterns. Factory workers estimated to have been routinely exposed to chromate were

  3. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  4. A genetic assessment of the recovery units for the mojave population of the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, R.W.; Berry, K.H.; Edwards, T.; McLuckie, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    In the 1994 Recovery Plan for the Mojave population of the desert tortoise, Gopherus agassizii, the US Fish and Wildlife Service established 6 recovery units by using the best available data on habitat use, behavior, morphology, and genetics. To further assess the validity of the recovery units, we analyzed genetic data by using mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) sequences and nuclear DNA microsatellites. In total, 125 desert tortoises were sampled for mtDNA and 628 for microsatellites from 31 study sites, representing all recovery units and desert regions throughout the Mojave Desert in California and Utah, and the Colorado Desert of California. The mtDNA revealed a great divergence between the Mojave populations west of the Colorado River and those occurring east of the river in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. Some divergence also occurred between northern and southern populations within the Mojave population. The microsatellites indicated a low frequency of private alleles and a significant correlation between genetic and geographic distance among 31 sample sites, which was consistent with an isolation-by-distance population structure. Regional genetic differentiation was complementary to the recovery units in the Recovery Plan. Most allelic frequencies in the recovery units differed. An assignment test correctly placed most individuals to their recovery unit of origin. Of the 6 recovery units, the Northeastern and the Upper Virgin River units showed the greatest differentiation; these units may have been relatively more isolated than other areas and should be managed accordingly. The Western Mojave Recovery Unit, by using the new genetic data, was redefined along regional boundaries into the Western Mojave, Central Mojave, and Southern Mojave recovery units. Large-scale translocations of tortoises and habitat disturbance throughout the 20th century may have contributed to the observed patterns of regional similarity. ?? 2007 Chelonian Research

  5. Perspective with Landsat Overlay: Mojave to Ventura, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Southern California's dramatic topography plays acritical role in its climate, hydrology, ecology, agriculture, and habitability. This image of Southern California, from the desert at Mojave to the ocean at Ventura, shows a variety of landscapes and environments. Winds usually bring moisture to this area from the west, moving from the ocean, across the coastal plains, to the mountains, and then to the deserts. Most rainfall occurs as the air masses rise over the mountains and cool with altitude. Continuing east, and now drained of their moisture, the air masses drop in altitude and warm as they spread across the desert. The mountain rainfall supports forest and chaparral vegetation, seen here, and also becomes ground water and stream flow that supports citrus, avocado, strawberry, other crops, and a large and growing population on the coastal plains.

    This perspective view was generated by draping a Landsat satellite image over a preliminary topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. It shows the Tehachapi Mountains in the right foreground, the city of Ventura on the coast at the distant left, and the eastern most Santa Ynez Mountains forming the skyline at the distant right.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30 meter resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyses of the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and

  6. Beyond Hypermodern Militarized Knowledge Factories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, John

    2005-01-01

    This article is an intervention into and examination of hypermodern forms of militarization or what the author calls "hypermodern militarized knowledge factories," exemplified here by the increasingly militarized universities of North America. He specifies the important arguments of his intervention into the hypermodern militarization of higher…

  7. Rural "Dropout Factories" Often Overshadowed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    In the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the northwest corner of South Carolina, high schools' attempts to curb student dropouts may not match what many people picture when they hear talk of the nation's "dropout factories." Yet one-fifth of the 2,000 high schools nationwide categorized that way by researchers at Johns Hopkins University…

  8. Multiple Segment Factorial Vignette Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganong, Lawrence H.; Coleman, Marilyn

    2006-01-01

    The multiple segment factorial vignette design (MSFV) combines elements of experimental designs and probability sampling with the inductive, exploratory approach of qualitative research. MSFVs allow researchers to investigate topics that may be hard to study because of ethical or logistical concerns. Participants are presented with short stories…

  9. Charm Factories: Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweber, Peter

    2009-12-01

    The next generation tau-charm factory, the third Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BESIII) at the new Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPCII), has begun data collection. I discuss the flavor physics reach of the BESIII charm program and conclude with a discussion on future proposed tau-charm facilities.

  10. Ground-Water Recharge from Small Intermittent Streams in the Western Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Johnson, Russell U.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Predmore, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Population growth has impacted ground-water resources in the western Mojave Desert, where declining water levels suggest that recharge rates have not kept pace with withdrawals. Recharge from the Mojave River, the largest hydrographic feature in the study area, is relatively well characterized. In contrast, recharge from numerous smaller streams that convey runoff from the bounding mountains is poorly characterized. The current study examined four representative streams to assess recharge from these intermittent sources. Hydraulic, thermal, geomorphic, chemical, and isotopic data were used to study recharge processes, from streamflow generation and infiltration to percolation through the unsaturated zone. Ground-water movement away from recharge areas was also assessed. Infiltration in amounts sufficient to have a measurable effect on subsurface temperature profiles did not occur in every year in instrumented study reaches. In addition to streamflow availability, results showed the importance of sediment texture in controlling infiltration and eventual recharge. Infiltration amounts of about 0.7 meters per year were an approximate threshold for the occurrence of ground-water recharge. Estimated travel times through the thick unsaturated zones underlying channels reached several hundred years. Recharging fluxes were influenced by stratigraphic complexity and depositional dynamics. Because of channel meandering, not all water that penetrates beneath the root zone can be assumed to become recharge on active alluvial fans. Away from study washes, elevated chloride concentrations and highly negative water potentials beneath the root zone indicated negligible recharge from direct infiltration of precipitation under current climatic conditions. In upstream portions of washes, generally low subsurface chloride concentrations and near-zero water potentials indicated downward movement of water toward the water table, driven primarily by gravity. Recharging conditions did not

  11. Water-Level and land-subsidence studies in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Glockhoff, Carolyn S.; McPherson, Kelly R.; Julich, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    What's New! Water-level data, contours, and meta data for spring 2008 are included in Version 2.0 of SIR 2007-5097 (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/mojave/wl_studies/wl2008.html). All the original data are still available on the web site. Introduction Since 1992, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency (MWA), has constructed a series of regional water-table maps for intermittent years in a continuing effort to monitor groundwater conditions in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins. The previously published data, which were used to construct these maps, can be accessed on the interactive map. The associated reports describing the groundwater conditions for the Mojave River groundwater basin for 1992 (Stamos and Predmore, 1995), the Morongo groundwater basin for 1994 (Trayler and Koczot, 1995), and for both groundwater basins for 1996 (Mendez and Christensen, 1997); for 1998 (Smith and Pimentel, 2000), for 2000 (Smith, 2002), for 2002 (Smith and others, 2004), for 2004 (Stamos and others, 2004), and for 2006 (Stamos and others, 2007) can be accessed using this web site. Spatially detailed maps of interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) methods were used to characterize land subsidence associated with groundwater-level declines during various intervals of time between 1992 and 1999 in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins (Sneed and others, 2003). Concerns related to the potential for new or renewed land subsidence in the basins resulted in a cooperative study between the MWA and the USGS in 2006. InSAR data were developed to determine the location, extent, and magnitude of vertical land-surface changes in the Mojave River and Morongo groundwater basins for time intervals ranging from about 35 days to 14 months between 1999 and 2000 and between 2003 and 2004. (interactive Google map) The results from many future land-subsidence studies, which are scheduled about every 10 years, will be available on this

  12. Hydrologic analysis of Mojave River Basin, California, using electric analog model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardt, W.F.

    1971-01-01

    The water needs of the Mojave River basin will increase because of population and industrial growth. The Mojave Water Agency is responsible for providing sufficient water of good quality for the full economic development of the area. The U.S. Geological Survey suggested an electric analog model of the basin as a predictive tool to aid management. About 1,375 square miles of the alluvial basin was simulated by a passive resistor-capacitor network. The Mojave River, the main source of recharge, was simulated by subdividing the river into 13 reaches, depending on intermittent or perennial flow and on phreatophytes. The water loss to the aquifer was based on records at five gaging stations. The aquifer system depends on river recharge to maintain the water table as most of the ground-water pumping and development is adjacent to the river. The accuracy and reliability of the model was assessed by comparing the water-level changes computed by the model for the period 1930-63 with the changes determined from field data for the same period. The model was used to predict the effects on the physical system by determining basin-wide water-level changes from 1930-2000 under different pumping rates and extremes in flow of the Mojave River. Future pumping was based on the 1960-63 rate, on an increase of 20 percent from this rate, and on population projections to 2000 in the Barstow area. For future predictions, the Mojave River was modeled as average flow based on 1931-65 records and also as high flow, 1937-46, and low flow, 1947-65. Other model runs included water-level change 1930-63 assuming aquifer depletion only and no recharge, effects of a well field pumping 10,000 acre-feet in 4 months north of Victorville and southeast of Yermo, and effects of importing 10,000, 35,000, and 50,800 acre-feet of water per year from the California Water Project into the Mojave River for conveyance downstream.

  13. Water Supply in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, 1931-99, and the Benefits of Artificial Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2001-01-01

    The Mojave River and the associated aquifer system are important water supplies in the Mojave Desert of southern California. The river and aquifer system are in hydraulic connection in many areas, and when flow conditions change in one, the other usually is affected. The river is an unpredictable source of water; therefore, residents of the basin rely almost entirely on ground water for their water supply. This reliance on ground water has resulted in overdraft conditions that have caused water-level declines, changes in the quantity and spatial distribution of recharge from the Mojave River, and loss of riparian habitat. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Mojave Water Agency (MWA), has completed several studies to determine the likely effects of overdraft on the ground-water and surface-water relations along the Mojave River. This report summarizes those studies, highlighting some of the simulation results from a ground-water flow model, and describes the ground-water and surface-water conditions of the Mojave River Basin.

  14. From Neutrino Factory to Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Both Muon Colliders and Neutrino Factories require a muon source capable of producing and capturing {Omicron}(10{sup 21}) muons/year. This paper reviews the similarities and differences between Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider accelerator complexes, the ongoing R&D needed for a Muon Collider that goes beyond Neutrino Factory R&D, and some thoughts about how a Neutrino Factory on the CERN site might eventually be upgraded to a Muon Collider.

  15. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  16. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  17. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  18. 27 CFR 40.502 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.502... Tobacco § 40.502 Factory premises. (a) General. The premises used by a manufacturer of processed tobacco... the factory is in more than one building and each building is not identifiable by a separate...

  19. 27 CFR 40.502 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.502... Tobacco § 40.502 Factory premises. (a) General. The premises used by a manufacturer of processed tobacco... the factory is in more than one building and each building is not identifiable by a separate...

  20. From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Frank; Williamson, Bill

    2011-01-01

    The British current model of education has turned schools into exam factories and further education colleges and universities into skills factories for British industry. In their book, "From Exam Factories to Communities of Discovery: the Democratic Route," the authors offer an alternative way of thinking and talking about education, as well as…

  1. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  2. 27 CFR 40.69 - Factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Factory premises. 40.69... PROCESSED TOBACCO Qualification Requirements for Manufacturers of Tobacco Products § 40.69 Factory premises. The premises to be used by a manufacturer of tobacco products as his factory may consist of more...

  3. Sequence Factorial of "g"-Gonal Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2013-01-01

    The gamma function, which has the property to interpolate the factorial whenever the argument is an integer, is a special case (the case "g"?=?2) of the general term of the sequence factorial of "g"-gonal numbers. In relation to this special case, a formula for calculating the general term of the sequence factorial of any…

  4. Distribution, habitat and habits of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the eastern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Esque, T.C.; Bury, R.B. ); Medica, P.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The desert tortoise is widely distributed across most of southern Nevada below 1500 meters elevation and then ranges northeast into the Arizona Strip and southwestern Utah. There are several large populations, but also many isolated groups of desert tortoises due to the rugged topography and, possibly, unsuitable soils. We suggest that the greatest threats to tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert are with peripheral populations. Tortoises in the eastern Mojave Desert occupy a wide variety of habitats from flats and bajadas in lower elevation to rocky slopes bordering on blackbrush and juniper woodland. In winter they use shallow burrows near Las Vegas but frequent deep caves in the northeast edge of their range. Tortoises in all areas may occur in steep, rocky habitats. Climatic extremes are frequent in this region and rainfall can be spotty due to several major mountain ranges that cause rain shadows. Forage is highly variable and this species can be an opportunistic herbivore. 11 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Ozone Transport Aloft Drives Surface Ozone Maxima Across the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanCuren, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    A persistent layer of polluted air in the lower free troposphere over the Mojave Desert (California and Nevada) drives spring and summer surface ozone maxima as deep afternoon mixing delivers ozone and ozone precursors to surface measurement sites 200 km or more downwind of the mountains that separate the deserts from the heavily populated coastal areas of California. Pollutants in this elevated layer derive from California source regions (the Los Angeles megacity region and the intensive agricultural region of the San Joaquin Valley), and from long-range transport from Asia. Recognition of this poorly studied persistent layer explains and expands the significance of previously published reports of ozone and other pollutants observed in and over the Mojave Desert, resolves an apparent paradox in the timing of ozone peaks due to transport from the upwind basins, and provides a new perspective on the long-range downwind impacts of megacity pollution plumes.

  6. Discrimination of active and inactive sand from remote sensing - Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paisley, Elizabeth C. I.; Lancaster, Nicholas; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Greeley, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Landsat TM images, field data, and laboratoray reflectance spectra were examined for the Kelso dunes, Mojave Desert, California to assess the use of visible and near-infrared (VNIR) remote sensing data to discriminate aeolian sand populations on the basis of spectral brightness. Results show that areas of inactive sand have a larger percentage of dark, fine-grained materials compared to those composed of active sand, which contain less dark fines and a higher percentage of quartz sand-size grains. Both areas are spectrally distinct in the VNIR, suggesting that VNIR spectral data can be used to discriminate active and inactive sand populations in the Mojave Desert. Analysis of laboratory spectra was complicated by the presence of magnetite in the active sands, which decreases their laboratory reflectance values to those of inactive sands. For this application, comparison of TM and laboratory spectra suggests that less than 35 percent vegetation cover does not influence the TM spectra.

  7. Climate change implications of soil temperature in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yanying; Scott, Thomas A.; Min, Qingwen

    2014-06-01

    Soil temperature plays an important role in physical, biological, and microbiological processes occurring in the soil, but it is rarely reported as an indicator of climate change. A long-term soil temperature database, collected in the Mojave Desert region from 1982-2000, was used to examine the relationship between regional climate change and soil temperature. During this 19-year study period, there was a warming trend in the Mojave Desert region. The soil temperature in this region, measured at 50-cm deep, increased at an average rate of 0.79°C per decade. The temporal changes of soil temperature and those of air temperature were highly correlated. Elevation was the dominating factor that affected the spatiotemporal variations of soil and air temperature.

  8. Estimation of perennial vegetation cover distribution in the Mojave Desert using MODIS-EVI data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.S.A.; Webb, R.H.; Thomas, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper details a method to create regional models of perennial vegetation cover using pre-existing field data and satellite imagery. Total cover of perennial vegetation is an important ecological attribute of desert ecosystems, including the Mojave Desert, USA, an area of 125,000 km2. Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Enhanced Vegetation Index (MODIS-EVI) data were coupled with measurements of total perennial cover and plot elevation using stepwise linear regression and linear regression techniques to create two models of cover. The final models produced R2 of 0.82 and 0.81, respectively, and yielded maps of perennial cover distribution in the Mojave Desert at 250 m spatial resolution. Copyright ?? 2008 by Bellwether Publishing, Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of volatile organic compounds in two Mojave Desert basins-Mojave River and Antelope Valley-in San Bernardino, Los Angeles, and Kern Counties, California, June-October 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Wright, Michael T.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Johnson, Tyler D.

    2005-01-01

    The California Aquifer Susceptibility Assessment of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program was developed to assess water quality and susceptibility of ground-water resources to contamination from surficial sources. This study focuses on the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley ground-water basins in southern California. Volatile organic compound (VOC) data were evaluated in conjunction with tritium data to determine a potential correlation with aquifer type, depth to top of perforations, and land use to VOC distribution and occurrence in the Mojave River and the Antelope Valley Basins. Detection frequencies for VOCs were compiled and compared to assess the distribution in each area. Explanatory variables were evaluated by comparing detection frequencies for VOCs and tritium and the number of compounds detected. Thirty-three wells were sampled in the Mojave River Basin (9 in the floodplain aquifer, 15 in the regional aquifer, and 9 in the sewered subset of the regional aquifer). Thirty-two wells were sampled in the Antelope Valley Basin. Quality-control samples also were collected to identify, quantify, and document bias and variability in the data. Results show that VOCs generally were detected slightly more often in the Antelope Valley Basin samples than in the Mojave River Basin samples. VOCs were detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Tritium was detected more frequently in the Mojave River Basin samples than in the Antelope Valley Basin samples, and it was detected more frequently in the floodplain aquifer than in the regional aquifer and the sewered subset. Most of the samples collected in both basins for this study contained old water (water recharged prior to 1952). In general, in these desert basins, tritium need not be present for VOCs to be present. When VOCs were detected, young water (water recharge after 1952) was slightly more likely to be contaminated than old water

  10. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  11. World commercial aircraft accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, C.Y.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of all accidents world-wide involving aircraft in commercial service which resulted in the loss of the airframe or one or more fatality, or both. This information has been gathered in order to present a complete inventory of commercial aircraft accidents. Events involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, hijackings, suicides, and industrial ground accidents are included within this list. Included are: accidents involving world commercial jet aircraft, world commercial turboprop aircraft, world commercial pistonprop aircraft with four or more engines and world commercial pistonprop aircraft with two or three engines from 1946 to 1992. Each accident is presented with information in the following categories: date of the accident, airline and its flight numbers, type of flight, type of aircraft, aircraft registration number, construction number/manufacturers serial number, aircraft damage, accident flight phase, accident location, number of fatalities, number of occupants, cause, remarks, or description (brief) of the accident, and finally references used. The sixth chapter presents a summary of the world commercial aircraft accidents by major aircraft class (e.g. jet, turboprop, and pistonprop) and by flight phase. The seventh chapter presents several special studies including a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types with 100 or more fatalities in order of decreasing number of fatalities, a list of collision accidents involving commercial aircrafts, and a list of world commercial aircraft accidents for all aircraft types involving military action, sabotage, terrorist bombings, and hijackings.

  12. Holocene landscape response to seasonality of storms in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, D.M.; Schmidt, K.M.; Mahan, S.A.; McGeehin, J.P.; Owen, L.A.; Barron, J.A.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Lohrer, R.

    2010-01-01

    New optically stimulated and radiocarbon ages for alluvial fan and lake deposits in the Mojave Desert are presented, which greatly improves the temporal resolution of surface processes. The new Mojave Desert climate-landscape record is particularly detailed for the late Holocene. Evidence from ephemeral lake deposits and landforms indicates times of sustained stream flow during a wet interval of the latter part of the Medieval Warm Period at ca. AD 1290 and during the Little Ice Age at ca. AD 1650. The former lakes postdate megadroughts of the Medieval Warm Period, whereas the latter match the Maunder Minimum of the Little Ice Age. Periods of alluvial fan aggradation across the Mojave Desert are 14-9 cal ka and 6-3 cal ka. This timing largely correlates to times of increased sea-surface temperatures in the Gulf of California and enhanced warm-season monsoons. This correlation suggests that sustained alluvial fan aggradation may be driven by intense summer-season storms. These data suggest that the close proximity of the Mojave Desert to the Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of California promotes a partitioning of landscape-process responses to climate forcings that vary with seasonality of the dominant storms. Cool-season Pacific frontal storms cause river flow, ephemeral lakes, and fan incision, whereas periods of intense warm-season storms cause hillslope erosion and alluvial fan aggradation. The proposed landscape-process partitioning has important implications for hazard mitigation given that climate change may increase sea-surface temperatures in the Gulf of California, which indirectly could increase future alluvial fan aggradation.

  13. Comparative phylogeography reveals deep lineages and regional evolutionary hotspots in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Dustin A.; Vandergast, Amy G.; Barr, Kelly R.; Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: We explored lineage diversification within desert-dwelling fauna. Our goals were (1) to determine whether phylogenetic lineages and population expansions were consistent with younger Pleistocene climate fluctuation hypotheses or much older events predicted by pre-Pleistocene vicariance hypotheses, (2) to assess concordance in spatial patterns of genetic divergence and diversity among species and (3) to identify regional evolutionary hotspots of divergence and diversity and assess their conservation status. Location: Mojave, Colorado, and Sonoran Deserts, USA. Methods: We analysed previously published gene sequence data for twelve species. We used Bayesian gene tree methods to estimate lineages and divergence times. Within each lineage, we tested for population expansion and age of expansion using coalescent approaches. We mapped interpopulation genetic divergence and intra-population genetic diversity in a GIS to identify hotspots of highest genetic divergence and diversity and to assess whether protected lands overlapped with evolutionary hotspots. Results: In seven of the 12 species, lineage divergence substantially predated the Pleistocene. Historical population expansion was found in eight species, but expansion events postdated the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in only four. For all species assessed, six hotspots of high genetic divergence and diversity were concentrated in the Colorado Desert, along the Colorado River and in the Mojave/Sonoran ecotone. At least some proportion of the land within each recovered hotspot was categorized as protected, yet four of the six also overlapped with major areas of human development. Main conclusions: Most of the species studied here diversified into distinct Mojave and Sonoran lineages prior to the LGM – supporting older diversification hypotheses. Several evolutionary hotspots were recovered but are not strategically paired with areas of protected land. Long-term preservation of species-level biodiversity would

  14. Evolution of Late Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Farmer, G.L. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Cenozoic volcanism in the Mojave Desert region of southern California comprises two main groups: early Miocene ([approx]24--18 Ma) synextensional magmatism ranging from basalt to rhyolite, and postkinematic middle Miocene to Quaternary volcanism that is almost exclusively basaltic. Flat-lying basalts of the latter group, herein termed the Mojave Neovolcanic Belt (MNB), are distributed across the central and eastern Mojave Desert, and were erupted in three main pulses: (1) during the middle Miocene ([approx]17--15 Ma), in a belt from near Tiefort Mtn. to the El Paso Mts.; (2) during the late Miocene ([approx]9--4 Ma); and (3) in a Plio-Quaternary pulse ([approx]3--0 Ma) that includes the southern Cima field and all the cones scattered along the axis of the Barstow-Bristol trough. Several temporal and geographic trends are evident in the MNB. In general, younger basalts are higher in [var epsilon][sub Nd], lower in [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr, more alkalic, less crustally contaminated, and more likely to contain mantle xenoliths than older basalts. Mantle xenoliths are restricted to the eastern and southern Mojave block. Basalts of all three groups become dramatically richer in K[sub 2]O to the east, ranging from subalkaline basalts in the west to alkali basalts and trachybasalts in the east. Isotopic provinciality is apparent, but mantle differences are difficult to distinguish from the effects of crustal contamination. Lavas with mantle xenoliths consistently have [var epsilon][sub Nd] > 5 and [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr < 0.7042. Eruptive centers of the MNB show no consistent relationship to regional tectonic features. Although alkali basalts are generally associated with rifting, several MNB volcanoes were erupted through active fold and thrust belts.

  15. Regulative effect of dodder (Cuscuta nevadensis Jtn. ) on the vegetation of the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.; Hunter, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    On two separate transects in the Rock Valley area of the northern Mojave Desert in the spring of 1976, 4 to 17% of the perennial plants were infested with the parasite Cuscuta nevadensis Jtn. (dodder), and dead pieces of dodder from previous years were on dead plants equivalent to another 5%, indicating that the dodder had a regulating effect on the plant population and may be an important cause of perennial plant death.

  16. First results from the Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) Field Campaign, a Lunar Polar Rover Mission Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Cook, A.; Deans, M. C.; Elphic, R. C.; Lim, D. S. S.; Skok, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Mojave Volatiles Prospector (MVP) project is a science-driven field program with the goal to produce critical knowledge for conducting robotic exploration of the Moon. MVP will feed science, payload, and operational lessons learned to the development of a real-time, short-duration lunar polar volatiles prospecting mission. MVP achieves these goals through a simulated lunar rover mission to investigate the composition and distribution of surface and subsurface volatiles in a natural and a priori unknown environment within the Mojave Desert, improving our understanding of how to find, characterize, and access volatiles on the Moon. The MVP field site is the Mojave Desert, selected for its low, naturally occurring water abundance. The Mojave typically has on the order of 2-6% water, making it a suitable lunar analog for this field test. MVP uses the Near Infrared and Visible Spectrometer Subsystem (NIRVSS), Neutron Spectrometer Subsystem (NSS), and a downward facing GroundCam camera on the KREX-2 rover to investigate the relationship between the distribution of volatiles and soil crust variation. Through this investigation, we mature robotic in situ instruments and concepts of instrument operations, improve ground software tools for real time science, and carry out publishable research on the water cycle and its connection to geomorphology and mineralogy in desert environments. A lunar polar rover mission is unlike prior space missions and requires a new concept of operations. The rover must navigate 3-5 km of terrain and examine multiple sites in in just ~6 days. Operational decisions must be made in real time, requiring constant situational awareness, data analysis and rapid turnaround decision support tools. This presentation will focus on the first science results and operational architecture findings from the MVP field deployment relevant to a lunar polar rover mission.

  17. Ecotonal distribution of salt-tolerant shrubs in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.

    1980-01-01

    Ecotonal distribution of salt-tolerant shrubs was investigated under different kinds of edaphic conditions common to open and closed drainage basins in the northern Mojave Desert. Contributing causal factors involved changes in soil salinity, texture, and moisture stress. Varying degrees of halophytism occurred, ranging from plant species that are facultative in their adaptation to salinity to those that require comparatively high salt concentrations in soil for normal growth and development.

  18. On KEK B-Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara, H.

    2009-07-01

    There are two principles which the management of a research institute like KEK must respect when dealing with such big project as B-Factory. One is the scientific merit of the project and the other is the organizational consideration which includes financial, human, technical and historical elements. Ideally, the two principles are to be fully taken into account. But, in many cases, one or the other is only partially fulfilled due to unavoidable circumstances. The lack of flexibility to respond to all possible situations is more dangerous and may lead to a disaster as in the case of SSC. I will describe the process which lead to the successful construction, operation and physics presentations of KEK B-Factory following faithfully the official records.

  19. X-Raying the MOJAVE Sample of Compact Extragalactic Radio Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadler, M.; Sato, G.; Tueller, J.; Sambruna, R. M.; Markwardt, C. B.; Giommi, P.; Gehrels, N.

    2007-01-01

    The MOJAVE sample is the first large radio-selected, VLBI-monitored AGN sample for which complete X-ray spectral information is being gathered. We report on the status of Swift survey observations which complement the available archival X-ray data at 0.3-10 keV and in the UV with its XRT and UVOT instruments. Many of these 133 radio-brightest AGN in the northern sky are now being observed for the first time at these energies. These and complementary other multiwavelength observations provide a large statistical sample of radio-selected AGN whose spectral energy distributions we measured from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths, available at the beginning of GLAST operations in 2008. Here, we report the X-ray spectral characteristics of 36 of these previously unobserved MOJAVE sources. In addition, the number of MOJAVE sources detected by the BAT instrument in the hard X-ray band is growing: we report the detection of five new blazars with BAT.

  20. The displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the El Paso Mountains and northern Mojave Desert: A Triassic sliver

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.S.; Glazner, A.F. . Dept. of Geology); Walker, J.D.; Martin, M.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Many workers have drawn attention to the displaced eugeoclinal rocks in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains and their importance in models for the development of an active continental margin in the western Cordillera. Existing models can generally for either strike-slip juxtaposition or thrust emplacement. New field data, U-Pb zircon geochronology, and isotopic data for metasedimentary rocks and plutons in the northern Mojave Desert and El Paso Mountains shed light on the timing and mechanism of emplacement of the eugeoclinal allocthon. The observations and data above indicate that Early Triassic plutons in the northern Mojave Desert came through oceanic lithosphere but later Jurassic plutons intercepted continental lithosphere. The authors suggest a model where eugeoclinal rocks were deposited on oceanic crust which was initially brought southward along a strike-slip fault and later thrust eastward over the cratonal assemblage. Permian thrusting is incompatible with their data and observations. Intrusion of lower Triassic strata by Early Triassic plutons in the Lane Mountain area permits some Early Triassic thrusting but the oceanic affinity of the plutons implies that thrusting did not involve continental lithosphere.

  1. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Alien annual grasses in the genera Bromus and Schismus are widespread and abundant in the Mojave Desert, and negative correlations between these aliens and native annual plants suggest that competition may occur between them. Effects of competition were evaluated by thinning alien annual grass seedlings and measuring the responses of native annual plants at three sites in the central, southcentral and southwestern Mojave Desert during 2 y of contrasting plant productivity. Effects of Bromus and Schismus were evaluated separately in the microhabitat where each was most abundant, beneath the north side of creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) for Bromus and in the open interspace between shrubs for Schismus. Thinning of Bromus and Schismus significantly increased density and biomass of native annuals at all three sites, only during a year of high annual plant productivity and species richness. Effects of thinning were greatest for Amsinckia tesselata and for a group of relatively uncommon native annuals. Thinning also significantly increased the density and biomass of the alien forb, Erodium cicutarium. These results show that alien annual grasses can compete with native annual plants and an alien forb in the Mojave Desert and that effects can vary among years.

  2. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common raven nesting biology in the West Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Kristan, William B; Boarman, William I

    2007-09-01

    Subsidized predators may affect prey abundance, distribution, and demography. Common Ravens (Corvus corax) are anthropogenically subsidized throughout their range and, in the Mojave Desert, have increased in number dramatically over the last 3-4 decades. Human-provided food resources are thought to be important drivers of raven population growth, but human developments add other features as well, such as nesting platforms. From 1996 to 2000, we examined the nesting ecology of ravens in the Mojave Desert, relative to anthropogenic developrhent. Ravens nested disproportionately near point sources of food and water subsidies (such as towns, landfills, and ponds) but not near roads (sources of road-killed carrion), even though both sources of subsidy enhanced fledging success. Initiation of breeding activity was more likely when a nest from the previous year was present at the start of a breeding season but was not affected by access to food. The relative effect of environmental modifications on fledging success varied from year to year, but the effect of access to human-provided resources was comparatively consistent, suggesting that humans provide consistently high-quality breeding habitat for ravens. Anthropogenic land cover types in the desert are expected to promote raven population growth and to allow ravens to occupy parts of the desert that otherwise would not support them. Predatory impacts of ravens in the Mojave Desert can therefore be considered indirect effects of anthropogenic development. PMID:17913134

  3. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common Raven nesting biology in the west Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kristan, W. B., III; Boarman, W.I.

    2007-01-01

    Subsidized predators may affect prey abundance, distribution, and demography. Common Ravens (Corvus corax) are anthropogenically subsidized throughout their range and, in the Mojave Desert, have increased in number dramatically over the last 3-4 decades. Human-provided food resources are thought to be important drivers of raven population growth, but human developments add other features as well, such as nesting platforms. From 1996 to 2000, we examined the nesting ecology of ravens in the Mojave Desert, relative to anthropogenic development. Ravens nested disproportionately near point sources of food and water subsidies (such as towns, landfills, and ponds) but not near roads (sources of road-killed carrion), even though both sources of subsidy enhanced fledging success. Initiation of breeding activity was more likely when a nest from the previous year was present at the start of a breeding season but was not affected by access to food. The relative effect of environmental modifications on fledging success varied from year to year, but the effect of access to humanprovided resources was comparatively consistent, suggesting that humans provide consistently high-quality breeding habitat for ravens. Anthropogenic land cover types in the desert are expected to promote raven population growth and to allow ravens to occupy parts of the desert that otherwise would not support them. Predatory impacts of ravens in the Mojave Desert can therefore be considered indirect effects of anthropogenic development. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Apiary B Factory lattice design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R. ); Garren, A.A. )

    1991-04-01

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper will present the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent. 8 figs. 1 tab.

  5. Apiary B Factory Lattice Design

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, M.H.R.; Garren, A.A.

    1991-05-03

    The Apiary B Factory is a proposed high-intensity electron-positron collider. This paper presents the lattice design for this facility, which envisions two rings with unequal energies in the PEP tunnel. The design has many interesting optical and geometrical features due to the needs to conform to the existing tunnel, and to achieve the necessary emittances, damping times and vacuum. Existing hardware is used to a maximum extent.

  6. MUON STORAGE RINGS - NEUTRINO FACTORIES

    SciTech Connect

    PARSA,Z.

    2000-05-30

    The concept of a muon storage ring based Neutrino Source (Neutrino Factory) has sparked considerable interest in the High Energy Physics community. Besides providing a first phase of a muon collider facility, it would generate more intense and well collimated neutrino beams than currently available. The BNL-AGS or some other proton driver would provide an intense proton beam that hits a target, produces pions that decay into muons. The muons must be cooled, accelerated and injected into a storage ring with a long straight section where they decay. The decays occurring in the straight sections of the ring would generate neutrino beams that could be directed to detectors located thousands of kilometers away, allowing studies of neutrino oscillations with precisions not currently accessible. For example, with the neutrino source at BNL, detectors at Soudan, Minnesota (1,715 km), and Gran Sasso, Italy (6,527 km) become very interesting possibilities. The feasibility of constructing and operating such a muon-storage-ring based Neutrino-Factory, including geotechnical questions related to building non-planar storage rings (e.g. at 8{degree} angle for BNL-Soudan, and 3{degree} angle for BNL-Gran Sasso) along with the design of the muon capture, cooling, acceleration, and storage ring for such a facility is being explored by the growing Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration (NFMCC). The authors present overview of Neutrino Factory concept based on a muon storage ring, its components, physics opportunities, possible upgrade to a full muon collider, latest simulations of front-end, and a new bowtie-muon storage ring design.

  7. 27 CFR 44.196 - To district director of customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. 44.196 Section 44.196 Alcohol... for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. Where tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes are removed from a factory or an export warehouse for consumption as supplies beyond...

  8. 27 CFR 44.196 - To district director of customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. 44.196 Section 44.196 Alcohol... for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. Where tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes are removed from a factory or an export warehouse for consumption as supplies beyond...

  9. 27 CFR 44.196 - To district director of customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. 44.196 Section 44.196 Alcohol... for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. Where tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes are removed from a factory or an export warehouse for consumption as supplies beyond...

  10. 27 CFR 44.196 - To district director of customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. 44.196 Section 44.196 Alcohol... for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. Where tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes are removed from a factory or an export warehouse for consumption as supplies beyond...

  11. 27 CFR 44.196 - To district director of customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... customs for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. 44.196 Section 44.196 Alcohol... for consumption as supplies on commercial vessels and aircraft. Where tobacco products, or cigarette papers or tubes are removed from a factory or an export warehouse for consumption as supplies beyond...

  12. A Survey of Small Factories*

    PubMed Central

    Jefferys, Margot; Wood, C. H.

