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Sample records for aircraft fatalities due

  1. Mass fatality aircraft disaster processing.

    PubMed

    Clark, M A; Clark, S R; Perkins, D G

    1989-07-01

    On Dec. 12, 1985, a contract transport carrying 248 U.S. Army personnel crashed on takeoff at Gander, Nfld., Canada, killing all the passengers as well as the crew of eight. This was the worst aircraft accident in U.S. military history and, at the time was the fifth worst accident in aviation history. Cooperation between the governments of Canada and the United States allowed for the transport of all human remains to the U.S. Air Force mortuary facility at Dover AFB, DE, where they were processed, identified, and ultimately returned to their families for burial. Under ideal circumstances, any medical examiner's office or mortuary facility would be overwhelmed by a mass disaster of this magnitude. Before the arrival of the first shipment of bodies, a concerted planning effort was undertaken and the facility arranged so that remains would pass in a logical sequence through a series of 10 "work stations." This report details the process and outlines the logistics of the operations.

  2. [Fatal poisoning due to Indigofera].

    PubMed

    Labib, S; Berdai, M-A; Bendadi, A; Achour, S; Harandou, M

    2012-01-01

    Indigo, also known in Morocco as Nila, is a dye widely used in the coloring of Moroccan handicrafts. It is obtained from fermentation reactions on the leaves and branches of true indigo, Indigofera tinctoria, which is a widespread plant in tropical Africa and Asia. We report a case of fatal poisoning in a 3-year-old child after administration of indigo for therapeutic purposes. Death resulted from multiple organ failure. The toxicity of this compound is little known in the literature and deserves to be explored through toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic studies, in order to better determine the toxic constituents of the dye.

  3. ECONOMIC LOSSES AND FATALITIES DUE TO LANDSLIDES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Robert L.; Fleming, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    Annual losses in the United States, Japan, Italy, and India have been estimated at 1 billion or more each. During the period 1971-74, nearly 600 people per year were killed by landslides worldwide; about 90 percent of these deaths occurred in the Circum-Pacific region. From 1967-82, 150 people per year died in Japan as a result of slope failures. In the United States, the number of landslide-related fatalities per year exceeds 25. Japan leads other nations in development of comprehensive programs to reduce economic losses and fatalities due to landslides. The United States recently has proposed a national landslide hazard reduction program.

  4. Heroin fatality due to penile injection.

    PubMed

    Winek, C L; Wahba, W W; Rozin, L

    1999-03-01

    Death due to heroin overdose and/or rapid injection of heroin is a frequent occurrence among opioid addicts. We present an unusual case of heroin fatality due to the injection of the drug in the penis. Blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor concentrations of morphine were 0.68, 0.49, 0.32 and 0.062 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanol was detected at concentrations of 104, 124, 106, and 94 mg/dl in the blood, urine, bile, and vitreous humor, respectively. The cause of death was determined to be due to heroin and ethanol intoxication.

  5. A fatality due to cyproheptadine and citalopram.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, Veronica; Molina, D Kimberley

    2009-10-01

    Cyproheptadine (Periactin) is a first-generation antihistamine available in over-the-counter cold medications and is used to treat allergic-type symptoms. Although antihistamines in general have long been known to cause serious side effects, especially when taken in overdose, few reports that specifically address cyproheptadine-related fatalities exist. A 42-year-old healthy female was found dead at her home with no anatomic cause of death and a recent history of suicidal ideations. Toxicology revealed cyproheptadine and citalopram in the femoral postmortem blood at concentrations of 0.49 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively. Vitreous, urine, and bile analysis were also performed, yielding concentrations of < 0.04 and 0.80 mg/L in the vitreous for cyproheptadine and citalopram, respectively; 0.23 and 8.2 mg/L in the urine; and 30.7 and 9.0 mg/L in the bile. The cause of death was determined to be cyproheptadine and citalopram intoxication, and the manner was ruled a suicide. Although cyproheptadine is widely available in the United States and Europe, there are only two published fatalities due to this antihistamine and only one that specifically cites blood and tissue concentrations. Therefore, this case study will be beneficial to the forensic toxicology community by providing additional information regarding postmortem interpretation.

  6. Fatal meningoencephalitis due to Bacillus anthracis.

    PubMed

    Kwong, K L; Que, T L; Wong, S N; So, K T

    1997-12-01

    We report the first case of fatal anthrax meningoencephalitis in Hong Kong over the past 60 years. A 13 year-old boy presented with right lower quadrant pain, diarrhoea and progressive headache. Lumbar puncture yielded gram positive bacilli initially thought to be Bacillus cereus, a contaminant. He was treated with ampicillin and cefotaxime, but died 3 days after hospitalization. The organism isolated from blood and cerebrospinal fluid was later identified as Bacillus anthracis.

  7. Fatal hemoperitoneum due to segmental arterial mediolysis.

    PubMed

    Felipe-Silva, Aloísio; de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Martinês, João Augusto Dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to vascular injury is a life-threatening condition mostly associated with aortic or splanchnic arterial disease, which stems from atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or infectious origin. However, in 1976, Slavin and Gonzales described a nonatherosclerotic arterial disease that may render aneurysmal formation predominantly in the splanchnic arterial bed. The clinical presentation is diverse, but abdominal pain and shock prevail. We report the case of a middle-aged man who presented a hemoperitoneum due to a middle colic artery aneurysm rupture and died after undergoing a surgical treatment attempt. The preoperative imaging study revealed the presence of a huge hematoma in the epiplon retrocavity, and abdominal free liquid as well as extensive arterial disease with multiple aneurysms. The autopsy findings included hemoperitoneum, hematoma in the upper left abdominal quadrant, the surgical ligature of the middle colic artery, and histologic features consistent with segmental arterial mediolysis. The authors call attention to this rare entity and highlight the autopsy as a fundamental examination to accurately reach this diagnosis.

  8. Fatal hemoperitoneum due to segmental arterial mediolysis

    PubMed Central

    de Campos, Fernando Peixoto Ferraz; Martinês, João Augusto dos Santos

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous hemoperitoneum due to vascular injury is a life-threatening condition mostly associated with aortic or splanchnic arterial disease, which stems from atherosclerotic, inflammatory, or infectious origin. However, in 1976, Slavin and Gonzales described a nonatherosclerotic arterial disease that may render aneurysmal formation predominantly in the splanchnic arterial bed. The clinical presentation is diverse, but abdominal pain and shock prevail. We report the case of a middle-aged man who presented a hemoperitoneum due to a middle colic artery aneurysm rupture and died after undergoing a surgical treatment attempt. The preoperative imaging study revealed the presence of a huge hematoma in the epiplon retrocavity, and abdominal free liquid as well as extensive arterial disease with multiple aneurysms. The autopsy findings included hemoperitoneum, hematoma in the upper left abdominal quadrant, the surgical ligature of the middle colic artery, and histologic features consistent with segmental arterial mediolysis. The authors call attention to this rare entity and highlight the autopsy as a fundamental examination to accurately reach this diagnosis. PMID:27818953

  9. Fatal hyperammonaemia due to late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bijvoet, G P; van der Sijs-Bos, C J M; Wielders, J P M; Groot, O A

    2016-01-01

    In this case report we describe a 67-year-old male, admitted to the ICU with pneumonia who unexpectedly developed a fatal coma due to hyperammonaemia. At postmortem the diagnosis late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency was made. The non-specific clinical presentation, the rapid deterioration and incidentally the fatal outcome all underline the importance of recognition and knowledge of this genetic disorder. Several measures to treat and prevent potentially fatal episodes of hyperammonaemia are available, if only the disorder is recognised in time. In retrospect, several clues to the diagnosis were available in this fatal case, such as voluntary protein avoidance, as well as several male family members who died at a young age of an unknown cause. After his death, two daughters were discovered to be carriers of an OTC gene mutation, as well as his infant grandson. We emphasise the importance of obtaining ammonia levels in all patients with unexplained coma, seizures or cerebral oedema, irrespective of their age, especially in patients in the ICU or in an otherwise catabolic state.

  10. Fatal accidents due to train surfing in Berlin.

    PubMed

    Strauch, H; Wirth, I; Geserick, G

    1998-06-08

    This study was undertaken for the purpose of analysing under the aspect of legal medicine, fatal accidents due to train surfing in the local transport system of Berlin (S-Bahn and underground). The period of investigation was from 1989 through 1995, with 41 train surfing accidents, among them 18 with fatal outcome. Evaluation included those 14 deaths which were forensically autopsied. It was based on autopsy records of Berlin-based university institutes (Humboldt University and Free University) as well as the Brandenburg State Institute of Legal Medicine. Also used were data obtained from the Berlin Transport Police Record. The casualties were aged between 13 and 25 years, most of them between 16 and 20. The male-female gender ratio was 13:1. Accidents occurred above all in the warmer season of the year, most of them between 20:00 h and midnight. More than 50% of all cases were affected by alcohol, but centrally acting medicaments or other addictive drugs were not noticed at all. Most of the fatal accidents occurred to users of the Berlin S-Bahn network. Older train models were the preferred surfing objects due to their structural peculiarities. Collision with close-to-track obstacles and slipping from the train proved to be the major sources of danger. An analysis of injuries revealed polytraumatisation but for one exception, with craniocerebral injuries being the most common and severest events. The longest survival time amounted to 24 h. As the psychosocial causes of high-risk behaviour of adolescents will hardly be controllable, withdrawal of technical, that is structural design possibilities appears to be the most important approach to prevention of accidents in the future. This demand is met by the new series of the Berlin S-Bahn. The model of the old series, suitable for surfing, still accounts for about 10% of the rolling stock and is to be decommissioned in 1998.

  11. Fatal necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, So-Youn; Park, So Young; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong; Lee, Mi Suk

    2011-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis is known to be a highly lethal infection of deep-seated subcutaneous tissue and superficial fascia. Reports of necrotizing fasciitis due to Streptococcus pneumoniae are exceedingly rare. We report a case of necrotizing fasciitis in a 62-yr-old man with liver cirrhosis and diabetes mellitus. He presented with painful swelling of left leg and right hand. On the day of admission, compartment syndrome was aggravated and the patient underwent surgical exploration. Intra-operative findings revealed necrotizing fasciitis and cultures of two blood samples and wound aspirates showed S. pneumoniae. The patient died despite debridement and proper antimicrobial treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of fatal necrotizing fasciitis with meningitis reported in Korea. We also review and discuss the literature on pneumococcal necrotizing fasciitis.

  12. Fatalities due to indigenous and exotic species in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2014-01-01

    Florida's climate is suitable for many potentially hazardous animals, including both indigenous and exotic species, which are frequently kept as in zoos or as pets. This has resulted in many unforeseen fatal encounters between animals and the ever expanding human population. While the literature and knowledge pool for more common types of deaths referred to medical examiner/coroner's offices is abundant, the appreciation of wildlife and exotic pet-related deaths is far less widespread. We report seven animal attack-related deaths that occurred in Florida. The inflicted injuries included blunt and sharp force injuries, asphyxia, drowning, and envenomation. The underlying cause of death, however, was always a result of the human/animal interaction and in many cases related to human error and failure to appreciate the potentially dangerous behavior of nondomesticated species. These cases illustrate the varied circumstances and pathophysiologies associated with deaths due to indigenous and exotic species and the importance of the multidisciplinary approach in the medicolegal investigation of these cases.

  13. [Fatal electric arc accidents due to high voltage].

    PubMed

    Strauch, Hansjürg; Wirth, Ingo

    2004-01-01

    The frequency of electric arc accidents has been successfully reduced owing to preventive measures taken by the professional association. However, the risk of accidents has continued to exist in private setting. Three fatal electric arc accidents caused by high voltage are reported with reference to the autopsy findings.

  14. A fatal case of urosepsis due to Corynebacterium riegelii.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Gokhan; Midilli, Kenan; Cilingir, Hatice; Yilmaz, Mesut; Kutukcu, Aysegul; Eker, Engin

    2013-01-01

    Corynebacterium species other than Corynebacterium diphtheriae rarely cause infections in human but rather reside in flora, however they have been reported to cause opportunistic infections in both immunocompromised and immunecompetent patients. Here we report for the first time a case of an elderly female patient presenting with a fatal urosepsis caused by a recently defined pathogen, Corynebacterium riegelii, identified on second day after patient hospitalization leading to a progressive worsening and death of the patient on 6th day.

  15. Unique fatality due to claw injuries in a tiger attack: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Hrishikesh; Dixit, Pradeep; Dhawane, Shailendra; Meshram, Satin; Shrigiriwar, Manish; Dingre, Niraj

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes a unique case of a fatal tiger attack in the wild. In the present case, a tiger fatally mauled a 34-year-old female with its claws, instead of the usual mechanism of killing by the bite injury to the neck. The autopsy revealed multiple fatal and non-fatal injuries caused by the tiger claws. The characteristic injuries due to the tooth impacts were absent as the teeth of the offending tiger were either fallen or non-functional. To the best of our knowledge, probably this rare case would be the first reported human fatality due to the tiger claw injuries in the world. The purpose of the present article is to highlight the fatal injuries due to the tiger claws, as the claw-induced fatal injuries in a tiger attack are not reported in the medico-legal literature. Moreover, this report would be an illustrative one for differentiation between the fatal injuries due to the claws and tooth impacts in a tiger attack. Furthermore, the present report establishes the importance of the tiger claws as a source of fatal injuries in a tiger attack.

  16. Factors associated with pilot fatality in work-related aircraft crashes, Alaska, 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Bensyl, D M; Moran, K; Conway, G A

    2001-12-01

    Work-related aircraft crashes are the leading cause of occupational fatality in Alaska, with civilian pilots having the highest fatality rate (410/100,000/year). To identify factors affecting survivability, the authors examined work-related aircraft crashes that occurred in Alaska in the 1990s (1990-1999), comparing crashes with pilot fatalities to crashes in which the pilot survived. Using data from National Transportation Safety Board reports, the authors carried out logistic regression analysis with the following variables: age, flight experience, use of a shoulder restraint, weather conditions (visual flight vs. instrument flight), light conditions (daylight vs. darkness), type of aircraft (airplane vs. helicopter), postcrash fire, crash location (airport vs. elsewhere), and state of residence. In the main-effects model, significant associations were found between fatality and postcrash fire (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 6.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.38, 17.37), poor weather (AOR = 4.11, 95% CI: 2.15, 7.87), and non-Alaska resident status (AOR = 2.10, 95% CI: 1.05, 4.20). Protective effects were seen for shoulder restraint use (AOR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.21, 0.77) and daylight versus darkness (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.99). The finding that state of residence was associated with survivability offers new information on pilot survivability in work-related aircraft crashes in Alaska. These results may be useful in targeting safety interventions for pilots who fly occupationally in Alaska or in similar environments.

  17. Fatal anaphylactic shock due to a dental impression material.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Spagnolo, Elvira Ventura; Cardia, Giulio; Minciullo, Paola L

    2009-01-01

    Materials used for dental impressions are usually safe. This study describes a case of fatal anaphylaxis that appeared immediately after the oral mucosa came into contact with an alginate paste used for dental impressions. The cadaveric examination and the postmortem toxicology report confirmed that the cause of death was anaphylactic shock. The patient was affected by both cardiovascular and lung diseases that worsened the condition and forbade the use of epinephrine. To the authors' knowledge, dental impression materials, and alginate in particular, have not been reported previously as being a cause of anaphylaxis.

  18. Fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal, 2008-2011: analysis of surveillance data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nepal is one of the post-conflict countries affected by violence from explosive devices. We undertook this study to assess the magnitude of injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal during 2008-2011 and to describe time trends and epidemiologic patterns for these events. Methods We analyzed surveillance data on fatal and non-fatal injuries due to intentional explosions in Nepal that occurred between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2011. The case definition included casualties injured or killed by explosive devices knowingly activated by an individual or a group of individuals with the intent to harm, hurt or terrorize. Data were collected through media-based and active community-based surveillance. Results Analysis included 437 casualties injured or killed in 131 intentional explosion incidents. A decrease in the number of incidents and casualties between January 2008 and June 2009 was followed by a pronounced increase between July 2010 and June 2011. Eighty-four (19.2%) casualties were among females and 40 (9.2%) were among children under 18 years of age. Fifty-nine (45.3%) incidents involved one casualty, 47 (35.9%) involved 2 to 4 casualties, and 6 involved more than 10 casualties. The overall case-fatality ratio was 7.8%. The highest numbers of incidents occurred in streets or at crossroads, in victims’ homes, and in shops or markets. Incidents on buses and near stadiums claimed the highest numbers of casualties per incident. Socket, sutali, and pressure cooker bombs caused the highest numbers of incidents. Conclusions Intentional explosion incidents still pose a threat to the civilian population of Nepal. Most incidents are caused by small homemade explosive devices and occur in public places, and males aged 20 to 39 account for a plurality of casualties. Stakeholders addressing the explosive device problem in Nepal should continue to use surveillance data to plan interventions. PMID:23514664

  19. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  20. Occupant injury and fatality in general aviation aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is certification-mandated.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-06-01

    Towards further improving general aviation aircraft crashworthiness, multi-axis dynamic tests have been required for aircraft certification (14CFR23.562) since 1985. The objective of this study was to determine if occupants in aircraft certified to these higher crashworthiness standards show a mitigated fraction of fatal accidents and/or injury severity. The NTSB aviation database was queried for accidents occurring between 2002 and 2012 involving aircraft certified to, or immune from, dynamic crash testing and manufactured after 1999. Only operations conducted under 14CFR Part 91 were considered. Statistical analysis employed proportion tests and logistic regression. Off-airport landings are associated with high decelerative forces; however for off-airport landings, the fraction of fatal accidents for aircraft subject to, or exempt from, dynamic crash testing was similar (0.53 and 0.60, respectively). Unexpectedly, for on-airport landings a higher fraction of fatalities was evident for aircraft whose certification mandated dynamic crash testing. Improved crashworthiness standards would be expected to translate into a reduced severity of accident injuries. For all accidents, as well as for those deemed survivable, the fraction of minor and serious injuries was reduced for occupants in aircraft certified to the higher crashworthiness standards. Surprisingly, the fraction of occupants fatally injured was not decreased for aircraft subject to dynamic crash tests. To shed light on this unexpected finding flight history, airman demographics and post-impact fires for aircraft for which dynamic crash testing is mandatory or exempt was examined. For the former cohort the median distance of the accident flight was nearly 44% higher. Aircraft subject to dynamic crash testing were also involved in a greater fraction (0.25 versus 0.12, respectively) of post-impact fires. Our data suggest that while the more stringent crashworthiness standards have mitigated minor and serious

  1. Fatal Liver Cyst Rupture Due to Anabolic Steroid Use: A Case Presentation.

    PubMed

    Hansma, Patrick; Diaz, Francisco J; Njiwaji, Chantel

    2016-03-01

    Liver cysts are commonly found incidentally from imaging scans or at autopsy. These benign neoplasms vary in size and represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, for which the demographics, risk factors, apparent inciting event, clinical presentation, and outcome are varied. Complications that can develop from a liver cyst include development of spontaneous hemorrhage, infection, and/or obstruction. Although the etiology of liver cysts varies, fatal rupture of a hemorrhagic liver cyst due to anabolic steroid use is a rare occurrence. In fact, there are few reported cases in journal literature. We report a case of a fatal liver cyst rupture with resultant hemoperitoneum in the presence of anabolic steroid (stanozolol) use.

  2. Fatality due to acute fluoride poisoning following dermal contact with hydrofluoric acid in a palynology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Muriale, L; Lee, E; Genovese, J; Trend, S

    1996-12-01

    A fatal accident involving concentrated hydrofluoric acid in a palynological laboratory is described. Similar deaths due to dermal exposure to concentrated hydrofluoric acid have been reported in the literature. It is evident that rigorous control measures including proper personal protective equipment and first aid are of utmost importance in the prevention of death and injury when handling hydrofluoric acid. Possible factors that may have contributed to the accident are reviewed.