    1960-01-01

    This survey was undertaken by a group of doctors, nurses, and lecturers in the Department of Public Health of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine as part of the teaching programme for the Diploma in Public Health. Fifty small factories in an area of a metropolitan borough were invited to answer questions concerning their industrial processes, their labour force, their premises, their first-aid provision, and the visits they received from officials of local and central government. Forty-eight of these factories responded and observations were made by teams of three recording independently of each other in 45. A variety of industries was represented in these 48 firms, half of which employed less than 10 workers. The working environment, in respect of sanitary arrangements, cleanliness and tidiness, lighting on stairs and passage ways, was considered to be unsatisfactory in many firms. Some instances of inadequate safeguards of machines were seen. The accident rate was found to be rather less than the computed national rate for manufacturing industry in 1956. First-aid equipment and workers were also considered to be deficient in a number of instances. In case of accident and for the treatment of minor ailments most firms made use of a local casualty and out-patient department of a general hospital. This service was considered quite adequate. Many firms had not been visited by the Factory Inspector or his deputy during the previous year. Rather more had received visits from the local authority health inspectors. Many firms expressed confusion about the duties and functions of their various official visitors. The conclusions drawn from this limited enquiry were that the working conditions in small factories are often unsatisfactory; that in areas such as the one surveyed it is unrealistic to think in terms of development of an industrial health service similar to those operating in Slough and Harlow; and that the greatest impact on environmental

  13. Mapping the surface characteristics of the Mojave with remote sensing for terrestrial habitat modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowicki, S. A.; Skuse, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    High-resolution ecological and climate modeling requires quantification of surface characteristics such as rock abundance, soil induration and surface roughness at fine-scale, since these features can affect the micro and macro habitat of a given area and ultimately determine the assemblage of plant and animal species that may occur there. Our objective is to develop quantitative data layers of thermophysical properties of the entire Mojave Desert Ecoregion for applications to habitat modeling being conducted by the USGS Western Ecological Research Center. These research efforts are focused on developing habitat models and a better physical understanding of the Mojave Desert, which have implications the development of solar and wind energy resources, military installation expansion and residential development planned for the Mojave. Thus there is a need to improve our understanding of the mechanical composition and thermal characteristics of natural and modified surfaces in the southwestern US at as high-resolution as possible. Since the Mojave is a sparsely-vegetated, arid landscape with little precipitation, remote sensing-based thermophysical analyses using Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) day and nighttime imagery are ideal for determining the physical properties of the surface. New mosaicking techniques for thermal imagery acquired at different dates, seasons and temperatures have allowed for the highest-resolution mosaics yet generated at 100m/pixel for thermal infrared wavelengths. Among our contributions is the development of seamless day and night ASTER mosaics of land surface temperatures that are calibrated to Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) coincident observations to produce both a seamless mosaic and quantitative temperatures across the region that varies spectrally and thermophysically over a large number of orbit tracks. Products derived from this dataset include surface rock abundance

  14. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  15. Super B Factory at KEK

    SciTech Connect

    Cheon, Byung Gu

    2008-11-23

    A Super--KEKB factory, an asymmetric--energy e{sup +}e{sup -} lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8x10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  16. Neutrino Factories and Beta Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2006-06-21

    In this paper we briefly review the concepts of Neutrino Factories and Beta Beam facilities, and indicate the main challenges in terms of beam performance and technological developments. We also describe the worldwide organizations that have embarked on defining and carrying out the necessary R&D on component design, beam simulations of facility performance, and benchmarking of key subsystems via actual beam tests. Currently approved subsystem tests include the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), under construction at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, and the Mercury Intense Target (MERIT) experiment, to be carried out at CERN. These experiments are briefly described, and their schedules are indicated.

  17. Black holes as antimatter factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.

    2009-09-01

    We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.

  18. Super B Factory at KEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheon, ByungGu

    2008-11-01

    A Super—KEKB factory, an asymmetric—energy e+e- lepton collider at KEK in Japan, has been proposed with the design peak luminosity of 8×1035 cm-2 s-1, which is about 50 times higher than that of the current operation of the KEKB collider. The physics goal of this project is mainly to measure extremely rare heavy flavor weak decays and CP violation phenomena, which are very sensitive on physics beyond the Standard Model. Hot physics topics and the status of experimental design are briefly described.

  19. AIRCRAFT DEPAINTING TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical paint strippers historically used for aircraft contained toxic and hazardous components; aircraft depainting operations are a major source of hazardous waste generation in DOD. Federal and state agencies have begun to restrict using these hazardous materials and Governme...

  20. Effects of SO/sub 2/ and/or NO/sub 2/ on native plants of the Mojave Desert and the eastern Mojave-Colorado Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, C.R.; Kats, G.; Lennox, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    Effects of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide on plant species taken from the Mojave Desert area were studied. Plants were exposed to the gases at the following concentrations: SO/sub 2/ 2.0, 0.67, and 0.22 ppm/ and NO/sub 2/, 1.0, 0.33, and 0.11 ppm. Fumigation of perennial plants at concentrations of 2.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ and 1.0 ppm NO/sub 2/ caused extensive leaf injury. Although the 2.0 ppm SO/sub 2/ level was more injurious to annual plants, the annuals were not as severely affected by the 1.0 ppm NO/sub 2/ level.

  1. Measurement of surface scratches on aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    In assuring the quality of aircraft, the skin quality must be free of surface imperfections. Surface imperfections such as scratches are unacceptable for cosmetic and structural reasons. Scratches beyond a certain depth are not repairable, resulting in costly replacement of an aircraft's part. Measurements of aircraft exterior surfaces require a ladder or cherry picker for positioning the inspector. Commercially-available computer vision systems are not portable, easy to use, or ergonomic. The machine vision system must be designed with these criteria in mind. The scratch measurement system (SMS) uses computer vision, digital signal processing, and automated inspection methods. The system is portable and battery powered. It is certified for measuring the depth and width of the anomaly. The SMS provides a comprehensive, analytical, and accurate reading. A hardcopy output provides a permanent record of the analysis. The graphical data shows the surface profile and provides substantial information of the surface anomaly. The factory and flight line use the SMS at different stages of aircraft production. Six systems have been built for use within Boeing. A patent was issued for the SMS in February 1994.

  2. Aircraft noise problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The problems related to aircraft noise were studied. Physical origin (sound), human reaction (noise), quantization of noise and sound sources of aircraft noise are discussed. Noise abatement at the source, technical, fleet-political and air traffic measures are explained. The measurements and future developments are also discussed. The position of Lufthansa as regards aircraft noise problems is depicted.

  3. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  4. Seismic Evidence for Lithospheric Modification Beneath the Mojave Neovolcanic Province, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, C. M.; Porter, R. C.; Fouch, M. J.; Semken, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The Mojave Neovolcanic Province (MNVP), located in the center of the Mojave block of southern California, consists of late Miocene to Quaternary small-volume basaltic cinder cones and lava flows. The MNVP includes the much-studied Cima Volcanic Field (CVF) as well as Amboy and Pisgah craters. Previous geochemical evidence clearly shows that the MNVP was sourced from the asthenosphere beginning in the late Miocene, but no physical evidence of missing mantle lithosphere has yet been documented. The state of the mantle lithosphere therefore remains an important component to understanding the origin and continued evolution of the MNVP. In this study, we utilize receiver function (RF) analysis and ambient noise tomography (ANT) to image the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Mojave block. We observe thin (21.5-30 km) crust throughout the area with the thinnest crust (≤ 25 km) located near the CVF and Pisgah Crater. Application of Common Conversion Point RF stacking method reveals a strong intracrustal negative amplitude arrival at 10-15 km depth that is pervasive throughout much of the region except beneath recent (< 5 Ma) MNVP volcanism. We propose that these observations are consistent with a zone of melt drainage near the MNVP eruptive centers. We also find that the crust beneath Amboy Crater shows some noticeable differences, such as slightly thicker (~26 km) crust and a zone of reduced velocities in the uppermost (4-6 km depth) crust, as compared with crust beneath the CVF and Pisgah Crater. Across the broader region, shear wave velocities between 40 and 75 km depth calculated using ANT are consistent with very thin or missing mantle lithosphere in the northern Mojave block, and a thin and sharply-defined mantle lithospheric parcel in the southern Mojave Block. With the exception of Amboy Crater, all of the MNVP eruptive centers lie along the sharp boundary between missing and existing lithosphere. The Mojave block miogeoclinal-cratonal hinge line (MCH

  5. Seismic Anisotropy of the Pelona-Orocopia-Rand Schist beneath the Mojave Block, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Hacker, B. R.; Chapman, A. D.; Saleeby, J.

    2014-12-01

    The POR schist is thought to comprise much of the lower crust of southern California, and is one of the archetypes for understanding shallow slab subduction and subduction erosion. Porter et al. (2011) attributed anisotropy in the lower crust of southern California to the POR schist, and interpreted the orientation of anisotropy beneath the Mojave block to result from fossil fabric related to initiation of the San Andreas Fault. Most seismic methods for analyzing anisotropy employ the assumption of transverse isotropic (TI) symmetry, where velocities are symmetric about 1 unique axis. The effects of this simplification have not been critically evaluated using measurements of the full symmetry of rock samples. We measured mineral crystal preferred orientations (CPO), and calculated elastic tensors for samples of lower crustal rocks of the Mojave block, including POR schist and plutonic rocks. This method captures the full elastic tensor with no enforced symmetry, and thus allows evaluation of simplified symmetry assumptions. Velocity anisotropy in individual samples of the POR schist ranges from ~2-12% in VP and ~3-15% in VS, which is consistent with results of Porter et al. (2011). When all schist samples are averaged together to approximate the bulk schist, the anisotropy is significantly reduced to ~6% in VP and ~8% in VS, which is lower than the average values inferred by Porter et al. (2011). Felsic schist samples are fairly well approximated by TI symmetry, whereas mafic schist, and mylonitic samples have a strong orthorhombic component. Felsic plutonic rocks have low anisotropy, and complicated low-order symmetry, while plutonic rocks with significant hornblende content have orthorhombic symmetry. The symmetry of the average lower crust beneath the Mojave block is not likely to be purely TI, and this contributes to differences between seismic interpretations of anisotropy and the intrinsic elasticity inferred from laboratory measurements.

  6. An annual plant growth proxy in the Mojave Desert using MODIS-EVI data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, C.S.A.; Thomas, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R 2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  7. Do increased summer precipitation and N deposition alter fine root dynamics in a Mojave Desert ecosystem?

    PubMed

    Verburg, Paul S J; Young, Andrew C; Stevenson, Bryan A; Glanzmann, Isabelle; Arnone, John A; Marion, Giles M; Holmes, Christopher; Nowak, Robert S

    2013-03-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the amount and distribution of precipitation in the arid southwestern United States. In addition, nitrogen (N) deposition is increasing in these regions due to increased urbanization. Responses of belowground plant activity to increases in soil water content and N have shown inconsistent patterns between biomes. In arid lands, plant productivity is limited by water and N availability so it is expected that changes in these factors will affect fine root dynamics. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effects of increased summer precipitation and N deposition on fine root dynamics in a Mojave Desert ecosystem during a 2-year field experiment using minirhizotron measurements. Root length density, production, and mortality were measured in field plots in the Mojave Desert receiving three 25 mm summer rain events and/or 40 kg N ha(-1)  yr(-1) . Increased summer precipitation and N additions did not have an overall significant effect on any of the measured root parameters. However, differences in winter precipitation resulting from interannual variability in rainfall appeared to affect root parameters with root production and turnover increasing following a wet winter most likely due to stimulation of annual grasses. In addition, roots were distributed more deeply in the soil following the wet winter. Root length density was initially higher under canopies compared to canopy interspaces, but converged toward the end of the study. In addition, roots tended to be distributed more deeply into the soil in canopy interspace areas. Results from this study indicated that increased summer precipitation and N deposition in response to climate change and urbanization are not likely to affect fine root dynamics in these Mojave Desert ecosystems, despite studies showing aboveground plant physiological responses to these environmental perturbations. However, changes in the amount and possibly distribution of winter precipitation

  8. Gravity and magnetic studies of the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denton, Kevin M.; Ponce, David A.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionFrom May 2011 to August 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected gravity data at more than 2,300 stations and physical property measurements on more than 640 rock samples from outcrops in the eastern Mojave Desert, California and Nevada. Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data are used to study and locate regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework related to mineral resources of the eastern Mojave Desert.The eastern Mojave Desert is host to a world-class rare earth element carbonatite deposit located at Mountain Pass, California. Carbonatites are typically defined as magmatic rocks with high modal abundances of primary carbonate minerals >50 weight percent and elevated abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) (Nelson and others, 1988; Woolley and Kempe, 1989). The “Sulphide Queen” carbonatite ore deposit is a composite, tabular body made up of sills and dikes of REE-bearing sovites and beforsites that occurs just south of the Clark Mountain Range along a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block that extends along the northeast edge of the Mescal Range and northwestern extent of Ivanpah Mountains. This early to middle Proterozoic block is composed of a 1.7 Ga metamorphic complex of gneiss and schist that underwent widespread metamorphism and associated plutonism during the Ivanpah orogeny (Miller and others, 2007). Subsequently, these rocks were intruded by a series of granitoids, which included the 1.4 Ga (DeWitt and others, 1987) ultrapotassic alkaline suite of intrusions that are spatially and temporally associated with hundreds of dikes, outcrops, and a carbonatite ore body. The relative age sequence of this intrusive suite of alkaline rocks from oldest to youngest includes shonkinite, mesosyenite, syenite, quartz syenite, potassic granite, carbonatite, and late shonkinite dikes (Olson and others, 1954; Wooden and Miller, 1990; Haxel, 2005; Miller and others, 2007).

  9. Desert tortoise use of burned habitat in the Eastern Mojave desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drake, Karla K.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; DeFalco, Lesley; Scoles, Sara; Modlin, Andrew T.; Medica, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires burned 24,254 ha of critical habitat designated for the recovery of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in southern Nevada during 2005. The proliferation of non-native annual grasses has increased wildfire frequency and extent in recent decades and continues to accelerate the conversion of tortoise habitat across the Mojave Desert. Immediate changes to vegetation are expected to reduce quality of critical habitat, yet whether tortoises will use burned and recovering habitat differently from intact unburned habitat is unknown. We compared movement patterns, home-range size, behavior, microhabitat use, reproduction, and survival for adult desert tortoises located in, and adjacent to, burned habitat to understand how tortoises respond to recovering burned habitat. Approximately 45% of home ranges in the post-fire environment contained burned habitat, and numerous observations (n = 12,223) corroborated tortoise use of both habitat types (52% unburned, 48% burned). Tortoises moved progressively deeper into burned habitat during the first 5 years following the fire, frequently foraging in burned habitats that had abundant annual plants, and returning to adjacent unburned habitat for cover provided by intact perennial vegetation. However, by years 6 and 7, the live cover of the short-lived herbaceous perennial desert globemallow (Sphaeralcea ambigua) that typically re-colonizes burned areas declined, resulting in a contraction of tortoise movements from the burned areas. Health and egg production were similar between burned and unburned areas indicating that tortoises were able to acquire necessary resources using both areas. This study documents that adult Mojave desert tortoises continue to use habitat burned once by wildfire. Thus, continued management of this burned habitat may contribute toward the recovery of the species in the face of many sources of habitat loss.

  10. Estimates of density, detection probability, and factors influencing detection of burrowing owls in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowe, D.E.; Longshore, K.M.

    2010-01-01

    We estimated relative abundance and density of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at two sites in the Mojave Desert (200304). We made modifications to previously established Burrowing Owl survey techniques for use in desert shrublands and evaluated several factors that might influence the detection of owls. We tested the effectiveness of the call-broadcast technique for surveying this species, the efficiency of this technique at early and late breeding stages, and the effectiveness of various numbers of vocalization intervals during broadcasting sessions. Only 1 (3) of 31 initial (new) owl responses was detected during passive-listening sessions. We found that surveying early in the nesting season was more likely to produce new owl detections compared to surveying later in the nesting season. New owls detected during each of the three vocalization intervals (each consisting of 30 sec of vocalizations followed by 30 sec of silence) of our broadcasting session were similar (37, 40, and 23; n 30). We used a combination of detection trials (sighting probability) and double-observer method to estimate the components of detection probability, i.e., availability and perception. Availability for all sites and years, as determined by detection trials, ranged from 46.158.2. Relative abundance, measured as frequency of occurrence and defined as the proportion of surveys with at least one owl, ranged from 19.232.0 for both sites and years. Density at our eastern Mojave Desert site was estimated at 0.09 ?? 0.01 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.16 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 during 2003 and 2004, respectively. In our southern Mojave Desert site, density estimates were 0.09 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km2 and 0.08 ?? 0.02 (SE) owl territories/km 2 during 2004 and 2005, respectively. ?? 2010 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. An Annual Plant Growth Proxy in the Mojave Desert Using MODIS-EVI Data

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Thomas, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    In the arid Mojave Desert, the phenological response of vegetation is largely dependent upon the timing and amount of rainfall, and maps of annual plant cover at any one point in time can vary widely. Our study developed relative annual plant growth models as proxies for annual plant cover using metrics that captured phenological variability in Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) satellite images. We used landscape phenologies revealed in MODIS data together with ecological knowledge of annual plant seasonality to develop a suite of metrics to describe annual growth on a yearly basis. Each of these metrics was applied to temporally-composited MODIS-EVI images to develop a relative model of annual growth. Each model was evaluated by testing how well it predicted field estimates of annual cover collected during 2003 and 2005 at the Mojave National Preserve. The best performing metric was the spring difference metric, which compared the average of three spring MODIS-EVI composites of a given year to that of 2002, a year of record drought. The spring difference metric showed correlations with annual plant cover of R2 = 0.61 for 2005 and R2 = 0.47 for 2003. Although the correlation is moderate, we consider it supportive given the characteristics of the field data, which were collected for a different study in a localized area and are not ideal for calibration to MODIS pixels. A proxy for annual growth potential was developed from the spring difference metric of 2005 for use as an environmental data layer in desert tortoise habitat modeling. The application of the spring difference metric to other imagery years presents potential for other applications such as fuels, invasive species, and dust-emission monitoring in the Mojave Desert.

  12. 2000 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 2000. Water-level data were collected from 498 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval ranges from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  13. 1998 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Predmore, Steven K.

    2003-01-01

    This data set consists of digital water-table contours for the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins. The U.S. Geological Survey constructed a water-table map of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins for ground-water levels measured during the spring of 1998. Water-level data were collected from 418 wells to construct the contours. The water-table contours were digitized from the paper map which was published at a scale of 1:175,512. The contour interval rangs from 3,400 to 1,500 feet above sea level.

  14. Helium isotope studies in the Mojave Desert, California: Implications for groundwater chronology and regional seismicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Hilton, David R.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    We report helium isotope and concentration results for groundwaters from the western Mojave River Basin (MRB), 130 km east of Los Angeles, CA. The basin lies adjacent to the NW-SE trending San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. Samples were collected along two groundwater flowpaths that originate in the San Gabriel Mountains and discharge to the Mojave River located ???32 km to the northeast. Additional groundwater samples were collected from Mojave River Deposits underlying the Mojave River. The primary objective of this study is to identify and quantify crustal and mantle helium contributions to the regional groundwater system. A total of 27 groundwaters, sampled previously for chemistry and isotope systematics (including 14C activity) have measured helium concentrations that increase along flowpaths from 9.9??10-8 to 1.0??10-4 cm3 STP g-1 H2O. Concomitantly, 3He/4He ratios decrease from 0.84RA to 0.11RA (RA equals the 3He/4He ratio in air=1.4??10-6). We did not record 3He/4He ratios equivalent to crustal-production values (???0.02RA) in any sample. Dissolved helium concentrations were resolved into components associated with solubility equilibration, air entrainment, mantle-derivation, in-situ production within the aquifer, and extraneous crustal fluxes. All samples contained the first four components, but only older samples had the superimposed effects of helium derived from a crustal flux. The radiogenic He component has chronological significance, and good concordance between 4He and 14C ages for younger groundwaters (<25,000 year) demonstrates the integrity of the 4 He-chronometer in this setting. Helium-rich waters could also be dated with the 4He technique, but only by first isolating the whole crustal flux (3-10??10-6 cm3 STP cm-2 year-1). Mantle-derived 3He (3Hem) is present in all MRB samples irrespective of distance from the SAF. However, regional-aquifer groundwaters near the terminus of the flowpath have a significantly greater content of mantle-derived 3He

  15. Growth and interaction of active faults within a nascent shear zone, central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskin, M.; Strane, M.

    2006-12-01

    Compilation of new slip-distribution and slip-rate data from the Mojave Desert portion of the Eastern California shear zone (ECSZ) lends insight into the role of fault growth and interaction of conjugate fault systems in accommodating shear. Dextral faults of the Mojave Desert ECSZ approach but do not appear to cut the bounding ENE-striking sinistral Pinto Mountain and Garlock faults. Differing styles of accommodation of these bounding faults occur at opposite ends of the 140 km-long NW-striking Hidalgo-Calico-Blackwater dextral fault system. Total slip and slip rate of the Blackwater fault gradually diminish northward. The fault terminates as a single strand with a zero-slip fault tip before intersecting the Garlock fault. In contrast, the Calico and Hidalgo faults spread displacement southward onto multiple fault strands spaced several kilometers apart. Active folding further distributes displacement onto the adjacent Bullion and Mesquite Lake faults. These mechanisms appear to maintain a uniform gradient of displacement approaching the Pinto Mountain fault. The highest displacement (9.8 ± 0.2 km) and slip rate (1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr) occur in the central part of the Hidalgo-Calico-Blackwater fault system where strain is concentrated onto a single fault strand. A significant drop in total displacement and slip rate occurs along the northern Calico fault. Strain appears to be transferred here onto ENE-striking sinistral faults that separate domains of clockwise rotation in the central Mojave Desert. The kinematically incompatible intersection of sinistral and dextral faults is accommodated, at least in part, by active folding and uplift of the Calico Mountains and Mud Hills. Total slip and slip rate are not correlative for dextral faults of the Mojave ECSZ, indicating ongoing evolution of the fault network. For example, the Lenwood fault is a highly segmented, immature dextral fault with only 1.0 ± 0.1 km of total displacement yet its slip rate (1.5 ± 0.4 mm/yr) is

  16. Geophysical Investigations of a Proterozoic Carbonatite Terrane, southeast Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Miller, D. M.; Peacock, J.; Miller, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    One of the world's largest rare-earth element-rich carbonatite deposits is located in the eastern Mojave Desert at Mountain Pass, California. The eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane consists of a ~1.7 Ga gneiss and schist rocks that are host to a ~1.417 Ga (Premo, 2013) ultrapotassic intrusive suite (shonkinite, syenite, and granite) and a ~1.375 Ga (DeWitt, 1983) carbonatite deposit . Regional geophysical data indicate that this carbonatite terrane occurs within a north-northwest trending ~1-km wide bench in a gravity high and along the eastern edge of a prominent magnetic high in the eastern Clark Mountain Range. To improve our understanding of the geophysical and structural framework of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane, we collected over 2,300 gravity stations and over 640 physical rock property samples. Carbonatite rocks typically have distinct gravity, magnetic, and radioactive signatures because they are relatively dense, often contain magnetite, and are commonly enriched in thorium and/or uranium. Contrary to this trend, our results show that the carbonatite deposit is essentially nonmagnetic with an average susceptibility of 0.18 x 10-3 SI (n=31), and the ultrapotassic intrusive suite is very weakly magnetic with an average susceptibility of 2.0 x 10-3 SI (n=36). However, these rocks are found along a steep gradient of a prominent aeromagnetic anomaly. The lack of magnetic signature from the rocks of the eastern Mojave carbonatite terrane suggests alteration of magnetic minerals. This is corroborated by its location within a broader alteration zone and observed magnetic low. If so, such an alteration event occurred after emplacement of the carbonatite deposit, which likely remobilized rare earth elements in the surrounding rocks. Further, an alteration event is consistent with geology, high rare-earth element concentration, and unusual geochemistry of the carbonatite deposit. Temporal constraints (DeWitt, 1987; Premo, 2013) also suggest

  17. Desert Landforms and Surface Processes in the Mojave National Preserve and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2004-01-01

    Landscape features in the Mojave National Preserve are a product of ongoing processes involving tectonic forces, weathering, and erosion. Long-term climatic cycles (wet and dry periods) have left a decipherable record preserved as landform features and sedimentary deposits. This website provides and introduction to climate-driven desert processes influencing landscape features including stream channels, alluvial fans, playas (dry lakebeds), dunes, and mountain landscapes. Bedrock characteristics, and the geometry of past and ongoing faulting, fracturing, volcanism, and landscape uplift and subsidence influence the character of processes happening at the surface.

  18. Late-Glacial to Holocene Hydroclimatic Change in the Mojave Desert: Silver Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, M. E.; Knell, E. J.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.; Lachniet, M. S.; Eeg, H.; Lucero, R.; Murrieta, R.; Arevalo, A.; Silveira, E.; Hiner, C.; Palermo, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River. As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - as well as the late-summer to early-fall North American monsoon. Here, we present various physical and geochemical data from a new 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake, CA that spans modern through 14.8 kcal yrs BP. Age control is based on six bulk organic C radiocarbon dates processed with Bacon v2.2 to generate an age model. Texturally, the core varies between a silty clay and a silty sand, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. Our working hypothesis states that high percent clay values indicate persistent standing water wherein the deposition, accumulation, and preservation of fine grain sediment exceeds some undefined thickness that inhibits deflation during succeeding desiccation events or ephemeral lake environments. Based on this clay - lake status hypothesis, the sediment core is divided into five lake status intervals. Clay values are highest between 14.4 - 13.5 kcal yrs BP, coeval to Lake Mojave II. Clay values decrease abruptly at 13.5 kcal yrs BP (encapsulating the Younger Dryas) indicating a return to an ephemeral lake. At 11.3 kcal yrs BP, clay values rise abruptly indicating a return to a perennial lake; this early Holocene pluvial ended abruptly at 7.8 kcal yrs BP. From 7.8 - 4.2 kcal yrs BP, clay is low, but variable and mudcracks are common. At 4.2 kcal yrs BP, clay values increase but only moderately indicating a return to more frequent sustained perennial lakes. The early Holocene pluvial is likely a result of higher summer insolation, which generated a more intense and spatially expansive North American monsoon. Coupled with lower winter insolation and thus more winter storms across the region, Silver Lake flourished. A comparison to stable carbon isotope data from Leviathan Cave (NV), support our interpretation

  19. Faults in the Mojave Desert, California, as revealed on enhanced Landsat images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Crippen, R. E.; Blom, R. G.; Dokka, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    Landsat TM images, subjected to four-component processing through which lithologies can be discriminated by their contrasting absorption and reflection at IR wavelengths, have revealed previously unsuspected strike-slip and normal faults in the central and eastern Mojave Desert. These discriminations, which extend to ferric and ferrous iron and to hydroxyl content without compromise of landform depiction, represent a novel type of geophysical display for geologic mapping in regions of well-exposed bedrock; the faults thus discovered form part of an extensive regional network of right shear which connects Death Valley region faults with those in the San Andreas system.

  20. Ventifact Formation in the Mojave Desert: Field Analogs for Martian Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laity, J. E.; Bridges, N. T.; Boyle, T. K.

    2001-01-01

    Two field studies in the Mojave Desert, California, shed light on processes of ventifact formation. The field sites are located on a ridge at Little Cowhole Mountain, which lies approximately 12 km south of Baker, and on an unnamed ridge situated along the northern boundary of the Mojave River Sink (Rasor Road site). The rocks at Little Cowhole Mountain are a blue-grey marble/dolomite, whereas those at Rasor Road are Miocene volcanic rocks (basalt). At both sites the abrasive agent is a fine-grained aeolian sand which was probably derived largely from the Mojave River. There are minimal modem inputs of sand to either site: abrasion occurs as a result of unique climatic and topographic conditions which allow pre-existing sand to be recycled from one aspect of the ridge to the other. Climatic conditions are well suited for ventifact formation. Owing, to the dry climate (marked by low average relative humidity, infrequent dew, and low annual rainfall), rates of chemical weathering are low. Where resurfacing of the rocks by sand abrasion proceeds at a rate greater than weathering, the ventifacts are considered "active." Active ventifacts are found atop and straddling the ridge crests, in the zone of maximum wind velocity and sediment supply. Inactive ventifacts occur where modem weathering Processes exceed abrasion rates; principally on the basal two-thirds of the hillslope, where wind velocity and sediment supply are lower. At intermediate locations between the slope base and crest, ventifacts are either active or inactive, depending on local conditions. The presence of relict ventifacts at the study sites, as well as elsewhere in the eastern Mojave Desert, suggests that the conditions for venti fact formation must have been more intense and extensive in the past. Together, the studies illustrate that the processes that interact to form ventifacts are highly complex, and must be studied at many scales. Small-scale effects, such as local topography, plant cover, or

  1. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  2. The Factory of the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byman, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    A brief history of aircraft production techniques is given. A flexible machining cell is then described. It is a computer controlled system capable of performing 4-axis machining part cleaning, dimensional inspection and materials handling functions in an unmanned environment. The cell was designed to: allow processing of similar and dissimilar parts in random order without disrupting production; allow serial (one-shipset-at-a-time) manufacturing; reduce work-in-process inventory; maximize machine utilization through remote set-up; maximize throughput and minimize labor.

  3. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  4. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  5. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  6. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  7. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  8. 27 CFR 40.114 - Extension or curtailment of factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of factory. 40.114 Section 40.114 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Products Changes in Location of Factory § 40.114 Extension or curtailment of factory. Where a tobacco products factory is to be changed to an extent which will make inaccurate the description of the factory...

  9. Looking for Exotica at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Gagan B.; ,

    2007-01-25

    Current experiments at the B factories, designed to perform precision measurements of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the B meson system, have a much broader physics reach especially in the sector of quarkonium spectroscopy. Here we present a minireview on the new charmonium-like states observed at the B factories including the X(3872) and Y(4260).

  10. [ital CPT], strings, and meson factories

    SciTech Connect

    Kostelecky, V.A. ); Potting, R. )

    1995-04-01

    Spontaneous breaking of [ital CPT] is possible in string theory. We show that it can arise at a level within reach of experiments at meson factories currently being built or designed. For [phi], [ital B], and [tau]-charm factories, we discuss the likely experimental string signatures and provide estimates of the bounds that might be attained in these machines.

  11. A Tau-Charm Factory at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Seth, K.K.

    1994-04-01

    It is proposed that a Tau Charm Factory represents a natural extension of CEBAF into higher energy domains. The exciting nature of the physics of charm quarks and tau leptons is briefly reviewed and it is suggested that the concept of a linac-ring collider as a Tau Charm Factory at CEBAF should be seriously studied.

  12. Tu-144LL Factory scenes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A jointly funded activity by the NASA High Speed Research (HSR) program and the Boeing Commercial Airplane Group took place to obtain experimental flight data on the Tu-144 supersonic transport built by Russia. The Tu-144 was modified by the Tupolev Aircraft Design Bureau, Moscow, Russia, in 1995-1996 into the Tu-144LL Flying Laboratory to perform flight experiments as part of the NASA HSR Program. Knowledge gained from the flights will benefit the NASA efforts to develop the technology that may enable design of an efficient, environmentally friendly second-generation supersonic transport in this country. This program involved eight experiments -- six aboard the aircraft and two ground test engine experiments. Between November 1996 and February 1998 the Tu-144LL flew 19 research flights. The follow-on Tu-144LL program encompassed about eight flights, focusing on extensions of five experiments from the first project and two new experiments to measure fuel system temperatures and to define in-flight wing deflections. This movie clip runs 1:17 minutes and shows several different views of the Russian Tu-144 LL supersonic transport, on the ramp, in its hangar, a rear view of the engine exhaust nozzles, the avionics bay, cockpit and finally a shot looking forward along the fuselage from the tail.

  13. Charged Particle Optics in Circular Higgs Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yunhai

    2015-02-26

    Similar to a super B-factory, a circular Higgs factory will require strong focusing systems near the interaction points and a low-emittance lattice in arcs to achieve a factory luminosity. At electron beam energy of 120 GeV, beamstrahlung effects during the collision pose an additional challenge to the collider design. In particular, a large momentum acceptance at 2 percent level is necessary to retain an adequate beam lifetime. This turns out to be the most challenging aspect in the design of circular Higgs factory. In this paper, an example will be provided to illustrate the beam dynamics in circular Higgs factory, emphasizing on the chromatic optics. Basic optical modules and advanced analysis will be presented. Most important, we will show that 2% momentum aperture is achievable

  14. Directly dated MIS 3 lake-level record from Lake Manix, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith; Miller, David M.; McGeehin, John P.; Redwine, Joanna R.; Oviatt, Charles G.; Bright, Jordon E.

    2015-01-01

    An outcrop-based lake-level curve, constrained by ~ 70 calibrated 14C ages on Anodonta shells, indicates at least 8 highstands between 45 and 25 cal ka BP within 10 m of the 543-m upper threshold of Lake Manix in the Mojave Desert of southern California. Correlations of Manix highstands with ice, marine, and speleothem records suggest that at least the youngest three highstands coincide with Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) stadials and Heinrich events 3 and 4. The lake-level record is consistent with results from speleothem studies in the Southwest that indicate cool wet conditions during D–O stadials. Notably, highstands between 43 and 25 ka apparently occurred at times of generally low levels of pluvial lakes farther north as interpreted from core-based proxies. Mojave lakes may have been supported by tropical moisture sources during oxygen-isotope stage 3, perhaps controlled by southerly deflection of Pacific storm tracks due to weakening of the sea-surface temperature gradient in response to North Atlantic climate perturbations.

  15. Late Quaternary stratigraphy and luminescence geochronology of the northeastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahan, S.A.; Miller, D.M.; Menges, C.M.; Yount, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The chronology of the Holocene and late Pleistocene deposits of the northeastern Mojave Desert have been largely obtained using radiocarbon ages. Our study refines and extends this framework using optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) to date deposits from Valjean Valley, Silurian Lake Playa, Red Pass, and California Valley. Of particular interest are eolian fine silts incorporated in ground-water discharge (GWD) deposits bracketed at 185-140 and 20-50 ka. Alluvial fan deposits proved amenable for OSL by dating both eolian sand lenses and reworked eolian sand in a matrix of gravel that occurs within the fan stratigraphy. Lacustrine sand in spits and bars also yielded acceptable OSL ages. These OSL ages fill gaps in the geochronology of desert deposits, which can provide data relevant to understanding the responses of several depositional systems to regional changes in climate. This study identifies the most promising deposits for future luminescence dating and suggests that for several regions of the Mojave Desert, sediments from previously undated landforms can be more accurately placed within correct geologic map units.

  16. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  17. Estimating wildfire risk on a Mojave Desert landscape using remote sensing and field sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Linn, Peter F., III; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Inman, Richard D.; Abella, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    Predicting wildfires that affect broad landscapes is important for allocating suppression resources and guiding land management. Wildfire prediction in the south-western United States is of specific concern because of the increasing prevalence and severe effects of fire on desert shrublands and the current lack of accurate fire prediction tools. We developed a fire risk model to predict fire occurrence in a north-eastern Mojave Desert landscape. First we developed a spatial model using remote sensing data to predict fuel loads based on field estimates of fuels. We then modelled fire risk (interactions of fuel characteristics and environmental conditions conducive to wildfire) using satellite imagery, our model of fuel loads, and spatial data on ignition potential (lightning strikes and distance to roads), topography (elevation and aspect) and climate (maximum and minimum temperatures). The risk model was developed during a fire year at our study landscape and validated at a nearby landscape; model performance was accurate and similar at both sites. This study demonstrates that remote sensing techniques used in combination with field surveys can accurately predict wildfire risk in the Mojave Desert and may be applicable to other arid and semiarid lands where wildfires are prevalent.

  18. Desert pavements and associated rock varnish in the Mojave Desert: How old can they be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quade, Jay

    2001-09-01

    Desert pavements are common features of arid landscapes and have been widely used as a relative age indicator of the geomorphic surfaces upon which they are developed. In this study I examined the patterns of pavement development as a function of elevation in the Mojave Desert as well as the causes for the gradual disappearance of pavement at high elevations. Pavement density, as measured by percentage of pebble coverage, decreases systematically with elevation gain by ˜3% per 100 m, from 95% coverage below 500 m to less than 60% at 1700 m. Plants appear to be the main agent of pavement disruption; plant density decreases as pavement density increases. Burrowing by rodents and crusting by cryptobiota also disrupt pavement development at higher elevation. During the last glacial maximum, plant communities were displaced 1000 1400 m downward in the Mojave Desert. Pavements today generally do not survive above the blackbush (Coleogyne ramossisma)-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) zone. Evidence from packrat middens shows that these and other plants typical of high elevations today grew as low as 300 400 m during the last glacial maximum. I suggest that during the last glacial maximum, desert pavements were confined to the lowest alluvial fans of Death Valley and adjoining low valleys. No alluvial desert pavements above ˜400 m in the region are older than the latest Pleistocene. By the same reasoning, desert varnish on desert pavements above 400 m may all be Holocene in age, except where developed on stable boulders.

  19. Monitoring Ecosystem Quality and Function in Arid Settings of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Webb, Robert H.; Miller, Mark E.; Miller, David M.; DeFalco, Lesley A.; Medica, Philip A.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Esque, Todd C.; Bedford, Dave

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring ecosystem quality and function in the Mojave Desert is both a requirement of state and Federal government agencies and a means for determining potential long-term changes induced by climatic fluctuations and land use. Because it is not feasible to measure every attribute and process in the desert ecosystem, the choice of what to measure and where to measure it is the most important starting point of any monitoring program. In the Mojave Desert, ecosystem function is strongly influenced by both abiotic and biotic factors, and an understanding of the temporal and spatial variability induced by climate and landform development is needed to determine where site-specific measurements should be made. We review a wide variety of techniques for sampling, assessing, and measuring climatic variables, desert soils, biological soil crusts, annual and perennial vegetation, reptiles, and small mammals. The complete array of ecosystem attributes and processes that we describe are unlikely to be measured or monitored at any given location, but the array of possibilities allows for the development of specific monitoring protocols, which can be tailored to suit the needs of land-management agencies.

  20. Species and community response to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B.W.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    Little information is available on how desert plant communities that are dominated by perennial species respond to normal and above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. Intuitively, one would expect total canopy cover to increase. Whether a concomitant increase in the density of perennial species also occurs is unknown. Even less is known about how individual species respond to above normal precipitation following drought. From 1987 through 1991 a prolonged drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the northern Mojave Desert. In March 1991 the northern Mojave Desert received well above normal precipitation. The following two winters (December--March) also had above normal precipitation (150 to 200 % of normal, unpublished data). Ongoing vegetation characterization studies by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG&G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both vegetation associations and individual species respond to above normal precipitation following prolonged drought. This paper reports the preliminary results.

  1. Water balance calculations and net production of perennial vegetation in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, L.J.; Romney, E.M.; Hakonson, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements obtained between 1968 and 1976 indicate the influence of climatic factors and soil characteristics upon soil moisture and production of perennial vegetation in the northern Mojave Desert. Seasonal distribution patterns of precipitation are shown to have a strong effect on plant-available soil moisture, and these patterns are, in turn, reflected in net production of perennial vegetation. Available climatic data and soil characteristics were used as input to a continuous simulation model to calculate the water balance for a unit area watershed. Computed and measured soil moisture agreed quite well over a rangeof values from close to the wilting point to near field capacity. The authors used computed evapo-transpiration rates to estimate water use by perennial vegetation. Computed water use was multiplied by a water use efficiency factor to estimate net production of perennial vegetation. Estimated net production exhibited year-to-year variability comparable with measured values, and agreed quite closely with available observations. This paper briefly describes soil-water-plant relationships in the northern Mojave Desert and illustrates an application of a continuous simulation model to predict soil moisture and net production of perennial vegetation. Based on the authors analysis, the simulation model would appear to have potential for estimating the water balance and above ground net primary production on arid and semiarid rangelands. 21 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Environmental history recorded in aeolian deposits under stone pavements, Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietze, Michael; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Fuchs, Markus; Kleber, Arno; Wells, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature - stone pavement - traps aeolian fines and forms a special accretionary archive. Seven stone pavement-covered sections on basalt flows in the eastern Mojave Desert are condensed into a composite section, comprising five sedimentological units supported by an OSL-based chronology. Three of the units are of accretionary nature and each is covered by a stone pavement. They were deposited > 50.9-36.6 ka, < 36.6-14.2 ka and < 14.2 ka, and they are intimately coupled with the history of nearby Lake Mojave, which advances the current understanding of regional aeolian activity. End-member modeling analysis of grain-size distributions yielded seven sediment transport regimes. The accretionary system operates in two modes: A) episodic formation of a stone pavement by lateral processes once a vesicular horizon has formed on a barren surface; and B) accretion of dust and eventual burial of the clast layer. These findings improve current concepts about stone pavement evolution and their environmental proxy function in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  3. 4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY (CONNECTING BUILDING ON THE LEFT) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  4. 1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST (NORTHWEST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  5. 3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST (NORTHEAST CORNER OF EDIBLE FATS FACTORY) - Wilson's Oil House, Lard Refinery, & Edible Fats Factory, Edible Fats Factory, 2801 Southwest Fifteenth Street, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma County, OK

  6. 1. VIEW OF NORTHWEST FRONT OF FACTORY BUILDING. THE OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF NORTHWEST FRONT OF FACTORY BUILDING. THE OFFICE BUILDING IS ON THE LEFT AND 2201-2299 WAREHOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - Savage Tire Factory, Factory Building, 2301 Main Street, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. 4. VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE FACTORY BUILDING. THE SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF THE OFFICE BUILDING IS ON THE RIGHT. - Savage Tire Factory, Factory Building, 2301 Main Street, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  8. Perennial plant mortality in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts in response to severe, multi-year drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe drought that began in late 1998 caused considerable mortality of shrubs in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. A region-wide survey in 2003 of 15 sites in southwestern Arizona, southern California, and southern Nevada showed that in some places, mortality of the small, drought-deciduous shrubs A...

  9. Geodetic slip rate for the eastern California shear zone and the recurrence time of Mojave desert earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauber, J.; Thatcher, W.; Solomon, S.C.; Lisowski, M.

    1994-01-01

    Where the San Andreas fault passes along the southwestern margin of the Mojave desert, it exhibits a large change in trend, and the deformation associated with the Pacific/North American plate boundary is distributed broadly over a complex shear zone. The importance of understanding the partitioning of strain across this region, especially to the east of the Mojave segment of the San Andreas in a region known as the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ), was highlighted by the occurrence (on 28 June 1992) of the magnitude 7.3 Landers earthquake in this zone. Here we use geodetic observations in the central Mojave desert to obtain new estimates for the rate and distribution of strain across a segment of the ECSZ, and to determine a coseismic strain drop of ~770 ??rad for the Landers earthquake. From these results we infer a strain energy recharge time of 3,500-5,000 yr for a Landers-type earthquake and a slip rate of ~12 mm yr-1 across the faults of the central Mojave. The latter estimate implies that a greater fraction of plate motion than heretofore inferred from geodetic data is accommodated across the ECSZ.

  10. Chronologic and isotopic framework for Early Proterozoic crustal evolution in the eastern Mojave Desert region, SE California

    SciTech Connect

    Wooden, J.L.; Miller, D.M. )

    1990-11-10

    The Early Proterozoic geologic evolution of the eastern Mojave Desert region, as defined by characteristics of its supracrustal rocks, granitoids, metamorphism, structural history, and Pb and Nd isotopic signature, contrasts sharply with other Proterozoic provinces of the southwestern US. The oldest supracrustal rocks of the Mojave Desert region contain zircons over 2.0 Ga, corroborating Nd isotopic evidence for a much older crust here than elsewhere in the southwestern US. Granitoids widely emplaced within these supracrustal rocks range from 1.76 to 1.64 Ga. The earlier plutons and surrounding supracrustal rocks were metamorphosed to granulite and high amphibolite facies throughout the province at about 1,705 Ma in a migmatite-producing event that the authors term (informally) the Ivanpah orogeny. Subsequent granitoids, emplaced from 1.69 to 1.67 Ga, were voluminous along a north trending belt in the middle of the Mojave province. Younger plutons were emplaced at about 1.66 Ga in several places and at about 1.64 Ga along the extreme southern part of the province. Commonalities between the Proterozoic evolutions of the Mojave and Arizona crustal provinces do not conclusively establish the time that the provinces were juxtaposed; the data only suggest that the juxtaposition occurred about 1.76 and 1.64 Ga.

  11. Environmental effects of solar-thermal-power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by the California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Mojave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. In some areas it may be extremely difficult, on the basis of external characters, to identify the species present. The systematic status of the sibling species Spermophilus mohavensis and S. tereticaudus (subgenus Xerosphermophilus) was investigated throughout the range of the subgenus, based on allozymic and chromosomal data. Hybridization of the two species was detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach of the Mojave River wash. In the absence of an analysis of a zone of natural sympatry, the two taxa are retained as full biological species. The population of ground squirrels just east of Solar One, the 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power plant, is composed of individuals referable to S. tereticaudus based on both allozymic and chromosomal criteria.

  12. Soil water availability and microsite mediate fungal and bacterial abundances in Mojave Desert soils exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in the rates of microbial nitrogen (N) cycling, carbon (C) substrate use, and extracellular enzyme activities in the Mojave Desert suggest shifts in the size and/or functional characteristics of microbial assemblages in two dominant soil microsites: plant interspaces and under the dominant ...

  13. Growth and foliar d15N of a Mojave desert shrub in relation to soil hydrological dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foliar 15N ratios (del15N), % N, and canopy volumes were measured in the two Mojave Desert dominant shrubs, the evergreen Larrea tridentata and drought deciduous Ambrosia dumosa growing across a geomorphically determined soil mosaic. Across three soils with increasingly strong age-dependent surface...

  14. The potential bioavailability of organic C, N, and P through enzyme hydrolysis in soils of the Mojave Desert

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climatic models suggest that global warming will increase monsoonal precipitation in the desert Southwest of the USA. We investigated whether individual precipitation events have an effect on the activities of soil enzymes involved in C, N, and P mineralization in soils of the Mojave Desert. Plots w...

  15. Using paired U-Pb and Hf isotopes to characterize the Yavapai - Mojave province boundary in Grand Canyon, AZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, M. E.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Doe, M. F.; Gehrels, G. E.; Pecha, M.; Shufeldt, O. P.

    2013-12-01

    Two distinct Proterozoic provinces of southwest Laurentia, the Mojave and Yavapai, are discriminated in terms of their age, isotopic composition, and metamorphic grade. The crystalline basement rocks of the Mojave province preserve an evolved isotopic signature (Nd, Pb, Hf) that suggests Archean crustal material is detected in all isotopic systems, but the origin and tectonic significance of this Archean component, and the nature and location of province boundaries, are debated. Previous models include: 1) subducted Archean detritus as the source of the evolved isotopic signature of the Mojave, 2) a wide isotopically mixed (Pb) zone resulting from rifting and hybridization of older crust, and 3) a distributed tectonic suture centered at the Crystal shear zone in Grand Canyon. U-Pb and Hf isotopic analysis of zircons separated from igneous and metasedimentary lithologies along a transect in Grand Canyon provide new insight into the Mojave province's evolved isotopic composition, and the nature of the Mojave - Yavapai boundary. Comparison of the Hf isotopic composition of zircons separated from 1.75 - 1.71 Ga granodiorite plutons west of river mile 96-98 (Crystal shear zone) characteristically contain Paleoproterozoic grains that yield Archean (2.5 - 3.3 Ga) Hf model ages, as well as xenocrystic Archean grains. In contrast, 1.75 - 1.71 Ga plutons in eastern Grand Canyon have Hf model ages of 1.7 - 1.8 Ga suggesting they were dominantly derived from juvenile 1.7 - 1.8 Ga crust. Vishnu Schist metaturbidites are exposed across the entire Grand Canyon transect and have a uniform bimodal zircon population (~1.85 and 2.48 Ga peaks), with only 13% juvenile 1.75 Ga grains; Hf signatures also are uniform across the transect. These data suggest that: 1) the Mojave province contains a heterogeneous older lower crust containing 1.85 and 2.5 Ga domains, 2) Yavapai crust is dominantly juvenile east of the Crystal shear zone and in central AZ, and 3) juxtaposition of Mojave

  16. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  17. Neutrino factories: realization and physics potential

    SciTech Connect

    Geer, S.; Zisman, M.S.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2006-12-01

    Neutrino Factories offer an exciting option for the long-term neutrino physics program. This new type of neutrino facility will provide beams with unique properties. Low systematic uncertainties at a Neutrino Factory, together with a unique and precisely known neutrino flavor content, will enable neutrino oscillation measurements to be made with unprecedented sensitivity and precision. Over recent years, the resulting neutrino factory physics potential has been discussed extensively in the literature. In addition, over the last six years the R&D necessary to realize a Neutrino Factory has been progressing, and has developed into a significant international activity. It is expected that, within about five more years, the initial phase of this R&D program will be complete and, if the community chooses to build this new type of neutrino source within the following decade, neutrino factory technology will be ready for the final R&D phase prior to construction. In this paper (1) an overview is given of the technical ingredients needed for a Neutrino Factory, (2) beam properties are described, (3) the resulting neutrino oscillation physics potential is summarized, (4) a more detailed description is given for one representative Neutrino Factory design, and (5) the ongoing R&D program is summarized, and future plans briefly described.

  18. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  19. 6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FACTORY BUILDING, WITH FINISHED PRODUCT WAREHOUSE IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  1. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  2. PIK-20 Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This photo shows NASA's PIK-20E motor-glider sailplane during a research flight from the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (later, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, in 1991. The PIK-20E was a sailplane flown at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (now Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California) beginning in 1981. The vehicle, bearing NASA tail number 803, was used as a research vehicle on projects calling for high lift-over-drag and low-speed performance. Later NASA used the PIK-20E to study the flow of fluids over the aircraft's surface at various speeds and angles of attack as part of a study of airflow efficiency over lifting surfaces. The single-seat aircraft was used to begin developing procedures for collecting sailplane glide performance data in a program carried out by Ames-Dryden. It was also used to study high-lift aerodynamics and laminar flow on high-lift airfoils. Built by Eiri-Avion in Finland, the PIK-20E is a sailplane with a two-cylinder 43-horsepower, retractable engine. It is made of carbon fiber with sandwich construction. In this unique configuration, it takes off and climbs to altitude on its own. After reaching the desired altitude, the engine is shut down and folded back into the fuselage and the aircraft is then operated as a conventional sailplane. Construction of the PIK-20E series was rather unusual. The factory used high-temperature epoxies cured in an autoclave, making the structure resistant to deformation with age. Unlike today's normal practice of laying glass over gelcoat in a mold, the PIK-20E was built without gelcoat. The finish is the result of smooth glass lay-up, a small amount of filler, and an acrylic enamel paint. The sailplane was 21.4 feet long and had a wingspan of 49.2 feet. It featured a wooden, fixed-pitch propeller, a roomy cockpit, wingtip wheels, and a steerable tailwheel.

  3. Present-day loading rates of faults in the northern Mojave region, California, from GPS Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinler, J. C.; Bennett, R. A.; McGill, S. F.

    2013-12-01

    We analyzed GPS data from 45 continuous sites along with 9 campaign sites within the northern Mojave region for the time period 2002.0-2013.0 to model the present-day crustal velocity field for the region. In addition to the 54 sites we analyzed, we included 21 site velocities from the USGS Fort Irwin network and 66 site velocities from the SCEC Crustal Motion Map 4 velocity field. We rotated the USGS and SCEC velocities into our Stable North America Reference Frame (SNARF) through a minimization of the differences amongst sites in common between the different solutions. We used our velocities to constrain an elastic block model in order to estimate fault-loading rates of crustal faults within the northern Mojave region. Each crustal block is allowed to both translate and rotate about a vertical axis. Results include new slip rate estimates for the NW-SE oriented right-lateral strike-slip faults within the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ), including model faults representing the Lenwood-Lockhart fault zone (4.5×0.2 mm/yr), Calico-Blackwater faults (1.0×0.4 mm/yr), and Goldstone Lake fault (1.2×0.5 mm/yr), with a total slip across the ECSZ of ~8-9 mm/yr, lower than some previous geodetic estimates, but slightly higher than geologic estimates. We estimate left-lateral slip rates of 4.4×0.2 and 4.9×0.3 mm/yr for the model faults representing the west-central and central segments of the Garlock fault, respectively, with rates decreasing to 0.5×0.4 mm/yr for the easternmost segment. We estimate clockwise rotation rates of the crustal blocks in the Northeast Mojave domain in the range of 3-5×0.7 °/Myr, consistent with paleomagnetic estimates of as much as 50° since 10 Ma.

  4. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stanley, D.; Nowak, Robert S.; Fenstermaker, Lynn, F.; Young, Michael,H.

    2007-11-30

    In order to anticipate the effects of global change on ecosystem function, it is essential that predictive relationships be established linking ecosystem function to global change scenarios. The Mojave Desert is of considerable interest with respect to global change. It contains the driest habitats in North America, and thus most closely approximates the world’s great arid deserts. In order to examine the effects of climate and land use changes, in 2001 we established a long-term manipulative global change experiment, called the Mojave Global Change Facility. Manipulations in this study include the potential effects of (1) increased summer rainfall (75 mm over three discrete 25 mm events), (2) increased nitrogen deposition (10 and 40 kg ha-1), and (3) the disturbance of biological N-fixing crusts . Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypotheses include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production through an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plant production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plant and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most

  5. Aboveground production does not increase after ten years of elevated CO2 in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newingham, B. A.; Vanier, C. H.; Charlet, D.; Zitzer, S. F.; Smith, S. D.

    2011-12-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 ([CO2]) is assumed to increase primary production, particularly in desert systems through stimulatory effects on plant water-use efficiency. We examined the effects of elevated [CO2] at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO2 Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) in an intact Mojave Desert ecosystem. At the NDFF, ambient and elevated [CO2] levels were 360 and 550 μmol mol-1 [CO2], respectively. CO2 treatments were applied continuously from 1997-2007 in intact plots 25 m in diameter. While other studies focused on soil and root responses to elevated [CO2], our study focused on aboveground production of annuals and perennial plants. In 1997, diameters and heights of all perennial individuals were recorded and mapped. In 2007, diameters and heights were re-measured and aboveground biomass was harvested for every mapped perennial individual. Harvest data were used to construct regressions for twenty perennial species to predict starting biomass based on diameters and heights. Annual plants were harvested yearly at peak biomass from permanent transects. We found no significant effect of elevated [CO2] on total perennial plant biomass or cover at the end of the experiment. Regardless of [CO2] treatment, perennial cover increased while total biomass did not change over the ten years of the experiment. Perennial biomass allocation to vegetative, twig and woody biomass was not differentially affected by elevated [CO2], although leaf area index increased under elevated [CO2]. Similarly, there was no consistent elevated [CO2] effect on yearly production of annual (ephemeral) plants, although an exotic grass (Bromus madritensis subsp. rubens) exhibited a higher relative stimulation in production at elevated [CO2] than did native dicot and grass species. Other studies in our research group have shown that increases in production are only seen in wet years during the ten-year period of CO2 treatments at the NDFF, and so future effects of rising [CO2] may primarily

  6. Human Factors In Aircraft Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, Charles

    1995-01-01

    Report presents survey of state of art in human factors in automation of aircraft operation. Presents examination of aircraft automation and effects on flight crews in relation to human error and aircraft accidents.

  7. A reference architecture for the component factory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basili, Victor R.; Caldiera, Gianluigi; Cantone, Giovanni

    1992-01-01

    Software reuse can be achieved through an organization that focuses on utilization of life cycle products from previous developments. The component factory is both an example of the more general concepts of experience and domain factory and an organizational unit worth being considered independently. The critical features of such an organization are flexibility and continuous improvement. In order to achieve these features we can represent the architecture of the factory at different levels of abstraction and define a reference architecture from which specific architectures can be derived by instantiation. A reference architecture is an implementation and organization independent representation of the component factory and its environment. The paper outlines this reference architecture, discusses the instantiation process, and presents some examples of specific architectures by comparing them in the framework of the reference model.

  8. Spacecraft factory-to-pad testing concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. H.

    1975-01-01

    It is noted that the concept of factory-to-pad testing is based on the shipment of a flight-ready spacecraft to the launch base and can be achieved by thorough and comprehensive factory testing of the spacecraft. The principal objectives and results of this approach are shown to be significant cost reductions, increased test effectiveness, and fewer flight problems. Key elements for this concept's success are discussed, including factory-to-pad commonality of support equipment, test requirements and procedures, test teams, and computer programs. Applications of this approach in the space-shuttle era are considered, and a preliminary factory-to-pad concept for the Large Space Telescope spacecraft is presented.

  9. HiPER Tritium factory elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, Didier

    2011-06-01

    HiPER will include a Tritium target factory. This presentation is an overview. We start from process ideas to go to first sketch passing through safety principles. We will follow the Tritium management process. We need first a gas factory producing the right gas mixture from hydrogen, Deuterium and Tritium storage. Then we could pass through the target factory. It is based on our LMJ single shot experiment and some new development like the injector. Then comes pellet burst and vapour recovery. The Tritium factory has to include the waste recovery, recycling process with gas purification before storage. At least, a nuclear plant is not a classical building. Tritium is also very special... All the design ideas have to be adapted. Many facilities are necessary, some with redundancy. We all have to well known these constraints. Tritium budget will be a major contributor for a material point of view as for a financial one.

  10. Verbal and Nonverbal Communication of Factory Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1976-01-01

    Examines the verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns associated with two speech styles, one formal and the other informal, among factory workers. Available from: Mouton Publishers, Box 482, the Hague, Netherlands. (AM)

  11. The Physics of the B Factories

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bevan, A. J.

    2014-11-19

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C.

  12. Riken RI Beam Factory, Harvest Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En'yo, H.

    2015-06-01

    At RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF), having all the experimental facilities in place, the uranium-beam intensity recorded 25pnA in 2014. With use of this powerful beam many experiments are begin performed by variety of researchers from all over the world, producing a lot of new data which were just a dream in several years ago. Recent status of RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) is presented with future prospects in science and an accelerator plan.

  13. Secular Slip, Regional, Coseismic Effects and Post-Seismic Deformation From the June 28, 1992 Landers Earthquake: Mojave Desert GPS Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.; Webb, F.; Townsend, D.; Golombek, M.; Dokka, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the constraints on long-term, post-seismic deformation within the Mojave Desert and on cumulative slip across the northern part of the Eastern California shear zone from May 1991 to August 1993.

  14. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  15. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  16. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  17. Civil aircraft accident investigation.

    PubMed

    Haines, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This talk reviews some historic aircraft accidents and some more recent. It reflects on the division of accident causes, considering mechanical failures and aircrew failures, and on aircrew training. Investigation results may lead to improved aircraft design, and to appropriate crew training. PMID:24057309

  18. Factory floor injury in a Lagos sawmill.

    PubMed

    Bode, C O; Giwa, S O; Oke, D A

    2001-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed injuries sustained in 36 consecutive accidents in a wood-processing factory and managed at a private hospital over a 2-year period in Lagos. The commonest injuries were lacerations by revolving saws, followed by crush injuries from entrapment by machines and from falling logs and planks. The upper limbs were involved in 24 (66%) of these accidents cases. Of 137 workers on the factory floor, the highest injury rate (64%) occurred among machine operators. While 80.6% of these injuries were simple ones treated by suturing and dressing, 7 (19.4%) were life-threatening enough to warrant hospitalisation and major surgery, with 6 sustaining a mean permanent disability of 7.1 +/- 6%. Although factory-floor injuries constituted only 6.5% of 553 hospital attendance recorded within the period from the company, they were responsible for 44.2% of total medical expenditure by the company within the same period. Non-use of protective gears and disregard for safety procedures were noted in most of the accidents. The in-house first-aid program was adjudged as life-saving in the few major cases managed. We concluded that while many factory-floor injuries in wood-processing factories may be minor hand injuries, provision and strict observance of safety protocols as well as an active first-aid program are invaluable to minimise morbidity, cost and loss of productive man-hours in wood processing factories. PMID:11885883

  19. Disturbance and Plant Succession in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of the American Southwest

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances such as fire, land clearing, and road building remove vegetation and can have major influences on public health through effects on air quality, aesthetics, recreational opportunities, natural resource availability, and economics. Plant recovery and succession following disturbance are poorly understood in arid lands relative to more temperate regions. This study quantitatively reviewed vegetation reestablishment following a variety of disturbances in the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts of southwestern North America. A total of 47 studies met inclusion criteria for the review. The time estimated by 29 individual studies for full reestablishment of total perennial plant cover was 76 years. Although long, this time was shorter than an estimated 215 years (among 31 individual studies) required for the recovery of species composition typical of undisturbed areas, assuming that recovery remains linear following the longest time since disturbance measurement made by the studies. PMID:20617030

  20. REMOTE-SENSING MINERAL DISCOVERIES IN THE MOJAVE DESERT OF CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raines, Gary L.; Hoover, Donald B.; Collins, William E.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of remote sensing studies in the Mojave Desert of California three previously unknown stockwork molybdenum systems have been discovered. It is not known if economic deposits of molybdenum and associated minerals occur in these areas; there is, however, sufficient data to judge that these areas are worthy of further exploration. The purpose of this paper is to present case histories of two of these discoveries. These discoveries have been made from laboratory analyses of Landsat multispectral scanner images to map limonitic materials and from field reconnaissance to determine if the limonite is due to hydrothermal alteration. In those areas that seemed most promising, airborne spectrometer surveys were employed to mapped Al-OH minerals, and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) and telluric-traversing surveys were performed to obtain information at depth.

  1. Regional Geophysical Expression of a Carbonatite Terrane in the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Miller, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    A world-class, rare earth element carbonatite deposit is located near Mountain Pass, in the eastern Mojave Desert of California and is hosted by Proterozoic rocks that extend along the eastern margins of the Clark Mountain Range, Mescal Range, and Ivanpah Mountains in a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block. This Proterozoic block is generally composed of a complex of 1.7 - 1.6 Ga gneisses and schists that are intruded by ~1.4 Ga carbonatite and ultrapotassic mafic dikes. In the latter suite, common intrusive rock types include shonkinite, syenite, and alkali granites that are associated with carbonatite dikes. Regional geophysical data reveal that the carbonatite deposit itself occurs along the northeast edge of a prominent magnetic high with an amplitude of 200 nanoteslas, which appears to be related to the surrounding Proterozoic block. More than 340 gravity stations and 155 physical property samples were collected to augment existing geophysical data to determine the geophysical and geologic setting of the eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane. Physical properties of representative rock types in the area show that 23 samples of carbonatite ore have an average saturated bulk density of 2,866 with a range of 2,440 to 3,192 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.22 with a range of 0.03 to 0.61x 10-3 SI units, 17 samples of syenite have an average saturated bulk density of 2,670 with a range of 2,555 to 2,788 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 3.50 with a range of 0.19 to 11.46 x 10-3 SI units, 19 samples of shonkinite dike have an average saturated bulk density of 2,800 with a range of 2,603 to 3,000 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.71 with a range of 0.00 to 4.44 x 10-3 SI units, and 28 samples of Proterozoic gneiss have an average saturated bulk density of 2,734 with a range of 2,574 to 3,086 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 1.23 with a range of 0.01 to 7.48 x 10-3 SI units. In general, carbonatites have distinctive gravity

  2. Effects of livestock watering sites on alien and native plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Matchett, J.R.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Increased livestock densities near artificial watering sites create disturbance gradients called piospheres. We studied responses of alien and native annual plants and native perennial plants within 9 piospheres in the Mojave Desert of North America. Absolute and proportional cover of alien annual plants increased with proximity to watering sites, whereas cover and species richness of native annual plants decreased. Not all alien species responded the same, as the alien forb Erodium cicutarium and the alien grass Schismus spp. increased with proximity to watering sites, and the alien annual grass Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens decreased. Perennial plant cover and species richness also declined with proximity to watering sites, as did the structural diversity of perennial plant cover classes. Significant effects were focused within 200 m of the watering sites, suggesting that control efforts for alien annual plants and restoration efforts for native plants should optimally be focused within this central part of the piosphere gradient.

  3. Economic analysis of critical habitat designation for the desert tortoise (Mojave population)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schamberger, Mel; MacGillvray, Timothy J.; Draper, Dirk D.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service emergency 1isted the Mojave population of the desert tortoise as endangered on August 4, 1989. The Mojave population formally was listed as threatened on April 2, 1990. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, requires that the economic benefits and costs and other relevant effects of critical habitat designation be considered. The Secretary of the Interior may exclude from designation areas where the costs of designation are greater than the benefits, unless the exclusion would result in extinction of the species. Desert tortoises are threatened by an accumulation of human-and disease-related mortality accompanied by habitat destruction, degradation, and fragmentation. Many desert tortoises are illegally collected for pets, food, and commercial trade. Others are accidentally struck and killed by vehicles on roads and highways or are killed by gunshot or vehicles traveling off-highway. Raven predation on hatchling desert tortoises has increased as raven populations in the desert have risen. An upper respiratory tract disease is suspected to be a major cause of mortality in the western Mojave Desert. This presumably incurable affliction presumably is thought to be spread through the release of infected tortoises into the desert. The Service has proposed designating critical habitat in nine counties within four states. The 12 critical habitat units encompass 6.4 million acres of land, more than 80% federally owned. This region is economically and demographically diverse. Most of the land is sparsely settled and characterized as a hot desert ecosystem. Major industries in the region include entertainment and lodging (primarily in Las Vegas), property development to accommodate the rapid population growth, and services. Millions of rural acres in the region are leased by the federal government for livestock grazing and used for mining. Overall economic benefits to the affected states derived from cattle and sheep grazing in the

  4. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  5. Regional geophysical expression of a carbonatite terrane in the eastern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.; Denton, Kevin M.; Miller, David M.

    2013-01-01

    A world-class, rare earth element carbonatite deposit is located near Mountain Pass, in the eastern Mojave Desert of California and is hosted by Proterozoic rocks that extend along the eastern margins of the Clark Mountain Range, Mescal Range, and Ivanpah Mountains in a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block. This Proterozoic block is generally composed of a complex of 1.7 - 1.6 Ga gneisses and schists that are intruded by ~1.4 Ga carbonatite and ultrapotassic mafic dikes. In the latter suite, common intrusive rock types include shonkinite, syenite, and alkali granites that are associated with carbonatite dikes. Regional geophysical data reveal that the carbonatite deposit itself occurs along the northeast edge of a prominent magnetic high with an amplitude of 200 nanoteslas, which appears to be related to the surrounding Proterozoic block. More than 340 gravity stations and 155 physical property samples were collected to augment existing geophysical data to determine the geophysical and geologic setting of the eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane. Physical properties of representative rock types in the area show that 23 samples of carbonatite ore have an average saturated bulk density of 2,866 with a range of 2,440 to 3,192 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.22 with a range of 0.03 to 0.61x 10-3 SI units, 17 samples of syenite have an average saturated bulk density of 2,670 with a range of 2,555 to 2,788 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 3.50 with a range of 0.19 to 11.46 x 10-3 SI units, 19 samples of shonkinite dike have an average saturated bulk density of 2,800 with a range of 2,603 to 3,000 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 0.71 with a range of 0.00 to 4.44 x 10-3 SI units, and 28 samples of Proterozoic gneiss have an average saturated bulk density of 2,734 with a range of 2,574 to 3,086 kg/m3 and a magnetic susceptibility of 1.23 with a range of 0.01 to 7.48 x 10-3 SI units. In general, carbonatites have distinctive gravity

  6. Plant response to Los Angeles aqueduct construction in the Mojave desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathrop, Earl W.; Archbold, Edwin F.

    1980-03-01

    Construction of the 1913 Los Angeles aqueduct system had a different effect on vegetation productivity, diversity, and stability in the Mojave Desert than did construction of the 1970 aqueduct. Drastic disturbance was found to impede vegetation recovery, whereas slight disturbance sometimes enhanced vegetation. Comparisons of productivity, diversity, and stability measures for both aqueducts show apparent similarities of vegetation cover, biomass, and density. However, these similarities often vanish when one considers qualitative factors, such as proportion of long-lived species and typical cominants of undisturbed communities. Percentage composition of common long-lived perennials represents a good qualitative measure to supplement quantitative comparisons. Enhancement of vegetation along the right-of-way transects of the 1913 aqueduct shows considerable recovery, owing to the more than 65 years that have passed since construction.

  7. Miniaturized Raman instrumentation detects carotenoids in Mars-analogue rocks from the Mojave and Atacama deserts.

    PubMed

    Vítek, P; Jehlička, J; Edwards, H G M; Hutchinson, I; Ascaso, C; Wierzchos, J

    2014-12-13

    This study is primarily focused on proving the potential of miniaturized Raman systems to detect any biomolecular and mineral signal in natural geobiological samples that are relevant for future application of the technique within astrobiologically aimed missions on Mars. A series of evaporites of varying composition and origin from two extremely dry deserts were studied, namely Atacama and Mojave. The samples represent both dry evaporitic deposits and recent evaporitic efflorescences from hypersaline brines. The samples comprise halite and different types of sulfates and carbonates. The samples were analysed in two different ways: (i) directly as untreated rocks and (ii) as homogenized powders. Two excitation wavelengths of miniaturized Raman spectrometers were compared: 532 and 785 nm. The potential to detect carotenoids as biomarkers on Mars compared with the potential detection of carbonaceous matter using miniaturized instrumentation is discussed. PMID:25368344

  8. Ecology of a population of subsidized predators: Common ravens in the central Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Patten, M.A.; Camp, R.J.; Collis, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Human subsidies have resulted in the rapid growth of populations of common ravens (Corvus corax) in the Mojave Desert. This is a management concern because ravens prey on threatened desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We conducted weekly counts for 29 months at 10 sites on the US Army's National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California to evaluate factors affecting the distribution of ravens. Raven abundance varied seasonally, diurnally, and with human abundance. It was greatest near resource subsidies, specifically the landfill and sewage ponds. Although other studies have documented heavy use of landfills by ravens, the use of sewage ponds had not been previously reported in the published literature. We suggest that raven management should focus on reducing access to anthropogenic resources. ?? 2006.

  9. The effect of drought on four plant communities in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, B.W.; Ostler, W.K.

    1993-12-31

    Desert plant communities contain many perennial plant species that are well adapted to arid environments; therefore, one would intuitively believe that perennial desert species readily survive drought conditions. Abundant research on plant-soil-water relationships in North American deserts has shown that many species can maintain water uptake and growth when the soil-water potential is low. Little research, however, has focused on how prolonged drought conditions affect plant species in vegetation associations in desert ecosystems. A prolonged and widespread drought occurred in much of the western United States, including the Northern Mojave Desert, from 1987 through 1991. During this drought period vegetation characterization studies, initiated in 1990, by the US Department of Energy (DOE) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, allowed EG and G Energy Measurements to collect data that could be used to infer how both desert vegetation associations and desert plant species reacted to a prolonged drought. This paper presents the preliminary results.

  10. Coupled Environmental Processes and Long-term Performance of Landfill Covers in the northern Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    David Shafer; Michael Young; Stephen Zitzer; Eric McDonald; Todd Caldwell

    2004-05-12

    Evapotransiration (ET) covers have gained widespread acceptance as a closure feature for waste disposal sites, particularly in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern U.S. But as landforms, ET covers are subject to change over time because of processes such as pedogenesis, hydrologic processes, vegetation establishment and change, and biological processes. To better understand the effects of coupled process changes to ET covers, a series of four primary analog sites in Yucca Flat on the Nevada Test Site, along with measurements and observations from other locations in the Mojave Desert, were selected to evaluate changes in ET covers over time. The analog sites, of varying ages, were selected to address changes in the early post-institutional control period, the 1,000-year compliance period for disposal of low-level and mixed low-level waste, and the 10,000-year compliance period for transuranic waste sites.