  3. Evaluating and minimizing noise impact due to aircraft flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.; Cook, G.

    1979-01-01

    Existing techniques were used to assess the noise impact on a community due to aircraft operation and to optimize the flight paths of an approaching aircraft with respect to the annoyance produced. Major achievements are: (1) the development of a population model suitable for determining the noise impact, (2) generation of a numerical computer code which uses this population model along with the steepest descent algorithm to optimize approach/landing trajectories, (3) implementation of this optimization code in several fictitious cases as well as for the community surrounding Patrick Henry International Airport, Virginia.

  4. Fatal accident due to anti-personnel ARGES EM01 rifle grenade explosion.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, Pavlos; Karakasi, Valeria; Birbilis, Theodossios-A

    2016-06-01

    During the process of unsealing an old ammunition box in order to destroy it, a 42-year-old ammunition technician was fatally injured due to an anti-personnel ARGES EM01-type rifle grenade detonation. The explosion took place in the victim's hands, in point-blank range. This report aimed to show the anatomical position, the severity and the dispersion extent of the multiple injuries in the human body due to the detonation, and draw firm conclusions regarding the position of the human body and the circumstances prevailing at the moment of the explosion.

  5. A fatal case of severe methemoglobinemia presumably due to chlorate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, H; Yoshioka, N; Kuse, A; Nishiguchi, M; Tanaka, N; Jamal, M; Kumihashi, M; Nagasaki, Y; Ueno, Y; Ameno, K

    2011-07-01

    A fatal case due to severe methemoglobinemia is presented. A male in his forties was found unconscious in his house and, despite intensive care, death was confirmed approximately 11 hours later. Toxicological analysis using ion chromatography revealed the presence of chlorate in the stomach contents. However, chlorate was not detected in the blood, and no other drugs or ethanol were detected in the blood either. We concluded that the cause of death was presumably due to chlorate poisoning, based on the results of the autopsy and the toxicological examination.

  6. Fatality due to gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and heroin intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, S D; Tedeschi, L; Frison, G; Rossi, A

    1995-05-01

    The first case of fatal intoxication due to ingestion of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and intravenous use of heroin is reported. A 42-year-old man, known to have been a heroin addict and to have taken other psychoactive substances, who had been in treatment with GHB for several months, was found dead. Anatomohistopathologic examination showed generalized visceral congestion, edema and pulmonary anthracosis, chronic bronchitis and chronic active hepatitis. Toxicological findings included fluid and tissue distributions of GHB, morphine and 6-monoacetylmorphine. GHB and morphine concentrations were respectively 11.5 and 0.77 micrograms/mL (blood), 84.3 and 0.3 micrograms/mL (vitreous humor), 258.3 and 1.35 micrograms/mL (urine), 57.0 and 14.3 micrograms/mL (bile), 40.0 and 0.43 micrograms/g (brain), 43.0 and 0.60 micrograms/g (liver), 47.0 and 0.68 micrograms/g (kidney). Blood and urine levels of 6-monoacetylmorphine were 28.5 and 12.1 ng/mL respectively. The presumed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of GHB are briefly reviewed, with reference to its therapeutic use and to reports of non-fatal GHB intoxication.

  7. Variability of annoyance response due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, T. K.; Cawthorn, J. M.

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the variability in the response of subjects participating in noise experiments. This paper presents a description of a model developed to include this variability which incorporates an aircraft-noise adaptation level or an annoyance calibration for each individual. The results indicate that the use of an aircraft-noise adaption level improved prediction accuracy of annoyance responses (and simultaneously reduced response variation).

  8. FATAL KERATOMAS DUE TO DEEP HOMOGRAFTS OF THE BENIGN PAPILLOMAS OF TARRED MOUSE SKIN

    PubMed Central

    Rous, Peyton; Allen, Raymond A.

    1958-01-01

    enlarging, fluid-filled cyst forms, with walls that are bare except where a stalked or cauliflower papilloma exists, projecting inwards. At last the cyst ruptures and a second dissecting cyst forms, also devoid of papilloma tissue; or else the overlying skin undergoes pressure necrosis, the cyst fluid escapes through a rent, and fatal infection ensues. All gradations exist between Type A and Type C. The cancers derivative from both exhibit a marked disability,—though invasive they are almost or quite unable to extend along bare connective tissue. The papillomas that are possessed of this faculty spread beyond them along the cyst wall, and kill the host through their unceasing activity. In collateral work a papilloma was transplanted that was found protruding from the external auditory canal of a mouse which had received an intramuscular injection of methylcholanthrene many months previously. The tumor is now in its 5th generation, after 15 months. The growths it forms are of Type A. All of the papillomas are functioning tumors, with their own cells as the functioning product. Their papilliferous shape, when on the skin, is due solely to inability of their cells to gain space in other ways. Intrinsically they are keratomas. The papillomas do well after transfer to deep situations because the growth of their cells is indirectly promoted, through favoring local conditions. No direct promotion takes place like that when the cells of prostatic and mammary tumors are stimulated to multiply by hormones. Doubtless many agents act in both ways, that is to say by dual promotion. PMID:13481256

  9. "Tampering to Death": A Fatal Codeine Intoxication Due to a Homemade Purification of a Medical Formulation.

    PubMed

    Fais, Paolo; Pigaiani, Nicola; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Montisci, Massimo; Gottardo, Rossella; Viel, Guido; Pascali, Jennifer Paola; Tagliaro, Franco

    2017-03-10

    Many homemade tamper processes of medical codeine formulations are available on selected "forums" on the Internet, where recreational codeine users claim to be able to purify codeine by removing additives, such as acetaminophen, to avoid or limit adverse effects. In this work, it is reported and discussed a fatal case of codeine intoxication. The findings of objects such as jars, filters, and tablets, and amounts of unknown liquid material at the death scene investigation suggested a fatal codeine intoxication after the tampering procedure called "cold water extraction." Toxicological results obtained from the analysis of both the nonbiological material and the body fluids of the decedent integrated with the information collected at the death scene investigation confirmed the above-mentioned hypothesis. This report underlines the importance of a tight interconnection between criminalistics and legal medicine to strengthen the identification of the cause of death and the reconstruction of the event.

  10. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high-risk patients with underlying conditions, particularly in immunocompromised children these pathogens may lead to severe lung infection and extrapulmonary disorders. In this paper, we provide the first report of the case of a 15-month-old child with severe combined immunodeficiency and coronavirus HKU1-related pneumonia with fatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  11. Fatalities due to intoxicated arrestees jumping out of moving police vehicles.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Werner

    2006-12-01

    Fatalities resulting from emergency vehicle crashes are relatively rare. Mortality, particularly in the case of unbelted occupants, is relatively high. Data on drunken (handcuffed) arrestees jumping out of a moving police vehicle or the circumstances of such events have not been published. Two cases of such fatalities are described in this paper. Since these cases should be considered as "death in custody," may give rise to significant covering and speculation in the media, and may raise liability questions, they require an in-depth medicolegal investigation, including investigation of the crime scene, complete medicolegal autopsy/toxicology, and reconstruction of the event in the presence of an experienced forensic pathologist. From the 2 cases described in this paper, it appears that mechanical malfunctioning of the locking device of the door of the police vehicle and lack of controlling the actual lock-tied closing of the vehicle door (instead just assuming that it happened) may precipitate such cases. Auditory control by the police officers of the arrestee tampering with or manipulating the car door may be hampered by the background noise of the police vehicle, the on-board radio, and the use of a siren. Regular visual control and adequate control of the actual locking of the vehicle door are of paramount importance to prevent such mishaps. Reconstruction of the event in the presence of the forensic experts is mandatory to test the different hypotheses of the fatal event.

  12. Fatal Pulmonary Infection Due to Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium abscessus in a Patient with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ardito, Fausta; Fiscarelli, Ersilia; La Sorda, Marilena; D'Argenio, Patrizia; Ricciotti, Gabriella; Fadda, Giovanni

    2001-01-01

    We report a case of fatal pulmonary infection caused by Mycobacterium abscessus in a young patient with cystic fibrosis, who underwent bipulmonary transplantation after a 1-year history of severe lung disease. Fifteen days after surgery he developed septic fever with progressive deterioration in lung function. M. abscessus, initially isolated from a pleural fluid specimen, was then recovered from repeated blood samples, suggesting a disseminated nature of the mycobacterial disease. Drug susceptibility testing assay, performed on two sequential isolates of the microorganism, showed a pattern of multidrug resistance. Despite aggressive therapy with several antimycobacterial drugs, including clarithromycin, the infection persisted, and the patient died. PMID:11158161

  13. [A rare case of fatal outcome due to extensive facial trauma caused by dogbite].

    PubMed

    Ruszin, Tamás; Vaszilkó, Mihály; Rásonyi-Kovács, Orsolya; Ujpál, Márta

    2009-10-01

    Statistically 10% of head and neek trauma is caused by animal bite, more often inflicted by dogs. More than 50% of victims are infants and small children. Generally, the result of dogbite is superficial trauma but there are cases of deep soft tissue defects with amputation and multiple bone fractures. In case described in this article, an elderly woman suffered a dog attack, wich resulted in extensive face and head injuries. In spite of receiving proper treatment, the patient passed away. It is highly probable that underlying Syncumar therapy caused complications which contributed to the fatal outcome. Because of it's unusual nature we found this case to be of interest for publication.

  14. Case report of fatal complication in prostatic cryotherapy. First reported death due to argon gas emboli.

    PubMed

    Sandomirsky, Marianna; Crifasi, Joseph A; Long, Christopher; Mitchell, Erik K

    2012-03-01

    We present the first reported fatality from argon gas emboli during prostate cryosurgery. The decedent underwent cryotherapy for prostate carcinoma using cryoablation probes which were cooled with argon and nitrous oxide and warmed with helium. Minutes into the procedure he experienced sudden cardiovascular collapse and could not be resuscitated. Postmortem examination was performed at the request of family and healthcare providers. Collection of tissues and blood samples had to be conducted carefully to capture suspected noble gases,argon, and helium. Specimens were submitted to Saint Louis University Forensic Toxicology Laboratory for toxicological examination and for evaluation of the composition of the gas retrieved from the vascular system.Gas chromatography mass spectrometric analyses confirmed argon in blood, brain, liver, and gas retrieved from the aorta. These samples had significant argon compared with room air also sent for comparison. The manner of death was accident. To date, there have been no intraoperative surgical fatalities reported from prostatic cryotherapy. We report such an unfortunate death to raise awareness in the medical community. We also describe how to collect and handle blood and tissue samples to submit for toxicological analysis in cases of volatile gas emboli.

  15. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  16. Fatal autoimmune hemolytic anemia due to immunoglobulin g autoantibody exacerbated by epstein-barr virus.

    PubMed

    Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Palavecino, Elizabeth L; Pomper, Gregory J

    2015-01-01

    Most cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) are caused by the production of an autoantibody that targets determinants on red blood cells (RBCs). This autoantibody can be immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, or IgA. Some autoantibodies react optimally at 0° to 4°C (ie, cold agglutinin) and usually are clinically insignificant. High-titer cold agglutinins are associated with IgM autoantibody and complement fixation induced by infectious agents, including the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This case report describes a 31-year-old man who had jaundice, a hemoglobin of 6.0 gdL, and was diagnosed with a hemolytic crisis of AIHA. He received a total of 11 RBC transfusions during a 15-hour period without sustained response and later died. The direct antiglobulin test results for this patient were positive, whereas the cold-agglutinin-testing results were negative. We detected EBV DNA in blood via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a rare case of AIHA associated with an IgG autoantibody and exacerbated by EBV infection, causing a fatal hemolytic anemia.

  17. The Economic Burden of Traumatic Brain Injury Due to Fatal Traffic Accidents in Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital, Shiraz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kavosi, Zahra; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Hatam, Nahid; Enaami, Meysam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) as a result of traffic accidents are one of the major causes of deaths, which lead to the loss of individuals’ productive and working years of life. Objectives: This study aimed to calculate the economic burden of traumatic brain injuries in fatal crashes at Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital, Shiraz, Iran for a period of five years. Patients and Methods: In this descriptive, cross-sectional study the population included people who had died as a result of TBIs during 2009 to 2013 in Shiraz Shahid Rajaei Trauma Hospital. Cost and demographic data were obtained from the participants’ medical records using data gathering forms, and some other information was also collected via telephone calls to the victims’ families. Economic burden of TBIs due to traffic accidents, which led to death, was estimated using the human capital as direct costs of treatment, and the number of potential years of life lost and lost productivity as indirect costs. Results: Deaths resulting from TBIs due to traffic accidents in Shiraz imposed 6.2 billion Rials (511000 USD) of hospital costs, 6390 potential years of life lost, and 506 billion Rials (20 million USD) of productivity lost. In the present study, the mean age of the individuals who died was 38.4 ± 19.41 and the productivity lost per capita was 1.8 billion Rials (73000 USD). Conclusions: The findings of this study indicated that the economic burden of TBIs was high in fatal accidents in Fars Province so that it was equivalent to 0.00011% of Iran’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2013. Therefore, more attention has to be paid to the rules to prevent the fatal accidents. PMID:25834791

  18. Fuselage ventilation due to wind flow about a postcrash aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Postcrash aircraft fuselage fire development, dependent on the internal and external fluid dynamics is discussed. The natural ventilation rate, a major factor in the internal flow patterns and fire development is reviewed. The flow about the fuselage as affected by the wind and external fire is studied. An analysis was performend which estimated the rates of ventilation produced by the wind for a limited idealized environmental configuration. The simulation utilizes the empirical pressure coefficient distribution of an infinite circular cylinder near a wall with its boundary later flow to represent the atmospheric boundary layer. The resulting maximum ventilation rate for two door size openings, with varying circumferential location in a common 10 mph wind was an order of magnitude greater than the forced ventilation specified in full scale fire testing. The parameter discussed are: (1) fuselage size and shape, (2) fuselage orientation and proximity to the ground, (3) fuselage-openings size and location, (4) wind speed and direction, and (5) induced flow of the external fire plume is recommended. The fire testing should be conducted to a maximum ventilation rate at least an order of magnitude greater than the inflight air conditioning rates.

  19. Damping coefficients due to tail surfaces in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Lynn

    1923-01-01

    The object of the investigation described in this report was to compare the damping coefficients of an airfoil as calculated from a knowledge of the static characteristics of the section with those obtained experimentally with an oscillation. The damping coefficients as obtained, according to the conventional notation, can be considered either as due to pitching or as due to yawing, the oscillation in these experiments being so arranged that the surfaces oscillate about a vertical axis. This is in reality the case when the influence is yawing about the standard Z-axis, but it can also be considered as a pitching motion when the model is so rigged that its standard Y-axis becomes vertical. The horizontal oscillation has the advantage of eliminating the gravity action and avoiding the use of counterweights, whose presence in the wind tunnel is undesirable because of their interference with the air flow. The real point of the investigation was to separate the damping due to rotation from that due to translation. By varying the distance between the center of pressure and the center of rotation on the oscillator, the variation of damping moment can be observed and the rotational and translational effects can be separated.

  20. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    Company, Washington, DC Boeing Commercial Aircraft Division, Seattle, WA and Long Beach, CA Boeing Military Aircraft and Missile Division, St. Louis, MO and... aircraft ; military fixed-wing aircraft ; rotorcraft (helicopters and tiltrotor aircraft ); and aircraft jet engines. Two companies dominate the commercial... aircraft business, Boeing and Airbus. Four companies dominate the military fixed-wing market, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, BAE Systems, and European

  1. Risk assessment of the fatality due to explosion in land mass transport infrastructure by fast transient dynamic analysis.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, G; Larcher, M; Casadei, F; Solomos, G

    2010-01-15

    Terrorist attacks in New York have shocked the world community showing clearly the vulnerability of air transport in such events. However, the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London showed that land mass transport infrastructure is equally vulnerable in case of similar attacks. The fact that there has not been substantial investment in the domain of risk analysis and evaluation of the possible effects due to such events in land mass transportation infrastructure leaves large room for new developments that could eventually fill this gap. In the present work using the finite element code EUROPLEXUS there has been a large effort to perform a complete study of the land mass infrastructure in case of explosion events. This study includes a train station, a metro station and a metro carriage providing thus valuable simulation data for a variety of different situations. For the analysis of these structures it has been necessary to apply a laser scanning method for the acquisition of geometrical data, to improve the simulation capabilities of EUROPLEXUS by adding failure capabilities for specific finite elements, to implement new material models (e.g. glass), and to add new modules that achieve data post-processing for the calculation of fatal and non-fatal injuries risk. The aforementioned improvements are explained in the present work with emphasis in the newly developed risk analysis features of EUROPLEXUS.

  2. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.

  3. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  4. Fatal Granulomatous Amebic Encephalitis Due to Balamuthia mandrillaris in New Mexico: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pindyck, Talia N; Dvorscak, Lauren E; Hart, Blaine L; Palestine, Michael D; Gallant, Joel E; Allen, Sarah E; SantaCruz, Karen S

    2014-09-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a free-living amoeba that can cause granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). We report a case in an individual with a history of alcohol abuse, cocaine use, and ditch water exposure. This is the first reported case of GAE due to B mandrillaris in New Mexico.

  5. Fatal hyperkalemia due to rapid red cell transfusion in a critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Sakiko; Maruyama, Koichi; Nakagawa, Hideyuki; Iwase, Yoshinori; Kitamura, Akira; Hayashida, Masakazu

    2009-10-01

    A 60-year-old woman in severe hemorrhagic shock underwent urgent laparotomy to control massive hematemesis. Severe metabolic acidosis due to hemorrhagic shock and hyperkalemia as well as hypocalcemia associated with rapid blood transfusion were aggressively corrected with administration of sodium bicarbonate, insulin, and calcium chloride. Following rapid transfusion of the last 8 units of red cell concentrate (RCC), however, cardiac arrest occurred because of hyperkalemia and did not respond to cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Blood gas analysis revealed that the serum K(+) concentration had increased from 4.05 to 8.24 mEq/L over a 7-minute period, while the Ca(2+) concentration had decreased from 1.43 to 0.53 mmol/L. Rapid transfusion of irradiated RCC containing a high concentration of K(+), an extreme decrease in the circulating blood volume to dilute the exogenously administered K(+) and citrate, and severe metabolic acidosis impeding the intracellular shift of K(+) seemed to have contributed to the extremely rapid development of fetal hyperkalemia accompanied by hypocalcemia. Anesthesiologists must be aware that hyperkalemia due to rapid blood transfusion can develop extremely rapidly in patients in severe hemorrhagic shock.

  6. [Non-fatal hyperkalemia in lactic acidosis due to metformin overdose. Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Rienzi; Vega, Jorge; Goecke, Helmuth

    2015-03-01

    We report a 74-year-old man with diabetes mellitus type 2 and hypertension, who recently underwent coronary bypass surgery due to severe triple vessel disease receiving cardiological and combined antidiabetic therapy, including metformin 4 g/day. He was admitted with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and loss of consciousness. At admission, he was disoriented and agitated with signs of poor perfusion. His blood pressure was 80/70 mmHg, pulse rate 40 beats/min, respiratory rate 20-breaths/min, and axillary temperature 35 °C. Biochemical profile revealed an extreme hyperkalemia of 15.4 mEq/L (double checked), elevated creatinine, uremia and brain natriuretic peptide; hypoglycemia (blood glucose 68 mg/dl) and normal C Reactive Protein. Arterial blood gases revealed severe lactic acidemia. The electrocardiogram showed sinus bradycardia, simple AV block, widened QRS with prominent T wave and prolonged QT. He was admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with the suspicion of lactic acidosis associated with metformin, receiving fluid management, intravenous hypertonic glucose plus insulin and sodium bicarbonate, mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, a temporary pacemaker lead, in addition to continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration. Two days later, the patient experienced a significant clinical improvement with normalization of the acid-base status, plasma lactate and potassium levels. On day 9, diuresis was recovered, creatinine and uremia returned to normal levels and the patient was discharged from the ICU.