  11. A ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Lower Mojave River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woolfenden, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    A ground-water-quality monitoring network was developed for the Lower Mojave River valley to define the ground-water quality of the valley. Basin geohydrology, geology, land use and water-level and water-quality data were factors considered in developing objectives for an ideal network. These objectives were used in selecting well locations for the conceptual ground-water-quality monitoring network. The conceptual network was used as a guide in the design of the ground-water-quality monitoring network. Active monitoring sites are wells that are currently being monitored by some agency and were selected whenever possible because of budgetary constraints. In areas where no wells are currently being monitored, new well locations were selected and are considered proposed monitoring sites. A sampling regimen is also included. (USGS)

  12. Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region, Kern, Riverside, and San Bernardino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moxham, Robert M.

    1952-01-01

    Airborne radioactivity surveys in the Mojave Desert region Kern, Riverside, and Bernardino counties were made in five areas recommended as favorable for the occurrence of radioactive raw materials: (1) Rock Corral area, San Bernardino County. (2) Searles Station area, Kern county. (3) Soledad area, Kern County. (4) White Tank area, Riverside and San Bernardino counties. (5) Harvard Hills area, San Bernardino County. Anomalous radiation was detected in all but the Harvard Hills area. The radioactivity anomalies detected in the Rock Corral area are of the greatest amplitude yet recorded by the airborne equipment over natural sources. The activity is apparently attributable to the thorium-beating mineral associated with roof pendants of crystalline metamorphic rocks in a granitic intrusive. In the Searles Station, Soledad, and White Tank area, several radioactivity anomalies of medium amplitude were recorded, suggesting possible local concentrations of radioactive minerals.

  13. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  14. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  15. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  16. ERAST Program Proteus Aircraft in Flight over the Tehachapi Mountains in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The unique shape of the Proteus high-altitude aircraft is clearly visible in this photo of the plane in flight above the rocky slopes of the Tehachapi Mountains near Mojave, California, where the Proteus was designed and built. In the Proteus Project, NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, is assisting Scaled Composites, Inc., Mojave, California, in developing a sophisticated station-keeping autopilot system and a Satellite Communications (SATCOM)-based uplink-downlink data system for aircraft and payload data under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) project. The ERAST Project is sponsored by the Office of Aero-Space Technology at NASA Headquarters, and is managed by the Dryden Flight Research Center. The Proteus is a unique aircraft, designed as a high-altitude, long-duration telecommunications relay platform with potential for use on atmospheric sampling and Earth-monitoring science missions. The aircraft is designed to be flown by two pilots in a pressurized cabin, but also has the potential to perform its missions semiautonomously or be flown remotely from the ground. Flight testing of the Proteus, beginning in the summer of 1998 at Mojave Airport through the end of 1999, included the installation and checkout of the autopilot system, including the refinement of the altitude hold and altitude change software. The SATCOM equipment, including avionics and antenna systems, had been installed and checked out in several flight tests. The systems performed flawlessly during the Proteus's deployment to the Paris Airshow in 1999. NASA's ERAST project funded development of an Airborne Real-Time Imaging System (ARTIS). Developed by HyperSpectral Sciences, Inc., the small ARTIS camera was demonstrated during the summer of 1999 when it took visual and near-infrared photos over the Experimental Aircraft Association's 'AirVenture 99' Airshow at Oshkosh, Wisconsin. The images were displayed on a computer monitor at the

  17. Attempt of Serendipitous Science During the Mojave Volatile Prospector Field Expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, T. L.; Colaprete, A.; Heldmann, J.; Lim, D. S. S.; Cook, A.; Elphic, R.; Deans, M.; Fluckiger, L.; Fritzler, E.; Hunt, David

    2015-01-01

    On 23 October a partial solar eclipse occurred across parts of the southwest United States between approximately 21:09 and 23:40 (UT), with maximum obscuration, 36%, occurring at 22:29 (UT). During 21-26 October 2014 the Mojave Volatile Prospector (MVP) field expedition deployed and operated the NASA Ames Krex2 rover in the Mojave desert west of Baker, California (Fig. 1, bottom). The MVP field expedition primary goal was to characterize the surface and sub-surface soil moisture properties within desert alluvial fans, and as a secondary goal to provide mission operations simulations of the Resource Prospector (RP) mission to a Lunar pole. The partial solar eclipse provided an opportunity during MVP operations to address serendipitous science. Science instruments on Krex2 included a neutron spectrometer, a near-infrared spectrometer with associated imaging camera, and an independent camera coupled with software to characterize the surface textures of the areas encountered. All of these devices are focused upon the surface and as a result are downward looking. In addition to these science instruments, two hazard cameras are mounted on Krex2. The chief device used to monitor the partial solar eclipse was the engineering development unit of the Near-Infrared Volatile Spectrometer System (NIRVSS) near-infrared spectrometer. This device uses two separate fiber optic fed Hadamard transform spectrometers. The short-wave and long-wave spectrometers measure the 1600-2400 and 2300-3400 nm wavelength regions with resolutions of 10 and 13 nm, respectively. Data are obtained approximately every 8 seconds. The NIRVSS stares in the opposite direction as the front Krex2.

  18. Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of habitat invasibility and alien dominance, respectively measured as species richness and biomass of alien annual plants, were evaluated in association with four habitat factors at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) in the western Mojave Desert, USA. Habitat factors varied in levels of disturbance outside (high) and inside (low) the DTNA, and in levels of soil nutrients in washlet (high) and hummock (low) topographic positions, in Larrea-north (high), Larrea-south (medium), and interspace (low) microhabitats near creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata), and during 1995 when rainfall was 207% (high) and 1994 when rainfall was 52% (low) of the long-term average. Dominant alien plants included the annual grasses Bromus rubens, Bromus trinii, and Schismus spp., and the forb Erodium cicutarium. Species richness and dominance of alien annual plants were slightly higher where disturbance was high, and much higher where soil nutrients were high. B. rubens and B. trinii were most dominant in washlets and in the Larrea-north microhabitats during both years. These two species evolved in mesic ecosystems, and appeared to be particularly limited by soil nutrients at this site. Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were also most dominant in washlets, but their dominance varied between interspaces in 1994 and the Larrea-south microhabitat in 1995. Monitoring to detect the invasion of new annual plants should focus on regions of high rainfall and nitrogen deposition and on washes and beneath-canopy microhabitats. The ecological range of each alien species should be evaluated separately, because their evolutionary origins may greatly affect their patterns of invasion and dominance in the Mojave Desert.

  19. Terrestrial Sources of Perfluorinated Gases: Excess CF4 and SF6 in Mojave Desert Groundwaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deeds, D. A.; Vollmer, M. K.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Miller, B. R.; Hilton, D. R.; Izbicki, J. A.; Harth, C. M.; Weiss, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    The recent discovery of perfluorinated gases in fluid inclusions of granites and fluorites suggests a geologic source for the estimated 40 parts-per-trillion (ppt) of tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and <0.006 ppt of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) in the preindustrial atmosphere. The accumulation of these gases in groundwaters with long residence times enables the detection of even small emissions from the surrounding aquifer material. We have measured high concentrations of CF4 and SF6 in groundwaters from the Mojave Desert, California. Dissolved SF6 was extracted by a purge and trap technique and analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Dissolved CF4 was sampled by headspace extraction, using liquid helium to cryofocus the analytes prior to injection into the Medusa gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer analytical system. Current precisions and accuracies for these measurements are on the order of 2% for both gases. Initial measurements of dissolved CF4 concentrations range from ˜0.05 to ˜1.5 pmol kg-1, about 5 to 15 times higher than expected for water in equilibrium with the preindustrial atmosphere at the local temperature and altitude of the recharge site. SF6 concentrations range from ˜0.3 to ˜16 fmol kg-1, up to several thousand times higher than expected for air-saturated water. Taking into account the large uncertainties in the estimated preindustrial atmospheric concentration of SF6, and in the estimated atmospheric lifetimes of both SF6 and CF4, the ratio of their excess abundances in Mojave Desert groundwaters agrees within an order of magnitude with the estimated ratio of natural fluxes required to sustain their preindustrial atmospheric concentrations. Relationships among dissolved CF4 and SF6 concentrations and the other geochemical properties of the aquifer, including groundwater residence times (ages), helium abundances and isotopic ratios, and fluoride concentrations will be presented.

  20. Diet composition of common ravens across the urban-wildland interface of the West Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kristan, W. B., III; Boarman, W.I.; Crayon, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Common ravens (Corvus corax) are human-subsidized scavengers and predators in the Mojave Desert. They have increased dramatically in number and have been implicated as contributors to the decline in desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) populations. Known patterns of increased fledging success near human developments suggested that food was the most likely resource subsidy received by ravens. Because ravens are opportunistic foragers with a generalist diet, we predicted that the types of resource subsidy provided by different kinds of human developments should be reflected in measures of diet composition of breeding ravens. We estimated diet composition from contents of raven pellets collected at nests and related diet composition to distance of the nests from roads and point sources of resource subsidies, such as towns or landfills. Ravens that nested close to point subsidies far from major roads had the greatest incidence of trash in their diets. Ravens that nested close to roads but far from point subsidies had a low incidence of trash and a higher incidence of presumably road-killed mammals and reptiles. Ravens far from both roads and point subsidies had more plant material and arthropods, and ravens close to both roads and point subsidies had more birds and amphibians. Diet diversity was not related to distance from roads or developments. Fledging success was correlated with diet composition, such that birds with diets consistent with trash or road-kill subsidies fledged the greatest number of chicks. Our results suggest that ravens forage opportunistically on foods available near their nests, and different kinds of human developments contribute different foods. Improved management of landfills and highway fencing to reduce road-kills may help slow the growth of raven populations in the Mojave.

  1. Controls on slope-wash erosion rates in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, O.; Polyakov, V. O.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

    2014-06-01

    This study estimates the rates of soil erosion by slope wash in an arid region and the various factors that control these rates. Decadal-scale erosion rates were estimated on hillslope scales using inventories of 137Cs that were sampled from 46 soil profiles in four different study sites in the Mojave Desert. Calculated mean soil erosion rates per site range from -3.6 to -24.3 t ha-1 yr-1. Higher mean rates were associated with gently sloping sites that exhibit low percentage of rock and vegetation coverage, whereas lower mean rates corresponded to steep and rocky sites. Individual erosion rates were not correlated to slope gradient or curvature but were negatively correlated with the volume fraction of rocks in the upper soil profile (i.e., upslope rock coverage). Since the slopes get rockier as they get steeper, any increase in erosion rates with increasing slope is outweighed by the inhibiting effect of greater rock cover. This, together with sandy-loam soil texture on the steep slopes hinders runoff and erosion. Our findings are supported by soil data that show greater heterogeneity in the degree of calcic soil development and higher soluble salt contents in more gently sloping sites that are characterized by high erosion rates. The erosion rates reported here for the gently sloping sites are higher than rates calculated for semi-arid regions, probably due to the lower rock and vegetation coverage in these sites compared to wetter areas. These rates are also higher than millennial-scale rates estimated for the Mojave Desert on watershed scales, and suggest that at least part of the eroded sediments are stored in the adjacent streams and do not reach the piedmonts.

  2. Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) thermal ecology and reproductive success along a rainfall cline.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Annette E; Gambone, Megan M; Wallace, Bryan P; Clusella-Trullas, Susana; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2015-05-01

    Desert resource environments (e.g. microclimates, food) are tied to limited, highly localized rainfall regimes which generate microgeographic variation in the life histories of inhabitants. Typically, enhanced growth rates, reproduction and survivorship are observed in response to increased resource availability in a variety of desert plants and short-lived animals. We examined the thermal ecology and reproduction of US federally threatened Mojave desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), long-lived and large-bodied ectotherms, at opposite ends of a 250-m elevation-related rainfall cline within Ivanpah Valley in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, USA. Biophysical operative environments in both the upper-elevation, "Cima," and the lower-elevation, "Pumphouse," plots corresponded with daily and seasonal patterns of incident solar radiation. Cima received 22% more rainfall and contained greater perennial vegetative cover, which conferred 5°C-cooler daytime shaded temperatures. In a monitored average rainfall year, Cima tortoises had longer potential activity periods by up to several hours and greater ephemeral forage. Enhanced resource availability in Cima was associated with larger-bodied females producing larger eggs, while still producing the same number of eggs as Pumphouse females. However, reproductive success was lower in Cima because 90% of eggs were depredated versus 11% in Pumphouse, indicating that predatory interactions produced counter-gradient variation in reproductive success across the rainfall cline. Land-use impacts on deserts (e.g. solar energy generation) are increasing rapidly, and conservation strategies designed to protect and recover threatened desert inhabitants, such as desert tortoises, should incorporate these strong ecosystem-level responses to regional resource variation in assessments of habitat for prospective development and mitigation efforts. PMID:25827446

  3. Environmental history recorded in eolian deposits under stone pavements, eastern Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen; Fuchs, Markus; Dietze, Elisabeth; Lomax, Johanna; Kleber, Arno; Dietze, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of arid landscapes is challenged by the limited availability of appropriate environmental archives. A widespread surface feature of arid landscapes - stone pavement - traps eolian fines and can form an accretionary archive, growing with time and thereby recording essential information about the conditions under which it evolves. Based on a regional example in the eastern Mojave Desert, USA, seven stone pavement-covered soil-sediment sections on 560 and 270 ka old basalt flows are condensed to a correlation framework, comprising five distinct, successive sedimentological units. An OSL-based chronology enables correlation of this new sediment archive with other environmental archives from the region. Three of the stratigraphic units are of accretionary nature and the top of each unit is mantled by a new generation of stone pavement. These stratigraphic units were deposited between >32.3-20.4 ka, 20.4-16.5 ka and younger than 16.5 ka, appearing to be strongly coupled with the history of the nearby ancient Lake Mojave and enhancing our knowledge of the eolian activity in this area. End-member modelling analysis of sampled grain-size distributions allows identification of a local detritus component, four separate eolian components and two distinct clay enrichment components, contributing different quantities of sediment sources to the five stratigraphic units. These findings improve current concepts about the evolution of stone pavements and their role as conveyers of information about environmental conditions in arid landscapes. Stone pavement-covered accretionary sediment deposits are a new key archive that allows quantifying the relative importance of dust accretion, slope processes, soil formation and vegetation cover.

  4. Carbonatite: A Geophysical investigation of a rare earth element terrane, eastern Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, K. M.; Ponce, D. A.; Miller, D. M.; MacPherson-Krutsky, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    Geophysical investigations reveal gravity and magnetic anomalies related to a Proterozoic carbonatite terrane in the eastern Mojave Desert, host to one of the largest rare earth element carbonatite deposits in the world. The deposit is located near Mountain Pass, California and occurs in a north-northwest trending fault-bounded block that extends along the eastern parts of the Clarke Mountain Range, Mescal Range, and Ivanpah Mountains. This Early to Middle Proterozoic block is composed of a 1.7 Ga metamorphic complex of gneiss and schist intruded by a 1.4 Ga suite of ultrapotassic alkaline intrusive rocks that includes carbonatite. The intrusive suite (oldest to youngest) includes shonkinite, mesosyenite, syenite, quartz syenite, potassic granite, carbonatite, and late shonkinite dikes which are spatially and temporally associated with carbonatite intrusions and dikes. Regional geophysical data reveal that the carbonatite deposit occurs along a gravity high and the northeast edge of a prominent magnetic high with an amplitude of about 200 nanoteslas. More than 1400 gravity stations and over 200 physical property samples were collected to augment existing geophysical data and will be used to determine the geophysical and geologic setting that provide an improved structural interpretation of the eastern Mojave Desert carbonatite terrane. Physical properties of representative rock types in the area include carbonatite ore, syenite, shonkinite, gneiss, granite, and dolomite. Carbonatite intrusions typically have distinctive gravity, magnetic, and radiometric signatures because these deposits are relatively dense, contain magnetite, and are enriched in thorium or uranium. However, our results show that the main carbonatite body is essentially nonmagnetic. Thus, it is unlikely that carbonatite rocks are the source of the magnetic high associated with the Clark Mountain and Mescal Ranges. Instead, we suggest that weakly to moderately magnetic intrusive rocks or

  5. Controls over nitric oxide and ammonia emissions from Mojave Desert soils.

    PubMed

    McCalley, Carmody K; Sparks, Jed P

    2008-07-01

    Emissions of reactive N compounds produced during terrestrial N cycling can be an important N loss pathway from ecosystems. Most measurements of this process focus on NO and N(2)O efflux; however, in alkaline soils such as those in the Mojave Desert, NH(3) production can be an important component of N gas loss. We investigated patterns of NO and NH(3) emissions in the Mojave Desert and identified seasonal changes in temperature, precipitation and spatial heterogeneity in soil nutrients as primary controllers of soil efflux. Across all seasons, NH(3) dominated reactive N gas emissions with fluxes ranging from 0.9 to 10 ng N m(-2) s(-1) as compared to NO fluxes of 0.08-1.9 ng N m(-2) s(-1). Fluxes were higher in April and July than in October; however, a fall precipitation event yielded large increases in both NO and NH(3) efflux. To explore the mechanisms driving field observations, we combined NO and NH(3) soil flux measurements with laboratory manipulations of temperature, water and nutrient conditions. These experiments showed a large transient NH(3) pulse (~70-100 ng N m(-2) s(-1)) following water addition, presumably driven by an increase in soil NH(4) (+) concentrations. This was followed by an increase in NO production, with maximum NO flux rates of 34 ng N m(-2) s(-1). Our study suggests that immediately following water addition NH(3) volatilization proceeds at high rates due to the absence of microbial competition for NH(4) (+); during this period N gas loss is insensitive to changes in temperature and soil nutrients. Subsequently, NO emission increases and rates of both NO and NH(3) emission are sensitive to temperature and nutrient constraints on microbial activity. Addition of labile C reduces gaseous N losses, presumably by increasing microbial immobilization, whereas addition of NO(3) (-) stimulates NO and NH(3) efflux. PMID:18392857

  6. Making molehills out of mountains: landscape genetics of the Mojave desert tortoise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagerty, Bridgette E.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Esque, Todd C.; Tracy, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Heterogeneity in habitat often influences how organisms traverse the landscape matrix that connects populations. Understanding landscape connectivity is important to determine the ecological processes that influence those movements, which lead to evolutionary change due to gene flow. Here, we used landscape genetics and statistical models to evaluate hypotheses that could explain isolation among locations of the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). Within a causal modeling framework, we investigated three factors that can influence landscape connectivity: geographic distance, barriers to dispersal, and landscape friction. A statistical model of habitat suitability for the Mojave desert tortoise, based on topography, vegetation, and climate variables, was used as a proxy for landscape friction and barriers to dispersal. We quantified landscape friction with least-cost distances and with resistance distances among sampling locations. A set of diagnostic partial Mantel tests statistically separated the hypotheses of potential causes of genetic isolation. The best-supported model varied depending upon how landscape friction was quantified. Patterns of genetic structure were related to a combination of geographic distance and barriers as defined by least-cost distances, suggesting that mountain ranges and extremely low-elevation valleys influence connectivity at the regional scale beyond the tortoises' ability to disperse. However, geographic distance was the only influence detected using resistance distances, which we attributed to fundamental differences between the two ways of quantifying friction. Landscape friction, as we measured it, did not influence the observed patterns of genetic distances using either quantification. Barriers and distance may be more valuable predictors of observed population structure for species like the desert tortoise, which has high dispersal capability and a long generation time.

  7. The Mojave Desert: A Martian Analog Site for Future Astrobiology Themed Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, E.; Abbey, W.; Bhartia, R.; Beegle, L. W.

    2011-01-01

    Astrobiological interest in Mars is highlighted by evidence that Mars was once warm enough to have liquid water present on its surface long enough to create geologic formations that could only exist in the presense of extended fluvial periods. These periods existed at the same time life on Earth arose. If life began on Mars as well during this period, it is reasonable to assume it may have adapted to the subsurface as environments at the surface changed into the inhospitable state we find today. If the next series of Mars missions (Mars Science Laboratory, the ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter proposed for launch in 2016, and potential near surface sample return) fail to discover either extinct or extant life on Mars, a subsurface mission would be necessary to attempt to "close the book" on the existence of martian life. Mars is much colder and drier than Earth, with a very low pressure CO2 environment and no obvious habitats. Terrestrial regions with limited precipitation, and hence reduced active biota, are some of the best martian low to mid latitude analogs to be found on Earth, be they the Antarctic dry valleys, the Atacama or Mojave Deserts. The Mojave Desert/Death Valley region is considered a Mars analog site by the Terrestrial Analogs Panel of the NSF-sponsored decadal survey; a field guide was even developed and a workshop was held on its applicability as a Mars analog. This region has received a great deal of attention due to its accessibility and the variety of landforms and processes observed relevant to martian studies.

  8. A half-million-year record of paleoclimate from the Lake Manix Core, Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.; Bright, Jordon; Lund, Steve P.; Miller, David M.; Skipp, Gary; Fleck, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Pluvial lakes in the southwestern U.S. responded sensitively to past climate through effects on rainfall, runoff, and evaporation. Although most studies agree that pluvial lakes in the southwestern U.S. reached their highest levels coeval with glacial stages, the specific timing of increased effective moisture and lake-level rise is debated, particularly for the southwesternmost lakes. We obtained a 45-m core of lacustrine sediment from Lake Manix, the former terminus of the Mojave River prior to about 25 ka, and supplemented data from the core with outcrop studies. These sediments provide a robust record of Mojave River discharge over the last half-million years. Lake Manix persisted from OIS 12 through early OIS 2, including during interstadial OIS 3 and interglacials OIS 5, 7, and 9. The ostracode faunal record displays a shift from an unexpectedly warm, summer-dominated lake hydrology during OIS 12 to predominantly colder, winter-dominated conditions afterwards. The ostracode-based stable isotope record displays a large degree of intra-sample variability and does not mimic other well-known isotopic records of climate change. Evaporation likely buffered the Manix δ18O record from most of the expected isotopic differences between interglacial and glacial-interval discharge. Isotopically depleted and stable lakes occurred only four to six times, most notably during OIS 7 and OIS 9. Internal drainage-basin changes also affected the isotopic record. Persistence of lakes in the Manix basin during interglacials requires atmospheric or oceanic circulation controls on the mean position of the Pacific storm track other than large ice sheets. We propose that the relative strength and sign of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and its influence on atmospheric river-derived precipitation is a potential explanation.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Optical spectroscopic atlas of MOJAVE AGNs (Torrealba+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrealba, J.; Chavushyan, V.; Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Arshakian, T. G.; Bertone, E.; Rosa-Gonzalez, D.

    2014-09-01

    The atlas includes spectral parameters for the emission lines Hβ, [OIII] 5007, MgII 2798 and/or CIV 1549 and corresponding data for the continuum, as well as the luminosities and equivalent widths of the FeII UV/optical. It also contains homogeneous photometric information in the B-band for 242 sources of the MOJAVE/2cm sample. These data were acquired at 2.1m mexican telescopes: Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir (OAN-SPM), B. C., Mexico and at Observatorio Astronomico Guillermo Haro, in Cananea, Sonora (OAGH), Mexico. It is supplemented with spectroscopic data found in the archives of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in the AGN sample of Marziani et al. (2003ApJS..145..199M, Cat. J/ApJS/145/199), and in Lawrence et al. 1996ApJS..107..541L. We present the continuum emission and/or line parameters for 41 sources in the Hβ region, 78 in the MgII region, and 35 in the CIV region. Also, there are 14 sources with information available for both Hβ and MgII regions, 12 with MgII and CIV, and 5 with Hβ, MgII and CIV. The spectroscopic information information for the statistically complete sample MOJAVE-1 (Lister & Homan, 2005AJ....130.1389L, Cat. J/AJ/130/1389) included in the Atlas is as follows: 28 sources in the Hβ region, 46 in the MgII region, and 23 in the CIV region. All the emission lines parameters are for the broad component of the line, except for [OIII] 5007. (7 data files).

  10. The western pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) in the Mojave River, California, USA: Highly adapted survivor or tenuous relict?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, J.; Meyer, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aspects of the ecology of populations of the western pond turtle Clemmys marmorata were investigated in the Mojave River of the central Mojave Desert, California, U.S.A. One population occupied man-made ponds and the other occurred in natural ponds in the flood plain of the Mojave River. Both habitats are severely degraded as a result of ground water depletion from human activities along the river and one is infested with the exotic shrub saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima. Mean female carapace length (CL) was significantly greater (14.4 cm) than that of males (13.7 cm). Live juveniles were not detected during the period of study. Shelled eggs were visible in X-radiographs from 26 May to 14 July. Mean clutch size was 4.46 and ranged from 3 to 6 eggs. Clutch size did not vary between 1998 and 1999 but was significantly correlated with CL for both years combined, increasing at the rate of 0.548 eggs/cm CL. Gravid female CL ranged from 13.3-16.0 cm. Some females nested in both years. Mean X-ray egg width (21.8 mm) was not significantly correlated with CL or clutch size. X-ray egg width differed more among clutches than within, whether including CL as a co-variate or not. Nesting migrations occurred from 6 June to 8 July with minimum round trip distances ranging from 17.5-585 m with a mean of 195 m. Mean estimated time of departure as measured at the drift fence was 18:13. Most females returned to the ponds in the early morning. Nesting migrations required females to be out of the water for estimated periods of 0.83 to 86 h. The destination of nesting females was typically fluvial sand bars in the channel of the dry riverbed. Overall, the ecology of C. marmorata in the Mojave River is very similar to that reported for populations in less severe habitats along the west coast of the United States. Notable exceptions include long nesting migrations to sandbars in the dry river channel, a possible result of human modifications to the environment, and an apparent lack of

  11. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  12. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  13. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  14. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  15. 27 CFR 40.254 - Receipt into factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Receipt into factory. 40... Operations § 40.254 Receipt into factory. A manufacturer of tobacco products may receive in bond into his factory tobacco products and may also receive into his factory tobacco products on which the tax has...

  16. Where is the ooid factory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariotti, G.; Pruss, S. B.; klepac-Ceraj, V.; Summons, R. E.; Newman, S. A.; Bosak, T.

    2014-12-01

    Ooids, concentrically laminated carbonate grains, are found in high-energy shallow water environments (the ooid factory). Consequently, ooid laminae are thought to precipitate around suspended grains. The role of microbes in this process is debated: abiotic models neither explain how ooids acquire a high organic content, nor do they account for the fast abrasion and loss of ooid carbonate in highly agitated areas. Here we probe the role of microbes and physical processes in ooid accretion on an oolitic beach in the leeward coast of Cat Island, the Bahamas. Grain size and petrography, microbial community composition and physical factors are compared along a cross-shore transect. A hydro-morphodynamic model is used to analyze sediment transport and sorting across the beach and shallow shelf. We find that the surf zone has a barren seafloor, and it is dominated by shiny and rounded ooids whose size decreases seaward, as predicted by physical grain sorting. Dull ooids and grapestones, irregular coated grains that are thought to form by microbially-mediated precipitation of carbonate around ooids and other grains, are present outside of the surf zone. The bulk size of these grains increases seaward, and they contain more abundant and diverse microbial communities than agitated ooids. The inverted sorting trend indicates that the time scale for grain accretion in this region is shorter than the decadal time scale for grain sorting. Modeling and field observations suggest that carbonate precipitation of both ooids and grapestones occurs in sediments that are colonized by diatom- and cyanobacteria-rich mats and reworked during storms. Periodic storms transport ooids to the surf zone, where they are rounded by abrasion and gain a shiny exterior in less than a day of reworking. Small ooids are periodically transported back to the microbially colonized areas, and the accretion cycle restarts. Grains too large to be frequently transported exit the accretion-erosion conveyor

  17. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  18. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  19. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  20. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  1. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  2. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  3. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  4. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  5. Environmental effects of solar-thermal power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    SciTech Connect

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by The California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Motave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. The systematic status of the sibling species was investigated using allozymic and chromosomal data. Karyotypically, the two species differ in diploid number while they share a level of genic similarity reported for other mammalian semispecies. Hybridization was detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach. The two taxa are retained as full biological species.

  6. Upper-air meteorological support for ARB`s 1995 Mojave desert ozone transport study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, D.E.

    1996-09-15

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration`s (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) demonstrated its latest remote sensing capabilities during the 1995 Mojave Desert Ozone Transport Study. The objective was to better quantify the flux of ozone into the Mojave Desert by combining wind data from the ETL`s System Demonstration and Integration Division`s newly developed 449-MHz wind profiler with ozone concentration data from a 2-dimensional, vertically-scanning ozone lidar developed by ETL`s Atmospheric Lidar Division. The ozone lidar staff will combine the high spatial and temporal resolution wind data from this report with ozone profiles to calculate vertical profiles of ozone flux. Surface measurements of temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and wind speed and direction were also made to supplement the profiler data in the lowest levels.

  7. Endolithic cyanobacteria in soil gypsum: Occurrences in Atacama (Chile), Mojave (United States), and Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan) Deserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Hailiang; Rech, Jason A.; Jiang, Hongchen; Sun, Henry; Buck, Brenda J.

    2007-06-01

    Soil sulfates are present in arid and hyperarid environments on Earth and have been found to be abundant in soils on Mars. Examination of soil gypsum from the Atacama Desert, Chile, the Mojave Desert, United States, and Al-Jafr Basin, Jordan, revealed endolithic cyanobacteria communities just below the surface of soil gypsum samples. Optical and scanning electron microscope observations of the colonized layers indicated that the unicellular Chroococcidiopsis is the dominant cyanobacterium in all studied communities. 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that in addition to Chroococcidiopsis, a few other cyanobacteria are present. Heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant in the colonized zones of the fine-grained gypsum from the Atacama and Mojave Desert, but insignificant in the fibrous gypsum from the Jordan Desert. Endolithic life forms similar to these described here may exist or have existed on Mars and should be targeted by the Mars Science Laboratory and future in situ missions.

  8. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Makinde, Olufunmbi Olukemi; Olaleye, Olalekan; Brown, Brandon; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The practice of reproductive medicine in Nigeria is facing new challenges with the proliferation of 'baby factories'. Baby factories are buildings, hospitals or orphanages that have been converted into places for young girls and women to give birth to children for sale on the black market, often to infertile couples, or into trafficking rings. This practice illegally provides outcomes (children) similar to surrogacy. While surrogacy has not been well accepted in this environment, the proliferation of baby factories further threatens its acceptance. The involvement of medical and allied health workers in the operation of baby factories raises ethical concerns. The lack of a properly defined legal framework and code of practice for surrogacy makes it difficult to prosecute baby factory owners, especially when they are health workers claiming to be providing services to clients. In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. PMID:26602942

  9. The Factory Approach to Creating TSTT Meshes

    SciTech Connect

    Epperly, T

    2003-10-21

    The factory approach (a.k.a. virtual constructor) hides the details of the class implementing the TSTT from TSTT users. In version 0.5 of TSTT.sidl, the client hard codes the name of the implementing class into their code. The client is forced to choose from the small set of possible concrete classes defined in TSTT.sidl. This approach makes it impossible to support multiple implementations of the TSTT in a single process because each implementation has to implement the same class. The factory approach hides the details of mesh creation from the client. The client does not need to know the name of the implementing class, and the client can dynamically determine which interfaces are supported by the new mesh. A factory can support multiple TSTT implementation because each implementation defines its own concrete classes to implement. The factory approach does require the TSTT compliant mesh packages to implement a MeshFactory interface, and everyone needs to link against an implementation of the Registry. The Registry only has 7 methods that are fairly easy to implement, and everyone can share one implementation of the Registry.

  10. D-558-2 Aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1955-01-01

    . In the process, during August of 1949 they encountered pitch-up problems, which NACA engineers recognized as serious because they could produce a limiting and dangerous restriction on flight performance. Hence, they determined to make a complete investigation of the problem. In 1950, Douglas replaced the turbojet with an LR-8 rocket engine, and its pilot, William B. Bridgeman, flew the aircraft seven times up to a speed of Mach 1.88 (1.88 times the speed of sound) and an altitude of 79,494 feet (the latter an unofficial world's altitude record at the time, achieved on August 15, 1951). In the rocket configuration, a Navy P2B (Navy version of the B-29) launched the airplane at approximately 30,000 feet after taking off from the ground with the Skyrocket attached beneath its bomb bay. During Bridgeman's supersonic flights, he encountered a violent rolling motion known as lateral instability that was less pronounced on the Mach 1.88 flight on August 7, 1951, than on a Mach 1.85 flight in June when he pushed over to a low angle of attack (angle of the fuselage or wing to the prevailing wind direction). The NACA engineers studied the behavior of the aircraft before beginning their own flight research in the airplane in September 1951. Over the next couple of years, NACA pilot A. Scott Crossfield flew the airplane 20 times to gather data on longitudinal and lateral stability and control, wing and tail loads, and lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics at speeds up to Mach 1.878. At that point, Marine Lt. Col. Marion Carl flew the airplane to a new (unofficial) altitude record of 83,235 feet on August 21, 1953, and to a maximum speed of Mach 1.728. Following Carl's completion of these flights for the Navy, NACA technicians at the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS) near Mojave, Calif., outfitted the LR-8 engine's cylinders with nozzle extensions to prevent the exhaust gas from affecting the rudders at supersonic speeds. This addition also increased the engine

  11. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  12. Predicting Aircraft Noise Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    Computer program developed for predicting aircraft noise levels either in flight or in ground tests. Noise sources include fan inlet and exhaust jet flap (for powered lift), core (combustor), turbine and airframe. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  13. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  14. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  15. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Aircraft Safety Improvement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, G.

    1985-01-01

    Fabrication and testing of honeycomb sandwich aircraft panels are discussed. Also described is the use of the following instruments: thermogravimetric analyzer, differential scanning calorimeter, limiting oxygen index, and infrared spectrometer.

  17. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  18. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  19. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  20. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  1. Aircraft of the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeger, S.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic problems connected with attempts to increase the size and capacity of transport aircraft are discussed. According to the square-cubic law, the increase in structural weight is proportional to the third power of the increase in the linear dimensions of the aircraft when geomettric similarity is maintained, while the surface area of the aircraft increases according to the second power. A consequence is that the fraction of useful weight will decrease as aircraft increase in size. However, in flying-wing designs in which the whole load on the wing is proportional to the distribution of lifting forces, the total bending moment on the wing will be sharply reduced, enabling lighter construction. Flying wings may have an ultimate capacity of 3000 passengers.

  2. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  3. Recovery of secular deformation field of Mojave Shear Zone in Southern California from historical terrestrial and GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shaozhuo; Shen, Zheng-Kang; Bürgmann, Roland

    2015-05-01

    The 1992 Mw 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes struck the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, Southern California. Coseismic and postseismic deformation from these events affect efforts to use Global Positioning System (GPS) observations collected since these events to establish a secular surface velocity field, especially in the near field of the coseismic ruptures. We devise block motion models constrained by both historical pre-Landers triangulation and trilateration observations and post-Landers GPS measurements to recover the secular deformation field and differentiate the postseismic transients in the Mojave region. Postseismic transients are found to remain in the Southern California Earthquake Center Crustal Motion Map Version 4, Plate Boundary Observatory, and Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center GPS velocity solutions in the form of 2-3 mm/yr excess right-lateral shear across the Landers and Hector Mine coseismic ruptures. The cumulative deformation rate across the Mojave ECSZ is 13.2-14.4 mm/yr, at least twice the geologic rate since the late Pleistocene (≤6.2 ± 1.9 mm/yr). Postseismic GPS time series based on our secular velocity field reveal enduring late-stage transient motions in the near field of the coseismic ruptures that provide new constraints on the rheological structure of the lower crust and upper mantle.

  4. Evidence for insolation and Pacific forcing of late glacial through Holocene climate in the Central Mojave Desert (Silver Lake, CA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Matthew E.; Knell, Edward J.; Anderson, William T.; Lachniet, Matthew S.; Palermo, Jennifer; Eeg, Holly; Lucero, Ricardo; Murrieta, Rosa; Arevalo, Andrea; Silveira, Emily; Hiner, Christine A.

    2015-09-01

    Silver Lake is the modern terminal playa of the Mojave River in southern California (USA). As a result, it is well located to record both influences from the winter precipitation dominated San Bernardino Mountains - the source of the Mojave River - and from the late summer to early fall North American monsoon at Silver Lake. Here, we present various physical, chemical and biological data from a new radiocarbon-dated, 8.2 m sediment core taken from Silver Lake that spans modern through 14.8 cal ka BP. Texturally, the core varies between sandy clay, clayey sand, and sand-silt-clay, often with abrupt sedimentological transitions. These grain-size changes are used to divide the core into six lake status intervals over the past 14.8 cal ka BP. Notable intervals include a dry Younger Dryas chronozone, a wet early Holocene terminating 7.8 - 7.4 cal ka BP, a distinct mid-Holocene arid interval, and a late Holocene return to ephemeral lake conditions. A comparison to potential climatic forcings implicates a combination of changing summer - winter insolation and tropical and N Pacific sea-surface temperature dynamics as the primary drivers of Holocene climate in the central Mojave Desert.

  5. Near Detectors for a Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Morfin, Jorge G.

    2011-11-23

    The baseline design for a Neutrino Factory includes the need for one or more near detectors.The near detectors must be designed to carry out measurements essential to the sensitivity of the oscillation-physics program. In addition, the intense neutrino beam delivered by the Neutrino Factory makes it possible to carry out a unique neutrino-physics program at the near detectors. This program includes fundamental electroweak and QCD physics. The near detector must also be capable of searching for new physics, for example by detecting tau-leptons which are particularly sensitive probes of non-standard interactions at source and at detection. This paper is extracted from the Near Detector chapter of the Neutrino Factory Interim Design Report.

  6. Low-energy neutrino factory design

    SciTech Connect

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Bogacz, S.A.; Bross, A.; Geer, S.; Johnstone, C.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; /Fermilab

    2009-07-01

    The design of a low-energy (4 GeV) neutrino factory (NF) is described, along with its expected performance. The neutrino factory uses a high-energy proton beam to produce charged pions. The {pi}{sup {+-}} decay to produce muons ({mu}{sup {+-}}), which are collected, accelerated, and stored in a ring with long straight sections. Muons decaying in the straight sections produce neutrino beams. The scheme is based on previous designs for higher energy neutrino factories, but has an improved bunching and phase rotation system, and new acceleration, storage ring, and detector schemes tailored to the needs of the lower energy facility. Our simulations suggest that the NF scheme we describe can produce neutrino beams generated by {approx} 1.4 x 10{sup 21} {mu}{sup +} per year decaying in a long straight section of the storage ring, and a similar number of {mu}{sup -} decays.

  7. The Physics of the B Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevan, A. J.; Golob, B.; Mannel, Th.; Prell, S.; Yabsley, B. D.; Aihara, H.; Anulli, F.; Arnaud, N.; Aushev, T.; Beneke, M.; Beringer, J.; Bianchi, F.; Bigi, I. I.; Bona, M.; Brambilla, N.; Brodzicka, J.; Chang, P.; Charles, M. J.; Cheng, C. H.; Cheng, H.-Y.; Chistov, R.; Colangelo, P.; Coleman, J. P.; Drutskoy, A.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Eidelman, S.; Eigen, G.; Eisner, A. M.; Faccini, R.; Flood, K. T.; Gambino, P.; Gaz, A.; Gradl, W.; Hayashii, H.; Higuchi, T.; Hulsbergen, W. D.; Hurth, T.; Iijima, T.; Itoh, R.; Jackson, P. D.; Kass, R.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Kou, E.; Križan, P.; Kronfeld, A.; Kumano, S.; Kwon, Y. J.; Latham, T. E.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lüth, V.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Meadows, B. T.; Mussa, R.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Ocariz, J.; Olsen, S. L.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Palano, A.; Pich, A.; Playfer, S.; Poluektov, A.; Porter, F. C.; Robertson, S. H.; Roney, J. M.; Roodman, A.; Sakai, Y.; Schwanda, C.; Schwartz, A. J.; Seidl, R.; Sekula, S. J.; Steinhauser, M.; Sumisawa, K.; Swanson, E. S.; Tackmann, F.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; van de Water, R.; Vasseur, G.; Verkerke, W.; Waldi, R.; Wang, M. Z.; Wilson, F. F.; Zupan, J.; Zupanc, A.; Adachi, I.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bellis, M.; Ben-Haim, E.; Biassoni, P.; Cahn, R. N.; Cartaro, C.; Chauveau, J.; Chen, C.; Chiang, C. C.; Cowan, R.; Dalseno, J.; Davier, M.; Davies, C.; Dingfelder, J. C.; Echenard, B.; Epifanov, D.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Gary, J. W.; Godang, R.; Graham, M. T.; Hafner, A.; Hamilton, B.; Hartmann, T.; Hayasaka, K.; Hearty, C.; Iwasaki, Y.; Khodjamirian, A.; Kusaka, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Lafferty, G. D.; Lazzaro, A.; Li, J.; Lindemann, D.; Long, O.; Lusiani, A.; Marchiori, G.; Martinelli, M.; Miyabayashi, K.; Mizuk, R.; Mohanty, G. B.; Muller, D. R.; Nakazawa, H.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Pacetti, S.; Palombo, F.; Pedlar, T. K.; Piilonen, L. E.; Pilloni, A.; Poireau, V.; Prothmann, K.; Pulliam, T.; Rama, M.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roudeau, P.; Schrenk, S.; Schroeder, T.; Schubert, K. R.; Shen, C. P.; Shwartz, B.; Soffer, A.; Solodov, E. P.; Somov, A.; Starič, M.; Stracka, S.; Telnov, A. V.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Tsuboyama, T.; Uglov, T.; Vinokurova, A.; Walsh, J. J.; Watanabe, Y.; Won, E.; Wormser, G.; Wright, D. H.; Ye, S.; Zhang, C. C.; Abachi, S.; Abashian, A.; Abe, K.; Abe, N.; Abe, R.; Abe, T.; Abrams, G. S.; Adam, I.; Adamczyk, K.; Adametz, A.; Adye, T.; Agarwal, A.; Ahmed, H.; Ahmed, M.; Ahmed, S.; Ahn, B. S.; Ahn, H. S.; Aitchison, I. J. R.; Akai, K.; Akar, S.; Akatsu, M.; Akemoto, M.; Akhmetshin, R.; Akre, R.; Alam, M. S.; Albert, J. N.; Aleksan, R.; Alexander, J. P.; Alimonti, G.; Allen, M. T.; Allison, J.; Allmendinger, T.; Alsmiller, J. R. G.; Altenburg, D.; Alwyn, K. E.; An, Q.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, D.; Andreotti, M.; Andress, J. C.; Angelini, C.; Anipko, D.; Anjomshoaa, A.; Anthony, P. L.; Antillon, E. A.; Antonioli, E.; Aoki, K.; Arguin, J. F.; Arinstein, K.; Arisaka, K.; Asai, K.; Asai, M.; Asano, Y.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Asner, D. M.; Aso, T.; Aspinwall, M. L.; Aston, D.; Atmacan, H.; Aubert, B.; Aulchenko, V.; Ayad, R.; Azemoon, T.; Aziz, T.; Azzolini, V.; Azzopardi, D. E.; Baak, M. A.; Back, J. J.; Bagnasco, S.; Bahinipati, S.; Bailey, D. S.; Bailey, S.; Bailly, P.; van Bakel, N.; Bakich, A. M.; Bala, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Ban, Y.; Banas, E.; Band, H. R.; Banerjee, S.; Baracchini, E.; Barate, R.; Barberio, E.; Barbero, M.; Bard, D. J.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, N. R.; Barlow, R. J.; Barrett, M.; Bartel, W.; Bartelt, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Batignani, G.; Battaglia, M.; Bauer, J. M.; Bay, A.; Beaulieu, M.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, T. W.; Becker, J.; Becla, J.; Bedny, I.; Behari, S.; Behera, P. K.; Behn, E.; Behr, L.; Beigbeder, C.; Beiline, D.; Bell, R.; Bellini, F.; Bellodi, G.; Belous, K.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, G.; Benitez, J. F.; Benkebil, M.; Berger, N.; Bernabeu, J.; Bernard, D.; Bernet, R.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berryhill, J. W.; Bertsche, K.; Besson, P.; Best, D. S.; Bettarini, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bhardwaj, V.; Bhimji, W.; Bhuyan, B.; Biagini, M. E.; Biasini, M.; van Bibber, K.; Biesiada, J.; Bingham, I.; Bionta, R. M.; Bischofberger, M.; Bitenc, U.; Bizjak, I.; Blanc, F.; Blaylock, G.; Blinov, V. E.; Bloom, E.; Bloom, P. C.; Blount, N. L.; Blouw, J.; Bly, M.; Blyth, S.; Boeheim, C. T.; Bomben, M.; Bondar, A.; Bondioli, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Bonvicini, G.; Booke, M.; Booth, J.; Borean, C.; Borgland, A. W.; Borsato, E.; Bosi, F.; Bosisio, L.; Botov, A. A.; Bougher, J.; Bouldin, K.; Bourgeois, P.; Boutigny, D.; Bowerman, D. A.; Boyarski, A. M.; Boyce, R. F.; Boyd, J. T.; Bozek, A.; Bozzi, C.; Bračko, M.; Brandenburg, G.; Brandt, T.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.; Breon, A. B.; Breton, D.; Brew, C.; Briand, H.; Bright-Thomas, P. G.; Brigljević, V.; Britton, D. I.; Brochard, F.; Broomer, B.; Brose, J.; Browder, T. E.; Brown, C. L.; Brown, C. M.; Brown, D. N.; Browne, M.; Bruinsma, M.; Brunet, S.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, C.; Buchmueller, O. L.; Bünger, C.; Bugg, W.; Bukin, A. D.; Bula, R.; Bulten, H.; Burchat, P. R.; Burgess, W.; Burke, J. P.; Button-Shafer, J.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Buzzo, A.; Cai, Y.; Calabrese, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Calderini, G.; Camanzi, B.; Campagna, E.; Campagnari, C.; Capra, R.; Carassiti, V.; Carpinelli, M.; Carroll, M.; Casarosa, G.; Casey, B. C. K.; Cason, N. M.; Castelli, G.; Cavallo, N.; Cavoto, G.; Cecchi, A.; Cenci, R.; Cerizza, G.; Cervelli, A.; Ceseracciu, A.; Chai, X.; Chaisanguanthum, K. S.; Chang, M. C.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, D. S.; Chao, M.; Chao, Y.; Charles, E.; Chavez, C. A.; Cheaib, R.; Chekelian, V.; Chen, A.; Chen, E.; Chen, G. P.; Chen, H. F.; Chen, J.-H.; Chen, J. C.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P.; Chen, S.; Chen, W. T.; Chen, X.; Chen, X. R.; Chen, Y. Q.; Cheng, B.; Cheon, B. G.; Chevalier, N.; Chia, Y. M.; Chidzik, S.; Chilikin, K.; Chistiakova, M. V.; Cizeron, R.; Cho, I. S.; Cho, K.; Chobanova, V.; Choi, H. H. F.; Choi, K. S.; Choi, S. K.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Christ, S.; Chu, P. H.; Chun, S.; Chuvikov, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Cinabro, D.; Clark, A. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, C. K.; Claus, R.; Claxton, B.; Clifton, Z. C.; Cochran, J.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cohn, H.; Colberg, T.; Cole, S.; Colecchia, F.; Condurache, C.; Contri, R.; Convert, P.; Convery, M. R.; Cooke, P.; Copty, N.; Cormack, C. M.; Dal Corso, F.; Corwin, L. A.; Cossutti, F.; Cote, D.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Cottingham, W. N.; Couderc, F.; Coupal, D. P.; Covarelli, R.; Cowan, G.; Craddock, W. W.; Crane, G.; Crawley, H. B.; Cremaldi, L.; Crescente, A.; Cristinziani, M.; Crnkovic, J.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T.; Cunha, A.; Curry, S.; D'Orazio, A.; Dû, S.; Dahlinger, G.; Dahmes, B.; Dallapiccola, C.; Danielson, N.; Danilov, M.; Das, A.; Dash, M.; Dasu, S.; Datta, M.; Daudo, F.; Dauncey, P. D.; David, P.; Davis, C. L.; Day, C. T.; De Mori, F.; De Domenico, G.; De Groot, N.; De la Vaissière, C.; de la Vaissière, Ch.; de Lesquen, A.; De Nardo, G.; de Sangro, R.; De Silva, A.; DeBarger, S.; Decker, F. J.; del Amo Sanchez, P.; Del Buono, L.; Del Gamba, V.; del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denig, A. G.; Derkach, D.; Derrington, I. M.; DeStaebler, H.; Destree, J.; Devmal, S.; Dey, B.; Di Girolamo, B.; Marco, E. Di; Dickopp, M.; Dima, M. O.; Dittrich, S.; Dittongo, S.; Dixon, P.; Dneprovsky, L.; Dohou, F.; Doi, Y.; Doležal, Z.; Doll, D. A.; Donald, M.; Dong, L.; Dong, L. Y.; Dorfan, J.; Dorigo, A.; Dorsten, M. P.; Dowd, R.; Dowdell, J.; Drásal, Z.; Dragic, J.; Drummond, B. W.; Dubitzky, R. S.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dubrovin, M. S.; Duh, Y. C.; Duh, Y. T.; Dujmic, D.; Dungel, W.; Dunwoodie, W.; Dutta, D.; Dvoretskii, A.; Dyce, N.; Ebert, M.; Eckhart, E. A.; Ecklund, S.; Eckmann, R.; Eckstein, P.; Edgar, C. L.; Edwards, A. J.; Egede, U.; Eichenbaum, A. 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C.; Simard, M.; Simi, G.; Simon, F.; Simonetto, F.; Sinev, N. B.; Singh, H.; Singh, J. B.; Sinha, R.; Sitt, S.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Sloane, R. J.; Smerkol, P.; Smith, A. J. S.; Smith, D.; Smith, D. S.; Smith, J. G.; Smol, A.; Snoek, H. L.; Snyder, A.; So, R. Y.; Sobie, R. J.; Soderstrom, E.; Soha, A.; Sohn, Y. S.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sokolov, A.; Solagna, P.; Solovieva, E.; Soni, N.; Sonnek, P.; Sordini, V.; Spaan, B.; Spanier, S. M.; Spencer, E.; Speziali, V.; Spitznagel, M.; Spradlin, P.; Staengle, H.; Stamen, R.; Stanek, M.; Stanič, S.; Stark, J.; Steder, M.; Steininger, H.; Steinke, M.; Stelzer, J.; Stevanato, E.; Stocchi, A.; Stock, R.; Stoeck, H.; Stoker, D. P.; Stroili, R.; Strom, D.; Strother, P.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stypula, J.; Su, D.; Suda, R.; Sugahara, R.; Sugi, A.; Sugimura, T.; Sugiyama, A.; Suitoh, S.; Sullivan, M. K.; Sumihama, M.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Summers, D. J.; Sun, L.; Sun, S.; Sundermann, J. E.; Sung, H. F.; Susaki, Y.; Sutcliffe, P.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, J.; Suzuki, J. I.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Swain, J. E.; Swain, S. K.; T'Jampens, S.; Tabata, M.; Tackmann, K.; Tajima, H.; Tajima, O.; Takahashi, K.; Takahashi, S.; Takahashi, T.; Takasaki, F.; Takayama, T.; Takita, M.; Tamai, K.; Tamponi, U.; Tamura, N.; Tan, N.; Tan, P.; Tanabe, K.; Tanabe, T.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, M.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tanida, K.; Taniguchi, N.; Taras, P.; Tasneem, N.; Tatishvili, G.; Tatomi, T.; Tawada, M.; Taylor, F.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, G. P.; Telnov, V. I.; Teodorescu, L.; Ter-Antonyan, R.; Teramoto, Y.; Teytelman, D.; Thérin, G.; Thiebaux, Ch.; Thiessen, D.; Thomas, E. W.; Thompson, J. M.; Thorne, F.; Tian, X. C.; Tibbetts, M.; Tikhomirov, I.; Tinslay, J. S.; Tiozzo, G.; Tisserand, V.; Tocut, V.; Toki, W. H.; Tomassini, E. W.; Tomoto, M.; Tomura, T.; Torassa, E.; Torrence, E.; Tosi, S.; Touramanis, C.; Toussaint, J. C.; Tovey, S. N.; Trapani, P. P.; Treadwell, E.; Triggiani, G.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trischuk, W.; Troost, D.; Trunov, A.; Tsai, K. L.; Tsai, Y. T.; Tsujita, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tumanov, A.; Tung, Y. W.; Turnbull, L.; Turner, J.; Turri, M.; Uchida, K.; Uchida, M.; Uchida, Y.; Ueki, M.; Ueno, K.; Ujiie, N.; Ulmer, K. A.; Unno, Y.; Urquijo, P.; Ushiroda, Y.; Usov, Y.; Usseglio, M.; Usuki, Y.; Uwer, U.; Va'vra, J.; Vahsen, S. E.; Vaitsas, G.; Valassi, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vallereau, A.; Vanhoefer, P.; van Hoek, W. C.; Van Hulse, C.; van Winkle, D.; Varner, G.; Varnes, E. W.; Varvell, K. E.; Vasileiadis, G.; Velikzhanin, Y. S.; Verderi, M.; Versillé, S.; Vervink, K.; Viaud, B.; Vidal, P. B.; Villa, S.; Villanueva-Perez, P.; Vinograd, E. L.; Vitale, L.; Vitug, G. M.; Voß, C.; Voci, C.; Voena, C.; Volk, A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Vorobyev, V.; Vossen, A.; Vuagnin, G.; Vuosalo, C. O.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, A. P.; Wagner, D. L.; Wagner, G.; Wagner, M. N.; Wagner, S. R.; Wagoner, D. E.; Walker, D.; Walkowiak, W.; Wallom, D.; Wang, C. C.; Wang, C. H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. G.; Wang, K.; Wang, L.; Wang, L. L.; Wang, P.; Wang, T. J.; Wang, W. F.; Wang, X. L.; Wang, Y. F.; Wappler, F. R.; Watanabe, M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, J. E.; Watson, N. K.; Watt, M.; Weatherall, J. H.; Weaver, M.; Weber, T.; Wedd, R.; Wei, J. T.; Weidemann, A. W.; Weinstein, A. J. R.; Wenzel, W. A.; West, C. A.; West, C. G.; West, T. J.; White, E.; White, R. M.; Wicht, J.; Widhalm, L.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wienands, U.; Wilden, L.; Wilder, M.; Williams, D. C.; Williams, G.; Williams, J. C.; Williams, K. M.; Williams, M. I.; Willocq, S. Y.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, R. J.; Winklmeier, F.; Winstrom, L. O.; Winter, M. A.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wittlin, J.; Wittmer, W.; Wixted, R.; Woch, A.; Wogsland, B. J.; Won, E.; Wong, Q. K.; Wray, B. C.; Wren, A. C.; Wright, D. M.; Wu, C. H.; Wu, J.; Wu, S. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Xella, S. M.; Xie, Q. L.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z. Z.; Yéche, Ch.; Yamada, Y.; Yamaga, M.; Yamaguchi, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaki, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Yamamoto, R. K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamaoka, Y.; Yamashita, Y.; Yamauchi, M.; Yan, D. S.; Yan, Y.; Yanai, H.; Yanaka, S.; Yang, H.; Yang, R.; Yang, S.; Yarritu, A. K.; Yashchenko, S.; Yashima, J.; Yasin, Z.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, S. W.; Yeh, P.; Yi, J. I.; Yi, K.; Yi, M.; Yin, Z. W.; Ying, J.; Yocky, G.; Yokoyama, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, M.; Yoshimura, Y.; Young, C. C.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, Z.; Yuan, C. Z.; Yuan, Y.; Yumiceva, F. X.; Yusa, Y.; Yushkov, A. N.; Yuta, H.; Zacek, V.; Zain, S. B.; Zallo, A.; Zambito, S.; Zander, D.; Zang, S. L.; Zanin, D.; Zaslavsky, B. G.; Zeng, Q. L.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, L. M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Zhang, Z. P.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhao, M.; Zhao, Z. G.; Zheng, Y.; Zheng, Y. H.; Zheng, Z. P.; Zhilich, V.; Zhou, P.; Zhu, R. Y.; Zhu, Y. S.; Zhu, Z. M.; Zhulanov, V.; Ziegler, T.; Ziegler, V.; Zioulas, G.; Zisman, M.; Zito, M.; Zürcher, D.; Zwahlen, N.; Zyukova, O.; Živko, T.; Žontar, D.

    2014-11-01

    This work is on the Physics of the B Factories. Part A of this book contains a brief description of the SLAC and KEK B Factories as well as their detectors, BaBar and Belle, and data taking related issues. Part B discusses tools and methods used by the experiments in order to obtain results. The results themselves can be found in Part C. Please note that version 3 on the archive is the auxiliary version of the Physics of the B Factories book. This uses the notation alpha, beta, gamma for the angles of the Unitarity Triangle. The nominal version uses the notation phi_1, phi_2 and phi_3. Please cite this work as Eur. Phys. J. C74 (2014) 3026.

  8. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  9. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  10. D-558-2 Aircraft on lakebed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1954-01-01

    airspeed calibrations and to research longitudinal and lateral stability and control. In the process, during August of 1949 they encountered pitch-up problems, which NACA engineers recognized as serious because they could produce a limiting and dangerous restriction on flight performance. Hence, they determined to make a complete investigation of the problem. In 1950, Douglas replaced the turbojet with an LR-8 rocket engine, and its pilot, William B. Bridgeman, flew the aircraft seven times up to a speed of Mach 1.88 (1.88 times the speed of sound) and an altitude of 79,494 feet (the latter an unofficial world's altitude record at the time, achieved on August 15, 1951). In the rocket configuration, a Navy P2B (Navy version of the B-29) launched the airplane at approximately 30,000 feet after taking off from the ground with the Skyrocket attached beneath its bomb bay. During Bridgeman's supersonic flights, he encountered a violent rolling motion known as lateral instability that was less pronounced on the Mach 1.88 flight on August 7, 1951, than on a Mach 1.85 flight in June when he pushed over to a low angle of attack (angle of the fuselage or wing to the prevailing wind direction). The NACA engineers studied the behavior of the aircraft before beginning their own flight research in the airplane in September 1951. Over the next couple of years, NACA pilot A. Scott Crossfield flew the airplane 20 times to gather data on longitudinal and lateral stability and control, wing and tail loads, and lift, drag, and buffeting characteristics at speeds up to Mach 1.878. At that point, Marine Lt. Col. Marion Carl flew the airplane to a new (unofficial) altitude record of 83,235 feet on August 21, 1953, and to a maximum speed of Mach 1.728. Following Carl's completion of these flights for the Navy, NACA technicians at the High-Speed Flight Research Station (HSFRS) near Mojave, Calif., outfitted the LR-8 engine's cylinders with nozzle extensions to prevent the exhaust gas from affecting

  11. From super beams to neutrino factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, Alan; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The Neutrino Factory, which produces an extremely intense source of flavor-tagged neutrinos from muon decays in a storage ring, arguably gives the best physics reach for CP violation, as well as virtually all parameters in the neutrino oscillation parameter space. I will briefly describe the physics capabilities of the baseline Neutrino Factory as compared to other possible future facilities ({beta}-beam and super-beam facilities), give an overview of the accelerator complex and describe in detail the current international R&D program.

  12. Radiative Penguin Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Koneke, Karsten; /MIT, LNS

    2007-11-16

    In this article, I review the most recent results in radiative penguin decays from the B factories Belle and BABAR. Most notably, I will talk about the recent new observations in the decays B {yields} ({rho}/{omega}) {gamma}, a new analysis technique in b {yields} s{gamma}, and first measurements of radiative penguin decays in the B{sup 0}{sub s} meson system. Finally, I will summarize the current status and future prospects of radiative penguin B physics at the B factories.

  13. Neutron Spectrometer Prospecting During the Mojave Volatiles Project Analog Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Hunt, D. R.; Deans, M C.; Lim, D. S.; Foil, G.; Fong, T.

    2015-01-01

    We know there are volatiles sequestered at the poles of the Moon. While we have evidence of water ice and a number of other compounds based on remote sensing, the detailed distribution, and physical and chemical form are largely unknown. Additional orbital studies of lunar polar volatiles may yield further insights, but the most important next step is to use landed assets to fully characterize the volatile composition and distribution at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. To achieve this range of scales, mobility is needed. Because of the proximity of the Moon, near real-time operation of the surface assets is possible, with an associated reduction in risk and cost. This concept of operations is very different from that of rovers on Mars, and new operational approaches are required to carry out such real-time robotic exploration. The Mojave Volatiles Project (MVP) is a Moon- Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) program effort aimed at (1) determining effective approaches to operating a real-time but short-duration lunar surface robotic mission, and (2) performing prospecting science in a natural setting, as a test of these approaches. We know there are volatiles sequestered at the poles of the Moon. While we have evidence of water ice and a number of other compounds based on remote sensing, the detailed distribution, and physical and chemical form are largely unknown. Additional orbital studies of lunar polar volatiles may yield further insights, but the most important next step is to use landed assets to fully characterize the volatile composition and distribution at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. To achieve this range of scales, mobility is needed. Because of the proximity of the Moon, near real-time operation of the surface assets is possible, with an associated reduction in risk and cost. This concept of operations is very different from that of rovers on Mars, and new operational approaches are required to carry out such robotic exploration. The

  14. Neutron Spectrometer Prospecting in the Mojave Volatiles Project Analog Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elphic, R. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Colaprete, A.; Hunt, D. R.; Deans, M. C.; Lim, D. S.; Foil, G.; Fong, T.

    2015-01-01

    We know that volatiles are sequestered at the poles of the Moon. While we have evidence of water ice and a number of other compounds based on remote sensing, the detailed distribution, and physical and chemical form are largely unknown. Additional orbital studies of lunar polar volatiles may yield further insights, but the most important next step is to use landed assets to fully characterize the volatile composition and distribution at scales of tens to hundreds of meters. To achieve this range of scales, mobility is needed. Because of the proximity of the Moon, near real-time operation of the surface assets is possible, with an associated reduction in risk and cost. This concept of operations is very different from that of rovers on Mars, and new operational approaches are required to carry out such real-time robotic exploration. The Mojave Volatiles Project (MVP) was a Moon-Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) program project aimed at (1) determining effective approaches to operating a real-time but short-duration lunar surface robotic mission, and (2) performing prospecting science in a natural setting, as a test of these approaches. Here we describe some results from the first such test, carried out in the Mojave Desert between 16 and 24 October, 2014. The test site was an alluvial fan just E of the Soda Mountains, SW of Baker, California. This site contains desert pavements, ranging from the late Pleistocene to early-Holocene in age. These pavements are undergoing dissection by the ongoing development of washes. A principal objective was to determine the hydration state of different types of desert pavement and bare ground features. The mobility element of the test was provided by the KREX-2 rover, designed and operated by the Intelligent Robotics Group at NASA Ames Research Center. The rover-borne neutron spectrometer measured the neutron albedo at both thermal and epithermal energies. Assuming uniform geochemistry and material bulk density, hydrogen as

  15. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Predmore, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 660 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  16. Time series analysis of ERS and ENVISAT InSAR data in Northern Mojave, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltzer, G.; Liu, Z.; Lundgren, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Garlock fault is the only major left-lateral fault in Southern California and is viewed as a conjugate structure with respect to faults in the San Andreas system and the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). Previous results obtained with InSAR data analysis suggest that during the 1992-2000 decade, a prominent fault system in the ECSZ (the Blackwater - Little Lake fault system) accommodated strain at a rate exceeding its long-term (geologic) rate by a factor of at least 3. During the same period, the study also suggests that the Garlock fault accumulated strain at a slower rate than its geological rate, or even not at all in its eastern section. This intriguing observation raised a number of questions about the temporal behavior of faults in the northern Mojave and stress transfer between near-by structures. With an InSAR archive of almost 18 years, we revisit the northern Mojave Desert faults area to determine whether the rapid strain accumulation observed between 1992 and 2000 is actually occurring at a steady rate or whether its rate varies over the 1992-2000 time period. Because of the small magnitude of the signal, a careful treatment of errors due to atmospheric phase delay must be undertaken. We use the newly released North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) global atmospheric model distributed by NOAA to estimate the radar phase delay produced by the stratified atmosphere. For each epoch of radar acquisition, a vertical profile of the air index of refraction is computed at each of the NARR grid nodes. The phase delay at each image pixel is then estimated by interpolation within the NARR grid and integration along the atmospheric column above the elevation of the pixel. A comparison between the model-derived and InSAR observed phase-topography dependence shows that, for Southern California, global models provide an effective way of correcting phase delay signal due to the stratified troposphere. The complete ERS/ENVISAT archive is processed and

  17. Mesozoic intra-arc tectonics in the NE Mojave Desert, CA

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, K.A.; Schermer, E.R. . Geology Dept.); Walker, J.D. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Field and U-Pb zircon geochronological data from the Tiefort Mts. (TM) and surrounding areas in the NE Mojave Desert provide new constraints on Precambrian to Paleozoic paleogeography and Mesozoic intra-arc tectonics. Amphibolite facies metasediments appear to correlate with lower Paleozoic miogeoclinal sequences. Coarse-grained K-feldspar augen gneiss occurs in sharp contact with the metasedimentary rocks; U-Pb dating yields a 1393[+-]12 Ma age. This gneiss is interpreted to represent cratonal basement of North America. A texturally and compositionally heterogeneous amphibolite-facies monzonitic complex which intrudes the basement and metasediments yields a mid-Jurassic age. Felsite and biotite granite that intrude the foliated monzonitic complex locally contain the mylonitic fabric and appear to be syn-late kinematic. Undeformed pegmatite, granite, and microdiorite appear as dikes throughout the region. Vertical silicic dikes at southern TM trend N5-25E and are dated at 148[+-]14 Ma, coeval with the Independence dike swarm (IDS). Similar dikes that occur at TM trend N60-80E. Undeformed granite cross-cuts the foliated monzonite; some granitic rocks cut dikes of the IDs and are likely to be Cretaceous in age. The E- to SE-vergence and mid-late Jurassic age of ductile shear zones in the TM region are similar to that in nearby parts of the East Sierra Thrust System (ESTS). If NE and NNE dikes are IDS-equivalent, this implies clockwise, vertical-axis rotation of 30[degree]--90[degree] by younger structures. The authors interpret this to be related to late Cenozoic strike-slip faults. Restoration of folds and the IDS to the regional NW trend results in top to the E to NE sense of shear during Jurassic deformation. Deformation in the TM and areas to the north connects the ESTS from the Garlock fault to the central Mojave region indicating a region in which mid-crustal levels of the arc and cratonal basement experienced contractional tectonism during mid-Jurassic time.

  18. PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESOURCE ALLOCATION OF THREE MOJAVE DESERT GRASSES IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO2

    SciTech Connect

    L. A. DEFALCO; C. K. IVANS; P. VIVIN; J. R. SEEMANN; R. S. NOWAK

    2004-01-01

    Gas exchange, biomass and N allocation were compared among three Mojave Desert grasses representing different functional types to determine if photosynthetic responses and the associated allocation of resources within the plant changed after prolonged exposure to elevated CO{sub 2}. Leaf gas exchange characteristics were measured for Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens (C{sub 3} invasive annual), Achnatherum hymenoides (C{sub 3} native perennial) and Pleuraphis rigida (C{sub 4} native perennial) exposed to 360 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (ambient) and 1000 {micro}mol mol{sup -1} (elevated) CO{sub 2} concentrations in a glasshouse experiment, and tissue biomass and total N pools were quantified from three harvests during development. The maximum rate of carboxylation by the N-rich enzyme Rubisco (Vc{sub max}), which was inferred from the relationship between net CO{sub 2} assimilation (A{sub net}) and intracellular CO{sub 2} concentration (c{sub i}), declined in the C{sub 3} species Bromus and Achnatherum across all sampling dates, but did not change at elevated CO{sub 2} for the C{sub 4} Pleuraphis. Whole plant N remained the same between CO{sub 2} treatments for all species, but patterns of allocation differed for the short- and long-lived C{sub 3} species. For Bromus, leaf N used for photosynthesis was reallocated to reproduction at elevated CO{sub 2} as inferred from the combination of lower Vc{sub max} and N per leaf area (NLA) at elevated CO{sub 2}, but similar specific leaf area (SLA, cm{sup 2} g{sup -1}), and of greater reproductive effort (RE) for the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. Vc{sub max}, leaf N concentration and NLA declined for the perennial Achnatherum at elevated CO{sub 2} potentially due to accumulation of carbohydrates or changes in leaf morphology inferred from lower SLA and greater total biomass at elevated CO{sub 2}. In contrast, Vc{sub max} for the C{sub 4} perennial Pleuraphis did not change at elevated CO{sub 2}, and tissue biomass and total N were

  19. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent

    PubMed Central

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-01-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011–2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4–8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the

  20. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Very little is known about the behavior and effects of fire in the Mojave Desert, because fire was historically uncommon. However, fire has become more frequent since the 1970s with increased dominance of the invasive annual grasses Bromus rubens and Schismus spp., and land managers are concerned about its ecological effect. In this paper, I describe patterns of peak fire temperature and their effect on annual plants in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Temperatures were monitored among microhabitats and distances from the soil surface, and between spring and summer. Microhabitats ranged from high amounts of fuel beneath creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) canopies, to intermediate amounts at the canopy drip line, to low amounts in the interspaces between them. Distances from the soil surface were within the vertical range where most annual plant seeds occur (-2, 0, 5, and 10 cm). I also compare temperature patterns with postfire changes in soil properties and annual plant biomass and species richness to infer potential mechanisms by which fires affect annual plants. Peak fire temperatures were most affected by the microhabitat fuel gradient, and the effects of fire on annual plants varied among microhabitats. Beneath creosote bushes, lethal fire temperatures for annual plant seeds occurred above- and belowground, resulting in four postfire years of reduced annual plant biomass and species richness due most likely to seed mortality, especially of Bromus rubens and native forbs. At the canopy drip line, lethal fire temperatures occurred only aboveground, reducing annual plant biomass for 1 yr and species richness for 2 yr, and increasing biomass of Schismus sp., the alien forb Erodium cicutarium, and native annuals after 3 yr. Negligible changes were caused by fire in interspaces or between spring and summer. Fire effects models for creosote bush scrub vegetation must account for patterns of peak fire temperature along the shrub-intershrub gradient

  1. Chronology, sedimentology, and microfauna of groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert, Valley Wells, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, J.S.; Miller, D.M.; Bright, J.E.; Mahan, S.A.; Nekola, J.C.; Paces, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    groundwater supported persistent and long-lived desert wetlands in many broad valleys and basins in the American Southwest. When active, these systems provided important food and water sources for local fauna, supported hydrophilic and phreatophytic vegetation, and acted as catchments for eolian and alluvial sediments. Desert wetlands are represented in the geologic record by groundwater discharge deposits, which are also called spring or wetland deposits. Groundwater discharge deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, thus, are a source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. Here, we present the results of an investigation of extensive groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert at Valley Wells, California. We used geologic mapping and stratigraphic relations to identify two distinct wetland sequences at Valley Wells, which we dated using radiocarbon, luminescence, and uranium-series techniques. We also analyzed the sediments and microfauna (ostracodes and gastropods) to reconstruct the specific environments in which they formed. Our results suggest that the earliest episode of high water-table conditions at Valley Wells began ca. 60 ka (thousands of calendar yr B.P.), and culminated in peak discharge between ca. 40 and 35 ka. During this time, cold (4-12 ??C) emergent groundwater supported extensive wetlands that likely were composed of a wet, sedge-rush-tussock meadow mixed with mesic riparian forest. After ca. 35 ka, the water table dropped below the ground surface but was still shallow enough to support dense stands of phreatophytes through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The water table dropped further after the LGM, and xeric conditions prevailed until modest wetlands returned briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event (13.0-11.6 ka). We did not observe any evidence of wet conditions during the Holocene at Valley Wells. The timing of these fluctuations is consistent with

  2. Aeolian responses to climate variability during the past century on Mesquite Lake Playa, Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitney, J. W.; Breit, G. N.; Buckingham, S. E.; Reynolds, R. L.; Bogle, R. C.; Luo, L.; Goldstein, H. L.; Vogel, J. M.