  7. Fatal postpartum air embolism due to uterine inversion and atonic hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Banaschak, Sibylle; Janßen, Katharina; Becker, Katrin; Friedrich, Krischan; Rothschild, Markus A

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 19-year-old woman who developed a persistent uterine hemorrhage after spontaneous delivery of a healthy child. Emergency laparotomy was indicated and then begun under stable circulatory conditions. Cardiac arrest occurred during the course of massive manual compression and packing of the uterus. After successful resuscitation, a supracervical hysterectomy was performed. During the suturing of the remaining cervix, a second cardiac arrest followed. The procedure was completed under constant external heart massage. Resuscitation was terminated due to the persistence of widened pupils. An autopsy was ordered by the public prosecutor as the manner of death was declared to be unascertained. An X-ray and a CT scan prior to the autopsy showed extensive gas embolism in both arterial and venous vessels extending from the pelvic region to the head. During the autopsy, gas was collected by aspirometer from the right ventricle of the heart. The autopsy showed no additional relevant findings, and gas analysis confirmed the suspicion of air embolism. The histological examination of the excised uterus especially in the corpus/fundus revealed an edema of the local smooth muscle cells and dilated vessels showing no sign of thrombogenesis. Upon evaluation of the clinical records, it became evident that, in addition to uterine atony, there had been a complete uterine inversion. This inversion was manually repositioned. After this maneuver, manual compression was performed. The air embolism, thus, was a complication of the manual repositioning of the uterine inversion. There is no evidence for other possible entries of the detected gas. In order to perform an effective exploration, the availability of all clinical records should be mandatory for medico-legal investigations of unexpected postpartum deaths.

  8. Assessment of the risk due to release of carbon fiber in civil aircraft accidents, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L.; Cornell, M. E.; Kaplan, L.

    1980-01-01

    The risk associated with the potential use of carbon fiber composite material in commercial jet aircraft is investigated. A simulation model developed to generate risk profiles for several airports is described. The risk profiles show the probability that the cost due to accidents in any year exceeds a given amount. The computer model simulates aircraft accidents with fire, release of fibers, their downwind transport and infiltration of buildings, equipment failures, and resulting ecomomic impact. The individual airport results were combined to yield the national risk profile.

  9. Fundamental limitations on V/STOL terminal guidance due to aircraft characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolkovitch, J.; Lamont, C. W.; Lochtie, D. W.

    1971-01-01

    A review is given of limitations on approach flight paths of V/STOL aircraft, including limits on descent angle due to maximum drag/lift ratio. A method of calculating maximum drag/lift ratio of tilt-wing and deflected slipstream aircraft is presented. Derivatives and transfer functions for the CL-84 tilt-wing and X-22A tilt-duct aircraft are presented. For the unaugmented CL-84 in steep descents the transfer function relating descent angle to thrust contains a right-half plane zero. Using optimal control theory, it is shown that this zero causes a serious degradation in the accuracy with which steep flight paths can be followed in the presence of gusts.

  10. Fatal pediatric head injury due to toppled television: does the injury pattern overlap with abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Kodikara, Sarathchandra; Pollanen, Michael

    2012-07-01

    Pediatric head injuries can occur from abusive head trauma (AHT) or accidents. Accidental pediatric head injuries caused by cathode-ray tube televisions (CRTT) toppling have become a 'silent epidemic'. Differentiation between a fatal case of AHT and CRTT toppling could be vexing when the historical and scene evidence are subtle. A 2-year-old girl was found unresponsive in her house and could not be resuscitated. A 27" CRTT was found fallen from its stand onto the floor at the scene. The siblings report that the deceased was climbing on the television stand when it toppled. Autopsy revealed a spectrum of head injuries including, contusions, fractures, bilateral acute subdural hemorrhages, subarachnoid hemorrhages, brain contusion-lacerations and corpus callosal hemorrhages. Microscopy of the eyes revealed bilateral acute retinal hemorrhages. The cause of death was given as crushing injuries of head and brain. The skull fracture pattern is compatible with an accident causing crush injury due to the toppled CRTT rather than AHT. The injury pattern reconfirms that the head is the most vulnerable site in case of CRTT tipover. Although there may be an overlap between the injury pattern in AHT and in CRTT tipover cases, a careful evaluation of the history and scene and autopsy findings such as the crushing nature of the skull fractures and distribution of injury, can solve this problem.

  11. Reporting measles case fatality due to complications from a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata, West Bengal 2011-2013

    PubMed Central

    Indwar, Pallavi; Debnath, Falguni; Sinha, Arijit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Measles is affecting millions of people in the developing countries particularly in India with significant morbidity and responsible for thousands of death in spite of having a safe, effective, and cheap vaccine. Pulmonary complications account for 90% measles-related death. The objectives of this study were to describe age distribution, clinical features, complications, and clinical outcomes of measles cases in a referral infectious disease hospital of West Bengal. Methods: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study including 584 patients and collected information from record section on demographics, clinical features, complications, and clinical outcomes using data abstraction form. Results: The mean age of 584 measles cases was 3.7 years (±1.2 years). The most common complication was pneumonia (149 cases) followed by diarrhea and encephalopathy. Very severe pneumonia occurred in 34 cases requiring intensive care out of which 13 patients died. The average duration of stay in the hospital was 5.7 days (±3.2 days). Surprisingly, 45 cases admitted to this hospital were <9 months of age with subsequent death in 5 cases. Conclusion: Substantial number of measles cases was seen in zero to <9 months of age group and fatality due to complication was more among them.

  12. Transmission of a fatal clonal tumor by biting occurs due to depleted MHC diversity in a threatened carnivorous marsupial

    PubMed Central

    Siddle, Hannah V.; Kreiss, Alexandre; Eldridge, Mark D. B.; Noonan, Erin; Clarke, Candice J.; Pyecroft, Stephen; Woods, Gregory M.; Belov, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    A fatal transmissible tumor spread between individuals by biting has emerged in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii), a carnivorous marsupial. Here we provide genetic evidence establishing that the tumor is clonal and therefore foreign to host devils. Thus, the disease is highly unusual because it is not just a tumor but also a tissue graft, passed between individuals without invoking an immune response. The MHC plays a key role in immune responses to both tumors and grafts. The most common mechanism of immune evasion by tumors is down-regulation of classical cell surface MHC molecules. Here we show that this mode of immune escape does not occur. However, because the tumor is a graft, it should still be recognized and rejected by the host's immune system due to foreign cell surface antigens. Mixed lymphocyte responses showed a lack of alloreactivity between lymphocytes of different individuals in the affected population, indicating a paucity of MHC diversity. This result was verified by genotyping, providing a conclusive link between a loss of MHC diversity and spread of a disease through a wild population. This novel disease arose as a direct result of loss of genetic diversity and the aggressive behavior of the host species. The neoplastic clone continues to spread although the population, and, without active disease control by removal of affected animals and the isolation of disease-free animals, the Tasmanian devil faces extinction. PMID:17911263

  13. OCTL Laser Beam Transmission Interruptions due to Aircraft and Predictive Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, A.; Roberts, W. T.; Kovalik, J. M.; Wright, M. W.

    2012-11-01

    Laser beam transmission from the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) at Table Mountain, California, is required in order to provide a beacon source for optical link acquisition between spacecraft carrying laser communication terminals and OCTL. The laser transmission must be regulated in order to avoid inadvertent irradiation of overflying aircraft or spacecraft. In this article, we present an analysis and data to determine the frequency and duration of laser transmission interruptions so that future laser communication operations can be planned. A week's worth of aircraft flight-path data in the vicinity of OCTL was obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The FAA data were analyzed, along with simulated Lunar Atmospheric and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft predicted orbital data, in order to determine the frequency of laser transmission interruptions. An upper bound of five interruptions per 15-min period was observed due to aircraft overflights. Under more favorable conditions, a 15-min pass to the LADEE spacecraft could encounter no interruptions due to aircraft. The analysis was corroborated with "ground-truth" measurements at OCTL, using the existing laser safety system sensors and radar, to monitor aircraft that intercept a plus-or-minus 2.5-deg exclusion zone around the boresight axis of the OCTL telescope. The frequency of interruptions obtained from this data was in agreement with the predictions obtained using the FAA data analysis. Furthermore, the ground observation confirmed typical interrupt durations of 3 to 5 s due to overflying aircraft. This sets a lower bound for the fractional duration of the shoot window to be approximately 98 percent. Predictive avoidance (PA) data obtained from the Laser Clearing House (LCH) for approximately one month with the Moon as a target was analyzed. Note that the difference between using the Moon as a target versus simulated LADEE spacecraft orbital data is that the Moon

  14. Fatal Mycobacterium colombiense/cytomegalovirus coinfection associated with acquired immunodeficiency due to autoantibodies against interferon gamma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reports of acquired immunodeficiency due to autoantibodies against interferon gamma in the adult population are increasing. The interleukin-12-dependent interferon-gamma axis is a major regulatory pathway of cell-mediated immunity and is critical for protection against a few intracellular organisms, including non-tuberculous mycobacteria and Salmonella spp. We report the first case of a fatal disseminated Mycobacterium colombiense/cytomegalovirus coinfection in an adult woman associated with the acquisition of autoantibodies against interferon-gamma. Case presentation A 49-year-old woman, born to nonconsanguineous parents in Laos, but who had lived in Canada for the past 30 years, presented with a 1-month history of weight loss, fatigue, cough, and intermittent low-grade fever. A thoracic computed tomography scan revealed an 8 × 7 cm irregular mass impacting the right superior lobar bronchus along with multiple mediastinal and hilar adenopathies. On the fourth day of admission, the patient developed fever with purulent expectorations. Treatment for a post-obstructive bacterial pneumonia was initiated while other investigations were being pursued. Almost every culture performed during the patient’s hospitalization was positive for M. colombiense. Given the late presentation of symptoms - at the age of 49 years - and the absence of significant family or personal medical history, we suspected an acquired immunodeficiency due to the presence of anti-interferon-gamma autoantibodies. This was confirmed by their detection at high levels in the plasma and a STAT1 phosphorylation assay on human monocytes. The final diagnosis was immunodeficiency secondary to the production of autoantibodies against interferon-gamma, which resulted in a post-obstructive pneumonia and disseminated infection of M. colombiense. The clinical course was complicated by the presence of a multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa post-endobronchial ultrasound mediastinitis, cytomegalovirus

  15. Relationship between low-frequency aircraft noise and annoyance due to rattle and vibration.

    PubMed

    Fidell, Sanford; Pearsons, Karl; Silvati, Laura; Sneddon, Matthew

    2002-04-01

    A near-replication of a study of the annoyance of rattle and vibration attributable to aircraft noise [Fidell et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 106, 1408-1415 (1999)] was conducted in the vicinity of Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport (MSP). The findings of the current study were similar to those reported earlier with respect to the types of objects cited as sources of rattle in homes, frequencies of notice of rattle, and the prevalence of annoyance due to aircraft noise-induced rattle. A reliably lower prevalence rate of annoyance (but not of complaints) with rattle and vibration was noted among respondents living in homes that had been treated to achieve a 5-dB improvement in A-weighted noise reduction than among respondents living in untreated homes. This difference is not due to any substantive increase in low-frequency noise reduction of acoustically treated homes, but may be associated with installation of nonrattling windows. Common interpretations of the prevalence of a consequential degree of annoyance attributable to low-frequency aircraft noise may be developed from the combined results of the present and prior studies.

  16. Rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae complicated with acute myocarditis and accelerated idioventricular rhythm.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Shih-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Pin; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Chen, Wen-Jone; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-08-01

    We describe a previously healthy 52-year-old man with rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient developed acute renal dysfunction, accelerated idioventricular rhythm (acute myocarditis), lactic acidosis and septic shock. He died within 15 hours after admission despite intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg daily) and aggressive medical treatment.

  17. Fatal delayed cardiac tamponade due to rupture of micropseudoaneurysm of left anterior descending coronary artery following stab to the chest.

    PubMed

    Xing, Jingjun; Li, Shangxun; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Duan, Yijie; Li, Wenhe; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic coronary pseudoaneurysm has been described to be mainly associated to iatrogenic lesion of the coronary arteries. However, chest-stab-wound-related coronary pseudoaneurysm caused by isolated partial incision of a coronary artery giving rise to fatal delayed cardiac tamponade is very rare. We describe an autopsy case in which this potentially fatal complication developed 8 days later after a thoracic stab wound. Unfortunately, the imaging examination failed to detect this defect during hospitalization. Postmortem examination revealed that the posterior wall of the left anterior descending coronary artery was intact but that the anterior wall was incised, forming a micropseudoaneurysm which had ruptured. This case highlights that isolated coronary artery injuries must be considered in any patient with a penetrating wound to the thorax, and coronary pseudoaneurysms should not be missed in these patients.

  18. An objective approach using three indexes for determining fatal hypothermia due to cold exposure; statistical analysis of oxyhemoglobin saturation data.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Asari, Masaru; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Maseda, Chikatoshi; Yamada, Hiromi; Ichimaru, Chisato; Matsubara, Kazuo; Shiono, Hiroshi; Iwase, Hirotaro; Makino, Yosuke; Shimizu, Keiko

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of oxyhemoglobin (O2-Hb) saturation levels in the left and right heart blood is useful in the assessment of exposure to cold surroundings before death. We quantified conventional subjective visual evaluation of O2-Hb saturation levels and developed useful diagnostic criteria for fatal hypothermia: O2-Hb saturation in the left heart blood (L-O2Hb) was ⩾36%, the O2-Hb saturation gap between the left and right heart blood (L-R gap) was ⩾13%, and the O2-Hb saturation ratio of the left to right heart blood (L/R ratio) was ⩾1.8. When we used L-O2Hb of ⩾36% as a basic criterion and applied a further criterion of an L-R gap of ⩾13% or an L/R ratio of ⩾1.8, these criteria registered a sensitivity level of ⩾86% and specificity level of ⩾93% for the diagnosis of fatal hypothermia. This method can be useful for determining fatal hypothermia in connection with conventional autopsy findings, as well as histological and biochemical markers.

  19. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  20. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  1. Non-ejection cervical spine injuries due to +Gz in high performance aircraft.

    PubMed

    Schall, D G

    1989-05-01

    The potential for significant neck injuries exists in today's high performance fighter aircraft. The G-loads required to produce injury need not be excessive, nor is experience level necessarily protective. Eight cervical spine injury cases, due to or aggravated by +Gz in F-15 and F-16 aircrew members are reviewed. These include two compression fractures (C5/C7), three left HNP's (C5-6/C6-7), one fracture of the spinous process (C7), one interspinous ligament tear (C6-7), and one myofascial syndrome (C6). Mechanisms of injury and evaluation are discussed. Exercise conditioning may play an important role in prevention and protection. The role of screening X-rays and improving equipment remain as areas where further work needs to be done.

  2. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2013-06-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions of 84% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (64%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g. at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the feedstock. As the plume cools downwind of the engine, nucleation-mode aerosols form. For the pure FT fuels, reductions (94% averaged over all powers) in downwind particle number emissions were similar to those measured at the exhaust plane (84

  3. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    developed and calculated. Main criteria for estimating the maximum leakage rate for the lid metallic seal system are no loss of the pre-stress of the lid bolts, no appearance of the plastic region between the metal seal flanges, and no large relative deformation of the lid seals. Finally, in both cases, the low leakage rate for the metal cask lid closure system under the impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash will be proved thoroughly.

  4. Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    national power. But with the recent events such as the war with Iraq, the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) outbreak, some major carriers... TITLE AND SUBTITLE 2003 Industry Studies: Aircraft 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  5. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  6. Reductions in aircraft particulate emissions due to the use of Fischer-Tropsch fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Timko, M. T.; Ziemba, L. D.; Bulzan, D.; Corporan, E.; Herndon, S. C.; Howard, R.; Miake-Lye, R.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E.; Wey, C.; Yu, Z.; Anderson, B. E.

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for aviation is likely to increase due to concerns over fuel security, price stability, and the sustainability of fuel sources. Concurrent reductions in particulate emissions from these alternative fuels are expected because of changes in fuel composition including reduced sulfur and aromatic content. The NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX) was conducted in January-February 2009 to investigate the effects of synthetic fuels on gas-phase and particulate emissions. Standard petroleum JP-8 fuel, pure synthetic fuels produced from natural gas and coal feedstocks using the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process, and 50% blends of both fuels were tested in the CFM-56 engines on a DC-8 aircraft. To examine plume chemistry and particle evolution with time, samples were drawn from inlet probes positioned 1, 30, and 145 m downstream of the aircraft engines. No significant alteration to engine performance was measured when burning the alternative fuels. However, leaks in the aircraft fuel system were detected when operated with the pure FT fuels as a result of the absence of aromatic compounds in the fuel. Dramatic reductions in soot emissions were measured for both the pure FT fuels (reductions in mass of 86% averaged over all powers) and blended fuels (66%) relative to the JP-8 baseline with the largest reductions at idle conditions. At 7% power, this corresponds to a reduction from 7.6 mg kg-1 for JP-8 to 1.2 mg kg-1 for the natural gas FT fuel. At full power, soot emissions were reduced from 103 to 24 mg kg-1 (JP-8 and natural gas FT, respectively). The alternative fuels also produced smaller soot (e.g., at 85% power, volume mean diameters were reduced from 78 nm for JP-8 to 51 nm for the natural gas FT fuel), which may reduce their ability to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The reductions in particulate emissions are expected for all alternative fuels with similar reductions in fuel sulfur and aromatic content regardless of the

  7. a Survey on Health Effects due to Aircraft Noise on Residents Living around Kadena Air Base in the Ryukyus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Taira, K.; Ito, A.; Nakasone, T.

    1997-08-01

    Results are reported of a questionnaire survey relating to a scale for general health, the Todai Health Index, in a town, bordering on a large U.S. airbase in the Ryukyus. The level of aircraft noise exposure, in the town, expressed by WECPNL, ranges from 75 to 95 or more. The sample size was 1200, including a 200 person “control” group. Results of the analysis of the responses in terms of the noise exposure suggest that the exposed residents suffer psychosomatic effects, especially perceived psychological disorders, due to the noise exposure to military aircraft, and that such responses increase with the level of noise exposure.

  8. Fatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HLA alloimmunization in a twin pregnancy: A very infrequent complication of assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Meler, Eva; Porta, Roser; Canals, Carme; Serra, Bernat; Lozano, Miguel

    2016-11-02

    The most frequently involved antigen in severe fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is the human platelet antigen 1a. Platelets express the HLA-A and B antigens on their membrane and some studies report that maternal anti-HLA class I antibody can also cause FNAIT. We report here a very unusual case of a first twin pregnancy produced in vitro by oocyte and semen donation where the mother developed markedly elevated HLA antibodies, in the absence of anti-platelet or anti-neutrophil antibodies, that provoked in one of the twins a profound thrombocytopenia and intracranial hemorrhage and a mild thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in the second twin lasting until the fourth month of life. In addition, anti-D alloimmunization provoked hemolytic disease of the newborn with intrauterus anemia detected in the first twin and post-natal anemia in the second twin that required red blood cell transfusion and phototherapy. We hypothesize that the complete HLA-incompatible twin pregnancy due to the oocyte donation might have contributed to the severity of the clinical manifestations.

  9. Nonlinear vibration phenomenon of an aircraft rub-impact rotor system due to hovering flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Lei; Chen, Yushu; Cao, Qingjie

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the nonlinear vibration phenomenon caused by aircraft hovering flight in a rub-impact rotor system supported by two general supports with cubic stiffness. The effect of aircraft hovering flight on the rotor system is considered as a maneuver load to formulate the equations of motion, which might result in periodic response instability to the rotor system even the eccentricity is small. The dynamic responses of the system under maneuver load are presented by bifurcation diagrams and the corresponding Lyapunov exponent spectrums. Numerical analyses are carried out to detect the periodic, sub-harmonic and quasi-periodic motions of the system, which are presented by orbit diagrams, phase trajectories, Poincare maps and amplitude power spectrums. The results obtained in this paper will contribute an understanding of the nonlinear dynamic behaviors of aircraft rotor systems in maneuvering flight.

  10. FATAL EPISTAXIS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Francis Berchmans

    1961-01-01

    The instances in which nosebleed is potentially fatal are those in which there is a history of recent head injury, severe arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease or an underlying vascular tumor in the nasal chambers. Fatal nasal bleeding has not been reported in children. An awareness on the part of the physician of the potentially fatal significance of his patient's nosebleed is the very best insurance against such an event. Intelligent history-taking, careful physical and x-ray examination, generous sedation, precise local cauterization and packing, estimation of hemoglobin mass and a search for bleeding and clotting disorders are the best weapons of the physician called to treat epistaxis. These procedures, coupled with adequate blood replacement and an informed attitude toward surgical interruption of the blood supply to the bleeding region should forestall death from fatal nosebleed. PMID:13738727

  11. Changes in Structural Health Monitoring System Capability Due to Aircraft Environmental Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    A design of experiments approach is used to build and execute an experiment to determine the effect of one aircraft envi- ronmental factor (cyclic...Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.1.2 Designing a SHM System . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 General Structural Health Monitoring Require...and Data Collection Equipment . . . . . . 58 3.6 Experimental Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 3.6.1 Defining Experimental Factors

  12. [Fatal poisoning due to narcotic abuse in the analytic-toxicological practice of Forensic Medicine Department Silesian Medical Academy in Katowice in years 1996-202].

    PubMed

    Soja, Artur; Celiński, Rafał; Kulikowska, Joanna; Albert, Małgorzata; Sybirska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    147 cases of fatal poisonings in people due to narcotic abuse examined in the Forensic Medicine Department Silesian School of Medicine, Katowice in the years 1996-2002 have been presented in the paper. In the group examined there were 126 males and 21 females at the age of 16-44. Opium narcotics were found in 139 out of 147 cases and amphetamine derivatives in 18. Opiates were indicated in 58 individuals and amphetamine only in 8. In 35 poisoned people opiates with barbituric acid derivatives were found. In 3 cases death resulted after taking opiates and amphetamine derivatives. 1 individual died after taking opiates and substances of the phenothiazine group. In the organic fluids of 18 people opiates and medicines being derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine and barbituric acid were found. Amphetamine and derivatives of 1,4-benzodiazepine were found in 6 individuals and opiates, barbiturates, benzodiazepines and amphetamine in 1 individual. Concentrations of all the substances indicated ranged widely and were as follows: < 0.10-17.40 > microgram/ml for opiates; < 0.24-30.00 > microgram/ml for amphetamine; < 0.12-1.90 > microgram/ml for 1.4-benzodiazepine derivatives and < 0.18-15.24 > microgram/ml for barbituric acid derivatives. Ethanol was found in 18 individuals and its concentration was < 0.2-2.5 >@1000.

  13. Common failure modes for composite aircraft structures due to secondary loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, A. M.

    The most common examples of composite laminate failure in typical aircraft structures are discussed, with particular consideration given to the effects of out-of-plane loads (and the resulting interlaminar shear/interlaminar tension) and bolted joint failure modes on the composite substructure and skins. It is noted that design allowables and environmental strength reduction factors for these types of failure model can be easily developed by performing simple element tests under RT/Dry and worst-case environmental conditions. The strength/stiffness factors identified during these tests may then be used to modify data obtained during full-scale RT/Dry tests.

  14. How rare are large, multiple-fatality work-related incidents?

    PubMed

    Pierce, Brooks

    2016-11-01

    Despite their salience, the prevalence of incidents that result in many work-related deaths is not well-documented. This study estimated probabilities of observing large scale work-related fatal incidents using 1995-2010 records from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. A range of model estimates suggest approximately a one-in-four annual chance of observing an incident resulting in 20 or more work-related fatalities. The most likely contributors are aircraft incidents, and fires and explosions. The probability that a large scale incident occurs has declined in recent years due to a general decline in the number of fatal incidents, and due to a compositional shift away from those types of incidents more likely to result in large scale outcomes.

  15. Association between diabetes mellitus and incidence and case-fatality after stroke due to intracerebral haemorrhage: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Boulanger, Marion; Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Kerssens, Jan; Wild, Sarah H

    2017-03-09

    We investigated the associations between types of diabetes and ICH incidence and case-fatality after ICH, in a retrospective cohort study of people aged 40-89 years in Scotland 2004-2013 using linkage of population-based records of diagnosed diabetes, hospital discharges and deaths. We calculated ICH incidence and 30-day case-fatality after hospital admission for ICH and their relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes compared to people without diabetes adjusting for age, sex and socio-economic status (SES). There were 77, 1275 and 9778 incident ICH and case-fatality (95% CI) was 44 (33, 57)%, 38 (35, 41)% and 36% (35, 37)% in people with type 1, type 2 and without diabetes, respectively. In comparison to the non-diabetic population, type 1 diabetes was associated with a higher incidence of ICH (1.74, 95%CI 1.38-2.21) and case fatality after ICH (1.35, 95%CI 1.01-1.70), after adjustment for age, sex and SES. Small increases in ICH incidence 1.06, 95%CI 0.99-1.12) and case-fatality 1.04, 95%CI 0.96-1.13) in people with type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic people were not statistically significant.

  16. Cumulative annoyance due to multiple aircraft flyover with differing peak noise levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A laboratory study in which 160 subjects judged the annoyance of 30 minute sessions of aircraft noise is described. Each session contained nine flyovers consisting of various combinations of three takeoff recordings of Boeing 727. The subjects were asked to judge their annoyance in the simulated living room environment of the laboratory and also to assess how annoyed they would be if they heard the noise in their home during the day, evening, and night periods. The standard deviation of the sound level did not improve the predictive ability of L sub eq (equivalent continuous sound level) which performed as well or better than other noise measured. Differences were found between the projected home responses for the day, evening, and nighttime periods. Time of day penalties derived from these results showed reasonable agreement with those currently used in community noise indices.

  17. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand, July 1997-June 1999.

    PubMed

    Leggat, Peter A; Leggat, Frances W

    2003-05-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand. Methods. Press records from a major English language newspaper for the period from July 1997 to June 1999 were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. From July 1997 to June 1999, up to 233 deaths were reported and up to a further 216 were reported injured in incidents involving tourists. One hundred and one deaths and 45 injured were reported following one major domestic jet aircraft crash in southern Thailand, however, it was not stated what proportion of casualties were tourists. Approximately 90 people perished in a single hotel fire in southeast Thailand. Most of the victims were local travellers attending meetings of two Thai companies. Sixteen deaths and 86 injured resulted from five road accidents. The majority of deaths and injuries involved foreigners. Twelve deaths and at least 33 injured resulted from three ferry and tour boat accidents. Most victims were reported to be foreigners. Three deaths and 35 injured resulted from a single cable car accident in northern Thailand. Most of these were Thai tourists, however, four of the injured were foreigners. Eight deaths and six injured resulted from 11 muggings and other violent incidents. All were foreigners. Six deaths were reportedly connected to a scam at the airport in Bangkok involving unlicensed airport taxis. Three deaths and four injured were due to other reported incidents. Conclusions. Newspaper reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Thailand were probably uncommon, particularly given the volume of tourists entering the Kingdom, although better reporting mechanisms are needed. With the exception of the unusual major incidents, most reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists were due to road trauma and other transportation accidents, muggings, and occasional water sports and other accidents, which could occur at any major tourist

  18. Contact investigation after a fatal case of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) in an aircraft, Germany, July 2013.

    PubMed

    An der Heiden, Maria; Hauer, Barbara; Fiebig, Lena; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Stemmler, Markus; Simon, Claudia; Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine; Gilsdorf, Andreas; Haas, Walter

    2017-03-23

    In July 2013, a passenger died of infectious extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) on board of an aircraft after a 3-hour flight from Turkey to Germany. Initial information indicated the patient had moved about the aircraft coughing blood. We thus aimed to contact and inform all persons exposed within the aircraft and to test them for newly acquired TB infection. Two-stage testing within 8 weeks from exposure and at least 8 weeks after exposure was suggested, using either interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) or tuberculin skin test (TST). The TST cut-off was defined at a diameter > 10 mm; for differentiation between conversion and boosting, conversion was defined as increase of skin induration > 5 mm. Overall, 155 passengers and seven crew members were included in the investigation: the questionnaire response rate was 83%; 112 (69%) persons were tested at least once for TB infection. In one passenger, who sat next to the area where the patient died, a test conversion was registered. As of March 2017, no secondary active TB cases have been reported. We describe an unusual situation in which we applied contact tracing beyond existing European guidelines; we found one latent tuberculosis infection in a passenger, which we consider probably newly acquired.

  19. Fatalities of Pedestrians, Bicycle Riders, and Motorists Due to Distracted Driving Motor Vehicle Crashes in the U.S., 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Fernando A.; Muelleman, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Distracted driving is an increasingly deadly threat to road safety. This study documents trends in and characteristics of pedestrian, bicycle rider, and other victim deaths caused by distracted drivers on U.S. public roads. Methods We obtained data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System database from 2005 to 2010 on every crash that resulted in at least one fatality within 30 days occurring on public roads in the U.S. Following the definition used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, we identified distracted driving based on whether police investigators determined that a driver had been using a technological device, including a cell phone, onboard navigation system, computer, fax machine, two-way radio, or head-up display, or had been engaged in inattentive or careless activities. Results The rate of fatalities per 10 billion vehicle miles traveled increased from 116.1 in 2005 to 168.6 in 2010 for pedestrians and from 18.7 in 2005 to 24.6 in 2010 for bicyclists. Pedestrian victims of distracted driving crashes were disproportionately male, 25–64 years of age, and non-Hispanic white. They were also more likely to die at nighttime, be struck by a distracted driver outside of a marked crosswalk, and be in a metro location. Bicycling victims of distracted crashes were disproportionately male, non-Hispanic white, and struck by a distracted driver outside of a crosswalk. Compared with pedestrians, bicyclists were less likely to be hit in early morning. Conclusions Distracted drivers are the cause of an increasing share of fatalities found among pedestrians and bicycle riders. Policies are needed to protect pedestrians and bicycle riders as they cross intersections or travel on roadways. PMID:24179255

  20. A Fatal Spontaneous Gas Gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens during Neutropenia of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae-Lim; Cho, Sung-Yeon; Lee, Dong-Gun; Ko, Yumi; Hyun, Ji In; Kim, Bo Kyoung; Seo, Jae Hyun; Lee, Jung Woo; Lee, Seok

    2014-09-01

    Most cases of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium species begin with trauma-related injuries but in rare cases, spontaneous gas gangrene (SGG) can occur when patients have conditions such as advanced malignancy, diabetes, or immunosuppression. Clostridium perfringens, a rare cause of SGG, exists as normal flora of skin and intestines of human. Adequate antibiotics with surgical debridement of infected tissue is the only curative therapeutic management. Mortality rate among adults is reported range of 67-100% and majority of deaths are occurred within 24 hours of onset. We experienced a case of SGG on the trunk, buttock and thigh in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. His clinical course was rapid and fatal during pre-engraftment neutropenic period of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

  1. Disseminated, Persistent, and Fatal Infection Due to the Vaccine Strain of Varicella-Zoster Virus in an Adult Following Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Bhalla, Preeti; Forrest, Graeme N.; Gershon, Michael; Zhou, Yan; Chen, Jason; LaRussa, Philip; Steinberg, Sharon; Gershon, Anne A.

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated varicella vaccine is recommended for healthy individuals who are susceptible to varicella. Although the vaccine is safe, effective, and used worldwide, serious adverse events have been reported, mainly in immunocompromised patients who subsequently recovered. Here, we describe the fatality of an immunocompromised patient who received the varicella vaccine. His medical history provides a cautionary lens through which to view the decision of when vaccination is appropriate. A middle-aged man with non-Hodgkin lymphoma received chemotherapy and a stem cell transplant. He was vaccinated 4 years post-transplantation, despite diagnosis of a new low-grade lymphoma confined to the lymph nodes. Within 3 months of vaccination, he developed recurrent rashes with fever, malaise, weakness, hepatitis, weight loss, and renal failure. The syndrome was eventually determined to be associated with persistent disseminated zoster caused by the vaccine virus. This case illustrates a circumstance when a live viral vaccine should not be used. PMID:25452596

  2. Effects of a polar stratosphere cloud parameterization on ozone depletion due to stratospheric aircraft in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Considine, David B.; Douglass, Anne R.; Jackman, Charles H.

    1994-01-01

    A parameterization of Type 1 and 2 polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation is presented which is appropriate for use in two-dimensional (2-D) photochemical models of the stratosphere. The calculations of PSC frequency of occurrence and surface area density uses climatological temperature probability distributions obtained from National Meteorological Center data to avoid using zonal mean temperatures, which are not good predictors of PSC behavior. The parameterization does not attempt to model the microphysics of PSCs. The parameterization predicts changes in PSC formation and heterogeneous processing due to perturbations of stratospheric trace constituents. It is therefore useful in assessing the potential effects of a fleet of stratospheric aircraft (high speed civil transports, or HSCTs) on stratospheric composition. the model calculated frequency of PSC occurrence agrees well with a climatology based on stratospheric aerosol measurement (SAM) 2 observations. PSCs are predicted to occur in the tropics. Their vertical range is narrow, however, and their impact on model O3 fields is small. When PSC and sulfate aerosol heterogeneous processes are included in the model calculations, the O3 change for 1980 - 1990 is in substantially better agreement with the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS)-derived O3 trend than otherwise. The overall changes in model O3 response to standard HSCT perturbation scenarios produced by the parameterization are small and tend to decrease the model sensitivity to the HSCT perturbation. However, in the southern hemisphere spring a significant increase in O3 sensitivity to HSCT perturbations is found. At this location and time, increased PSC formation leads to increased levels of active chlorine, which produce the O3 decreases.

  3. A novel technique to neutralize the Yawing moment due to asymmetric thrust in a hybrid buoyant aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, Anwar U.; Asrar, Waqar; Omar, Ashraf A.; Sulaeman, Erwin; J. S Ali, Mohamed

    2016-03-01

    Dorsal fin is used in swimming animals like shark for the generation of thrust as well as to meet the requirement of the lateral stability. In the case of aircraft, rudders are normally used for the said requirement. In the present work, this nature inspired idea is explored for its application to neutralize the unavoidable asymmetric thrust produced by the twin engines of a hybrid buoyant aircraft. First, the estimation of asymmetric thrust is obtained with the help of analytical techniques for maximum thrust condition at 4 degree angle of attack. The moment generated by it is utilized for the sizing of a dorsal fin which looks similar to a tapered wing and is placed aft of the center of gravity. Wind tunnel testing at subsonic speed is carried out to explore the design features of this rotatable dorsal fin. It is found that a small rotation of 5 degree can generate the required moment. However, such rotation requires a complete pneumatic/electro-mechanical system and an alternative of it is to use a cambered airfoil for the dorsal fin installed at fixed location. Such a flow controlling device can also be used as an antenna mast, which is commonly installed out the fuselage of the aircraft for communication purposes. Moreover, by incorporating this technique, a pilot doesn't have to put an extra effort to make the aircraft stable in the presence of side wind.

  4. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  5. Postmortem angiography in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in a case of fatal hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Schulze, Claudia; Bolliger, Stephan A; Gascho, Dominic; Thali, Michael J; Flach, Patricia M

    2015-05-01

    Autopsy is the traditional gold standard for determining the cause and manner of death in a forensic death investigation. However, postmortem imaging plays an ever-growing role in preliminary examination, even replacing conventional autopsy in some cases. This case report presents a case of massive intra-axial brain hemorrhage due to an arterio-venous malformation. The cause and manner of death were exclusively determined by postmortem radiology. Based on radiological findings, the autopsy was considered redundant and cancelled by the public prosecutor.

  6. Fatal crocodile attack.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Saurabh; Shee, Biplab; Sukul, Biswajit

    2013-11-01

    Attacks on human beings by various animals leading to varied types of injuries and even death in some cases are not uncommon. Crocodile attacks on humans have been reported from a number of countries across the globe. Deaths in such attacks are mostly due to mechanical injuries or drowning. Bites by the crocodiles often cause the limbs to be separated from the body. The present case refers to an incident of a fatal attack by a crocodile on a 35 years old female where only the mutilated head of the female was recovered. Multiple lacerated wounds over the face and scalp along with fracture of the cranial bones was detected on autopsy. Two distinct bite marks in the form of punched in holes were noted over the parietal and frontal bones. Injuries on the head with its traumatic amputation from the body were sufficient to cause death. However, the presence of other fatal injuries on the unrecovered body parts could not be ruled out.

  7. "Death by a thread"--peritonitis due to visceral perforation by a guide wire, during proximal femur osteosynthesis with DHS: a fatal case and legal implications.

    PubMed

    Durão, Carlos; Barros, André; Guerreiro, Rui; Pedrosa, Frederico

    2015-04-01

    Iatrogenic intestinal perforations in orthopaedic surgery are very rare. Reports of iatrogenic lesions caused by a guide wire during femur fracture osteosynthesis are even scarcer. There are no similar reports in recent literature. As opposed to what is normally described the lesion documented in this case report was not identified on time resulting in death by peritonitis. The forensic autopsy allowed the identification of an intestinal perforation with faecal leakage to peritoneal space in association with a vesical perforation enabling the reproduction of the guide wire path. In view of the increasing number of osteosynthesis it is essential for the surgeon to be aware of possible complications due to guide wire perforations. Cases like this go unnoticed if the forensic pathologist is not familiarized with the surgical technique which may explain the rarity of such descriptions in literature.

  8. Fatal foreign-body granulomatous pulmonary embolization due to microcrystalline cellulose in a patient receiving total parenteral nutrition: all crystals are not what they seem.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Sarah; Pena, Elena; Walker, Alfredo E

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary foreign-body granulomatous embolization has been described secondary to crystal precipitation in total parenteral nutrition (TPN) as well as when pharmaceutical tablets are crushed and injected intravenously. Extensive granulomatous embolization may cause pulmonary hypertension and death due to acute cor pulmonale. We report the case of a 34-year old woman who had been receiving TPN post-operatively secondary to complications of a paraesophageal hernia repair. During and following receiving TPN, she experienced episodes of hypoxia, tachycardia, fever, and hypotension. Computed tomography scans of the thorax showed centrilobular nodules, tree-in-bud and ground-glass opacities, as well as findings of pulmonary hypertension. Following an episode of hypoxia she was found unresponsive and died despite resuscitative efforts. Microscopic examination of the lungs following post-mortem examination revealed occlusive granulomatous inflammation of the pulmonary arterial vasculature by crystalline material. The morphologic and histochemical patterns of the crystals were suggestive of microcrystalline cellulose, a finding that was confirmed by energy dispersive X-spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy. Ancillary tests did not support that the crystalline material was the result of TPN precipitation. Foreign-body granulomatous embolization leading to acute core pulmonale may occur as a complication of both intravenous injection of oral medications as well as of TPN crystallization. The source of crystalline material may be difficult to discern based solely on morphological assessment or by histochemical staining. Ancillary studies such as energy dispersive X-spectroscopy or infrared spectroscopy should be performed to definitively discern the two entities.

  9. End-to-end testing. [to verify electrical equipment failure due to carbon fibers released in aircraft-fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The principle objective of the kinds of demonstration tests that are discussed is to try to verify whether or not carbon fibers that are released by burning composite parts in an aircraft-fuel fires can produce failures in electrical equipment. A secondary objective discussed is to experimentally validate the analytical models for some of the key elements in the risk analysis. The approach to this demonstration testing is twofold: limited end-to-end test are to be conducted in a shock tube; and planning for some large outdoor burn tests is being done.