    2015-02-01

    The erosion and deposition of sediments by wind from 1901 to 2013 have created large changes in surface features of Mesquite Lake playa in the Mojave Desert. The decadal scale recurrence of sand-sheet development, migration, and merging with older dunes appears related to decadal climatic changes of drought and wetness as recorded in the precipitation history of the Mojave Desert, complemented by modeled soil-moisture index values. Historical aerial photographs, repeat land photographs, and satellite images document the presence and northward migration of a mid-20th century sand sheet that formed during a severe regional drought that coincided with a multi-decadal cool phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The sand sheet slowly eroded during the wetter conditions of the subsequent PDO warm phase (1977-1998) due to a lack of added sediment. Sand cohesion gradually increased in the sand sheet by seasonal additions of salt and clay and by re-precipitation of gypsum, which resulted in the wind-carving of yardangs in the receding sand sheet. Smaller yardangs were aerodynamically shaped from coppice dunes with salt-clay crusts, and larger yardangs were carved along the walls and floor of trough blowouts. Evidence of a 19th century cycle of sand-sheet formation and erosion is indicated by remnants of yardangs, photographed in 1901 and 1916, that were found buried in the mid-20th century sand sheet. Three years of erosion measurements on the playa, yardangs, and sand sheets document relatively rapid wind erosion. The playa has lowered 20 to 40 cm since the mid-20th century and a shallow deflation basin has developed since 1999. Annually, 5-10 cm of surface sediment was removed from yardang flanks by a combination of wind abrasion, deflation, and mass movement. The most effective erosional processes are wind stripping of thin crusts that form on the yardang surfaces after rain events and the slumping of sediment blocks from yardang flanks. These wind

  3. Chronology, sedimentology, and microfauna of groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert, Valley Wells, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pigati, Jeffrey S.; Miller, David M.; Bright, Jordon E.; Mahan, Shannon; Nekola, Jeffrey C.; Paces, James B.

    2011-01-01

    During the late Pleistocene, emergent groundwater supported persistent and long-lived desert wetlands in many broad valleys and basins in the American Southwest. When active, these systems provided important food and water sources for local fauna, supported hydrophilic and phreatophytic vegetation, and acted as catchments for eolian and alluvial sediments. Desert wetlands are represented in the geologic record by groundwater discharge deposits, which are also called spring or wetland deposits. Groundwater discharge deposits contain information on the timing and magnitude of past changes in water-table levels and, thus, are a source of paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic information. Here, we present the results of an investigation of extensive groundwater discharge deposits in the central Mojave Desert at Valley Wells, California. We used geologic mapping and stratigraphic relations to identify two distinct wetland sequences at Valley Wells, which we dated using radiocarbon, luminescence, and uranium-series techniques. We also analyzed the sediments and microfauna (ostracodes and gastropods) to reconstruct the specific environments in which they formed. Our results suggest that the earliest episode of high water-table conditions at Valley Wells began ca. 60 ka (thousands of calendar yr B.P.), and culminated in peak discharge between ca. 40 and 35 ka. During this time, cold (4–12 °C) emergent groundwater supported extensive wetlands that likely were composed of a wet, sedge-rush-tussock meadow mixed with mesic riparian forest. After ca. 35 ka, the water table dropped below the ground surface but was still shallow enough to support dense stands of phreatophytes through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The water table dropped further after the LGM, and xeric conditions prevailed until modest wetlands returned briefly during the Younger Dryas cold event (13.0–11.6 ka). We did not observe any evidence of wet conditions during the Holocene at Valley Wells. The timing

  4. Scaling Heterogeneous Soil Hydraulic Properties Using Canopy/Interspace Distributions in a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldwell, T. G.; Young, M. H.; Zhu, J.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; McDonald, E. V.

    2007-12-01

    Desert piedmonts are a mosaic of interspersed vegetation and open soil or interspaces. The distribution of perennial plants in arid regions is ultimately tied to available soil moisture. Surface soils in deserts undergo different pedologic processes depending on the proximity to plant canopies. For example, bioturbation and the accumulation of aeolian material and organic matter around plant canopies result in a mound-like formation around perennial plant canopies, whereas interspace areas tend to be microtopographic low points with reduced organic matter. Differences in soil structure and texture in undercanopy and interspace microsites can be significant, thus affecting infiltration, plant available water and ET. In this study, we sought to answer the questions: do soil hydraulic properties vary predictably from the undercanopy to interspace at the plot scale, and if so, how does this heterogeneous parameter field affect large-scale hydrologic processes of a heterogeneous landscape in the Mojave Desert? To answer these questions, a total of four radial transects was run on each of six shrubs (three each of L. tridentata and L. paladin) at the Mojave Global Change Facility (MGCF), located at the Nevada Test Site, USA. The extent of heterogeneity in soil physical and hydraulic properties (texture, bulk density, hydraulic conductivity functions K(h)) was measured across microsites by soil sampling and analysis, and by using up to 7 mini-disk tension infiltrometers (MDTI) spaced at 25-cm increments in linear array across a distance of 150 cm. Significant gradients of soil physical and hydraulic properties were observed from canopy to interspace microsites at 1.2 times the mean mound diameter. Despite a decrease in bulk density and fines under shrub canopies, a consistent trend of increasing K(h) and decreasing Gardner's alpha with increasing radial distance from shrubs was measured. Using the results of observed gradients around canopies, hydraulic property

  5. Kinetic power of quasars and statistical excess of MOJAVE superluminal motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Corredoira, M.; Perucho, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The MOJAVE (MOnitoring of Jets in AGN with VLBA Experiments) survey contains 101 quasars with a total of 354 observed radio components that are different from the radio cores, among which 95% move with apparent projected superluminal velocities with respect to the core, and 45% have projected velocities larger than 10c (with a maximum velocity 60c). We try to determine whether this distribution is statistically probable, and we make an independent measure of the kinetic power required in the quasars to produce such powerful ejections. Methods: Doppler boosting effects are analyzed to determine the statistics of the superluminal motions. We integrate over all possible values of the Lorentz factor, the values of the kinetic energy corresponding to each component. The calculation of the mass in the ejection is carried out by assuming the minimum energy state, i.e., that the magnetic field and particle energy distributions are arranged in the most efficient way to produce the observed synchrotron emission. This kinetic energy is multiplied by the frequency at which the portions of the jet fluid identified as "blobs" are produced. Hence, we estimate the average total power released by the quasars in the form of kinetic energy in the long term on pc-scales. Results: A selection effect in which both the core and the blobs of the quasar are affected by huge Doppler-boosting enhancement increases the probability of finding a jet ejected within 10 degrees of the line of sight ≳ 40 times above what one would expect for a random distribution of ejection, which explains the ratios of the very high projected velocities given above. The average total kinetic power of each MOJAVE quasar should be very high to obtain this distribution: ~ 7 × 1047 erg/s. This amount is much higher than previous estimates of kinetic power on kpc-scales based on the analysis of cavities in X-ray gas or radio lobes in samples of objects of much lower radio luminosity but similar black hole

  6. An Ixodes minor and Borrelia carolinensis enzootic cycle involving a critically endangered Mojave Desert rodent.

    PubMed

    Foley, Janet; Ott-Conn, Caitlin; Worth, Joy; Poulsen, Amanda; Clifford, Deana

    2014-03-01

    Microtus californicus scirpensis is an endangered, isolated subspecies of California vole. It requires water pools and riparian bulrush (Schoenoplectus americanus) and occupies some of the rarest habitat of any North American mammal. The minimally vegetated, extremely arid desert surrounding the pools is essentially uninhabitable for Ixodes species ticks. We describe an enzootic cycle of Borrelia carolinensis in Ixodes minor ticks at a site 3500 km distant from the region in which I. minor is known to occur in Tecopa Host Springs, Inyo County, eastern Mojave Desert, California. Voles were live-trapped, and ticks and blood samples queried by PCR and DNA sequencing for identification and determination of the presence of Borrelia spp. Between 2011-2013, we found 21 Ixodes minor ticks (prevalence 4-8%) on Amargosa voles and Reithrodontomys megalotis. DNA sequencing of 16S rRNA from ticks yielded 99% identity to I. minor. There was 92% identity with I. minor in the calreticulin gene fragment. Three ticks (23.1%), 15 (24%) voles, three (27%) house mice, and one (7%) harvest mice were PCR positive for Borrelia spp. Sequencing of the 5S-23S intergenic spacer region and flagellin gene assigned Amargosa vole Borrelia strains to B. carolinensis. Ixodes minor, first described in 1902 from a single Guatemalan record, reportedly occurs only in the southeast American on small mammals and birds. The source of this tick in the Mojave Desert and time scale for introduction is not known but likely via migratory birds. Borrelia strains in the Amargosa ecosystem most closely resemble B. carolinensis. B. carolinensis occurs in a rodent-I. minor enzootic cycle in the southeast U.S. although its epidemiological significance for people or rodents is unknown. The presence of a tick and Borrelia spp. only known from southeast U.S. in this extremely isolated habitat on the other side of the continent is of serious concern because it suggests that the animals in the ecosystem

  7. Unveiling of sign for Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In a brief ceremony following a memorial service for the late Walter C. Williams on November 17, 1995, the Integrated Test Facility (ITF) at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards, California, was formally renamed the Walter C. Williams Research Aircraft Integration Facility. Shown is the family of Walt Williams: Helen, his widow, sons Charles and Howard, daughter Elizabeth Williams Powell, their spouses and children unveiling the new sign redesignating the Facility. The test facility provides state-of-the-art capabilities for thorough ground testing of advanced research aircraft. It allows researchers and technicians to integrate and test aircraft systems before each research flight, which greatly enhances the safety of each mission. In September 1946 Williams became engineer-in-charge of a team of five engineers who arrived at Muroc Army Air Base (now Edwards AFB) from the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics's Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, Hampton, Virginia (now NASA's Langley Research Center), to prepare for supersonic research flights in a joint NACA-Army Air Forces program involving the rocket-powered X-1. This established the first permanent NACA presence at the Mojave Desert site although initially the five engineers and others who followed them were on temporary assignment. Over time, Walt continued to be in charge during the many name changes for the NACA-NASA organization, with Williams ending his stay as Chief of the NASA Flight Research Center in September 1959 (today NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center).

  8. Semileptonic B Decays at the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzi, Concezio; /INFN, Ferrara

    2006-09-25

    Recent results on inclusive and exclusive semileptonic B decays from B Factories are presented. The status and perspectives of the determination of the CKM matrix elements V{sub ub} and V{sub cb} with semileptonic B decays is discussed.

  9. The Idea Factory: An Interactive Intergroup Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosh, Lisa; Leach, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This article outlines the Idea Factory exercise, an interactive exercise designed to help participants examine group, individual, and organizational factors that affect intergroup conflict. Specific emphasis is placed on exploring the relationship between intra- and intergroup dynamics and identifying managerial practices that foster effective…

  10. Performance Comparison: Superbeams, Beta Beams, Neutrino Factory

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, Walter

    2011-10-06

    In this talk, the performance comparison among superbeams (SB), beta beams (BB), and the Neutrino Factory (NF) is discussed. The ingredients to such a comparison are described, and the optimization and status of BB and NF are addressed. Finally, one example for the performance comparison is shown.

  11. Making Connections: After the Factories Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Stuart A.; Bergman, Edward M.

    This analysis of employment patterns in the American South extends a 1985 report, "After the Factories: Changing Employment Patterns in the Rural South," which was based on the years between 1977-1982. The 1985 report included Texas, but this analysis includes only the 12 Southern Growth Policies Board (SGPB) member states. This new analysis…

  12. Comments on a linac based beauty factory

    SciTech Connect

    Samuel Heifets; Geoffrey Krafft; C. McDowell; M. Fripp

    1990-02-01

    A consistent set of parameters is given for a B-factory based on collisions of an electron beam from a SRF linac with the positron beam in a storage ring. An optimized lattice, an impedance estimate, a study of beam stability, and a discussion of collisions with large disruption parameters are included.

  13. Speech Differences of Factory Worker Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tway, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    This article, which focuses on speech differences of age groups, is part of a larger study of occupational jargon, its characteristics and underlying features and the part it plays in reflecting the workers' knowledge of their jobs and their attitudes toward jobs in general. The project incorporated a case method of research in a china factory.…

  14. An Epiphany in a Toilet Factory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Catlin

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences of the universality of art making and artistic experience of being a dancer and teaching artist. She describes her performance at Kohler, a worldwide leader in plumbing products in Spartanburg, South Carolina, where she had an epiphany dancing in a toilet factory--a sudden, intuitive moment of…

  15. Pathfinder Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long- duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar- powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  16. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure was clearly defined as it soared under a clear blue sky during a test flight July 27, 1995, from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The center section and outer wing panels of the aircraft had ribs constructed of thin plastic foam, while the ribs in the inner wing panels are fabricated from lightweight composite material. Developed by AeroVironment, Inc., the Pathfinder was one of several unmanned aircraft being evaluated under NASA's Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus

  17. Perspectives on Higher Luminosity B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J

    2004-04-22

    The present B-factories PEP-II and KEKB have reached luminosities of 4-6 x 10{sup 33}/cm{sup 2}/s and delivered integrated luminosity at rates in excess of 6 fb{sup -1} per month [1,2]. The recent turn on of these two B-Factories has shown that modern accelerator physics, design, and engineering can produce colliders that rapidly reach their design luminosities and deliver integrated luminosities capable of frontier particle physics discoveries. PEP-II and KEK-B with ongoing upgrade programs should reach luminosities of over 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s in a few years and with more aggressive improvements may reach luminosities of order 4 x 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s by the end of the decade. However, due to particle physics requirements, the next generation B-Factory may require significantly more luminosity. Initial parameters of a very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} B-Factory or Super B-Factory (SBF) are being developed incorporating several new ideas from the successful operation of the present generation e{sup +}e{sup -} accelerators [3,4]. A luminosity approaching 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1} may be possible. Furthermore, the ratio of average to peak luminosity may be increased by 30% due to continuous injection. The operation of this new accelerator will be qualitatively different from present e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders due to this continuous injection.

  18. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  19. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  1. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  2. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  3. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  4. Damage tolerance for commuter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, John W.

    1992-01-01

    The damage tolerance experience in the United States Air Force with military aircraft and in the commercial world with large transport category aircraft indicates that a similar success could be achieved in commuter aircraft. The damage tolerance process is described for the purpose of defining the approach that could be used for these aircraft to ensure structural integrity. Results of some of the damage tolerance assessments for this class of aircraft are examined to illustrate the benefits derived from this approach. Recommendations are given for future damage tolerance assessment of existing commuter aircraft and on the incorporation of damage tolerance capability in new designs.

  5. Evaluation of artificial recharge in the Mojave River Ground-Water Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Martin, Peter; Predmore, Steven K.

    2002-01-01

    The Mojave River Basin relies almost entirely on ground water to meet the needs of its growing population and agriculture, which has resulted in overdraft conditions. Some of the ground-water management alternatives being proposed to mitigate the effects of overdraft include artificial recharge using water from the California State Water Project (SWP) and using SWP water in lieu of ground-water pumpage. A calibrated ground-water flow model was used to evaluate six proposed water-management alternatives using SWP water during a 20-year simulation period, 2000-2019, using constant rates from 1999 for recharge and pumpage (with the exception of recharge derived from Mojave River streamflows which were variable). The measured streamflow for the period of 1970-1989 was used to simulate the Mojave River streamflow. Water-management alternative 1 assumed that none of the Mojave Water Agency allocation of SWP water was available for mitigation measures and resulted in increases in hydraulic head in the floodplain aquifer in years of above-average streamflow (2008-2010, 2013) and decreases in years of below average streamflow. In general, simulated hydraulic heads in the regional aquifer declined with the exception of the El Mirage and Harper Lake areas. Also, average storage depletion for the entire ground-water basin over the 20-year simulation was 40,940 acre-feet per year. Water-management alternative 2 assumed that 30,000 acre-feet per year of SWP water was artificially recharged at Rock Springs Road Outlet (RSO). By 2019, the simulated hydraulic heads were as much as 75 feet higher in the Alto at the recharge site, 24 feet higher in the Transition zone, 15 feet higher in the Centro, and 17 feet higher in the Baja model subareas than the hydraulic heads resulting from water-management alternative 1. Water-management alternative 2 affected simulated hydraulic heads by as much as 5 feet in an area totalling 290 square miles; most of the change occurred in the Alto and

  6. Dominance and environmental correlates of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Berry, K.H.

    2006-01-01

    Land managers are concerned about the negative effects of alien annual plants on native plants, threatened and endangered species such as the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), and ecosystem integrity in the Mojave Desert. Management of alien plants is hampered by a lack of information regarding the dominance and environmental correlates of these species. The results of this study indicate that alien plant species comprised a small fraction of the total annual plant flora, but most of the annual plant community biomass. When rainfall was high in 1995, aliens comprised 6% of the flora and 66% of the biomass. When rainfall was low in 1999, aliens comprised 27% of the flora and 91% of the biomass. Bromus rubens, Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus), and Erodium cicutarium were the predominant alien species during both years, comprising 99% of the alien biomass. B. rubens was more abundant in relatively mesic microhabitats beneath shrub canopies and at higher elevations above 800-1000 m, whereas Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were more abundant in the relatively arid interspaces between shrubs, and, for Schismus spp., at lower elevations as well. Disturbance variables were more reliable indicators of alien dominance than were productivity or native plant diversity variables, although relationships often varied between years of contrasting rainfall. The strongest environmental correlates occurred between dirt road density and alien species richness and biomass of E. cicutarium, and between frequency and size of fires and biomass of B. rubens.

  7. Short-term effects of experimental fires on a Mojave Desert seed bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esque, Todd C.; Young, James A.; Tracy, C. Richard

    2010-01-01

    A Mojave Desert shrub community was experimentally burned to understand changes in seed bank of desert annual plant species in response to wildfire. Seed mortality ranged from 55 to 80%, and fire caused significant losses of native and alien annual seeds. Schismus arabicus, Schismus barbatus, Bromus madritensis, Bromus tectorum, Erodium cicutarium and Plantago spp. made up >95% of the seed bank. Bromus spp. and Plantago spp. had proportionately greater mortality of seeds than did Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium. Schismus spp. can be lodged into soil cracks thus avoiding lethal temperatures. E. cicutarium has a self-drilling mechanism that places the seeds at greater depth in the soil. Greater seed mortality occurred beneath shrub canopies than interspaces for most species (Plantago, spp., Bromus spp., and E. cicutarium), but microsite had little effect on Schismus spp. Fire reduced the perennial Ambrosia dumosa densities under canopies. Fire reduced the mean number of species found in samples by about one species per plot and no species was extirpated on experimental plots. The relative abundances of common species did not change dramatically as a result of fire or microsite, however; seed densities varied by treatment and affected interpretations of species compositions.

  8. Estimating Annual Precipitation in the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Previous attempts to create precipitation-elevation functions in western Nevada have been difficult and result in large uncertainty. In the WRD data analysis, the effect of geographic scale on the precipitation-elevation function was overlooked. This contributed to an erroneous Maxey-Eakin recharge estimate.

  9. Cosmogenic 36Cl ages of Quaternary basalt flows in the Mojave Desert, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Fred M.

    2003-07-01

    Basalt flows provide excellent opportunities for calibration and intercomparison of Quaternary dating methods, remote sensing methods, and rates of geomorphic processes. The immediate motivation for this study was to provide chronology for a blind test of the utility of rock varnish microstratigraphy as an indicator of the age of flow emplacement. Five basaltic eruptive centers in the Mojave Desert of California were sampled for cosmogenic 36Cl analysis. Multiple samples were taken from most centers and, with one exception, produced good agreement. Assuming a surficial erosion rate of 1 mm/kyr -1, the flows yielded the following ages: Amboy Crater, 79±5 ka; Pisgah Crater, 22.5±1.3 ka; Cima field, I-Cone, 27±1.3 ka; Cima field, A-Cone, 21±1.6 ka and 11.5±1.5 ka; Cima field, flow of unidentified origin, 46±2 ka. The ages from the Cima I and A cones are in good agreement with previous cosmogenic 3He dating. Ages from the three previously undated flows are significantly older than previous estimates based on flow appearance. Tanzhou Liu performed varnish microstratigraphic analysis on samples collected from the same sites. His results were submitted for publication without knowledge of the 36Cl ages. His age estimates agree well with the 36Cl ages for the three previously undated flows, strongly supporting the validity of varnish microstratigraphy as a chronological correlation tool.

  10. Dust emission from wet and dry playas in the Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reynolds, R.L.; Yount, J.C.; Reheis, M.; Goldstein, H.; Chavez, P., Jr.; Fulton, R.; Whitney, J.; Fuller, C.; Forester, R.M.

    2007-01-01

    The interactions between playa hydrology and playa-surface sediments are important factors that control the type and amount of dust emitted from playas as a result of wind erosion. The production of evaporite minerals during evaporative loss of near-surface ground water results in both the creation and maintenance of several centimeters or more of loose sediment on and near the surfaces of wet playas. Observations that characterize the texture, mineralogic composition and hardness of playa surfaces at Franklin Lake, Soda Lake and West Cronese Lake playas in the Mojave Desert (California), along with imaging of dust emission using automated digital photography, indicate that these kinds of surface sediment are highly susceptible to dust emission. The surfaces of wet playas are dynamic - surface texture and sediment availability to wind erosion change rapidly, primarily in response to fluctuations in water-table depth, rainfall and rates of evaporation. In contrast, dry playas are characterized by ground water at depth. Consequently, dry playas commonly have hard surfaces that produce little or no dust if undisturbed except for transient silt and clay deposited on surfaces by wind and water. Although not the dominant type of global dust, salt-rich dusts from wet playas may be important with respect to radiative properties of dust plumes, atmospheric chemistry, windborne nutrients and human health.

  11. Plant community patterns in unburned and burned blackbrush (Coleogyne ramosissima Torr.) shrublands in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.; Matchett, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The blackbrush vegetation type is dominated by Coleogyne ramossisima, which is thought to preclude the coexistence of many other plant species. Fire can remove blackbrush cover and possibly increase plant species richness and evenness. Fire also may increase the frequency and cover of alien annual grasses, thereby intensifying landscape flammability. We tested these predictions in unburned and burned (6-14 years postfire) blackbrush at 3 sites spanning the range of this vegetation type in the Mojave Desert. Species richness in unburned blackbrush was similar to published values for other vegetation types in western North America, but richness varied significantly among the 3 sites and 4 spatial scales (1, 10, 100, and 1000 m2). Richness values declined in order from annual forbs, woody perennials, herbaceous perennials, annual grasses, cacti, to perennial grasses. Fire reduced Coleogyne cover, thus boosting species evenness. In contrast, species richness decreased after burning, although the results varied among spatial scales. Total cover was unaffected by fire because cover of woody perennials decreased, while cover of annual forbs, annual grasses, herbaceous perennials, and perennial grasses increased. Native species richness and cover decreased, whereas alien richness and cover increased after burning, especially where the alien forb Erodium cicutarium was present. Fire had no effect on frequency and variable effects on cover of alien annual grasses. These results indicate that in blackbrush species richness can vary among sites and local spatial scales, and effects of fire can vary among plant life-forms and between natives and aliens.

  12. Evolutionary history and phylogeography of Encelia farinosa (Asteraceae) from the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular Deserts.

    PubMed

    Fehlberg, Shannon D; Ranker, Tom A

    2009-02-01

    Pleistocene glaciations have had a profound influence on the genetic structure of plant species throughout the Northern Hemisphere because of range contractions, fragmentations, and expansions. Phylogeographic studies have contributed to our knowledge of this influence in several geographic regions of North America, however, very few phylogeographic studies have examined plant species in the Sonoran, Mojave, and Peninsular deserts. In this study, we used sequence data from the chloroplast DNA psbA-trnH intergenic spacer to obtain information on phylogeographic patterns among 310 individuals from 21 populations of Encelia farinosa ("brittlebush"; Asteraceae) across its range. We applied several population and spatial genetic analyses that allowed us to interpret our data with respect to Pleistocene climate change. These analyses indicate that E. farinosa displays patterns of genetic differentiation and geographic structuring consistent with postglacial range expansion. Populations of E. farinosa are characterized by distinct haplotype lineages significantly associated with geography. Centers of genetic diversity for the species occur in southwestern Arizona, the plains of Sonora, and Baja California Sur, all of which are putative sites of glacial refugia as predicted by analyses of macrofossil and pollen data. Nested clade analysis suggests that genetic structure in E. farinosa has been affected by past fragmentation followed by range expansion. Range expansion in several locations is further supported by significant departures from neutrality for values of Fu's F(S) and Tajima's D, and mismatch analyses. PMID:19059351

  13. Spaceborne multispectral images reveal undocumented Late Cenozoic faults, Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.P.; Crippen, R.E.; Blom, R.G. ); Dokka, R.K. )

    1990-06-01

    Undocumented late Miocene and younger strike-slip and normal faults that extend up to 25 km in the eastern and central Mojave Desert Block have been detected and mapped in LANDSAT thematic mapper images. The faults are located in the Bristol Mountains, Cady Mountains, and Alvord Mountain areas. Additional strike-slip faults detected in the adjacent Fort Irwin Military Reservation have yet to be verified in the field. The images were processed to enhance the spectral responses without suppressing topography. The faults are detected on the images because of spectral contrasts mostly at wavelengths longer than the visible. The newly detected faults form part of a complex regional network of right shear that connects faults in the southern Death Valley region with the San Andreas Fault System. Some of the newly identified faults bound blocks that have experienced different Neogene rotational histories. These faults have likely served to accommodate those motions. Structural relations along the faults suggest at least two intervals of movement. In the Bristol Mountains, east of Broadwell Lake, the faults are overlain by unconsolidated alluvial fan debris (late Quaternary ) and are probably inactive. In the Cady Mountains to the west and south, the faults cut all deposits and are currently active. The discovery of these undocumented faults indicates that existing knowledge of fault distribution in the area is incomplete and not fully representative. This has important implications for seismic risk assessment and for determining the suitability of the desert for increased use by man.

  14. Synextensional basin evolution, lower Miocene Clews Formation, central Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Fillmore, R.P.; Walker, J.D. )

    1991-02-01

    The lower Miocene Clews Formation at Alvord Mountain, Mojave Desert, California, consists of up to 400 m of coarsening-upward continental deposits. During the initial stage of basin development, the depocenter was delineated by a lacustrine system that was bound to the west by alluvial fans and graded northward into a south-flowing fluvial braidplain. Lacustrine strata, composed of claystone, siltstone and carbonate, suggest an initially closed basin. Conglomerate and sandstone to the west represent small, sheetflood-dominated fans and contain igneous clasts and southeasterly paleoflow indicative of a proximal, relatively low relief source in the western Alvord Mountains. The second stage of deposition was dominated by coarse conglomerate and megabreccia with west-southwesterly paleotransport indicators and a distinctive metaigneous petrofacies that indicate a provenance in the Cronese Hills, 8 km to the east. These strata reflect rapid westward progradation of debris flow-dominated alluvial fans that advanced across the facia braidplain, eventually onlapping the smaller Alvord Mountain sourced fans across the basin. Influx of sediment from the paradise Range ceased. Based development resulted from regional northeast-southwest extensional deformation. The Alvord Mountain-Cronese Hills region was transported northeast as a single block on an east-dipping, low-angle normal fault associated with the Waterman Hills core complex 30 km to the west. Development of westward prograding fans is believed to record subsequence propagation of a northwest-trending, west-dipping normal fault associated with, but antithetic to the low-angle master fault.

  15. A mechanistic modeling and data assimilation framework for Mojave Desert ecohydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2014-06-01

    This study demonstrates and addresses challenges in coupled ecohydrological modeling in deserts, which arise due to unique plant adaptations, marginal growing conditions, slow net primary production rates, and highly variable rainfall. We consider model uncertainty from both structural and parameter errors and present a mechanistic model for the shrub Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) under conditions found in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Desert-specific plant and soil features are incorporated into the CLM-CN model by Oleson et al. (2010). We then develop a data assimilation framework using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate model parameters based on soil moisture and leaf-area index observations. A new implementation procedure, the "multisite loop EnKF," tackles parameter estimation difficulties found to affect desert ecohydrological applications. Specifically, the procedure iterates through data from various observation sites to alleviate adverse filter impacts from non-Gaussianity in small desert vegetation state values. It also readjusts inconsistent parameters and states through a model spin-up step that accounts for longer dynamical time scales due to infrequent rainfall in deserts. Observation error variance inflation may also be needed to help prevent divergence of estimates from true values. Synthetic test results highlight the importance of adequate observations for reducing model uncertainty, which can be achieved through data quality or quantity.

  16. Hydrologic Changes Attributed to a Century Old Railroad Grade in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic landscape modification, such as the emplacement of highways and railroads, has altered the natural hydrologic system by influencing surface-water flow paths, as well as the composition and distribution of biotic communities within the Mojave National Preserve, California, USA. Infiltration experiments were conducted at two alluvial fan sites, one impacted by railroad emplacement and one not impacted, to evaluate changes in hydrology as related to plant water availability and use. Previous studies have shown that plants on alluvial fans are more abundant near undisturbed ephemeral channels compared to channels where upslope catchments have been diverted by transportation corridor construction. During 30 single-ring infiltration experiments, water was applied along a transect in one active channel upslope and another abandoned channel down slope from a railroad built <100 years ago. The abandoned channel is still evident, but has been disconnected from major runoff derived from higher elevations. Excavation at both sites showed weak soil development with fewer plant roots present beneath the abandoned channel. Infiltration test results show that water infiltrates faster in the active channels above the railroad. Observations of weakly developed crusts within the abandoned channels suggest that early microbial succession is responsible for the changes in surface hydraulic properties. We also observed lower plant densities along the abandoned channel compared to the active channel. We infer that plants do not preferentially root toward abandoned stream channels to exploit the enhanced infiltration as extensively as they do above the railroad where flow in ephemeral channels is an additional water source.

  17. Evidence of power-law flow in the Mojave desert mantle.

    PubMed

    Freed, Andrew M; Bürgmann, Roland

    2004-07-29

    Studies of the Earth's response to large earthquakes can be viewed as large rock deformation experiments in which sudden stress changes induce viscous flow in the lower crust and upper mantle that lead to observable postseismic surface deformation. Laboratory experiments suggest that viscous flow of deforming hot lithospheric rocks is characterized by a power law in which strain rate is proportional to stress raised to a power, n (refs 2, 3). Most geodynamic models of flow in the lower crust and upper mantle, however, resort to newtonian (linear) stress-strain rate relations. Here we show that a power-law model of viscous flow in the mantle with n = 3.5 successfully explains the spatial and temporal evolution of transient surface deformation following the 1992 Landers and 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes in southern California. A power-law rheology implies that viscosity varies spatially with stress causing localization of strain, and varies temporally as stress evolves, rendering newtonian models untenable. Our findings are consistent with laboratory-derived flow law parameters for hot and wet olivine--the most abundant mineral in the upper mantle--and support the contention that, at least beneath the Mojave desert, the upper mantle is weaker than the lower crust. PMID:15282602

  18. In situ microbial detection in Mojave Desert soil using native fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Smith, H D; Duncan, A G; Neary, P L; Lloyd, C R; Anderson, A J; Sims, R C; McKay, C P

    2012-03-01

    We report on the use of a portable instrument for microbial detection in the Mojave Desert soil and the potential for its use on Mars. The instrument is based on native fluorescence and employs four excitation wavelengths combined with four emission wavelengths. A soil dilution series in which known numbers of Bacillus subtilis spores were added to soil was used to determine the sensitivity of the instrument. We found that the fluorescence of the biological and organic components of the desert soil samples studied can be as strong as the fluorescence of the mineral component of these soils. Using the calibration derived from B. subtilis spores, we estimated that microbial content at our primary sampling site was 10(7) bacteria per gram of soil, a level confirmed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis. At a nearby site, but in a slightly different geological setting, we tested the instrument's ability to map out microbial concentrations in situ. Over a ∼50 m diameter circle, soil microbial concentrations determined with the B. subtilis calibration indicate that the concentrations of microorganisms detected varies from 10(4) to 10(7) cells per gram of soil. We conclude that fluorescence is a promising method for detecting soil microbes in noncontact applications in extreme environments on Earth and may have applications on future missions to Mars. PMID:22352702

  19. Ten years of solar power plant operation in the Mojave Desert

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, G.E.; Frier, S.D.

    1997-12-31

    Nine Solar Electric Generating Systems (SEGS), ranging from 13.8 to 80 MWe of rated name plate capacity, have been operating on a commercial basis in the Mojave desert of southern California since the mid-1980s. Each facility was developed as an Independent Power Producer (IPP) which sells power to the Southern California Edison Company (SCE). The nine SEGS plants provide a combined capacity of 354 MWe, and produce over 90% of the solar electric generation in the world. The SEGS plants utilize large fields of parabolic trough Solar Collector Assemblies (SCAs) supplying thermal energy to produce steam for a Rankine steam turbine/generator cycle. The parabolic trough SCAs have silvered low-iron glass reflectors which focus direct solar radiation on an efficient evacuated receiver, or Heat Collection Element (HCE). After reviewing the technology and plant characteristics, this paper will describe the trends in performance and operating experience over the last ten years. As part of the plant improvements, the paper will also describe the cost-shared program for SEGS III-VII between Sandia National Laboratories and KJC Operating Company (KJC OC). Functioning since 1992, this program is intended to reduce operating and maintenance cost by developing new management methods and technical improvements.

  20. Decadal-scale soil redistribution along hillslopes in the Mojave Desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouvi, O.; Polyakov, V. O.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

    2015-06-01

    This study estimates the relative magnitude of decadal-scale soil redistribution (i.e., soil loss or gain) by slope wash using 137Cs inventories measured in 46 soil profiles at four study sites in the Ft. Irwin area of the Mojave Desert of California, USA. The variability in 137Cs inventories on a <5 m scale suggests that even for the same topographic position, there is large variation in runoff generation and flow continuity. Smaller average 137Cs inventories that are suggestive of higher relative erosion rates are associated with more gently sloping sites that have a lower percentage of surficial rock-fragment and vegetation coverage. Individual 137Cs inventories from all four sites are positively correlated with the percentage of rock fragments in the upper soil profile. The increase in rock-fragment cover (i.e., soil armoring) with increasing slope gradient appears to negate any potential increase in transport effectiveness with increasing slope steepness. This armoring, together with the sandy-loam soil texture characteristic of steeper slopes, hinders runoff and slope-wash erosion. Our findings are supported by soil data that suggest that these patterns are persistent for longer timescales (i.e., centuries and millennia).