  10. Reported fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2005-08-01

    Objectives. To examine fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Methods. Official press releases from the public relations office at Hawaii Volcanoes National Park were examined for reports of fatal and non-fatal incidents involving tourists. Results. Between 1992 and 2002 there were 65 press releases reporting 40 fatalities, 45 serious injuries, 53 minor injuries, and 25 no injury events. Severity information was unavailable for four additional tourists. Aircraft and backcountry incidents each accounted for 30% of all incidents followed by road incidents (22%) and frontcountry incidents (17%). Aircraft incidents reported 17 fatalities, backcountry incidents accounted for 10 fatalities, frontcountry incidents reported seven fatalities, and road incidents totaled six fatalities. One fatality was classified as a suicide. Backcountry (23) and road (10) incidents had the highest number of serious incidents. Male tourists (62) were more frequently involved in incidents than female tourists (41) and tourists aged 20-29 years and 40-49 years accounted for the highest number of fatalities and total incidents. Conclusions. Helicopter tours, hiking in areas with active lava flows, falls into steam vents and earthcracks, and driving unfamiliar rental cars in unfamiliar locations are the major activities resulting in death and serious injury. Additional factors such as tourists ignoring warning signs, wandering off-trail or hiking at night, tourists misinformed by guidebooks and other tourists, and tourists with pre-existing heart and asthma conditions are contributing causes in many incidents. The findings of this study provide information that allows prospective tourists, tourism managers, and travel health providers make informed decisions that promote safe tourism and can aid future efforts in developing preventative strategies at tourist destinations with similar environments and activities. However, in order for preventative

  11. Causes of fatal accidents for instrument-certified and non-certified private pilots.

    PubMed

    Shao, Bob Siyuan; Guindani, Michele; Boyd, Douglas D

    2014-11-01

    Instrument certification (IFR) enhances a pilot's skills in precisely controlling the aircraft and requires a higher level of standards in maintaining heading and altitude compared with the less stringent private pilot certificate. However, there have been no prior studies to compare fatal accident causes for airmen with, and without, this rating, The NTSB accident database was queried for general aviation fatal accidents for private pilots with, and without IFR certification. Exact Poisson tests were used to calculate whether two rate parameters were equal (ratio of 1), normalized to the number of IFR-rated pilots and flight hours in the given time period. Proportion tests were used to determine whether there were significant differences in fatal accident causes between IFR-certified and non-certified pilots. A logistic regression for log-odds success was used in determining the trend and effect of age on fatal accident rates. IFR certification was associated with a reduced risk of accidents due to failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance and spatial disorientation for day and night operations respectively. In contrast, the likelihood of fatal accident due to equipment malfunction during day operations was higher for IFR-certified pilots. The fatal accident rate decreased over the last decade for IFR-certified but not for non-IFR-certified private pilots. However, the overall accident rate for IFR-certified private pilots was more than double that of the cohort lacking this certification. Finally, we found a trend for an increased fatality rate with advancing age for both group of pilots. Our findings informs on where training and/or technology should be focused. Both training for aerodynamic stalls, which causes over a quarter of all fatal accidents, should be intensified for both IFR-certified and non-certified private pilots. Similarly, adherence to minimum safe altitudes for both groups of pilots should be encouraged toward reducing the fatal accidents

  12. Bear attack--A unique fatality in Finland.

    PubMed

    De Giorgio, Fabio; Rainio, Juha; Pascali, Vincenzo; Lalu, Kaisa

    2007-11-15

    Fatalities due to animal bites, the vast majority of which are associated with dogs and big cats, are relatively uncommon and rarely described in the literature. Especially rare are fatal bear attacks on humans. We herein present a forensic investigation of a fatal assault, involving numerous bites on a 42-year-old man in Finland by an European brown bear (Ursus arctos arctos).

  13. Fatalities in Swedish skydiving.

    PubMed

    Westman, Anton; Björnstig, Ulf

    2005-11-01

    Exact risk patterns in skydiving fatalities are not well known, but incomplete world injury data indicate that many are preventable. A comprehensive national material for Sweden of 37 skydiving fatalities 1964-2003 were reviewed to identify risk factors. In relation to jump volume, the period 1994-2003 had a fatality rate 11 times lower than 1964-1973. Student skydivers had the highest risk of fatal outcome, often caused by instability in freefall leading to unstable parachute activation with subsequent line entanglement, or parachute activation failure. Unintentional water landings also contributed to student fatality, with life jacket malfunctions, neglect to use life jackets, and automatic reserve parachute activation devices activated by water as aggravating factors. One-third of all fatalities had an inflated and operational parachute at some point prior to injury. A drastic worldwide increase in fatal landing incidents with fast wing parachutes during the 1990s did not occur in Sweden. Every fourth fatality caused by rapid deceleration against ground or water survived impact and died during transports or in hospitals. Rescue units and health care providers can improve management of skydiving incidents from knowledge about the incident and injury mechanisms we have described, and the skydiving community can target risk factors in preventive safety work.

  14. Preliminary Analysis of the Effect of Flow Separation Due to Rocket Jet Pluming on Aircraft Dynamic Stability During Atmospheric Exit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dryer, Murray; North, Warren J.

    1959-01-01

    A theoretical investigation was conducted to determine the effects of body boundary-layer separation resulting from a highly underexpanded jet on the dynamic stability of a typical rocket aircraft during an atmospheric exit trajectory. The particular flight condition studied on a digital computer for five degrees of freedom was at Mach 6.0 and 150,000 feet. In view of the unknown character of the separated flow field, two estimates of the pressures in the separated region were made to calculate the unbalanced forces and moments. These estimates, based on limited fundamental zero-angle-of-attack studies and observations, are believed to cover what may be the actual case. In addition to a fixed control case, two simulated pilot control inputs were studied: rate-limited and instantaneous responses. The resulting-motions with and without boundary-layer separation were compared for various initial conditions. The lower of the assumed misalinement forces and moments led to a situation whereby a slowly damped motion could be satisfactorily controlled with rate-limited control input. The higher assumption led to larger amplitude, divergent motions when the same control rates were used. These motions were damped only when the instantaneous control responses were assumed.

  15. [Fatal rat bites].

    PubMed

    Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

    1999-04-15

    We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack.

  16. [Fatal electrocution in prison].

    PubMed

    Grellner, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    The clarification of deaths from electric current can be difficult when electric skin marks are missing or overlooked. In the following, the fatal electric accident of a 21-year-old man in prison is reported with a scene which primarily seemed to be inconspicuous. The autopsy disclosed typical electric marks in the skin of the left thumb and the corresponding part of the left index finger. A second inspection of the jail room, which was large enough for three men, but occupied by the deceased alone, led to the finding of widely spread utensils (two forks with signs of corrosion and deformation of the prongs, radio cable with socket, water container) for the self-construction of a kind of "immersion heater" for the heating of water. The man must have suffered electrocution when touching the prongs of the forks. Death supposedly occurred due to disturbances of the cardiac rhythm after a longer interval of maintained ability to act. The case again proves the difficulties in the detection and examination of possible electric deaths in which unusual sources of electricity must be considered.

  17. Fatal big cat attacks.

    PubMed

    Cohle, S D; Harlan, C W; Harlan, G

    1990-09-01

    Two cases of fatal attacks by large cats are presented. In the first case, a 30-year-old female zoo worker was attacked by a jaguar that had escaped its cage. In the second case, a 2-year-old girl was fatally injured by her father's pet leopard. The pattern of injuries in these cases is nearly identical to those of these cats' prey in the wild.

  18. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  19. Work-related pilot fatalities in agriculture--United States, 1992-2001.

    PubMed

    2004-04-23

    Aircraft often are used in agriculture to apply pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. During 1992-2001, a total of 141 persons died in agriculture-related plane crashes. To characterize aviation fatalities in agriculture, CDC analyzed data on fatal injuries to pilots working in U.S. agriculture during 1992-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that agricultural pilots are at increased risk for fatal injury compared with pilots in all other industries. The agriculture aviation profession continues to work to reduce fatalities by recommending continual skill development and by offering training to aerial application pilots.

  20. A fatal mongoose bite.

    PubMed

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

    2012-11-19

    Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site.

  1. Fatal carbon monoxide intoxication after acetylene gas welding of pipes.

    PubMed

    Antonsson, Ann-Beth; Christensson, Bengt; Berge, Johan; Sjögren, Bengt

    2013-06-01

    Acetylene gas welding of district heating pipes can result in exposure to high concentrations of carbon monoxide. A fatal case due to intoxication is described. Measurements of carbon monoxide revealed high levels when gas welding a pipe with closed ends. This fatality and these measurements highlight a new hazard, which must be promptly prevented.

  2. Estimating cost ratio distribution between fatal and non-fatal road accidents in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, Nurhidayah; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    Road traffic crashes are a global major problem, and should be treated as a shared responsibility. In Malaysia, road accident tragedies kill 6,917 people and injure or disable 17,522 people in year 2012, and government spent about RM9.3 billion in 2009 which cost the nation approximately 1 to 2 percent loss of gross domestic product (GDP) reported annually. The current cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident used by Ministry of Works Malaysia simply based on arbitrary value of 6:4 or equivalent 1.5:1 depends on the fact that there are six factors involved in the calculation accident cost for fatal accident while four factors for non-fatal accident. The simple indication used by the authority to calculate the cost ratio is doubted since there is lack of mathematical and conceptual evidence to explain how this ratio is determined. The main aim of this study is to determine the new accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal accident in Malaysia based on quantitative statistical approach. The cost ratio distributions will be estimated based on Weibull distribution. Due to the unavailability of official accident cost data, insurance claim data both for fatal and non-fatal accident have been used as proxy information for the actual accident cost. There are two types of parameter estimates used in this study, which are maximum likelihood (MLE) and robust estimation. The findings of this study reveal that accident cost ratio for fatal and non-fatal claim when using MLE is 1.33, while, for robust estimates, the cost ratio is slightly higher which is 1.51. This study will help the authority to determine a more accurate cost ratio between fatal and non-fatal accident as compared to the official ratio set by the government, since cost ratio is an important element to be used as a weightage in modeling road accident related data. Therefore, this study provides some guidance tips to revise the insurance claim set by the Malaysia road authority, hence the appropriate method

  3. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide.

  4. Air weapon fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Milroy, C M; Clark, J C; Carter, N; Rutty, G; Rooney, N

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To describe characteristics of a series of people accidentally and deliberately killed by air powered weapons. METHODS: Five cases of fatal airgun injury were identified by forensic pathologists and histopathologists. The circumstances surrounding the case, radiological examination, and pathological findings are described. The weapon characteristics are also reported. RESULTS: Three of the victims were adult men, one was a 16 year old boy, and one an eight year old child. Four of the airguns were .22 air rifles, the other a .177 air rifle. Two committed suicide, one person shooting himself in the head, the other in the chest. In both cases the guns were fired at contact range. Three of the cases were classified as accidents: in two the pellet penetrated into the head and in one the chest. CONCLUSIONS: One person each year dies from an air powered weapon injury in the United Kingdom. In addition there is considerable morbidity from airgun injuries. Fatalities and injuries are most commonly accidents, but deliberately inflicted injuries occur. Airguns are dangerous weapons when inappropriately handled and should not be considered as toys. Children should not play with airguns unsupervised. Images PMID:9797730

  5. A fatal case of anaphylactic shock during paragliding.

    PubMed

    Feltracco, Paolo; Barbieri, Stefania; Galligioni, Helmut; Pasin, Laura; Gaudio, Rosa Maria; Tommasi, Aurelio; Zucchetto, Alessandro; Trevisiol, Paride; Ori, Carlo; Avato, Francesco Maria

    2012-11-01

    The growth in popularity of flying ultralight aircraft and paragliding has been associated with an increased involvement of Emergency Medical Services because of various types of trauma suffered from both inexperienced and skilled individuals. This case presentation reports on a paraglider pilot, who was seen spinning "unusually" rapidly toward the ground, without visible attempts to regain control of the aircraft. Besides the bilateral mydriasis and the absence of any ECG activity, there was a significant swelling of face, lips, neck, and tongue. Upon opening the mouth, a dead bee was found over the tongue, underneath the palate. A fatal anaphylactic shock was the likely cause of death of the pilot while still "in mid-air." This case is certainly different from the commonly reported accidents during paragliding. An updated review of the medical literature shows no reported cases of fatal anaphylactic shock during the practice of paragliding.

  6. Hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkamhawi, Hani; Greiner, Tom; Fuerst, Gerry; Luich, Shawn; Stonebraker, Bob; Wray, Todd

    1990-01-01

    A hypersonic aircraft is designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and it was decided that the aircraft would use one full scale turbofan-ramjet. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic region. After considering aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, and landing systems, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets are also taken into consideration in the final design. A hypersonic aircraft was designed which uses scramjets to accelerate from Mach 6 to Mach 10 and sustain that speed for two minutes. Different propulsion systems were considered and a full scale turbofan-ramjet was chosen. Two solid rocket boosters were added to save fuel and help the aircraft pass through the transonic reqion. After the aerodynamics, aircraft design, stability and control, cooling systems, mission profile, landing systems, and their physical interactions were considered, a conventional aircraft configuration was chosen over that of a waverider. The conventional design was chosen due to its landing characteristics and the relative expense compared to the waverider. Fuel requirements and the integration of the engine systems and their inlets were also considered in the designing process.

  7. Measurement and dimension of road fatality in Brunei.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mohammed Ohidul

    2011-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated the pattern of road fatality in Brunei. It is seen from this analysis that road fatality in Brunei was one of the highest in the world in the early 1990s, but has been significantly reduced over the years, and is now one of the lowest in the world. Preliminary investigation shows that young male drivers are responsible for most road fatalities in Brunei. We have also fitted a linear regression model and found that road fatality is significantly positively related to people aged 18-24 years and new registered vehicles, both of which are expected to grow with the growth of population and economic development. Hence, road fatality in Brunei is also expected to grow unless additional effective road safety countermeasures are introduced and implemented to reduce road toll. Negative coefficient is observed for trend variable, indicating the reduction of road fatality due to the combined effects of improvements of vehicle safety, road design, medical facilities and road safety awareness among road user groups. However, short-term road fatality analysis based on monthly data indicates that the coefficient of the trend variable is positive, implying that in recent months road fatalities are increasing in Brunei, which is supported by media reports. We have compared Brunei's road fatality data with Australia, Singapore and Malaysia and found that Brunei's road fatality rate is lower than Singapore and Malaysia, but higher than Australia. This indicates that there are still opportunities to reduce road fatalities in Brunei if additional effective road safety strategies are implemented like in Australia without interfering in the economic and social development of Brunei.

  8. A fatal leopard attack.

    PubMed

    Hejna, Petr

    2010-05-01

    A rare case of a big cat fatal attack is presented. A male leopard that had escaped from its unlocked cage attacked a 26-year-old male zoo worker. The man sustained penetrating injuries to the neck with consequent external bleeding. The man died while being transported to the hospital as a result of the injuries sustained. The wounds discovered on the victim's body corresponded with the known methods of leopard attacks and with findings on the carcasses of animals killed by leopards in the wild. The conclusion of the medicolegal investigation was that the underlying cause of death was a bite wound to the neck which lacerated the left internal jugular vein, the two main branches of the left external carotid artery, and the cervical spine. The cause of death was massive external bleeding. Special attention is paid to the general pattern of injuries sustained from big cat attacks.

  9. Evaluation of farm tractor-related fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Kamil H; Demirci, Serafettin; Sunam, Guven S; Deniz, Idris; Gunaydin, Gursel

    2010-03-01

    Farm tractors are the major cause of occupational fatalities in agricultural regions. Fatalities typically result from being run over or crushed by the tractor, becoming entangled in the moving parts of the tractor, accidents on roadways, and tractor rollovers, which involve the tractor tipping sideways or backwards and crushing the operator. In this study, tractor-related fatalities in the Konya province of Turkey are retrospectively evaluated. Out of the 3940 cases on which a death examination and/or autopsy was performed between the years 2000 and 2007 at The Konya Branch of Forensic Medicine Council, 86 (2.2%) of the death cases were caused by tractor accidents and are included in this study. The ages of the victims varied between 3 and 80 years old with a mean age of 31.7 + or - 22.3. Sixty-eight (79.1%) of the cases involved males, while 18 (20.9%) of the cases involved females. In 32 (37.2%) of the cases, the deaths due to tractor accidents occurred when the tractor overturned. In 37 (43.0%) of the cases, the tractor-related fatalities involved the passengers and the drivers were involved in 34 (39.5%) of the cases. In conclusion, tractor accidents are preventable and deaths from tractor accidents can be significantly reduced if drivers are required to wear safety belts and helmets and frequent checks are implemented to enforce the ban on carrying passengers.

  10. Military parachute mishap fatalities: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mellen, P F; Sohn, S S

    1990-12-01

    Military parachuting is relatively safe. Most injuries involve vertebral bodies or the lower extremity, and fatalities are rare. We studied 49 military parachute accident facilities occurring during 1964-1989. Causes of the accidents included accidental deployment of reserve parachute in aircraft, static line failures and entanglements, equipment (canopy) failures, in-air collisions, landing injuries, drowning, and dragging. Rarely, preexisting illness such as coronary artery disease caused or contributed to an accident. Pathologic findings revealed a high proportion of deceleration and blunt force injuries: cardiac, aortic and liver laceration, and skull, pelvic and extremity fractures. Isolated head injury, strangulation, and post traumatic pulmonary embolus were occasionally noted. Toxicological examination demonstrated contributing factors such as alcohol intoxication or antihistamine use in a small number of cases. Background investigations, scene inspections, autopsy and toxicology studies all yielded important data or pertinent negatives during investigations. We propose an investigation protocol.

  11. Fatal Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Hattwick, M A; Retailliau, H; O'Brien, R J; Slutzker, M; Fontaine, R E; Hanson, B

    1978-09-29

    Forty-four fatal cases of Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) occurring in 1974 were compared with 50 nonfatal cases of similar age, sex, date of onset, and place of occurrence. Diagnosis and initiation of treatment in fatal cases were substantially delayed compared with nonfatal cases. Several reasons for this delay were identified: (1) the rash appeared later in the course of illness in the fatal cases, often not until the patient was terminal, (2) a history of tick bite was less often obtained during life or obtained late in the clinical course in fatal cases, and (3) initial nonspecific symptoms or unexpected symptoms led to an initial diagnosis of more common diseases. Only two fatal cases were treated with either tetracycline or chloramphenicol before the sixth day of illness. Presumptive diagnosis of RMSF and initiation of tetracycline therapy before onset of rash may be necessary to reduce mortality.

  12. [Concealed and simulated trauma fatalities(II)].

    PubMed

    Klotzbach, H; Püschel, K

    2001-12-01

    A careful investigation of fatal accidents is required due to the relevant financial consequences for the insured as well as for the insurance company. An evaluation of post-mortem cases handled by our institute from 1988 to 1998 showed that 16% of all fatal accidents were not initially classified as such; it was only possible to determine the cause by post-mortem and criminal investigation. The frequency of a relevant alcoholization varied with different types of accidents. Furthermore, of all fatal accidents, 3% were revealed to be deceptive. Those 42 cases in total, presenting themselves as fatal accidents at first glance, were later determined either to be natural deaths (n = 27), homicide (n = 11) or suicide (n = 4). In addition to this, autopsies showed 83 cases of death to be sequelae to accidents. Particularly in cases of a victim plunging out of the window or into water, it can be difficult to make the distinction between natural death--e.g. as a reason for falling--and suicide or homicide. Further difficulties can result from interpretations of the findings in cases of putrefaction, mauling by animals, defects caused by burning or severely deformed corpses. In these cases, the importance of patho-morphological findings from the autopsy must be emphasized. Indirect sequelae of accidents may be pulmonary embolism or pneumonia. The cause of death has to be classified as accidental if the chain of events is of traumatic origin. Mistakes can be avoided if the medical history is taken conscientiously. If no facts are available, the cause of death should be certificated as undetermined. Our evaluation only included autopsy cases from our institute. The concealed fatal accidents which were incorrectly certified as natural deaths or the cases dismissed by the police and the public prosecutor without performing an autopsy were not evaluated.