  1. Assessing an exotic plant surveying program in the Mojave Desert, Clark County, Nevada, USA.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R; Spencer, Jessica E; Hoines, Joshua; Nazarchyk, Carrie

    2009-04-01

    Exotic species can threaten native ecosystems and reduce services that ecosystems provide to humans. Early detection of incipient populations of exotic species is a key step in containing exotics before explosive population growth and corresponding impacts occur. We report the results of the first three years of an exotic plant early detection and treatment program conducted along more than 3,000 km of transportation corridors within an area >1.5 million ha in the Mojave Desert, USA. Incipient populations of 43 exotic plant species were mapped using global positioning and geographic information systems. Brassica tournefortii (Sahara mustard) infested the most soil types (47% of 256) surveyed in the study area, while Nicotiana glauca (tree tobacco) and others currently occupy less than 5% of soil types. Malcolmia africana (African mustard) was disproportionately detected on gypsum soils, occurring on 59% of gypsum soil types compared to 27% of all surveyed soils. Gypsum soils constitute unique rare plant habitat in this region, and by conventional wisdom were not previously considered prone to invasion. While this program has provided an initial assessment of the landscape-scale distribution of exotic species along transportation corridors, evaluations of both the survey methods and the effectiveness of treating incipient populations are needed. An exotic plant information system most useful to resource mangers will likely include integrating planning oriented coarse-scale surveys, more detailed monitoring of targeted locations, and research on species life histories, community invasibility, and treatment effectiveness. PMID:18369728

  2. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: where do all the seeds go?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.; Nicklas, Melissa B.; Kane, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert—sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application.

  3. Faults in the mojave desert, california, as revealed on enhanced landsat images.

    PubMed

    Ford, J P; Dokka, R K; Crippen, R E; Blom, R G

    1990-05-25

    Previously unknown strike-slip and normal faults in the central and eastern Mojave Desert have been revealed on Landsat Thematic Mapper images enhanced by four-component processing. This method provides color images on which lithologies are discriminated by their contrasting absorption and reflection, primarily at infrared wavelengths and particularly with regard to their ferric iron, ferrous iron, and hydroxyl contents, while retaining landform depiction. These discriminants represent a new type of geophysical display for geologic mapping in regions of well-exposed bedrock. Faults are revealed on the images by abrupt spectral and textural contrasts that coincide with aligned topographic features. The newly discovered faults form part of an extensive regional network of right shear that connects faults in the Death Valley region with the San Andreas fault system. They support a heterogeneous strain model for late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the region. Regional structural relations indicate a westward migration of the locus of strain through time. Some of the newly identified faults bound blocks that have experienced contrasting rotational histories since early Miocene time. PMID:17745407

  4. Persisting effects of armored military maneuvers on some soils of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, D.V.

    1985-01-01

    Soil compaction and substrate modification produced during large-scale armored military maneuvers in the early 1940s were examined in 1981 at seven sites in California's eastern Mojave Desert Recording penetrometer measurements show that tracks left by a single pass of an M3 "medium" tank have average soil resistance values that are 50% greater than those of the surrounding untracked soil in the upper 20 cm At one site, measurements made along short segments of track that have been visually eliminated by erosion and deposition processes show a 73% increase in penetrometer resistance over adjacent, undisturbed soils Dirt roadways at three former base camp locations could not be penetrated below 5-10 cm because of extreme compaction Soil bulk density was not as sensitive an indicator of soil compaction as was penetrometer resistance Density values in the upper 10 cm of soil are not significantly different between tank tracks and undisturbed soils at most sites, and roadways at two base camps show an average increase in bulk density of only 12% over adjacent soils. Trench excavations across tank tracks show that physical modifications of the substrate can extend vertically beneath a track to a depth of 25 cm and outward from a track's edge to 50 cm These soil disturbances are probably major factors that encourage accelerated soil erosion throughout the manuever area and also retard or prevent the return of vegetation to pre-disturbance conditions ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  6. Systematic Variations of Instructional Variables on Learner Performance: Aircraft Instrument Comprehension Task. Final Report, June 1973-July 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenpas, Barbara G.; And Others

    Incentive, practice, instruction, and feedback were manipulated in a series of four 2 x 2 factorial studies, with Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps cadets and graduate students in education, to determine the individual and combined effects of these variables on learner performance (both speed and accuracy) of an aircraft comprehension task.…

  7. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  8. Comments on particle identification at the B factory

    SciTech Connect

    Ratcliff, B.N.

    1992-07-01

    The importance of particle identification at an asymmetric B factory is discussed and the general status of a number of particle identification technologies which might be included in B factory detectors is briefly reviewed.

  9. 4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  10. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH BOILER HOUSE IN CENTER GROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  11. 5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OVERALL VIEW OF FACTORY COMPLEX, WITH DIGESTER HOUSE IN LEFT FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Maizewood Insulation Company Factory, 275 Salina Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  12. 5. SOUTH SIDE AND EAST FRONT OF FACTORY, WITH POWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTH SIDE AND EAST FRONT OF FACTORY, WITH POWER HOUSE IN FOREGROUND. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, James Beach & Sons Company Factory & Warehouse, 57 South Locust Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  13. 31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. THE BRICK BUILDING IS THE FACTORY BEFORE LATER ADDITIONS, LOOKING NORTHWEST. TAKEN CIRCA 1886-90, PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN. - Ybor Cigar Factory, 1916 North Fourteenth Street, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  14. 1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF NABISCO CARTON FACTORY, LOOKING SOUTHWEST ALONG MARSEILLES POWER CANAL - National Biscuit Company, Marseilles Factory, Off Main Street on Marseilles Power Canal, Marseilles, La Salle County, IL

  15. Production of Tetraquark State Tcc at B-Factories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyima, Rashidin

    2013-12-01

    We study production of the tetraquark state Tcc via virtual photon at the B-factories in the QCD factorization framework. We predict the cross section of tetraquark state production in the leading order at the B-factories.

  16. X-38 research aircraft landing - computer animation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In the mid-1990's researchers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, and Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, began working actively with the sub-scale X-38 prototype crew return vehicle (CRV). This was an unpiloted lifting body designed at 80 percent of the size of a projected emergency crew return vehicle for the International Space Station. The X-38 and the actual CRV are patterned after a lifting-body shape first employed in the Air Force X-23 (SV-5) program in the mid-1960's and the Air Force-NASA X-24A lifting-body project in the early to mid-1970's. Built by Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, and outfitted with avionics, computer systems, and other hardware at Johnson Space Center, two X-38 aircraft were involved in flight research at Dryden beginning in July of 1997. Before that, however, Dryden conducted some 13 flights at a drop zone near California City, California. These tests were done with a 1/6-scale model of the X-38 aircraft to test the parafoil concept that would be employed on the X-38 aircraft and the actual CRV. The basic concept is that the actual CRV will use an inertial navigation system together with the Global Positioning System of satellites to guide it from the International Space Station into the earth's atmosphere. A deorbit engine module will redirect the vehicle from orbit into the atmosphere where a series of parachutes and a parafoil will deploy in sequence to bring the vehicle to a landing, possibly in a field next to a hospital. Flight research at NASA Dryden for the X-38 began with an unpiloted captive carry flight in which the vehicle remained attached to its future launch vehicle, the Dryden B-52 008. There were four captive flights in 1997 and three in 1998, plus the first drop test on March 12, 1998, using the parachutes and parafoil. Further captive and drop tests occurred in 1999. Although the X-38 landed safely on the lakebed at Edwards after the March 1998 drop test, there had

  17. Emissions from queuing aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Segal, H.

    1980-01-01

    The ability of the FAA (U.S. Federal Aviation Administration) Simplex mathematical model, which employs a simple point-source algorithm with provisions for selecting a particular plume height and initial box size for each aircraft being analyzed, to predict air quality through modeling emissions released from queuing aircraft was verified by measurements of carbon monoxide emissions from such aircraft during a five-day period at Los Angeles International Airport. The model predicted carbon monoxide concentrations of 4 ppm (National Ambient Air Quality Standard limit value is 35 ppm) at expected populated locations during the highest activity hour monitored. This study should also apply to other engine exhaust gases such as NO/sub x/.

  18. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  19. Scaling aircraft noise perception.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ollerhead, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    Following a brief review of the background to the study, an extensive experiment is described which was undertaken to assess the practical differences between numerous alternative methods for calculating the perceived levels of individual aircraft flyover wounds. One hundred and twenty recorded sounds, including jets, turboprops, piston aircraft and helicopters were rated by a panel of subjects in a pair comparison test. The results were analyzed to evaluate a number of noise rating procedures, in terms of their ability to accurately estimate both relative and absolute perceived noise levels over a wider dynamic range (84-115 dB SPL) than had generally been used in previous experiments. Performances of the different scales were examined in detail for different aircraft categories, and the merits of different band level summation procedures, frequency weighting functions, duration and tone corrections were investigated.

  20. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  1. Pathfinder aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The unique Pathfinder solar-powered flying wing, is shown during a checkout flight from the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This two-hour low-altitude flight over Rogers Dry Lake, Nov. 19, 1996, served to test aircraft systems and functional procedures, according to officials of AeroVironment, Inc., Pathfinder's developer and operator. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  2. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  3. The U.S. Effort in Neutrino Factories

    SciTech Connect

    R. Raja

    2001-08-16

    We discuss the physics case for a neutrino factory and present the status of the effort in the U.S in making the neutrino factory a reality. We present the results from the two feasibility studies done on the factory and describe the R&D activities in collecting, cooling and accelerating muons. A staged scenario in which a neutrino factory is realized step by step is presented.

  4. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  5. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  6. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  7. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  8. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  9. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval must... any time to visit a factory where the equipment is manufactured to conduct an inspection of...

  11. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  12. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  13. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  14. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval must... any time to visit a factory where the equipment is manufactured to conduct an inspection of...

  15. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  16. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  17. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  18. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  19. 27 CFR 40.47 - Other businesses within factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... factory. 40.47 Section 40.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Administrative Provisions § 40.47 Other businesses within factory. (a) General. The appropriate TTB officer may authorize such other businesses within the factory of...

  20. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  1. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  2. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  3. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  4. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  5. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  6. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of factory premises... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  7. 27 CFR 40.72 - Use of factory premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use of factory premises. 40... factory premises. (a) General. Unless otherwise authorized by the appropriate TTB officer as provided in § 40.47, the premises used by a manufacturer of tobacco products for his factory shall be...

  8. 27 CFR 45.33 - Return of shipment to factory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... factory. 45.33 Section 45.33 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... factory. Tobacco products, and cigarette papers and tubes which have been removed, under this part, may be returned to the factory without internal revenue supervision. (72 Stat. 1418, as amended; 26 U.S.C. 5704)...

  9. 46 CFR 164.009-23 - Factory inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factory inspection. 164.009-23 Section 164.009-23...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL MATERIALS Noncombustible Materials for Merchant Vessels § 164.009-23 Factory... regular schedule. However, the Commander of the Coast Guard District in which a factory is located...

  10. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval must... any time to visit a factory where the equipment is manufactured to conduct an inspection of...

  11. 46 CFR 162.050-13 - Factory production and inspection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Factory production and inspection. 162.050-13 Section....050-13 Factory production and inspection. (a) Equipment manufactured under Coast Guard approval must... any time to visit a factory where the equipment is manufactured to conduct an inspection of...

  12. Testing Factorial Invariance in Multilevel Data: A Monte Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Eun Sook; Kwok, Oi-man; Yoon, Myeongsun

    2012-01-01

    Testing factorial invariance has recently gained more attention in different social science disciplines. Nevertheless, when examining factorial invariance, it is generally assumed that the observations are independent of each other, which might not be always true. In this study, we examined the impact of testing factorial invariance in multilevel…

  13. The Virtual Factory Teaching System (VFTS): Project Review and Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazlauskas, E. J.; Boyd, E. F., III; Dessouky, M. M.

    This paper presents a review of the Virtual Factory Teaching (VFTS) project, a Web-based, multimedia collaborative learning network. The system allows students, working alone or in teams, to build factories, forecast demand for products, plan production, establish release rules for new work into the factory, and set scheduling rules for…

  14. 3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWOSTORY SECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST ELEVATION OF IPA FACTORY; TWO-STORY SECTION WITH BRICK PARAPET BUILT WITH FACTORY EXPANSION CA. 1948. GABLE ROOF SECTION IS PART OF ORIGINAL 1892 FACTORY. TO THE RIGHT IS AN ABANDONED (COMMONWEALTH EDISON) ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  15. 2. LOOKING NORTH ON COMMERCE ST. SHOWING HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. LOOKING NORTH ON COMMERCE ST. SHOWING HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY. BRIDGE CONNECTS HARMON MATTRESS FACTORY WITH HARMON WAREHOUSE (SEE PHOTO HABS WA-165-15). BUILDING IN LEFT FOREGROUND IS LINDSTROM-BERG CABINET FACTORY (SEE PHOTO HABS WA-165-36). - Union Depot Area Study, F. S. Harmon Mattress Company, 1953 South C Street, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  16. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  17. Light aircraft sound transmission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwal, M.; David, J.; Heitman, K.; Crocker, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The revived interest in the design of propeller driven aircraft is based on increasing fuel prices as well as on the need for bigger short haul and commuter aircraft. A major problem encountered with propeller driven aircraft is propeller and exhaust noise that is transmitted through the fuselage sidewall structure. Part of the work which was conducted during the period April 1 to August 31, 1983, on the studies of sound transmission through light aircraft walls is presented.

  18. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  19. The variable density aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, A. C.

    1975-01-01

    In the variable density aircraft concept the aircraft's density is varied by varying its volume. This is accomplished by combining a variable volume hull, which is called the dynapod, with intrinsic means for the controlled variation of a mass of working fluid or substance within the aircraft. The dynapod is a hinged structure and follows the volumetric variations of the working fluid. The result is a variable density hull, which with the attachment of power plants, etc., becomes a variable density aircraft.

  20. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  1. Occupational dermatitis in a prefabrication construction factory.

    PubMed

    Goh, C L; Gan, S L; Ngui, S J

    1986-10-01

    In a field study of occupational dermatoses in a prefabrication construction factory, 272 workers were interviewed, examined and patch tested to chromate, cobalt, nickel, rubber mixes, epoxy resin, melamine formaldehyde and conplasts. The prevalence of occupational dermatitis was 14% (38/272); 57% (22/38) were irritant dermatitis from cement; 39.5% (15/38) were allergic contact dermatitis from cement (2 with concomitant rubber glove allergy); and 2.5% (1/38) were allergic to rubber chemicals in gloves. The overall prevalence of chromate sensitivity was 8.5% (23/272), with the highest rate from the concreting bays of the factory. The rate was unrelated to the duration of workers' engagement in construction work. 34.8% (8/23) had asymptomatic chromate allergy. The prevalence of cobalt reactions was 17.4% (4/23) and all were associated with chromate allergy. PMID:2948758

  2. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, Florian; Le Couedic, Clement; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-06

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  3. Pion Production for Neutrino Factory-challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breton, Florian; Couedic, Clément Le; Soler, F. J. P.

    2011-10-01

    One of the key issues in the design of a Neutrino Factory target station is the determination of the optimum kinetic energy of the proton beam due to the large uncertainties in simulations of protons impinging on nuclear targets. In this paper we have developed a procedure to correct GEANT4 simulations for the HARP data, and we have determined the yield of muons expected at the front-end of a Neutrino Factory as a function of target material (Be, C, Al, Ta and Pb) and energy (3-12 GeV).The maximum muon yield is found between 5 and 8 GeV for high Z targets and 3 GeV for low Z targets.

  4. Fault slip-rate gradients and distributed deformation in the central Mojave Desert, California, interpreted from balanced cross-sections and ALSM topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    The combination of strike-slip and shortening across the central Mojave Desert illuminates how discrepancies between geologic and geodetic slip rates in this region may arise. Geologic studies show at most 6.2 ± 1.9 mm/yr of dextral slip distributed across six strike-slip faults. Geodetic block mocels and present SCEC Community Fault Model (CFM) configurations link faults across the central Mojave Desert and predict higher displacement rates than permitted by geologic data. However, numerous faults in the Mojave Desert terminate into a region of widespread, un-quantified shortening around the latitude of Barstow, while only the Calico-Blackwater fault displays a clear link. Despite this link, the Calico-Blackwater fault loses ~1 mm/yr of slip and >3 km of total displacement across the central Mojave Desert. How this displacement gradient is accomplished remains unclear. One potential mechanism is the transfer of deformation to the Harper Lake fault, located to the west of the Calico-Blackwater fault. To investigate this transfer, we present new balanced cross-sectional interpretations across the central Mojave Desert. These sections show linkages between the Calico, Blackwater, and Harper Lake faults through a series of north-dipping thrust ramps. This interpretation also severs connections across the central Mojave Desert between the Harper Lake and Camp Rock faults. To this cross-section interpretation we add new mapping of high-resolution ALSM topography along the northern Harper Lake fault that shows evidence for the transfer of dextral slip into distributed deformation. Together these findings show that fault slip and slip rates are not constant along strike, and that transfer of discrete fault slip into distributed deformation of the surrounding crust can be a significant sink of displacement in areas of widely dispersed, disconnected faults, such as occurs in the Eastern California Shear Zone.

  5. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  6. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  7. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  8. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  9. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  10. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  11. Ozone and aircraft operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The cabin ozone problem is discussed. Cabin ozone in terms of health effects, the characteristics of ozone encounters by aircraft, a brief history of studies to define the problem, corrective actions taken, and possible future courses of action are examined. It is suggested that such actions include avoiding high ozone concentrations by applying ozone forecasting in flight planning procedures.

  12. B Physics at the B-Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Faccini, Riccardo

    2005-10-12

    After six years of data taking the B-Factories are now providing measurements with an accuracy which is beyond expectations. All the angles and sides of the unitarity triangle are measured to unprecedented accuracy and with several different techniques. This redundancy of measurements, in agreement with the Standard Model, allows to probe models for new physics. This paper summarizes the current results with particular emphasis on novel techniques.

  13. IDR Neutrino Factory Front End and Variations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuffer, D.; Alekou, A.; Rogers, C.; Snopok, P.; Yoshikawa, C.; /MUONS Inc., Batavia

    2012-05-01

    The International Design Report (IDR) neutrino factory scenario for capture, bunching, phase-energy rotation and initial cooling of {mu}'s produced from a proton source target is explored. It requires a drift section from the target, a bunching section and a {phi}-{delta}E rotation section leading into the cooling channel. Optimization and variations are discussed. Important concerns are rf limitations within the focusing magnetic fields and large losses in the transport.

  14. Byssinosis in ginning factories of rural Sindh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, S; Lodi, T Z; Alam, S E

    1992-10-01

    Frequency of byssinosis in 276 workers from 5 ginning factories of rural Sindh are described. Twenty-four (9%) had byssinosis, 178 were asymptomatic and the remaining 74 had other respiratory symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was present both in symptomatic and asymptomatic workers and was equally distributed amongst smokers and non-smokers. A possible involvement of some factors other than cigarette smoking is discussed. PMID:1469765

  15. Status of the Super B Factory Projects

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-08-05

    Two proposals have been presented for the construction of super high luminosity B factories, the SuperB in Italy and SuperKEKB in Japan. We review the physics case for the construction of such facilities in the LHC era and highlight several topics of hadronic physics that can benefit from the high luminosity they will integrate. The present status of the accelerator and detector work toward the Technical Design Reports is also presented.

  16. New Physics Results from the B Factories

    SciTech Connect

    Sangro, Riccardo de

    2010-02-10

    We present a review of some recent experimental searches for new physics effects in precision flavour physics measurements performed at B factories. Recent results on selected leptonic, semi-leptonic and hadronic charm-less B decay channels studied by the BaBar and Belle collaborations will be presented and their implication within the framework of model extensions of the Standard Model will be discussed.

  17. Muon front end for the neutrino factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, C. T.; Stratakis, D.; Prior, G.; Gilardoni, S.; Neuffer, D.; Snopok, P.; Alekou, A.; Pasternak, J.

    2013-04-01

    In the neutrino factory, muons are produced by firing high-energy protons onto a target to produce pions. The pions decay to muons and pass through a capture channel known as the muon front end, before acceleration to 12.6 GeV. The muon front end comprises a variable frequency rf system for longitudinal capture and an ionization cooling channel. In this paper we detail recent improvements in the design of the muon front end.

  18. B-factory interaction region design

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.

    1997-06-01

    High luminosity B-factories generally high current (1-3 A) e+e- storage ring accelerators that operate at a center-of-mass energy equal to the mass of the Upsilon (4S) resonance (10.58 GeV). The high beam currents are achieved by storing a large number of bunches (several hundred to several thousand) into each beam. Two designs, the ones located at SLAC and KEK, also have asymmetric beam energies. This imparts a boost to the nearly stationary B mesons formed from the decay of the 4S resonance and allows precision vertex tracking detectors to look for a difference between the decay profiles of the matter and anti-matter B mesons, thereby observing a violation of CP. Bringing the stored beams into collision is one of the major challenges of any B-factory design. In order to achieve high luminosity the beams must be tightly focused. This pushes the final focusing elements close enough to the interaction point to be inside the solenoidal field of the physics detector. In addition, beam-related detector backgrounds from synchrotron radiation and scattered beam particles must be kept below an acceptable level. The major B-factory designs at Cornell University, KEK, and SLAC have all addressed these problems in various ways that depend on specific accelerator design decisions. This paper discusses the accelerator parameters and detector constraints that influence an interaction region (IR) design, as well as how the various IR designs address the challenges posed by a high luminosity B-factory.

  19. Influence of late Quaternary climatic changes on geomorphic and pedogenic processes on a desert piedmont, Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, S.G.; McFadden, L.D.; Dohrenwend, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of late Quaternary deposits and shorelines of Lake Mojave and cation-ratio numerical age dating of stone pavements (Dorn, 1984) on the adjacent Soda Mountains piedmont provide age constraints for alluvial and eolian deposits. These deposits are associated with climatically controlled stands of Lake Mojave during the past 15,000 yr. Six alluvial fan units and three eolian stratigraphic units were assigned ages based on field relations with dated shorelines and piedmont surfaces, as well as on soil-geomorphic data. All but one of these stratigraphic units were deposited in response to time-transgressive climatic changes beginning approximately 10,000 yr ago. Increased eolian flux rates occurred in response to the lowering of Lake Mojave and a consequent increase in fine-sediment availability. Increased rates of deposition of eolian fines and associated salts influenced pedogenesis, stone-pavement development, and runoff-infiltration relations by (1) enhancing mechanical weathering of fan surfaces and hillslopes and (2) forming clay- and silt-rich surface horizons which decrease infiltration. Changes in alluvial-fan source areas from hillslopes to piedmonts during the Holocene reflect runoff reduction on hillslopes caused by colluvial mantle development and runoff enhancement on piedmonts caused by the development of less-permeable soils. Inferred increased in early to middle Holocene monsoonal activity resulted in high-magnitude paleo-sheetflood events on older fan pavements; this runoff triggered piedmont dissection which, in turn, caused increased sediment availability along channel walls. Thus, runoff-infiltration changes during the late Quaternary have occurred in response to eolian deposition of fines, pedogenesis, increased sheetflood activity in the Holocene, and vegetational changes which are related to many complicated linkages among climatic change, lake fluctuations, and eolian, hillslope, and alluvial-fan processes. ?? 1987.

  20. Fault connectivity, distributed shortening, and impacts on geologic- geodetic slip rate discrepancies in the central Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selander, J.; Oskin, M. E.; Cooke, M. L.; Grette, K.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding off-fault deformation and distribution of displacement rates associated with disconnected strike-slip faults requires a three-dimensional view of fault geometries. We address problems associated with distributed faulting by studying the Mojave segment of the East California Shear Zone (ECSZ), a region dominated by northwest-directed dextral shear along disconnected northwest- southeast striking faults. We use a combination of cross-sectional interpretations, 3D Boundary Element Method (BEM) models, and slip-rate measurements to test new hypothesized fault connections. We find that reverse faulting acts as an important means of slip transfer between strike-slip faults, and show that the impacts of these structural connections on shortening, uplift, strike-slip rates, and off-fault deformation, help to reconcile the overall strain budget across this portion of the ECSZ. In detail, we focus on the Calico and Blackwater faults, which are hypothesized to together represent the longest linked fault system in the Mojave ECSZ, connected by a restraining step at 35°N. Across this restraining step the system displays a pronounced displacement gradient, where dextral offset decreases from ~11.5 to <2 km from south to north. Cross-section interpretations show that ~40% of this displacement is transferred from the Calico fault to the Harper Lake and Blackwater faults via a set of north-dipping thrust ramps. Late Quaternary dextral slip rates follow a similar pattern, where 1.4 +0.8/-0.4 mm/yr of slip along the Calico fault south of 35°N is distributed to the Harper Lake, Blackwater, and Tin Can Alley faults. BEM model results using revised fault geometries for the Mojave ECSZ show areas of uplift consistent with contractional structures, and fault slip-rates that more closely match geologic data. Overall, revised fault connections and addition of off-fault deformation greatly reduces the discrepancy between geodetic and geologic slip rates.

  1. Paleomagnetism of middle Miocene volcanic rocks in the Mojave-Sonora desert region of western Arizona and southeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Calderone, G.J. ); Butler, R.F.; Acton, G.D. )

    1990-01-10

    Paleomagnetic directions have been obtained from 190 early to middle Miocene (12-20 Ma) mafic volcanic flows in 16 mountain ranges in the Mojave-Sonora desert region of western Arizona and southeastern California. These flows generally postdate early Miocene tectonic deformation accommodated by low-angle normal faults but predate high-angle normal faulting in the region. After detailed demagnetization experiments, 179 flows yielded characteristic directions interpreted as original thermal remanent magnetizations (TRM). Because of the episodic nature of basaltic volcanism in this region, the 179 flows yielded only 65 time-distinct virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs). The paleomagnetic pole calculated from the 65 cooling unit VGPs is located at 85.5{degree}N, 108.9{degree}E within a 4.4{degree} circle of 95% confidence. This pole is statistically indistinguishable (at 95% confidence) from reference poles calculated from rocks of similar age in stable North America and from a paleomagnetic pole calculated from rocks of similar age in Baja California. The coincidence of paleomagnetic poles from the Mojave-Sonora desert region with reference poles from the stable continental interior indicates that (1) significant vertical axis net tectonic rotations have not accompanied post-middle Miocene high-angle normal faulting in this region; (2) there has been no detectable post-middle Miocene latitudinal transport of the region; and (3) long-term nondipole components of the middle Miocene geomagnetic field probably were no larger than those of the recent (0-5 Ma) geomagnetic field. In contrast, paleomagnetic data indicate vertical axis rotations of similar age rocks in the Transverse Ranges, the Eastern Transverse Ranges, and the Mojave Block.

  2. Impact of demographic trends on future development patterns and the loss of open space in the California Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Gomben, Peter; Lilieholm, Robert; Gonzalez-Guillen, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    During the post-World War II era, the Mojave Desert Region of San Bernardino County, California, has experienced rapid levels of population growth. Over the past several decades, growth has accelerated, accompanied by significant shifts in ethnic composition, most notably from predominantly White non-Hispanic to Hispanic. This study explores the impacts of changing ethnicity on future development and the loss of open space by modeling ethnic propensities regarding family size and settlement preferences reflected by U.S. Census Bureau data. Demographic trends and land conversion data were obtained for seven Mojave Desert communities for the period between 1990 and 2001. Using a spatially explicit, logistic regression-based urban growth model, these data and trends were used to project community-specific future growth patterns from 2000 to 2020 under three future settlement scenarios: (1) an "historic" scenario reported in earlier research that uses a Mojave-wide average settlement density of 3.76 persons/ha; (2) an "existing" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities as of 2001; and (3) a "demographic futures" scenario based on community-specific settlement densities that explicitly model the Region's changing ethnicity. Results found that under the demographic futures scenario, by 2020 roughly 53% of within-community open space would remain, under the existing scenario only 40% would remain, and under the historic scenario model the communities would have what amounts to a deficit of open space. Differences in the loss of open space across the scenarios demonstrate the importance of considering demographic trends that are reflective of the residential needs and preferences of projected future populations. PMID:22170443

  3. An asymmetric B factory based on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    In this report we describe a design for a high-luminosity Asymmetric B Factory to be built in the PEP tunnel on the SLAC site. This proposal, a collaborative effort SLAC, LBL, and LLNL, is the culmination of more than two years of effort aimed at the design and construction of an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collider capable of achieving a luminosity of L = 3 {times} 10{sup 33} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1}. The configuration adopted utilizes two storage rings, and electron ring operating at 9 GeV and a positron ring at 3.1 GeV, each with a circumference of 2200 m. The high-energy ring is an upgrade of the PEP storage ring at SLAC; all PEP magnets and most power supplies will be reused. The upgrade consists primarily of replacing the PEP vacuum chamber and RF system with newly designed versions optimized for the high-current environment of the B Factory. The low-energy ring will be newly constructed and will be situated atop the high-energy ring in the PEP tunnel. Utilities already installed in the PEP tunnel are largely sufficient to operate the two B Factory storage rings.

  4. DKIST enclosure fabrication factory assembly and testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murga, Gaizka; Marshall, Heather K.; Lorentz, Thomas E.; Ariño, Javier; Ampuero, Pedro

    2014-07-01

    After successfully finishing the design of the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST) Enclosure early in 2012, AEC IDOM, in close collaboration with the ATST Project Office, has successfully fabricated the enclosure's main components (structure, mechanisms, controls, and cladding), assembled them in the factory, and performed the factory acceptance tests. The factory assembly and testing of the enclosure has allowed the team to verify the correct integration and performance of structures, mechanisms, and controls. Furthermore, the assembly and verification procedures to be used for the enclosure re-assembly at the Haleakala High Altitude Observatory Site have been tested and refined in order to reduce risk during the enclosure site construction, an overall project critical path activity. The Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST), recently renamed as the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) will be the largest solar telescope in the world, with unprecedented abilities to view details of the sun. Using adaptive optics technology, DKIST will be able to provide the sharpest views ever taken of the solar surface, which will allow scientists to learn even more about the Sun and solar-terrestrial interactions. The DKIST Enclosure is unique in that it positions the optical system's first aperture stop and tracks the sun's motion with millimeter-level accuracy, protecting observatory components from excess insolation. Its azimuth and altitude systems are driven by mechanisms especially designed to perform smooth operations at tracking speeds.

  5. Preliminary surficial geologic map of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake, Mojave desert, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudash, Stephanie L.

    2006-01-01

    This 1:24,000 scale detailed surficial geologic map and digital database of a Calico Mountains piedmont and part of Coyote Lake in south-central California depicts surficial deposits and generalized bedrock units. The mapping is part of a USGS project to investigate the spatial distribution of deposits linked to changes in climate, to provide framework geology for land use management (http://deserts.wr.usgs.gov), to understand the Quaternary tectonic history of the Mojave Desert, and to provide additional information on the history of Lake Manix, of which Coyote Lake is a sub-basin. Mapping is displayed on parts of four USGS 7.5 minute series topographic maps. The map area lies in the central Mojave Desert of California, northeast of Barstow, Calif. and south of Fort Irwin, Calif. and covers 258 sq.km. (99.5 sq.mi.). Geologic deposits in the area consist of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, Miocene volcanic rocks, Pliocene-Pleistocene basin fill, and Quaternary surficial deposits. McCulloh (1960, 1965) conducted bedrock mapping and a generalized version of his maps are compiled into this map. McCulloh's maps contain many bedrock structures within the Calico Mountains that are not shown on the present map. This study resulted in several new findings, including the discovery of previously unrecognized faults, one of which is the Tin Can Alley fault. The north-striking Tin Can Alley fault is part of the Paradise fault zone (Miller and others, 2005), a potentially important feature for studying neo-tectonic strain in the Mojave Desert. Additionally, many Anodonta shells were collected in Coyote Lake lacustrine sediments for radiocarbon dating. Preliminary results support some of Meek's (1999) conclusions on the timing of Mojave River inflow into the Coyote Basin. The database includes information on geologic deposits, samples, and geochronology. The database is distributed in three parts: spatial map-based data, documentation, and printable map

  6. Groundwater quality in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s untreated groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins in the Borrego Valley, Central Desert, and Low-Use Basins of the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  7. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  8. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2003-01-01

    1. Deserts are one of the least invaded ecosystems by plants, possibly due to naturally low levels of soil nitrogen. Increased levels of soil nitrogen caused by atmospheric nitrogen deposition may increase the dominance of invasive alien plants and decrease the diversity of plant communities in desert regions, as it has in other ecosystems. Deserts should be particularly susceptible to even small increases in soil nitrogen levels because the ratio of increased nitrogen to plant biomass is higher compared with most other ecosystems. 2. The hypothesis that increased soil nitrogen will lead to increased dominance by alien plants and decreased plant species diversity was tested in field experiments using nitrogen additions at three sites in the in the Mojave Desert of western North America. 3. Responses of alien and native annual plants to soil nitrogen additions were measured in terms of density, biomass and species richness. Effects of nitrogen additions were evaluated during 2 years of contrasting rainfall and annual plant productivity. The rate of nitrogen addition was similar to published rates of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in urban areas adjacent to the Mojave Desert (3.2 g N m-2 year-1). The dominant alien species included the grasses Bromus madritensis ssp. rubens and Schismus spp. (S. arabicus and S. barbatus) and the forb Erodium cicutarium. 4. Soil nitrogen addition increased the density and biomass of alien annual plants during both years, but decreased density, biomass and species richness of native species only during the year of highest annual plant productivity. The negative response of natives may have been due to increased competitive stress for soil water and other nutrients caused by the increased productivity of aliens. 5. The effects of nitrogen additions were significant at both ends of a natural nutrient gradient, beneath creosote bush Larrea tridentata canopies and in the interspaces between them, although responses varied among individual

  9. A paleomagnetic test of the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear in Northwestern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Karen Kluger; Anderson, Thomas H.; Schmidt, Victor A.

    1986-11-01

    Three Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic formations in southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico have been investigated paleomagnetically as a means of testing for displacement along the proposed Mojave-Sonora megashear. Luning Formation of west-central Nevada and Sil Nakya Formation of southern Arizona lie north of the megashear whereas, in northwestern Sonora, Antimonio Formation lies south of the megashear. Previously published results from the Nazas Formation of presumed Lower Jurassic age from north-central Mexico were incorporated into the interpretations. These four units compose two sets of correlative formations on opposite sides of the proposed megashear. Restoration of 800 km of left-lateral displacement along the megashear about the pole of rotation determined by Anderson and Schmidt (1983), improves the grouping of the two sets of paleomagnetic poles noticeably, with the improvement having statistical significance at the 95% confidence level. We feel that the data support, but do not prove, the postulated displacement along the megashear. All four poles are displaced from Irving's (1979) smoothed apparent polar wander path for cratonic North America in the intervals 190 and 200 Ma. The displacement needed to bring all of these poles into coincidence is a pure rotation of about 8° counterclockwise about the sampling area. Two probable Cretaceous poles were obtained from the Sand Wells Formation of southern Arizona and from unnamed volcanics in northwest Sonora. These poles are essentially identical and suggest that displacement along the megashear had ceased by the Cretaceous. Data from the Early Jurassic Mulberry Wash and Pitoikam formations in southern Arizona appear to have been remagnetized in a later Cretaceous event and were not used in this study.

  10. Habitat restoration as a means of controlling non-native fish in a Mojave desert Oasis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoppettone, G.G.; Rissler, P.H.; Gourley, C.; Martinez, C.

    2005-01-01

    Non-native fish generally cause native fish decline, and once non-natives are established, control or elimination is usually problematic. Because non-native fish colonization has been greatest in anthropogenically altered habitats, restoring habitat similar to predisturbance conditions may offer a viable means of non-native fish control. In this investigation we identified habitats favoring native over non-native fish in a Mojave Desert oasis (Ash Meadows) and used this information to restore one of its major warm water spring systems (Kings Pool Spring). Prior to restoration, native fishes predominated in warm water (25-32??C) stream and spring-pool habitat, whereas non-natives predominated in cool water (???23??C) spring-pool and marsh/slack water habitat. Native Amargosa pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis) and Ash Meadows speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus nevadensis) inhabited significantly faster mean water column velocities (MWCV) and greater total depth (TD) than non-native Sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna) and Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) in warm water stream habitat, and Ash Meadows speckled dace inhabited significantly faster water than non-natives in cool water stream habitat. Modification of the outflow of Kings Pool Spring from marsh to warm water stream, with MWCV, TD, and temperature favoring native fish, changed the fish composition from predominantly non-native Sailfin molly and Mosquitofish to predominantly Ash Meadows pupfish. This result supports the hypothesis that restoring spring systems to a semblance of predisturbance conditions would promote recolonization of native fishes and deter non-native fish invasion and proliferation. ?? 2005 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  11. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Dickson, Brett G.; Zachmann, Luke J.; Hegeman, Ericka E.; Cangelosi, Amanda R.; Jackson, Thomas G.; Scheib, Amanda F.

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use. PMID:26352691

  12. Final Technical Report: Effects of Changing Water and Nitrogen Inputs on a Mojave Desert Ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stanley D.; Nowak, Robert S.

    2007-11-30

    Questions addressed under this grant shared the common hypothesis that plant and ecosystem performance will positively respond to the augmentation of the most limiting resources to plant growth in the Mojave Desert, e.g., water and nitrogen. Specific hypothesis include (1) increased summer rainfall will significantly increase plant production thorugh an alleviation of moisture stress in the dry summer months, (2) N-deposition will increase plan production in this N-limited system, particularly in wet years or in concert with added summer rain, and (3) biological crust disturbance will gradually decrease bio-available N, with concomitant long-term reductions in photosynthesis and ANPP. Individual plan and ecosystem responses to global change may be regulated by biogeochemical processes and natural weather variability, and changes in plant and ecosystem processes may occur rapidly, may occur only after a time lag, or may not occur at all. During the first PER grant period, we observed changes in plant and ecosystem processes that would fall under each of these time-response intervals: plant and ecosystem processes responded rapidly to added summer rain, whereas most processes responded slowly or in a lag fashion to N-deposition and with no significant response to crust disturbance. Therefore, the primary objectives of this renewal grant were to: (1) continue ongoing measurements of soil and plant parameters that assess primary treatment responses; (2) address the potential heterogeneity of soil properties and (3) initiate a new suite of measurements that will provide data necessary for scaling/modeling of whole-plot to ecosystem-level responses. Our experimental approach included soil plan-water interactions using TDR, neutron probe, and miniaturized soil matric potential and moisture sensors, plant ecophysiological and productivity responses to water and nitrogen treatments and remote sensing methodologies deployed on a radio control platform.

  13. Delta Chromium-53/52 isotopic composition of native and contaminated groundwater, Mojave Desert, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Martin, Peter; Schroth, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Chromium(VI) concentrations in groundwater sampled from three contaminant plumes in aquifers in the Mojave Desert near Hinkley, Topock and El Mirage, California, USA, were as high as 2600, 5800 and 330 μg/L, respectively. δ53/52Cr compositions from more than 50 samples collected within these plumes ranged from near 0‰ to almost 4‰ near the plume margins. Assuming only reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) within the plume, apparent fractionation factors for δ53/52Cr isotopes ranged from εapp = 0.3 to 0.4 within the Hinkley and Topock plumes, respectively, and only the El Mirage plume had a fractionation factor similar to the laboratory derived value of ε = 3.5. One possible explanation for the difference between field and laboratory fractionation factors at the Hinkley and Topock sites is localized reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), with subsequent advective mixing of native and contaminated water near the plume margin. Chromium(VI) concentrations and δ53/52Cr isotopic compositions did not uniquely define the source of Cr near the plume margin, or the extent of reductive fractionation within the plume. However, Cr(VI) and δ53/52Cr data contribute to understanding of the interaction between reductive and mixing processes that occur within and near the margins of Cr contamination plumes. Reductive fractionation of Cr(VI) predominates in plumes having higher εapp, these plumes may be suitable for monitored natural attenuation. In contrast, advective mixing predominates in plumes having lower εapp, the highly dispersed margins of these plumes may be difficult to define and manage.

  14. Processes leading to increased soil organic carbon in a Mojave Desert ecosystem under elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, A.; Evans, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    We observed increased soil organic carbon (SOC) following ten years of elevated atmospheric CO2 treatment at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility in the Mojave Desert. Physical and chemical fractions of surface soils collected under the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata (Larrea), and plant interspace were analyzed for particle size, plant-derived n-alkanes, microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) and neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) to explore potential mechanisms causing the observed increase in SOC. SOC concentrations under Larrea in bulk soils, coarse particulate organic matter (POM), fine POM and mineral-bound soil organic matter (SOM) under elevated CO2 were greater than those under ambient CO2 by 34%, 45%, 26% and 20%, respectively. Under Larrea, n-alkane concentrations were 52% greater under elevated compared to ambient CO2. Such increases in coarse POM and n-alkane concentrations suggest litter input from Larrea was at least one source for increased SOC under elevated CO2. While there was no significant difference in PLFA abundance between the CO2 treatments, elevated CO2 significantly increased the fungi to bacterial PLFA ratio. In addition, fungal and bacterial NLFA and NLFA 16:1ω5, a biomarker of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, were significantly higher under elevated than ambient CO2. These observations plus others suggest that Larrea allocated more photosynthate belowground to increased root exudation rather than increased fine root growth under elevated CO2. Thus, increased root exudates and microbial residues as well as episodic increases in litter input from Larrea are mechanisms behind the increased SOC under elevated CO2. Elevated CO2 did not increase SOC in surface soils in plant interspace despite incorporation of CO2 labeled with 13C under elevated CO2.

  15. Constraints from Xenoliths on the Rheology of the Mojave Lower Crust and Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, R. E.; Behr, W. M.

    2015-12-01

    We use xenoliths from young (3 Ma to present) cinder cones in the tectonically active Mojave region of southern California to characterize the rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle beneath the Eastern California Shear Zone. The xenoliths, which include spinel and plagioclase facies peridotites and lower crustal rocks (representing a depth range of ~25-60 km), were collected from two localities ~80 km apart: the Cima and Dish Hill volcanic fields. We document how stress, temperature, water content, deformation mechanism, lattice preferred orientation (LPO), and style of localization vary spatially and with depth. Key findings include the following: (1) Both xenolith suites exhibit a wide range of deformation textures, ranging from granular, to protogranular, to porphyroclastic and mylonitic. Higher strain fabrics show no evidence for static annealing, thus are likely reflecting youthful deformation and strain gradients at depth. (2) Both xenolith suites show abundant dynamic recrystallization and other evidence for dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. (3) A- and E-type olivine LPOs occur in both xenolith suites. In general, E-type LPO is associated with higher strain fabrics than A-type. (4) Water contents—found using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS)—range from 115-254 ppm for clinopyroxene, 35-165 ppm for orthopyroxene, and less than 10 ppm for olivine. We have found no correlation between water content and olivine LPO, despite experimental work associating higher water content with the development of E-type LPO, compared to A-type. (5) Deformation in most lower crustal gabbros is weak, but some show strong fabrics associated with plagioclase-rich zones. Water content from clinopyroxene in one highly-deformed gabbro is <1 ppm. (6) Paleopiezometers for olivine and plagioclase indicate stress magnitudes of 16-21 MPa for the uppermost mantle, and 0.1 MPa for the

  16. Fabrics and Rheology of the Mojave Lower Crust and Lithospheric Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, R. E.; Behr, W. M.

    2014-12-01

    We use xenoliths from young (3 Ma to present) cinder cones in the tectonically active Mojave desert region of southern California to characterize the rheological properties of the lower crust and upper mantle. The xenoliths were collected from two localities ~90 km apart: the Cima and Dish Hill volcanic fields. The xenolith suites represent a depth range of ~25-60 km and include spinel and plagioclase facies peridotites and lower crustal gabbros. We document how stress, temperature, water content, deformation mechanism, lattice preferred orientation, and style of localization vary with increasing depth in both xenolith suites. Key findings thus far include the following: (1) Both xenolith suites exhibit a wide range of deformation textures, ranging from granular, to protogranular, to porphyroclastic and mylonitic. The higher strain fabrics show no evidence for static annealing, thus are likely reflecting youthful deformation and strain gradients at depth. (2) Both xenolith suites show abundant dynamic recrystallization and other evidence for dislocation creep as the dominant deformation mechanism. This is consistent with recent models of upper mantle post-seismic relaxation following the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes, which require a component of power-law creep in order to fit the post-seismic surface response. (3) A- and E-type olivine LPOs occur in both xenolith suites. Further work will determine whether these fabrics are related to changes in water content as inferred from experimental studies. (4) Deformation in most lower crustal gabbros is weak, but some show strong fabrics associated with plagioclase-rich zones. (5) Measurements of olivine subgrain sizes in Dish Hill samples are similar to previously published measurements from Cima, suggesting similar stress magnitudes at depth in both locations. Paleopiezometers for olivine and plagioclase indicate stress magnitudes of 11-20 MPa for the uppermost mantle, and 0.1 MPa for the lowermost crust.

  17. Short-Term Space-Use Patterns of Translocated Mojave Desert Tortoise in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Farnsworth, Matthew L; Dickson, Brett G; Zachmann, Luke J; Hegeman, Ericka E; Cangelosi, Amanda R; Jackson, Thomas G; Scheib, Amanda F

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, renewable energy comprises a larger share of global energy production. Across the western United States, public lands are being developed to support renewable energy production. Where there are conflicts with threatened or endangered species, translocation can be used in an attempt to mitigate negative effects. For the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), we sought to compare habitat- and space-use patterns between short-distance translocated, resident, and control groups. We tested for differences in home range size based on utilization distributions and used linear mixed-effects models to compare space-use intensity, while controlling for demographic and environmental variables. In addition, we examined mean movement distances as well as home range overlap between years and for male and female tortoises in each study group. During the first active season post-translocation, home range size was greater and space-use intensity was lower for translocated tortoises than resident and control groups. These patterns were not present in the second season. In both years, there was no difference in home range size or space-use intensity between control and resident groups. Translocation typically resulted in one active season of questing followed by a second active season characterized by space-use patterns that were indistinguishable from control tortoises. Across both years, the number of times a tortoise was found in a burrow was positively related to greater space-use intensity. Minimizing the time required for translocated tortoises to exhibit patterns similar to non-translocated individuals may have strong implications for conservation by reducing exposure to adverse environmental conditions and predation. With ongoing development, our results can be used to guide future efforts aimed at understanding how translocation strategies influence patterns of animal space use. PMID:26352691

  18. MOJAVE. XII. ACCELERATION AND COLLIMATION OF BLAZAR JETS ON PARSEC SCALES

    SciTech Connect

    Homan, D. C.; Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Kellermann, K. I.

    2015-01-10

    We report on the acceleration properties of 329 features in 95 blazar jets from the MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array program. Nearly half the features and three-quarters of the jets show significant changes in speed and/or direction. In general, apparent speed changes are distinctly larger than changes in direction, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of jet features dominate the observed speed changes rather than bends along the line of sight. Observed accelerations tend to increase the speed of features near the jet base, ≲ 10-20 pc projected, and decrease their speed at longer distances. The range of apparent speeds at a fixed distance in an individual jet can span a factor of a few, indicating that shock properties and geometry may influence the apparent motions; however, we suggest that the broad trend of jet features increasing their speed near the origin is due to an overall acceleration of the jet flow out to deprojected distances of the order of 10{sup 2} pc, beyond which the flow begins to decelerate or remains nearly constant in speed. We estimate intrinsic rates of change of the Lorentz factors in the galaxy frame of the order of Γ-dot /Γ≃10{sup −3} to 10{sup –2} yr{sup –1}, which can lead to total Lorentz factor changes of a factor of a few on the length scales observed here. Finally, we also find evidence for jet collimation at projected distances of ≲ 10 pc in the form of the non-radial motion and bending accelerations that tend to better align features with the inner jet.

  19. Holocene Flows of the Cima Volcanic Field, Mojave Desert, Part 2: Flow Rheology from Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, T.; Whittington, A. G.; Soldati, A.; Sehlke, A.; Beem, J. R.; Gomez, F. G.

    2014-12-01

    Lava flow morphology is often utilized as an indicator of rheological behavior during flow emplacement. Rheological behavior can be characterized by the viscosity and yield strength of lava, which in turn are dependent on physical and chemical properties including crystallinity, vesicularity, and bulk composition. We are studying the rheology of a basaltic lava flow from a monogenetic Holocene cinder cone in the Cima lava field (Mojave Desert, California). The flow is roughly 2.5 km long and up to 700m wide, with a well-developed central channel along much of its length. Samples were collected along seven different traverses across the flow, along with real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS profiles to allow levee heights and slopes to be measured. Surface textures change from pahoehoe ropes near the vent to predominantly jagged `a`a blocks over the majority of the flow, including all levees and the toe. Chemically the lava shows little variation, plotting on the trachybasalt-basanite boundary on the total alkali-silica diagram. Mineralogically the lava is dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine phenocrysts, with abundant flow-aligned plagioclase microcrystals. The total crystal fraction is ~50% near the vent, with higher percentages in the distal portion of the flow. Vesicularity varies between ~10 and more than ~60%. Levees are ~10-15m high with slopes typically ~25-35˚, suggesting a yield strength at final emplacement of ~150,000 Pa. The effective emplacement temperature and yield strength of lava samples will be determined using the parallel-plate technique. We will test the hypothesis that these physical and rheological properties of the lava during final emplacement correlate with spatial patterns in flow morphology, such as average slope and levee width, which have been determined using remote sensing observations (Beem et al. 2014).

  20. Sex pheromone of the saturniid moth, Hemileuca burnsi, from the western Mojave Desert of California.

    PubMed

    McElfresh, J Steven; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2008-09-01

    The sex pheromone blend of Hemileuca burnsi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) from the western Mojave Desert was determined to be a combination of (10E,12Z)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (E10,Z12-16:Ac), (10E,12Z)-hexadecadien-1-ol (E10,Z12-16:OH), (10E,12E)-hexadecadien-1-yl acetate (E10,E12-16:Ac), and hexadecyl acetate (16:Ac). (10E,12Z)-Hexadecadienal (E10,Z12-16:Ald) was tentatively identified in pheromone gland extracts based on electroantennographic responses and, when added to the above blend, it enhanced trap captures at low doses. The mean ratio of the compounds in extracts of pheromone glands was 100:23:232:14:0.4 (E10,Z12-16:Ac: E10,E12-16:Ac: 16:Ac: E10,Z12-16:OH: E10,Z12-16:Ald). Field trials indicated that although E10,Z12-16:Ac and E10,Z12-16:OH were essential for attraction, the two-component blend was not attractive by itself. Addition of the three other compounds was necessary for maximum attraction, rendering this the most complicated pheromone blend described for a Hemileuca species to date. Similarities between the sex pheromone of H. burnsi and that of the allopatric Hemileuca electra electra and differences between the blends of H. burnsi and that of the sympatric H. electra mojavensis support a case for reproductive character displacement in the pheromone communication channel of H. electra. PMID:18649103

  1. Geothermal potential of the Lavic Lake Region, Central Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Katzenstein, A.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Meade, D.M.

    1995-12-31

    Lavic Lake is a playa lake located immediately south of Pisgah Crater within lands controlled by the Marine Corps Air/Ground Combat Center in the central Mojave Desert. The Department of the Navy`s Geothermal Program Office (GPO) recently completed a second season of drilling to assess the geothermal potential at Lavic Lake. Drilling was preceded by geologic reconnaissance and a detailed gravity and ground magnetic survey. Lavic Lake is bounded to the west by the northwest-trending, right-lateral Pisgah fault and an unnamed west-trending fault to the north. The {approximately}200 ka Sunshine basalt flows and the {approximately}2-20 ka Pisgah basalt flows straddle these northwest- and west-trending faults, respectively, in the Lavic Lake area. An extensional depression related to a right bend of the Pisgah fault forms the southwest end of Lavic Lake and was the focus of the above studies. A localized 10 mgal gravity low and a coincident 500 gamma aeromagnetic low are centered within this depression. The combination of elevated temperature gradients in initial shallow holes, recent basaltic volcanism, a seismicly active fluid conduit (Pisgah fault), and hydrothermal alteration in the nearby hectorite deposit prompted the GPO to focus deeper drilling adjacent to the geophysical anomalies at the southwest end of Lavic Lake. Drilling results reveal that the geothermal potential for electrical use is negligible; however, LLTGH-5 and -6 both encountered highly fractured zones. LLTGH-6 crossed a zone of warm (110{degrees}F) fluid at 750 ft and intercepted highly fractured granitic basement at 4,175 ft.

  2. Microtopographic evolution of lava flows at Cima volcanic field, Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.

    1992-01-01

    Microtopographic profiles were measured and power spectra calculated for dated lava flow surfaces at Cima volcanic field in the eastern Mojave Desert of California in order to quantify changes in centimeter- to meter-scale roughness as a function of age. For lava flows younger than about 0.8 m.y., roughness over all spatial scales decreases with age, with meter-scale roughness decreasing slightly more than centimeter scales. Flows older than about 0.8 m.y. show a reversal of this trend, becoming as rough as young flows at these scales. Modeling indicates that eolian deposition can explain most of the change observed in the offset, or roughness amplitude, of power spectra of flow surface profiles up to 0.8 m.y. Other processes, such as rubbing and stone pavement development, appear to have a minor effect in this age range. Changes in power spectra of surfaces older than about 0.8 m.y. are consistent with roughening due to fluvial dissection. These results agree qualitatively with a process-response model that attributes systematic changes in flow surface morphology to cyclic changes in the rates of eolian, soil formation, and fluvial processes. Identification of active surficial processes and estimation of the extent of their effects, or stage of surficial evolution, through measurement of surface roughness will help put the correlation of surficial units on a quantitative basis. This may form the basis for the use of radar remote sensing data to help in regional correlations of surficial units.

  3. Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubs—fast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrush—across five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

  4. A systematic review of wild burro grazing effects on Mojave Desert vegetation, USA.

    PubMed

    Abella, Scott R

    2008-06-01

    Wild burros (Equus asinus), protected by the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act on some federal lands but exotic animals many ecologists and resource mangers view as damaging to native ecosystems, represent one of the most contentious environmental management problems in American Southwest arid lands. This review synthesizes the scattered literature about burro effects on plant communities of the Mojave Desert, a center of burro management contentions. I classified 24 documents meeting selection criteria for this review into five categories of research: (i) diet analyses directly determining which plant species burros consume, (ii) utilization studies of individual species, (iii) control-impact comparisons, (iv) exclosure studies, and (v) forage analyses examining chemical characteristics of forage plants. Ten diet studies recorded 175 total species that burros consumed. However, these studies and two exclosure studies suggested that burros preferentially eat graminoid and forb groups over shrubs. One study in Death Valley National Park, for example, found that Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass) was 11 times more abundant in burro diets than expected based on its availability. Utilization studies revealed that burros also exhibit preferences within the shrub group. Eighty-three percent of reviewed documents were produced in a 12-year period, from 1972 to 1983, with the most recent document produced in 1988. Because burros remain abundant on many federal lands and grazing may interact with other management concerns (e.g., desert wildfires fueled by exotic grasses), rejuvenating grazing research to better understand both past and present burro effects could help guide revegetation and grazing management scenarios. PMID:18379838

  5. Supplementing seed banks to rehabilitate disturbed Mojave Desert shrublands: Where do all the seeds go?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Nicklas, M.B.; Kane, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Revegetation of degraded arid lands often involves supplementing impoverished seed banks and improving the seedbed, yet these approaches frequently fail. To understand these failures, we tracked the fates of seeds for six shrub species that were broadcast across two contrasting surface disturbances common to the Mojave Desert-sites compacted by concentrated vehicle use and trenched sites where topsoil and subsurface soils were mixed. We evaluated seedbed treatments that enhance soil-seed contact (tackifier) and create surface roughness while reducing soil bulk density (harrowing). We also explored whether seed harvesting by granivores and seedling suppression by non-native annuals influence the success of broadcast seeding in revegetating degraded shrublands. Ten weeks after treatments, seeds readily moved off of experimental plots in untreated compacted sites, but seed movements were reduced 32% by tackifier and 55% through harrowing. Harrowing promoted seedling emergence in compacted sites, particularly for the early-colonizing species Encelia farinosa, but tackifier was largely ineffective. The inherent surface roughness of trenched sites retained three times the number of seeds than compacted sites, but soil mixing during trench development likely altered the suitability of the seedbed thus resulting in poor seedling emergence. Non-native annuals had little influence on seed fates during our study. In contrast, the prevalence of harvester ants increased seed removal on compacted sites, whereas rodent activity influenced removal on trenched sites. Future success of broadcast seeding in arid lands depends on evaluating disturbance characteristics prior to seeding and selecting appropriate species and seasons for application. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  6. A Systematic Review of Wild Burro Grazing Effects on Mojave Desert Vegetation, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abella, Scott R.

    2008-06-01

    Wild burros ( Equus asinus), protected by the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horse and Burro Act on some federal lands but exotic animals many ecologists and resource mangers view as damaging to native ecosystems, represent one of the most contentious environmental management problems in American Southwest arid lands. This review synthesizes the scattered literature about burro effects on plant communities of the Mojave Desert, a center of burro management contentions. I classified 24 documents meeting selection criteria for this review into five categories of research: (i) diet analyses directly determining which plant species burros consume, (ii) utilization studies of individual species, (iii) control-impact comparisons, (iv) exclosure studies, and (v) forage analyses examining chemical characteristics of forage plants. Ten diet studies recorded 175 total species that burros consumed. However, these studies and two exclosure studies suggested that burros preferentially eat graminoid and forb groups over shrubs. One study in Death Valley National Park, for example, found that Achnatherum hymenoides (Indian ricegrass) was 11 times more abundant in burro diets than expected based on its availability. Utilization studies revealed that burros also exhibit preferences within the shrub group. Eighty-three percent of reviewed documents were produced in a 12-year period, from 1972 to 1983, with the most recent document produced in 1988. Because burros remain abundant on many federal lands and grazing may interact with other management concerns (e.g., desert wildfires fueled by exotic grasses), rejuvenating grazing research to better understand both past and present burro effects could help guide revegetation and grazing management scenarios.

  7. Geomorphic controls on biological soil crust distribution: A conceptual model from the Mojave Desert (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Amanda J.; Buck, Brenda J.; Soukup, Deborah A.; Merkler, Douglas J.

    2013-08-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are bio-sedimentary features that play critical geomorphic and ecological roles in arid environments. Extensive mapping, surface characterization, GIS overlays, and statistical analyses explored relationships among BSCs, geomorphology, and soil characteristics in a portion of the Mojave Desert (USA). These results were used to develop a conceptual model that explains the spatial distribution of BSCs. In this model, geologic and geomorphic processes control the ratio of fine sand to rocks, which constrains the development of three surface cover types and biogeomorphic feedbacks across intermontane basins. (1) Cyanobacteria crusts grow where abundant fine sand and negligible rocks form saltating sand sheets. Cyanobacteria facilitate moderate sand sheet activity that reduces growth potential of mosses and lichens. (2) Extensive tall moss-lichen pinnacled crusts are favored on early to late Holocene surfaces composed of mixed rock and fine sand. Moss-lichen crusts induce a dust capture feedback mechanism that promotes further crust propagation and forms biologically-mediated vesicular (Av) horizons. The presence of thick biogenic vesicular horizons supports the interpretation that BSCs are long-lived surface features. (3) Low to moderate density moss-lichen crusts grow on early Holocene and older geomorphic surfaces that display high rock cover and negligible surficial fine sand. Desert pavement processes and abiotic vesicular horizon formation dominate these surfaces and minimize bioturbation potential. The biogeomorphic interactions that sustain these three surface cover trajectories support unique biological communities and soil conditions, thereby sustaining ecological stability. The proposed conceptual model helps predict BSC distribution within intermontane basins to identify biologically sensitive areas, set reference conditions for ecological restoration, and potentially enhance arid landscape models, as scientists address impacts

  8. Crustal structure and tectonics from the Los Angeles basin to the Mojave Desert, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuis, G.S.; Ryberg, T.; Godfrey, N.J.; Okaya, D.A.; Murphy, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic refraction and low-fold reflection survey, known as the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE), was conducted along a transect (line 1) extending from Seal Beach, California, to the Mojave Desert, crossing the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Valley basins and San Gabriel Mountains. The chief result of this survey is an interpreted cross section that addresses a number of questions regarding the crustal structure and tectonics of southern California that have been debated for decades and have important implications for earthquake hazard assessment. The results (or constraints) are as follows. (1) The maximum depth of the Los Angeles basin along line 1 is 8-9 km. (2) The deep structure of the Sierra Madre fault zone in the northern San Gabriel Valley is as follows. The Duarte branch of the Sierra Madre fault zone forms a buried, 2.5-km-high, moderately north dipping buttress between the sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the San Gabriel Valley and the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the San Gabriel Mountains. (For deeper structure, see following.) (3) There are active crustal de??collements in southern California. At middle-crustal depths, the Sierra Madre fault zone appears to sole into a master de??collement that terminates northward at the San Andreas fault and projects southward beneath the San Gabriel Valley to the Puente Hills blind thrust fault. (4) The dip and depth extent of the San Andreas fault along line 1 dips steeply (???83??) northward and extends to at least the Moho. (5) The subsurface lateral extent of the Pelona Schist in southern California is as follows. Along line 1, the Pelona Schist underlies much, if not all of the San Gabriel Mountains south of the San Andreas fault to middle-crustal depths. North of the San Andreas fault, it is apparently not present along the transect.

  9. Multiple factors affect a population of Agassiz's desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) in the Northwestern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Yee, Julie L.; Coble, Ashley A.; Perry, William M.; Shields, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous factors have contributed to declines in populations of the federally threatened Agassiz's Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) and continue to limit recovery. In 2010, we surveyed a low-density population on a military test facility in the northwestern Mojave Desert of California, USA, to evaluate population status and identify potential factors contributing to distribution and low densities. Estimated densities of live tortoises ranged spatially from 1.2/km2 to 15.1/km2. Although only one death of a breeding-age tortoise was recorded for the 4-yr period prior to the survey, remains of 16 juvenile and immature tortoises were found, and most showed signs of predation by Common Ravens (Corvus corax) and mammals. Predation may have limited recruitment of young tortoises into the adult size classes. To evaluate the relative importance of different types of impacts to tortoises, we developed predictive models for spatially explicit densities of tortoise sign and live tortoises using topography (i.e., slope), predators (Common Raven, signs of mammalian predators), and anthropogenic impacts (distances from paved road and denuded areas, density of ordnance fragments) as covariates. Models suggest that densities of tortoise sign increased with slope and signs of mammalian predators and decreased with Common Ravens, while also varying based on interaction effects involving these predictors as well as distances from paved roads, denuded areas, and ordnance. Similarly, densities of live tortoises varied by interaction effects among distances to denuded areas and paved roads, density of ordnance fragments, and slope. Thus multiple factors predict the densities and distribution of this population.

  10. MOJAVE. XII. Acceleration and Collimation of Blazar Jets on Parsec Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, D. C.; Lister, M. L.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.; Kellermann, K. I.; Richards, J. L.; Ros, E.

    2015-01-01

    We report on the acceleration properties of 329 features in 95 blazar jets from the MOJAVE Very Long Baseline Array program. Nearly half the features and three-quarters of the jets show significant changes in speed and/or direction. In general, apparent speed changes are distinctly larger than changes in direction, indicating that changes in the Lorentz factors of jet features dominate the observed speed changes rather than bends along the line of sight. Observed accelerations tend to increase the speed of features near the jet base, <~ 10-20 pc projected, and decrease their speed at longer distances. The range of apparent speeds at a fixed distance in an individual jet can span a factor of a few, indicating that shock properties and geometry may influence the apparent motions; however, we suggest that the broad trend of jet features increasing their speed near the origin is due to an overall acceleration of the jet flow out to deprojected distances of the order of 102 pc, beyond which the flow begins to decelerate or remains nearly constant in speed. We estimate intrinsic rates of change of the Lorentz factors in the galaxy frame of the order of \\dot{Γ }/Γ ≃ 10-3 to 10-2 yr-1, which can lead to total Lorentz factor changes of a factor of a few on the length scales observed here. Finally, we also find evidence for jet collimation at projected distances of <~ 10 pc in the form of the non-radial motion and bending accelerations that tend to better align features with the inner jet.

  11. Benefits of protective fencing to plant and rodent communities of the western Mojave Desert, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Matthew L.

    1995-01-01

    Human disturbance in the western Mojave Desert takes many forms. The most pervasive are livestock grazing and off-highway vehicle use. Over the past few decades several areas within this region have been fenced to preclude human disturbance. These areas provide opportunities to study the impact of human activities in a desert ecosystem. This paper documents the response of plant and small mammal populations to fencing constructed between 1978 and 1979 at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area, Kern County, California. Aboveground live annual plant biomass was generally greater inside than outside the fenced plots during April 1990, 1991, and 1992. The alien grass Schismus barbatus was a notable exception, producing more biomass in the unprotected area. Forb biomass was greater than that of alien annual grasses inside the fence during all three years of the study. Outside the fence, forb biomass was significantly higher than that of alien grasses only during spring 1992. Percent cover of perennial shrubs was higher inside the fence than outside, while no significant trend was detected in density. There was als more seed biomass inside the fence; this may have contributed to the greater diversity and density of Merriam's kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys merriami), long-tailed pocket mice ( Chaetodipus formosus), and southern grasshopper mice ( Onychomys torridus) in the protected area. These results show that protection from human disturbance has many benefits, including greater overall community biomass and diversity. The significance and generality of these results can be further tested by studying other exclosures of varying age and configurations in different desert regions of the southwestern United States.

  12. Advanced ATC - An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, L.; Williams, D. H.; Howell, W. E.; Spitzer, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. This paper describes efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  13. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  14. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  15. Potassium-argon geochronology of the eastern Transverse Ranges and southern Mojave Desert, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, F.K.; Morton, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    More than 200 potassium-argon apparent ages on minerals from crystalline rocks, chiefly from the San Bernardino and eastern San Gabriel Mountains and the southern Mojave Desert, define an area greater than 10,000 km 2 in which the potassium-argon isotopic systematics have been highly disturbed. The disturbance or disturbances appear to have culminated at different times in different parts of the region, ranging from 57 m.y. ago in the eastern San Gabriel Mountains to about 70 m.y. ago in the southern Mojave Desert. The region can be subdivided into three parts on the basis of potassium-argon dating: (1) An inner area of anomalous ages in which the rocks yield apparent potassium-argon ages that indicate complete or nearly complete resetting of the isotopic system. (2) An outer area in which the rocks yield apparent ages that are, or approach, emplacement ages. (3) A zone separating these two areas from which rocks yield discordant apparent ages on coexisting mineral pairs. This discordant zone varies in width from about 6 to 12 km and grades inward to rocks reset to the degree that they yield concordant potassium-argon apparent ages on coexisting mineral pairs and outward toward rocks that yield near-concordant apparent ages. Rocks from the center and the inner parts of the discordant zone yield the most discordant apparent ages. Contouring of the apparent ages defines the extent of the reset region that occurs on both sides of the San Andreas fault. The apparent ages can be contoured across the fault, although the position of the fault is well defined by abrupt deflection of the contours parallel to the fault. The reverse fault bounding the north side of the San Bernardino Mountains mayor may not be reflected by offset contours; correlation of possible offset features across the fault is uncertain. Several northwest-trending faults on the Mojave Desert strongly disrupt the contours but do not show the right-lateral displacements that have been attributed to them on

  16. X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Aircraft in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability aircraft in flight over California's Mojave desert during a 1992 test flight. The X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability (EFM) demonstrator flew at the Ames- Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California (redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center in 1994) from February 1992 until 1995 and before that at the Air Force's Plant 42 in Palmdale, California. The goal of the project was to provide design information for the next generation of highly maneuverable fighter aircraft. This program demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with an advanced flight control system to provide controlled flight to very high angles of attack. The result was a significant advantage over most conventional fighters in close-in combat situations. The X-31 flight program focused on agile flight within the post-stall regime, producing technical data to give aircraft designers a better understanding of aerodynamics, effectiveness of flight controls and thrust vectoring, and airflow phenomena at high angles of attack. Stall is a condition of an airplane or an airfoil in which lift decreases and drag increases due to the separation of airflow. Thrust vectoring compensates for the loss of control through normal aerodynamic surfaces that occurs during a stall. Post-stall refers to flying beyond the normal stall angle of attack, which in the X-31 was at a 30-degree angle of attack. During Dryden flight testing, the X-31 aircraft established several milestones. On November 6, 1992, the X-31 achieved controlled flight at a 70-degree angle of attack. On April 29, 1993, the second X-31 successfully executed a rapid minimum-radius, 180-degree turn using a post-stall maneuver, flying well beyond the aerodynamic limits of any conventional aircraft. This revolutionary maneuver has been called the 'Herbst Maneuver' after Wolfgang Herbst, a German proponent of using post-stall flight in air-to-air combat

  17. Low-speed airspeed calibration data for a single-engine research-support aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.

    1980-01-01

    A standard service airspeed system on a single engine research support airplane was calibrated by the trailing anemometer method. The effects of flaps, power, sideslip, and lag were evaluated. The factory supplied airspeed calibrations were not sufficiently accurate for high accuracy flight research applications. The trailing anemometer airspeed calibration was conducted to provide the capability to use the research support airplane to perform pace aircraft airspeed calibrations.

  18. In-Factory Learning - Qualification For The Factory Of The Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quint, Fabian; Mura, Katharina; Gorecky, Dominic

    2015-07-01

    The Industry 4.0 vision anticipates that internet technologies will find their way into future factories replacing traditional components by dynamic and intelligent cyber-physical systems (CPS) that combine the physical objects with their digital representation. Reducing the gap between the real and digital world makes the factory environment more flexible, more adaptive, but also more complex for the human workers. Future workers require interdisciplinary competencies from engineering, information technology, and computer science in order to understand and manage the diverse interrelations between physical objects and their digital counterpart. This paper proposes a mixed-reality based learning environment, which combines physical objects and visualisation of digital content via Augmented Reality. It uses reality-based interaction in order to make the dynamic interrelations between real and digital factory visible and tangible. We argue that our learning system does not work as a stand-alone solution, but should fit into existing academic and advanced training curricula.

  19. Aircraft exterior scratch measurement system using machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.

    1991-08-01

    In assuring the quality of aircraft skin, it must be free of surface imperfections and structural defects. Manual inspection methods involve mechanical and optical technologies. Machine vision instrumentation can be automated for increasing the inspection rate and repeatability of measurement. As shown by previous industry experience, machine vision instrumentation methods are not calibrated and certified as easily as mechanical devices. The defect must be accurately measured and documented via a printout for engineering evaluation and disposition. In the actual usage of the instrument for inspection, the device must be portable for factory usage, on the flight line, or on an aircraft anywhere in the world. The instrumentation must be inexpensive and operable by a mechanic/technician level of training. The instrument design requirements are extensive, requiring a multidisciplinary approach for the research and development. This paper presents the image analysis results of microscopic structures laser images of scratches on various surfaces. Also discussed are the hardware and algorithms used for the microscopic structures laser images. Dedicated hardware and embedded software for implementing the image acquisition and analysis have been developed. The human interface, human vision is used for determining which image should be processed. Once the image is chosen for analysis, the final answer is a numerical value of the scratch depth. The result is an answer that is reliable and repeatable. The prototype has been built and demonstrated to Boeing Commercial Airplanes Group factory Quality Assurance and flight test management with favorable response.

  20. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.