  13. Fatal case of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in an adult due to a rare serogroup O91 Entero hemorrhagic Escherichia coli associated with a Clostridium difficile infection. More than meets the eye.

    PubMed

    Guillard, Thomas; Limelette, Anne; Le Magrex-Debar, Elisabeth; Wynckel, Alain; Gouali, Malika; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Guyot-Colosio, Charlotte; de Champs, Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome due to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, belonging to serogroup O91 has rarely been described. We report here a case of post-diarrheal HUS due to EHEC O91 in an elderly patient for whom diagnosis was delayed given a previously diagnosed C. difficile infection. This case highlights the usefulness of Shiga-toxin detection.

  14. Fatal intoxication with methoxetamine.

    PubMed

    Adamowicz, Piotr; Zuba, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Methoxetamine (MXE) is a new synthetic drug of abuse structurally related to ketamine and phencyclidine. A case of a 29-year-old male with acute toxicity related to the analytically confirmed use of MXE is reported. The man was found dead at his residence. Biological material was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentration of MXE in urine of the deceased was 85 μg/mL. Despite the vial containing the blood sample being destroyed during transportation and the blood leaking out into the cardboard packaging, the blood level of MXE was estimated. After determination of the cardboard grammage (approx. 400 g/m(3) ) and the mean mass of the blood obtained after drying (0.1785 ± 0.0173 g per 1 mL), the estimated blood concentration of MXE was found to be 5.8 μg/mL. The high concentration of MXE in blood and urine and the circumstances of the case indicate an unintentional, fatal intoxication with this substance.

  15. Work-related maritime fatalities.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Peter J; O'Connor, Nina

    2006-07-01

    All maritime fatalities investigated by Coroners that occurred in Australia from 1992 to 1998 inclusive have been collated, coded and recorded in the Australian Boating Injury Database: Fatal Injury (ABID:FI). This article focuses on the work-related maritime fatalities recorded in the database. Over the period 1992-1998 there were 74 fatalities involving people who were working for income at the time of the incident: 46 commercial fishermen, 12 seamen involved in the transport of cargo and 16 miscellaneous workers. The fatality rate of commercial fishermen has declined substantially in Australia over recent years. The main contributing factors were: hazardous conditions; an error of judgement; unsafe work practices; and failure to wear a personal flotation device (PFD) in circumstances where, in the opinion of the Coroners, it would have saved life. Hazardous conditions were much more of a factor in fishermen deaths than in other maritime deaths. Most vessels involved had an insufficient number of PFDs for the number of crew on board. The Australian fatal injury database should be updated with the details of recent fatalities in order to further monitor safety performance, causal factors and prevention measures in the maritime industry in Australia. Attention should be focused on reducing alcohol use and increasing PFD availability and usage. In order to continue to improve safety, it is essential that a constructive dialogue is maintained with industry sources, informed by independent research and up-to-date information.

  16. Global earthquake fatalities and population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, Thomas L.; Savage, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Modern global earthquake fatalities can be separated into two components: (1) fatalities from an approximately constant annual background rate that is independent of world population growth and (2) fatalities caused by earthquakes with large human death tolls, the frequency of which is dependent on world population. Earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (and 50,000) have increased with world population and obey a nonstationary Poisson distribution with rate proportional to population. We predict that the number of earthquakes with death tolls greater than 100,000 (50,000) will increase in the 21st century to 8.7±3.3 (20.5±4.3) from 4 (7) observed in the 20th century if world population reaches 10.1 billion in 2100. Combining fatalities caused by the background rate with fatalities caused by catastrophic earthquakes (>100,000 fatalities) indicates global fatalities in the 21st century will be 2.57±0.64 million if the average post-1900 death toll for catastrophic earthquakes (193,000) is assumed.

  17. Accident-precipitating factors for crashes in turbine-powered general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D; Stolzer, Alan

    2016-01-01

    General aviation (14CFR Part 91) accounts for 83% of civil aviation fatalities. While much research has focused on accident causes/pilot demographics in this aviation sector, studies to identify factors leading up to the crash (accident-precipitating factors) are few. Such information could inform on pre-emptive remedial action. With this in mind and considering the paucity of research on turbine-powered aircraft accidents the study objectives were to identify accident-precipitating factors and determine if the accident rate has changed over time for such aircraft operating under 14CFR Part 91. The NTSB Access database was queried for accidents in airplanes (<12,501lb) powered by 1-2 turbine engines and occurring between 1989 and 2013. We developed and utilized an accident-precipitating factor taxonomy. Statistical analyses employed logistic regression, contingency tables and a generalized linear model with Poisson distribution. The "Checklist/Flight Manual Not Followed" was the most frequent accident-precipitating factor category and carried an excess risk (OR 2.34) for an accident with a fatal and/or serious occupant injury. This elevated risk reflected an over-representation of accidents with fatal and/or serious injury outcomes (p<0.001) in the "non-adherence to V Speeds" sub-category. For accidents grouped in the "Inadequate Pre-Flight Planning/Inspection/Procedure" the "inadequate weather planning" sub-category accounted (p=0.036) for the elevated risk (OR 2.22) of an accident involving fatal and/or serious injuries. The "Violation FARs/AIM Deviation" category was also associated with a greater risk for fatal and/or serious injury (OR 2.59) with "Descent below the MDA/failure to execute the missed approach" representing the largest sub-category. Accidents in multi-engine aircraft are more frequent than their single engine counterparts and the decline (50%) in the turbine aircraft accident rate over the study period was likely due, in part, to a 6-fold

  18. Fatal and near-fatal animal bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Clark, M A; Sandusky, G E; Hawley, D A; Pless, J E; Fardal, P M; Tate, L R

    1991-07-01

    Fatal and near-fatal maulings of humans by pit bulls have recently become a topic of major public concern, resulting in the passage of laws in some jurisdictions that make the owner of a pit bull criminally liable for manslaughter if his or her pet causes a human death. The authors recently investigated two cases in which children were fatally injured by pet dogs. In the first case, a 17-day-old girl suffered fatal abdominal injuries when attacked by a pregnant Siberian husky. A 2-year-old girl expired from neck wounds inflicted by a pit bull or a rottweiler or both. Because no expert would testify as to which dog caused the fatal injury, the owner of the animals was not charged under a statute which specified criminality only if a pit bull caused the fatal injury. We also examined a 12-year-old boy who attempted to pet a circus tiger; the animal grabbed his arm with its claws and bit off the arm at the shoulder. The arm could not be reattached, but the child survived. These cases and the differentiation of animal bites from other injuries will be presented.

  19. Aluminum phosphide fatalities, new local experience.

    PubMed

    Abder-Rahman, H A; Battah, A H; Ibraheem, Y M; Shomaf, M S; el-Batainch, N

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum phosphide (AlP) pesticide is a highly toxic, low cost, and easily accessible rodenticidal agent. Its toxicity results from the liberation of phosphine gas upon exposure to moisture, which leads to multisystem involvement, resulting in serious consequences. The highly toxic parathion insecticide was a common cause of mortality in pesticide fatalities, prior to its banning. Its toxicity was familiar to the public as well as to physicians. Recently, ten fatalities due to AlP were encountered within a three-month period during spring, when it was used as a rodenticide in the vicinity of grain stores. The victims' ages ranged from 1-34 years. The circumstances of death were accidental in six cases, suicidal in two and possibly homicidal in two cases. Retrospectively, the clinical manifestations, scene investigation, autopsy, histological and toxicological findings supported the diagnosis of AlP intoxication. Immediate recognition was difficult due to unfamiliarity of the agent to the physicians. The occurrence of these fatalities might suggest changes of pattern in pesticide poisoning. This should raise the attention of the physician to the problem of AlP poisoning and also necessitates the awareness of the public to the hazards of this poison. Education, proper handling, strict observation and abiding by the regulations controlling this material are good protective measures against AlP poisoning.

  20. Fatal intoxication with tianeptine (Stablon).

    PubMed

    Proença, Paula; Teixeira, Helena; Pinheiro, João; Monsanto, Paula V; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2007-08-06

    Tianeptine (Stablon), although structurally similar to tricyclic antidepressants, acts by enhancing the reuptake of serotonin. A fatal case is presented involving a 26-year-old man, found lying in bed with a "mushroom of foam" around his mouth. Empty blister packs of Stablon and a suicide note were found next to the body. A liquid-liquid extraction procedure with n-hexane: ethyl acetate and n-hexane: 2-propanol, followed by LC-DAD-MS analysis, using positive mode electrospray ionization was performed. The detection limit was 0.001 microg/mL. The toxicological results revealed the following tianeptine concentrations in the post-mortem samples: blood 5.1 microg/mL; urine 2.0 microg/mL; liver 23 microg/g; stomach contents 22 mg. Femoral blood analyses also revealed an ethanol concentration of 0.53 g/L. The present method was also developed and validated for the other post-mortem specimens, since no previous published data had confirmed the post-mortem distribution of tianeptine. The absence of other suitable direct causes of death (macroscopic or histological) and the positive results achieved with the toxicological analysis led the pathologist to rule that death was due to an intoxication caused by the suicidal ingestion of tianeptine in combination with alcohol.

  1. Radar Detectability of Light Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    the aircraft is mounted on a structure that enables the viewing angle (aspect) presented to the radar to be varied. For each aircraft type, the RCS...environment; there are no spurious reflections from the ground or from the supporting structure ; and the effects of propeller rotation, small aircraft...motions due to c-ntrol action or atmospheric turbulence, and structural deflections due to inertial and aerodynamic loading, are properly represented

  2. Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    TI FLE CY N Defense Nuclear Agency Alexandria, VA 22310-3398 SWES% Ot DNA-TR-89-45 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes A. Laupa G. H. Anno...0104 Chernobyl Accident Fatalities and Causes PE - 62715H PR - RM 6 AUTHOR(S) TA -RH A. Laupa: G. H. Anno WU - DH026130 7 PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...vi 1 INTRODUCTION .......................................... 1I DATA SOURCES ON CHERNOBYL VICTIMS ............... 3 CHERNOBYL

  3. Fatal aviation accidents in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Ast, F W; Kernbach-Wighton, G; Kampmann, H; Koops, E; Püschel, K; Tröger, H D; Kleemann, W J

    2001-06-01

    So far no national or regional studies have been published in Germany regarding the number of fatal aviation accidents and results of autopsy findings. Therefore, we evaluated all fatal aviation accidents occurring in Lower Saxony from 1979 to 1996. A total of 96 aviation accidents occurred in this period involving 73 aeroplanes. The crashes resulted in the death of 154 people ranging in age from 19 to 68 years. The greatest number of victims in a single crash of an aircraft was (n=7). Other types of fatal accidents were crashes of aircraft and helicopter while on the ground (n=5), hot-air balloons (n=2), parachutes (n=10), hang glider accidents (n=5) and the striking of a bystander by a model airplane. Autopsies were performed on 68 of the 154 victims (44.2%), including 39 of the 73 pilots (53.4%). Some of the autopsies yielded findings relevant to the cause of the accident: gunshot wounds, the presence of alcohol or drugs in blood and preexisting diseases. Our findings emphasize the need for autopsy on all aviation accident victims, especially pilots, as this is the only reliable method to uncover all factors contributing to an accident.

  4. The fatal toll of driving to drink: the effect of minimum legal drinking age evasion on traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Lovenheim, Michael F; Slemrod, Joel

    2010-01-01

    There is a sizeable literature on the effect of minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) restrictions on teenage drunk driving. This paper adds to the literature by examining the effect of MLDA evasion across states with different alcohol restrictions. Using state-of-the-art GIS software and micro-data on fatal vehicle accidents from 1977 to 2002, we find that in counties within 25 miles of a lower-MLDA jurisdiction, a legal restriction on drinking does not reduce youth involvement in fatal accidents and, for 18 and 19-year-old drivers, fatal accident involvement actually increases. Farther from such a border, we find results consistent with the previous literature that MLDA restrictions are effective in reducing accident fatalities. The estimates imply that, of the total reduction in teenager-involved fatalities due to the equalization of state MLDAs at 21 in the 1970s and 1980s, for 18-year olds between a quarter and a third and for 19-year olds over 15 percent was due to equalization. Furthermore, the effect of changes in the MLDA is quite heterogeneous with respect to the fraction of a state's population that need not travel far to cross a border to evade its MLDA. Our results imply the effect of lowering the MLDA in select states, such as has been proposed in Vermont, could lead to sizeable increases in teenage involvement in fatal accidents due to evasion of local alcohol restrictions.

  5. Alternative jet aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Potential changes in jet aircraft fuel specifications due to shifts in supply and quality of refinery feedstocks are discussed with emphasis on the effects these changes would have on the performance and durability of aircraft engines and fuel systems. Combustion characteristics, fuel thermal stability, and fuel pumpability at low temperature are among the factors considered. Combustor and fuel system technology needs for broad specification fuels are reviewed including prevention of fuel system fouling and fuel system technology for fuels with higher freezing points.

  6. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  7. INUNDATION PATTERNS AND FATALITY ANALYSIS ON LARGE-SCALE FLOOD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, Koji; Ochi, Shigeo; Yasuda, Goro; Okamura, Jiro; Aono, Masashi

    In order to enhance the emergency preparedness for large-scale floods of the Ara River, we categorized the inundation patterns and calculated fatality estimates. We devised an effective continuous embankment elevation estimation method employing light detection and ranging data analysis. Drainage pump capabilities, in terms of operatable inundation depth and operatable duration limited by fuel supply logistics, were modeled from pump station data of eac h site along the rivers. Fatality reduction effects due to the enhancement of the drainage capabilities were calculated. We found proper operations of the drainage facilities can decrease the number of estimat ed fatalities considerably in some cases. We also estimated the difference of risk between floods with 200 years return period and those with 1000 years return period. In some of the 1000 years return period cases, we found the estimated fatalities jumped up whereas the populations in inundated areas changed only a little.

  8. The Distribution of Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Chlorine Radicals in the Lower Stratosphere: Implications for Changes in O3 due to Emission of NO(y) from Supersonic Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; Wennberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.; Koplow, P.; Kohn, D. W.; Webster, C. R.; May, R. D.; Pfister, L.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Michelsen, H. A.; Yue, G. K.; Wilson, J. C.; Brock, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained in the lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition (SPADE) are compared to results from a photochemical model that assimilates measurements of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 agree well with measured concentrations of NO and ClO, but concentrations of HO2 and OH are underestimated by 10 to 25%, concentrations of NO2 are overestimated by 10 to 30%, and concentrations of HCl are overestimated by a factor of 2. Discrepancies for [OH] and [HO2] are reduced if we allow for higher yields of O(sup 1)D) from 03 photolysis and for heterogeneous production of HNO2. The data suggest more efficient catalytic removal of O3 by hydrogen and halogen radicals relative to nitrogen oxide radicals than predicted by models using recommended rates and cross sections. Increases in [O3] in the lower stratosphere may be larger in response to inputs of NO(sub y) from supersonic aircraft than estimated by current assessment models.

  9. The distribution of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals in the lower stratosphere: Implications for changes in O3 due to emission of NO(y) from supersonic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wofsy, S. C.; We-Nnberg, P. O.; Cohen, R. C.; Anderson, J. G.; Fahey, D. W.; Gao, R. S.; Keim, E. R.; Woodbridge, E. L.; Stimpfle, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    In situ measurements of hydrogen, nitrogen, and chlorine radicals obtained in the lower statosphere during SPADE are compared to results from a photochemical model that assimilates measurements of radical precursors and environmental conditions. Models allowing for heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 agree well with measured concentrations of NO and ClO, but concentrations of HO2 and OH are underestimated by 10 to 25%, concentrations of NO2 are overestimated by 10 to 30%, and concentrations of HCl are overestimated by a factor of 2. Discrepancies for (OH) and (HO2) are reduced if we allow for higher yields of O((1)D) from O2 photolysis and for heterogeneous production of HNO2. The data suggest more efficent catalytic removal of O3 by hydrogen and halogen radicals relative to nitrogen oxide radicals than predicted by models using recommendend rates and cross sections. Increased in (O3) in the lower stratosphere may be larger in response to inputs of NO(y) from supersonic aircraft than estimated by current assessment models.

  10. Identification, regression and validation of an image processing degradation model to assess the effects of aeromechanical turbulence due to installation aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, M.; Usai, A.; Tafuto, A.; Albertoni, A.; Togna, F.

    2016-10-01

    The propagation environment around airborne platforms may significantly degrade the performance of Electro-Optical (EO) self-protection systems installed onboard. To ensure the sufficient level of protection, it is necessary to understand that are the best sensors/effectors installation positions to guarantee that the aeromechanical turbulence, generated by the engine exhausts and the rotor downwash, does not interfere with the imaging systems normal operations. Since the radiation-propagation-in-turbulence is a hardly predictable process, it was proposed a high-level approach in which, instead of studying the medium under turbulence, the turbulence effects on the imaging systems processing are assessed by means of an equivalent statistical model representation, allowing a definition of a Turbulence index to classify different level of turbulence intensities. Hence, a general measurement methodology for the degradation of the imaging systems performance in turbulence conditions was developed. The analysis of the performance degradation started by evaluating the effects of turbulences with a given index on the image processing chain (i.e., thresholding, blob analysis). The processing in turbulence (PIT) index is then derived by combining the effects of the given turbulence on the different image processing primitive functions. By evaluating the corresponding PIT index for a sufficient number of testing directions, it is possible to map the performance degradation around the aircraft installation for a generic imaging system, and to identify the best installation position for sensors/effectors composing the EO self-protection suite.

  11. Ball lightning risk to aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doe, R.; Keul, A.

    2009-04-01

    Lightning is a rare but regular phenomenon for air traffic. Aircraft are designed to withstand lightning strikes. Research on lightning and aircraft can be called detailed and effective. In the last 57 years, 18 reported lightning aviation disasters with a fatality figure of at least 714 persons occurred. For comparison, the last JACDEC ten-year average fatality figure was 857. The majority encountered lightning in the climb, descent, approach and/or landing phase. Ball lightning, a metastable, rare lightning type, is also seen from and even within aircraft, but former research only reported individual incidents and did not generate a more detailed picture to ascertain whether it constitutes a significant threat to passenger and aircraft safety. Lacking established incident report channels, observations were often only passed on as "air-travel lore". In an effort to change this unsatisfactory condition, the authors have collected a first international dataset of 38 documented ball lightning aircraft incidents from 1938 to 2001 involving 13 reports over Europe, 13 over USA/Canada, and 7 over Russia. 18 (47%) reported ball lightning outside the aircraft, 18 (47%) inside, 2 cases lacked data. 8 objects caused minor damage, 8 major damage (total: 42%), only one a crash. No damage was reported in 18 cases. 3 objects caused minor crew injury. In most cases, ball lightning lasted several seconds. 11 (29%) incidents ended with an explosion of the object. A cloud-aircraft lightning flash was seen in only 9 cases (24%) of the data set. From the detailed accounts of air personnel in the last 70 years, it is evident that ball lightning is rarely, but consistently observed in connection with aircraft and can also occur inside the airframe. Reports often came from multiple professional witnesses and in several cases, damages were investigated by civil or military authorities. Although ball lightning is no main air traffic risk, the authors suggest that incident and accident

  12. Diving fatality investigations: recent changes.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Carl; Caruso, James

    2014-06-01

    Modifications to the investigation procedures in diving fatalities have been incorporated into the data acquisition by diving accident investigators. The most germane proposal for investigators assessing diving fatalities is to delay the drawing of conclusions until all relevant diving information is known. This includes: the accumulation and integration of the pathological data; the access to dive computer information; re-enactments of diving incidents; post-mortem CT scans and the interpretation of intravascular and tissue gas detected. These are all discussed, with reference to the established literature and recent publications.

  13. Fatal chilli bite.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Prasad, Hari; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Swain, Rajanikanta

    2016-09-01

    A healthy 2-year-old girl bit a green chilli accidentally following which she had many bouts of vomiting. She became unconscious and was immediately admitted to hospital. In spite of all medical intervention, she died after one day. The autopsy confirmed that the death was caused by respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome following aspiration of gastric contents into tracheobronchial tree. Aspiration of gastric contents resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death is not uncommon; however, death following the accidental bite of a chilli is rarely reported in medical-legal literature.

  14. Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Sachin; Rani, Yashoda

    2015-01-01

    Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law. PMID:27486362

  15. Lichtheimia ramosa: A Fatal Case of Mucormycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mouronte-Roibás, Cecilia; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Botana-Rial, Maribel; Ramos-Hernández, Cristina; Lago-Preciado, Guillermo; Fiaño-Valverde, Concepción; Fernández-Villar, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis due to Lichtheimia ramosa is an infrequent opportunistic infection that can potentially be angioinvasive when affecting inmunocompromised hosts. We present a fatal case of mucormycosis, affecting a 56-year-old male with diabetes mellitus and siderosis, initially admitted to our hospital due to an H1N1 infection. The subject's clinical condition worsened and he finally died because of a necrotizing bilateral pneumonia with disseminated mycotic thromboses due to Lichtheimia ramosa, which is an emerging Mucoralean fungus. This is an infrequent case because of the extent to which it affected a subject without overt immunocompromise. This case underlines the importance of an early premortem diagnosis and treatment in order to prevent rapid progression of this disease, as well as the need of considering mucormycosis when facing subjects with multiple emboli and fever unresponsive to usual antimicrobials. PMID:27445521

  16. Aircraft Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, Albion H. (Inventor); Uden, Edward (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an aircraft wing design that creates a bell shaped span load, which results in a negative induced drag (induced thrust) on the outer portion of the wing; such a design obviates the need for rudder control of an aircraft.

  17. Fatal pneumonia due to Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora.

    PubMed Central

    Bollet, C; Grimont, P; Gainnier, M; Geissler, A; Sainty, J M; De Micco, P

    1993-01-01

    Serratia proteamaculans subsp. quinovora was isolated from several samples (blood cultures, tracheal aspirates, pleural effusion) from a patient with pneumonia. This is the first clinical isolate and the first documented human infection caused by this organism. PMID:8432835

  18. Blast overpressure after tire explosion: a fatal case.

    PubMed

    Pomara, Cristoforo; D'Errico, Stefano; Riezzo, Irene; Perilli, Gabriela; Volpe, Umberto; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2013-12-01

    Fatal blast injuries are generally reported in literature as a consequence of the detonation of explosives in war settings. The pattern of lesion depends on the position of the victim in relation to the explosion, on whether the blast tracks through air or water, and whether it happens in the open air or within an enclosed space and the distance from the explosion. Tire explosion-related injuries are rarely reported in literature. This study presents a fatal case of blast overpressure due to the accidental explosion of a truck tire occurring in a tire repair shop. A multidisciplinary approach to the fatality involving forensic pathologists and engineers revealed that the accidental explosion, which caused a series of primary and tertiary blast wave injuries, was due to tire deterioration.

  19. Fatal occupational injuries in a southern state.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D P; Richardson, D B; Wolf, S H; Runyan, C W; Butts, J D

    1997-06-15

    Fatal occupational injuries were studied using data from medical examiners' reports in North Carolina for the years 1977-1991. Cases were defined as deaths due to accidents or homicide at the workplace, and populations at risk were estimated from the 1980 and 1990 US Censuses. Mortality rate ratios and proportionate mortality ratios were used as measures of association, and the population attributable risk percentage was used as an indicator of the burden of injury. Standard weights for direct age-adjustment of rates were obtained from the total state workforce. There were 2,524 eligible deaths-83 percent from unintentional traumatic injuries, 14 percent from homicide, and the remainder from other causes. This report focuses on unintentional trauma deaths, which were strongly associated with the wood production, fishing, and transportation industries. Elderly, African-American, and self-employed workers had higher fatality rates than members of other groups. Among male workers, motor vehicle crashes were the principal cause of death on the job, followed by falling objects, machinery, and falls. The industries contributing the largest proportions of these deaths were construction, trucking, agriculture, and logging (population attributable risk percentages were 16.8%, 8.8%, 7.9%, and 6.9%, respectively). The fatality patterns of female workers were different: Numbers of deaths from homicide and unintentional trauma were equal, and 27% of the latter deaths occurred in one catastrophic fire. Decentralized and rural industries were the most hazardous, but many deaths were outside the current jurisdiction of occupational safety and health agencies. These patterns suggest that greater scrutiny of such industries, through both research and intervention, is warranted.

  20. Comparison of fatal poisonings by prescription opioids.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, Margareeta; Launiainen, Terhi; Vuori, Erkki; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2012-10-10

    There is a rising trend of fatal poisonings due to medicinal opioids in several countries. The present study evaluates the drug and alcohol findings as well as the cause and manner of death in opioid-related post-mortem cases in Finland from 2000 to 2008. During this period, fatal poisonings by prescription opioids (buprenorphine, codeine, dextropropoxyphene, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, tramadol) increased as a share of all drug poisonings from 9.5% to 32.4%, being 22.3% over the whole period. A detailed study including the most prevalent opioids was carried out for the age group of 14-44 years, which is the most susceptible age for drug abuse in Finland. Poisonings by the weak opioids, codeine and tramadol, were found to be associated with large, often suicidal overdoses resulting in high drug concentrations in blood. Methadone poisonings were associated with accidental overdoses with the drug concentration in blood remaining within a therapeutic range. The manner of death was accidental in 43%, 55% and 94% of cases in codeine, tramadol and methadone poisonings, respectively. The median concentration of codeine and the median codeine/morphine concentration ratio were higher in codeine poisonings (1.4 and 22.5 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.09 and 5.9 mg/l, respectively). The median concentrations of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol were higher in tramadol poisonings (5.3 and 0.8 mg/l, respectively) than in other causes of death (0.6 and 0.2 mg/l, respectively). In methadone poisonings, the median concentration of methadone (0.35 mg/l) was not different from that in other causes of death (0.30 mg/l). Sedative drugs and/or alcohol were very frequently found in fatal poisonings involving these prescription opioids.

  1. [Fatal outcome of an hydrogen sulfide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Querellou, E; Jaffrelot, M; Savary, D; Savry, C; Perfus, J-P

    2005-10-01

    We report a case of fatal outcome poisoning by massive exposure to hydrogen sulfide of a sewer worker. This rare event was associated with a moderate intoxication of two members of the rescue team. The death was due to asystole and massive lung oedema. Autopsy analysis showed diffuse necrotic lesions in lungs. Hydrogen sulfide is a direct and systemic poison, produced by organic matter decomposition. The direct toxicity mechanism is still unclear. The systemic toxicity is due to an acute toxicity by oxygen depletion at cellular level. It is highly diffusable and potentially very dangerous. At low concentration, rotten egg smell must trigger hydrogen sulfide suspicion since at higher concentration it is undetectable, making intoxication possible. In case of acute intoxication, there is an almost instantaneous cardiovascular failure and a rapid death. Hydrogen sulfide exposure requires prevention measures and more specifically the use of respiratory equipment for members of the rescue team.

  2. Mitragynine concentrations in two fatalities.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Olwen; Roider, Gabriele; Stöver, Andreas; Graw, Matthias; Musshoff, Frank; Sachs, Hans; Bicker, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Two cases of fatalities are reported of which the recreational use of Mitragyna speciosa ("kratom") could be confirmed. One of these cases presents with one of the highest postmortem mitragynine concentrations published to date. Our results show that even extremely high mitragynine blood concentrations following the consumption of kratom do not necessarily have to be the direct cause of death in such fatalities as a result of an acute overdose. The two cases are compared with regard to the differences in mitragynine concentrations detected and the role of mitragynine in the death of the subjects. Irrespective of the big differences in mitragynine concentrations in the postmortem blood samples, mitragynine was not the primary cause of death in either of the two cases reported here. Additionally, by rough estimation, a significant difference in ratio of mitragynine to its diastereomers in the blood and urine samples between the two cases could be seen.

  3. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

    1996-05-01

    Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

  4. Characterization of Foreign-Born vs. Native-Born Worker Fatalities in Kentucky, 2001-2014.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yailet; Bunn, Terry Lee; Hanner, Nancy; Slavova, Svetla

    2017-02-15

    Information on foreign-born worker (FBW) and native-born worker (NBW) fatal injuries is scarce. The Kentucky Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program analyzed 2001-2014 worker fatality data. The Kentucky FBW fatality rate was double the US FBW and NBW rates, and 50% higher than the Kentucky NBW fatality rate. FBW average age at death was 38 years; NBW age was 47 years. FBW deaths occurred in construction (26%) and services (22%) industries, and transportation [28% (54% due to semi truck crashes)] and construction [26%(48% due to roofing, scaffolding, and ladder-related falls)] occupations; in contrast, NBW deaths occurred in services (22%), and transportation (18%) industries, and transportation (25%) and management (20%) occupations, and were due to exposures to inanimate mechanical forces (38%), and transport accidents (30%). Enhanced FBW cultural competent interventions and policies are needed to prevent FBW occupational injuries, and improve FBW workplace safety and health.

  5. Fatal intoxication with hydrocarbons in deltamethrin preparation.

    PubMed

    Magdalan, Jan; Zawadzki, Marcin; Merwid-Lad, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are very widely used in agriculture and household due to high effectiveness and low toxicity to humans. We have described a case of a fatal oral intoxication with decis, the insecticide containing pyrethroid (deltamethrin) in a hydrocarbon base. Pyrethroids, including deltamethrin, undergo rapid biotransformation by liver enzymes, which limit their systemic toxicity. Thus, we assume that in the presented case, fatal outcome of poisoning with decis was rather connected with toxic effects of hydrocarbon base (solvent naphtha) than with deltamethrin action. In the described case, detection of aromatic hydrocarbons in blood and lung tissue and their metabolites in urine confirms that these substances were absorbed from gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Predominant among the clinical outcomes in our patient was profound depression of CNS with apnea, which could be connected with narcotic action of organic solvents. The cardiac arrest was in mechanism of asystolia with prior non-responsive to catecholamines bradycardia and vascular collapse. We connect it with hydrocarbon-induced cardiotoxicity. It is worth remembering that many pyrethroid-containing insecticides are formulated in a hydrocarbon base. Intoxication with such preparations should always be considered not only as poisoning with pyrethroid alone but also as intoxication with hydrocarbons.

  6. Aircraft Steels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-19

    NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders 19 February 2009...MARYLAND NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 19 February 2009 AIRCRAFT STEELS by E. U. Lee R. Taylor C. Lei H. C. Sanders...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 NAWCADPAX/TR-2009/ 12 ii SUMMARY Five high strength and four stainless steels have been studied, identifying their

  7. Fatal occupational injuries among electric power company workers.

    PubMed

    Loomis, D; Dufort, V; Kleckner, R C; Savitz, D A

    1999-03-01

    Surveillance data suggest high rates of electrocutions and fatal falls among workers in electric utility companies, who may be exposed to electric current, heights, flammable agents, and frequent motor vehicle travel. To characterize the occurrence of fatal injuries among electric utility workers, we studied workers in five electric power companies in the United States. A cohort of 127,129 men hired between 1950 and 1986 was followed through 1988. Injuries at work were identified through manual review of death certificates. The occurrence of occupational injuries was analyzed with directly adjusted rates and Poisson regression. The overall rate of fatal occupational injuries was 13.20 per 100,000 person-years (n = 192), with 76% due to electric current, homicide, and falls from heights. Deaths were concentrated in a few groups with elevated injury rates, notably linemen (rate ratio (RR) 3.33), electricians (RR 2.79), and painters (RR 3.27). Occupations requiring daily work on elevations or frequent, direct contact with energized electrical equipment experienced markedly higher rates of fatal injury from falls and electrocutions with rate ratios of 21.8 (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.4-41.5) and 16.7 (95% CI 6.6-42.6), respectively, independent of worker age and seniority. Although fatal injury rates in this industry have declined in recent decades, significant numbers of deaths still occur. Based on the premise that all injuries are preventable, a need for continued vigilance and efforts at prevention is indicated.

  8. Fatal Passenger Vehicle Crashes with At Least 1 Driver Younger than 15 Years: A Fatality Analysis Reporting System Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Larry; Plessinger, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Context: A small number of fatalities continue to occur due to motor vehicle crashes on highways in which at least 1 passenger vehicle (automobile, van, or small truck) is driven by a child younger than 15 years. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to extend previous work suggesting that such crashes occur frequently in the Southern states and…

  9. A study of foreign object damage (FOD) and prevention method at the airport and aircraft maintenance area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, R.; Ismail, N.; Mustapa, S.

    2016-10-01

    Foreign object damage (FOD) is common risk for aviation industry since long time ago and it has contributed to many terrible incidents and fatalities. The cost of FOD cases every year is very high, which is around RM 1.2 billion. Therefore, a proper technique and strategy has to be taken by the designated organizations including airlines to further eliminate the FOD occurrences. It is not easy to control FOD due to some circumstances such as inappropriate working behaviour, poor working environment, insufficient technology and also disorganized housekeeping system. The main purpose of this research is to discuss and explain further about FOD and the techniques to prevent FOD. FOD is a universal concern in aviation industry and it is one of the reasons that contribute to aircraft failure and unwanted damages such as fatalities and causalities. Throughout this research, many information related to FOD problems and their impact on aviation industry are gathered and presented.

  10. Fatal injuries in offshore oil and gas operations - United States, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-04-26

    During 2003-2010, the U.S. oil and gas extraction industry (onshore and offshore, combined) had a collective fatality rate seven times higher than for all U.S. workers (27.1 versus 3.8 deaths per 100,000 workers). The 11 lives lost in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon explosion provide a reminder of the hazards involved in offshore drilling. To identify risk factors to offshore oil and gas extraction workers, CDC analyzed data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a comprehensive database of fatal work injuries, for the period 2003-2010. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found that 128 fatalities in activities related to offshore oil and gas operations occurred during this period. Transportation events were the leading cause (65 [51%]); the majority of these involved aircraft (49 [75%]). Nearly one fourth (31 [24%]) of the fatalities occurred among workers whose occupations were classified as "transportation and material moving." To reduce fatalities in offshore oil and gas operations, employers should ensure that the most stringent applicable transportation safety guidelines are followed.

  11. [Fatal exposure to Aconitum napellus].

    PubMed

    German Jørgensen, Jørgen Rahr; Andersen, Anne Elsborg

    2013-06-10

    Fatal exposure to poisonous plants in northern Europe is a rare condition. In this case report we describe an intended poisoning with Aconitum napellus (monkshood), which contains the toxin aconitine. The lethal dose in adults is 3-6 mg. The toxin affects excitable cells such as neurons and myocytes causing degrees of unconsciousness, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmias. There is no antidote and treatment is symptomatic. We describe a patient who had eaten monkshood. She was treated with infusion of lidocaine and survived. After 24 hours of treatment and monitoring she was discharged from the intensive care unit.

  12. Fatal neglect of the elderly.

    PubMed

    Ortmann, C; Fechner, G; Bajanowski, T; Brinkmann, B

    2001-01-01

    Maltreatment of the elderly is a common problem that affects more than 3% of the elderly. We report on two cases of fatal neglect. Risk factors of victims and caregivers were analysed in the context of the social history. In both cases, the victims had a dominant personality and the abusers (the sons) had been strictly controlled and formed by the parent. The victims showed typical risk factors such as living together with the abuser, isolation, dependence on care, income and money administration. Initially, the victims declined help from outside and self-neglect occurred. The unemployed perpetrators lived in social isolation and depended financially and mentally on the victims. In both cases no mental illness was present but there was a decrease of social competence. Legal medicine is predominantly involved in fatal cases in connection with external post-mortem examinations and autopsies. Also in the living, the medico-legal expert can assist in the identification of findings in elderly persons in cases of suspected abuse.

  13. Aircraft Loss of Control Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control has become the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding large numbers of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, NASA's Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. For each causal factor that was linked to loss of control, the team solicited ideas about what solutions are required and future research efforts that could potentially help avoid their occurrence or mitigate their consequences when they occurred in flight.

  14. To Err is Human Case Reports of Two Military Aircraft Accidents

    PubMed Central

    Dikshit, Mohan B

    2010-01-01

    It has been postulated that pilot error or in-flight incapacitation may be the main contributory factors to 70–80% of aircraft accidents. Two fatal aircraft accidents are presented in which either of the above possibilities may have played a role. The first case report describes an erroneous decision by a fighter pilot to use a seat position adjustment of the ejection seat leading to fatal injuries when he had to eject from his aircraft. Injuries to the body of the pilot, and observations on the state of his flying clothing and the ejection seat were used to postulate the mechanism of fatal injury and establish the cause of the accident. The second case report describes the sequence of events which culminated in the incapacitation of a fighter pilot while executing a routine manouevre. This resulted in a fatal air crash. Possible contributions of environmental factors which may have resulted in failure of his physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:21509093

  15. [Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication].

    PubMed

    Papyshev, I P; Astashkina, O G; Tuchik, E S; Nikolaev, B S; Cherniaev, A L

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication remains a topical problem in forensic medical science and practice. We investigated materials obtained in the course of forensic medical expertise of the cases of fatal opium intoxication. The study revealed significant differences between myoglobin levels in blood, urine, myocardium, and skeletal muscles. The proposed approach to biochemical diagnostics of fatal opium intoxication enhances the accuracy and the level of evidence of expert conclusions.

  16. Child Fatalities in Scottish House Fires 1980-1990: A Case of Child Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squires, Tim; Busuttil, Anthony

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers 168 child fatalities due to house fires in Scotland. It concludes that the fires were largely a direct result of adult activities, including behavior patterns involving alcohol and inadequate child supervision. (DB)

  17. Heat fatalities in Pima County, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Keim, Samuel M; Mays, Mary Z; Parks, Bruce; Pytlak, Erik; Harris, Robin M; Kent, Michael A

    2007-03-01

    The most common cause of heat fatalities is environmental exposure during heat waves. Deserts of the southwestern USA are known for temperatures that exceed 32 degrees C for 30 days or more; yet, heat-related fatalities are rare among residents of the region. We compiled data from the National Weather Service and the Office of the Medical Examiner in order to determine the relationship between temperature and occurrence of heat fatalities in Pima County, AZ. Logistic regression indicated that for each degree of increase in temperature (degrees C), there was a 35% increase in the odds of a heat fatality occurring (p<0.001).

  18. Fatality estimator user’s guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.; Som, Nicholas; Ladd, Lew

    2012-12-11

    Only carcasses judged to have been killed after the previous search should be included in the fatality data set submitted to this estimator software. This estimator already corrects for carcasses missed in previous searches, so carcasses judged to have been missed at least once should be considered “incidental” and not included in the fatality data set used to estimate fatality. Note: When observed carcass count is <5 (including 0 for species known to be at risk, but not observed), USGS Data Series 881 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/0881/) is recommended for fatality estimation.

  19. Aircraft cybernetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The use of computers for aircraft control, flight simulation, and inertial navigation is explored. The man-machine relation problem in aviation is addressed. Simple and self-adapting autopilots are described and the assets and liabilities of digital navigation techniques are assessed.

  20. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  1. Aircraft fires, smoke toxicity, and survival.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Sanders, D C

    1996-03-01

    In-flight fires in modern aircraft are rare, but post-crash fires do occur. Cabin occupants frequently survive initial forces of such crashes but are incapacitated from smoke inhalation. According to an international study, there were 95 fire-related civil passenger aircraft accidents worldwide over a 26-yr period, claiming approximately 2400 lives. Between 1985 and 1991, about 16% (32 accidents) of all U.S. transport aircraft accidents involved fire and 22% (140 fatalities) of the deaths in these accidents resulted from fire/smoke toxicity. Our laboratory analyses of postmortem blood samples (1967-93) indicate that 360 individuals in 134 fatal fire-related civil aircraft (air carrier and general aviation) accidents had carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels (> or = 20%), with or without blood cyanide, high enough to impair performance. Combustion toxicology is now moving from a descriptive to a mechanistic phase. Methods for gas analyses have been developed and combustion/animal-exposure assemblies have been constructed. Material/fire-retardant toxicity and interactions between smoke gases are being studied. Relationships between gas exposure concentrations, blood levels, and incapacitation onset are being established in animal models. Continuing basic research in smoke toxicity will be necessary to understand its complexities, and thus enhance aviation safety and fire survival chances.

  2. Critical factors in fatal collisions of adult cyclists with automobiles.

    PubMed

    Bíl, Michal; Bílová, Martina; Müller, Ivo

    2010-11-01

    This article evaluates, by means of multivariate regression, critical factors influencing the collisions of motor vehicles with adult (over 17 years) cyclists that result in fatal injury of cyclists. The analysis is based on the database of the Traffic Police of Czech Republic from the time period 1995-2007. The results suggest that the most consequential categories of factors under study are: inappropriate driving speed of automobile; the head-on crash; and night-time traffic in places without streetlights. The cyclists' faults are of most serious consequence on crossroads when cyclists deny the right of way. Males are more likely to suffer a fatal injury due to a collision with a car than females. The most vulnerable age group are cyclists above 65 years. A fatal injury of a cyclist is more often driver's fault than cyclist's (598 vs. 370). In order to reduce the fatal risk, it is recommended to separate the road traffic of motor vehicles from bicyclists in critical road-sections; or, at least, to reduce speed limits there.

  3. Aircraft Wake RCS Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilson, William H.

    1994-01-01

    A series of multi-frequency radar measurements of aircraft wakes at altitudes of 5,000 to 25,00 ft. were performed at Kwajalein, R.M.I., in May and June of 1990. Two aircraft were tested, a Learjet 35 and a Lockheed C-5A. The cross-section of the wake of the Learjet was too small for detection at Kwajalein. The wake of the C-5A, although also very small, was detected and measured at VHF, UHF, L-, S-, and C-bands, at distances behind the aircraft ranging from about one hundred meters to tens of kilometers. The data suggest that the mechanism by which aircraft wakes have detectable radar signatures is, contrary to previous expectations, unrelated to engine exhaust but instead due to turbulent mixing by the wake vortices of pre-existing index of refraction gradients in the ambient atmosphere. These measurements were of necessity performed with extremely powerful and sensitive instrumentation radars, and the wake cross-section is too small for most practical applications.

  4. Gasoline Prices and Motor Vehicle Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, David C.; Morrisey, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Fatal motor vehicle crashes per capita remained relatively stable over the 1990s, in spite of new traffic safety laws and vehicle innovations. One explanation for this stability is that the price of gasoline declined, which resulted in more vehicle miles traveled and potentially more fatalities. By using 1983-2000 monthly gasoline price and…

  5. Fatal diphenhydramine poisoning in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Buchweitz, John P.; Raverty, Stephen A.; Johnson, Margaret B.; Lehner, Andreas F.

    2014-01-01

    We report a fatal diphenhydramine poisoning of a 10-year-old, male poodle-cross dog with pre-existing conditions and suspected co-ingestion of ethanol. This case illustrates that diphenhydramine overdose can be fatal in certain circumstances and that analytical toxicology may play an important role in animal death investigations. PMID:25392554

  6. Fatal haemorrhage following male ritual circumcision.

    PubMed

    Hiss, J; Horowitz, A; Kahana, T

    2000-03-01

    Lethal complications following ritual circumcision are extremely rare, the most common being sepsis. We present here a case of fatal haemorrhage from a tiny incision of the glans, following a 'home' circumcision of a 6-week-old baby. The post-mortem examination disclosed idiopathic neonatal hepatitis. It is suggested that the previously undiagnosed hepatic condition was responsible for the fatal haemorrhage.

  7. Aircraft Corrosion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    chlore mais dans une proportion semblable b cells d’une eau de vil)e ; - lea solides, d’aprbs lea analyses chimique et criatallographique, paraissaiont...IATA member airlines at $100 million based on 1976 operations. Thus the numbers are large, but detailed analyses on specific aircraft types, in known...demonstrate this in any quantitative way with accurate figures. Better information is required on the cost of corrosion, together with analyses of the

  8. Aircraft Ducting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Templeman Industries developed the Ultra-Seal Ducting System, an environmental composite air duct with a 50 percent weight savings over current metallic ducting, but could not find a commercial facility with the ability to test it. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a structural evaluation of the duct, equivalent to 86 years of take-offs and landings in an aircraft. Boeing Commercial Airplane Group and McDonnell Douglas Corporation are currently using the ducts.

  9. Fatal poisoning by alcohol and heroin.

    PubMed

    Sutlović, Davorka; Definis-Gojanović, Marija

    2007-09-01

    Drug abuse with alcohol consumption have been on the rise in Split-Dalmatian County for a while now. This article reports two separate cases with three deaths due to fatal combinations of heroin and alcohol. The first case of poisoning is related to a young couple, a 30-year-old man and a 28-year-old woman, who were found dead in a car, surrounded by cans of a variety alcoholic drinks. Two needles were found beside the bodies as well. The victims were registered drug abusers who had been in withdrawal programs. The second case was a 29-year-old man who was found dead in a house. Three fresh injection marks were visible on his right arm, and two needles were near his body. He was not known as a drug addict, but he had tried to commit suicide recently. Carboxyhaemoglobin was found in blood samples of both victims from the first case. The concentration was 25% and that could contribute to their death. In both described cases blood alcohol concentration was higher then 1.60 g kg(-1). Toxicology tests were positive for heroin, meconin, acetaminophen, 6-acetylmorphine, codeine, noscapine and papaverine. Ethanol, being a respiratory depressant, combined with morphine drastically increases the risk of rapid death due to respiration failure.

  10. Weather data dissemination to aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard H.; Parker, Craig B.

    1990-01-01

    Documentation exists that shows weather to be responsible for approximately 40 percent of all general aviation accidents with fatalities. Weather data products available on the ground are becoming more sophisticated and greater in number. Although many of these data are critical to aircraft safety, they currently must be transmitted verbally to the aircraft. This process is labor intensive and provides a low rate of information transfer. Consequently, the pilot is often forced to make life-critical decisions based on incomplete and outdated information. Automated transmission of weather data from the ground to the aircraft can provide the aircrew with accurate data in near-real time. The current National Airspace System Plan calls for such an uplink capability to be provided by the Mode S Beacon System data link. Although this system has a very advanced data link capability, it will not be capable of providing adequate weather data to all airspace users in its planned configuration. This paper delineates some of the important weather data uplink system requirements, and describes a system which is capable of meeting these requirements. The proposed system utilizes a run-length coding technique for image data compression and a hybrid phase and amplitude modulation technique for the transmission of both voice and weather data on existing aeronautical Very High Frequency (VHF) voice communication channels.

  11. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  12. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-08-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89 %) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14 %). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86 %) occurred in rural areas, with only 14 % in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  13. Lightning fatalities and injuries in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilev-Tanriover, Ş.; Kahraman, A.; Kadioğlu, M.; Schultz, D. M.

    2015-03-01

    A database of lightning-related fatalities and injuries in Turkey was constructed by collecting data from the Turkish State Meteorological Service, newspaper archives, European Severe Weather Database, and the internet. The database covers January 1930 to June 2014. In total, 742 lightning incidents causing human fatalities and injuries were found. Within these 742 incidents, there were 895 fatalities, 149 serious injuries, and 535 other injuries. Most of the incidents (89%) occurred during April through September, with a peak in May and June (26 and 28 %) followed by July (14%). Lightning-related fatalities and injuries were most frequent in the afternoon. Most of the incidents (86%) occurred in the rural areas, with only 14% in the urban areas. Approximately, two thirds of the victims with known gender were male. Because of the unrepresentativeness of the historical data, determining an average mortality rate over a long period is not possible. Nevertheless, there were 31 fatalities (0.42 per million) in 2012, 26 fatalities (0.35 per million) in 2013, and 25 fatalities (0.34 per million) in 2014 (as of June). There were 36 injuries (0.49 per million) in each of 2012 and 2013, and 62 injuries (0.84 per million) in 2014 (as of June).

  14. Fatal falls among Hispanic construction workers.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Fujimoto, Alissa; Ringen, Knut; Men, Yurong

    2009-09-01

    This study evaluated occupational deaths resulting from fall injuries among Hispanic construction workers using data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Current Population Survey. The demographics and characteristics of fatal falls among Hispanic workers were examined and compared with that of their white, non-Hispanic counterparts. The results show that fatal injuries among Hispanic construction workers were more likely to be caused by a fall than their white, non-Hispanic counterparts (OR=1.48, 95% CI: 1.05-2.10) after controlling for possible confounders. The rate of fatal falls for foreign-born Hispanic construction workers was 5.5 per 100,000 FTE, which is significantly higher than 4.1 per 100,000 FTE for Hispanic workers who were born in the U.S. (OR=1.36, 95% CI: 1.08-1.67). The disparities in fatal injuries from falls were found in age groups, job tenure, occupations, and types of construction projects. This study also found that about every two of three fatal falls in construction occurred in establishments with 10 or fewer employees. More prevention, intervention, and training measures must be applied to Hispanic workers, especially those who are new immigrants. OSHA enforcements should target small construction establishments in order to lower overall fatality rates, costs, and unnecessary losses of life.

  15. Rise in landing-related skydiving fatalities.

    PubMed

    Hart, Christian L; Griffith, James D

    2003-10-01

    The purpose was to assess whether adoption of potentially dangerous skydiving gear and skydiving practices has led to an increase in fatalities. Beginning in the early 1990s, civilian skydivers began to utilize high performance parachutes that fly much faster and are much more responsive than older style parachutes. Also, skydivers began to fly these parachutes in a more aggressive manner. An analysis of data from the 507 skydiving fatalities in the USA between 1986 and 2001 indicated that this shift toward high performance parachutes and aggressive flying techniques was temporally associated with an increase in parachute-landing deaths. During the same time period, the total number of fatalities remained fairly stable.

  16. Educating with Aircraft Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Hobie

    1976-01-01

    Described is utilization of aircraft models, model aircraft clubs, and model aircraft magazines to promote student interest in aerospace education. The addresses for clubs and magazines are included. (SL)

  17. Fatal toxoplasmosis associated with an atypical Toxoplasma gondii strain in a Bennett’s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) in Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasmosis is often fatal in captive wallabies, but the causes of this high susceptibility are not well understood. Here, we report fatal toxoplasmosis in a Bennet´s wallaby (Macropus rufogriseus) due to an atypical T. gondii strain for the first time in Europe. The wallaby was one of a colony of...

  18. Fatal lightning strikes in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, O P; Kian, Chong Kah; Ari Husin, Mohammed Husrul; Nanta Kumar, Ranjeev Kumar; Mohammed Yusuf, Wan Yuhana W

    2009-09-01

    Lightning strike is a natural phenomenon with potentially devastating effects and represents one of the important causes of deaths from environmental phenomena. Almost every organ system may be affected as lightning current passes through the human body taking the shortest pathways between the contact points. A 10 years retrospective study (1996-2005) was conducted at University Hospital Kuala Lumpur (20 cases) also including cases during last 3 years from Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang (7 cases) from the autopsy reports at Forensic Pathology Units of these 2 hospitals. Both these hospitals are attached to University of Malaya. There were 27 fatal cases of lightning strike with male preponderance(92.59%) and male to female ratio of 12.5:1. Majority of victims of lightning strike were from the age group between 30 and 39 years old. Most of the victims were foreign workers. Indonesians workers contributed to 59.26% of overall cases. Majority of them were construction workers who attributed i.e.11 of 27 cases (40.74%). Most of the victims were brought in dead (37.04%). In majority of the cases the lightning incidence occurred in the evenings, with the frequency of 15 of 27 cases (62.5%). The month of December represented with the highest number of cases (5 cases of 23 cases); 2004 had the highest incidence of lightning strike which was 5 (19.23%). Lightning strike incidence occurred when victims had taken shelter (25.9%) under trees or shades. Lightning strike in open areas occurred in 10 of 27 cases (37.0%). Head and neck were the most commonly affected sites with the incidence of 77.78% and 74% respectively in all the victims. Only 29.63% of the cases presented with ear bleeding.

  19. Disposition of tilidine in a fatal poisoning in man.

    PubMed

    Cordonnier, J; Van den Heede, M; Heyndrickx, A; Wennig, R

    1987-01-01

    A fatal intoxication due to the ingestion of tilidine, a narcotic analgesic, in conjunction with ethanol, is described. Tilidine and its two active metabolites, nortilidine and bisnortilidine, were identified and quantitated in the biological fluids and tissues by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), gas-liquid chromatography with sensitive nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GLC/NPD) and gas-liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). The toxicological results are compared with previously reported 14C-tilidine tissue distributions in rats following oral administration and limited tissue data in a previously reported human fatality. In the present case, the death was attributed to the combined central nervous system-depressing effects of ethanol and tilidine.

  20. State Occupational Injuries, Illnesses, and Fatalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... York City) - Archived CFOI State Tables New York City CFOI Darlene Kelley Phone: 646-632-6729 Fax: ... Research Unit 3017 North Stiles, Suite 100 Oklahoma City, OK 73105 Fatal occupational injuries (CFOI) data (Please ...

  1. Fatal acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    Fatal Acute Chagas Disease in a Chimpanzee Yugendar R. Bommineni1, Edward J. Dick Jr.1, J. Scot Estep2, John L. Van de Berg1, and Gene B. Hubbard1...species and several insect vectors demonstrating a wide host distribution and low host specificity. Methods—A 23 year old male chimpanzee died acutely and... chimpanzee . Keywords Ape; nonhuman primate; protozoa; fatal case; Trypanosoma cruzi Introduction CD or American trypanosomiasis is caused by TC, a

  2. Occupational Carbon Monoxide Fatalities in the US From Unintentional Non-Fire Related Exposures, 1992–2008

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Scott A.; Bell, Jennifer L.; Sussell, Aaron L.; Konda, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyze characteristics of, and trends in, work-related carbon monoxide (CO) fatalities in the US. Methods Records of unintentional, non-fire related fatalities from CO exposure were extracted from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s Integrated Management Information System for years 1992–2008 and analyzed separately. Results The average number of annual CO fatalities was 22 (standard deviation = 8). Fatality rates were highest among workers aged ≥65, males, Hispanics, winter months, the Midwest, and the Fishing, Hunting, and Trapping industry subsector. Self-employed workers accounted for 28% of all fatalities. Motor vehicles were the most frequent source of fatal CO exposure, followed by heating systems and generators. Conclusions CO has been the most frequent cause of occupational fatality due to acute inhalation, and has shown no significant decreasing trend since 1992. The high number of fatalities from motor vehicles warrants further investigation. PMID:23868822

  3. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  4. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  5. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  6. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  7. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an...

  8. Fatal wounds sustained from "falling bullets": maintaining a high index of suspicion in a forensic setting.

    PubMed

    Rapkiewicz, Amy V; Shuman, Mark J; Hutchins, Kenneth D

    2014-01-01

    Celebratory gunfire injuries from "falling bullets" occur when guns are fired into the air during celebrations without realizing that this can cause serious injuries or even fatalities. Fatal celebratory gunfire injury is an uncommonly reported event in the continental United States. Our electronic database was queried for homicides occurring within days of July 4th and December 31st over a 14-year period. We describe two cases of fatal gunfire injury due to celebratory gunfire occurring during New Year's Eve in Southern Florida. The relevant literature is reviewed. These case reports illustrate that fatal gunfire injuries sustained from "falling bullets" may pose as an unexpected mimic to sudden natural deaths especially in patients with prior medical history. A high index of suspicion to recognize such injury is required particularly during holidays.

  9. Highway Safety: Trends in Highway Fatalities 1975-1987

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    pattern of fatalities as the overall trend. This pattern applies to many of the general fatality statis- tics we present, and, in all cases, it serves as a...Fatalities 1975-87 Appemfx IV Vehicle-Related Statistics Figure IV.17: Vehicle Fatalities by Direction of Principal Impacto NNNumber of PddUlsils lwam 0 1975

  10. Aircraft Electric Secondary Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Technologies resulted to aircraft power systems and aircraft in which all secondary power is supplied electrically are discussed. A high-voltage dc power generating system for fighter aircraft, permanent magnet motors and generators for aircraft, lightweight transformers, and the installation of electric generators on turbine engines are among the topics discussed.

  11. Flux Sampling Errors for Aircraft and Towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahrt, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Various errors and influences leading to differences between tower- and aircraft-measured fluxes are surveyed. This survey is motivated by reports in the literature that aircraft fluxes are sometimes smaller than tower-measured fluxes. Both tower and aircraft flux errors are larger with surface heterogeneity due to several independent effects. Surface heterogeneity may cause tower flux errors to increase with decreasing wind speed. Techniques to assess flux sampling error are reviewed. Such error estimates suffer various degrees of inapplicability in real geophysical time series due to nonstationarity of tower time series (or inhomogeneity of aircraft data). A new measure for nonstationarity is developed that eliminates assumptions on the form of the nonstationarity inherent in previous methods. When this nonstationarity measure becomes large, the surface energy imbalance increases sharply. Finally, strategies for obtaining adequate flux sampling using repeated aircraft passes and grid patterns are outlined.

  12. Fire fighter fatalities 1998–2001: overview with an emphasis on structure related traumatic fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Hodous, T; Pizatella, T; Braddee, R; Castillo, D

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To review the causes of all fire fighter line-of-duty-deaths from 1998 through 2001, and present recommendations for preventing fatalities within the specific subgroup of structure related events. Methods: Fire fighter fatality data from the United States Fire Administration were reviewed and classified into three main categories of injury. Investigations conducted through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program provided the basis for the recommendations presented in this paper. Results: During the time period from 1998–2001, there were 410 line-of-duty deaths among fire fighters in the United States, excluding the 343 fire fighters who died at the World Trade Center on 11 September 2001. The 410 fatalities included 191 medical (non-traumatic) deaths (47%), 75 motor vehicle related fatalities (18%), and 144 other traumatic fatalities (35%). The latter group included 68 fatalities that were associated with structures which commonly involved structural collapse, rapid fire progression, and trapped fire fighters. Conclusions: Structural fires pose particular hazards to fire fighters. Additional efforts must be directed to more effectively use what we have learned through the NIOSH investigations and recommendations from published experts in the safety community, consensus standards, and national fire safety organizations to reduce fire fighter fatalities during structural fire fighting. PMID:15314049

  13. Fire fatality study: demographics of fire victims.

    PubMed

    Barillo, D J; Goode, R

    1996-03-01

    Injury or death caused by fire is frequent and largely preventable. This study was undertaken to define the populations, locations, times and behaviours associated with fatal fires. Seven hundred and twenty-seven fatalities occurring within the State of New Jersey, between the years 1985 and 1991, were examined retrospectively. Most deaths were attributed to a combination of smoke inhalation and burn injury. Five hundred and seventy-four fatalities occurred in residential fires. Smoking materials were the most common source of ignition for residential fires. More than half of the fatal residential fires started between the hours of 11 p.m. and 7 a.m. Children and the elderly represented a disproportionate percentage of fire victims. Victims under the age of 11 years or over the age of 70 years constituted 22.1 per cent of the state population but 39.5 per cent of all fire fatalities. Fire-prevention efforts should target home fire safety, and should concentrate on children and the elderly. The development of fire-safe smoking materials should be encouraged.

  14. The Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fatal General Aviation Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, RIchard

    2005-01-01

    In-flight Spatial Disorientation (SD) in pilots is a serious threat to aviation safety. Indeed, SD may play a much larger role in aviation accidents than the approximate 6-8% reported by the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) each year, because some accidents coded by the NTSB as aircraft control-not maintained (ACNM) may actually result from SD. The purpose of this study is to determine whether SD is underestimated as a cause of fatal general aviation (GA) accidents in the NTSB database. Fatal GA airplane accidents occurring between January 1995 and December 1999 were reviewed from the NTSB aviation accident database. Cases coded as ACNM or SD as the probable cause were selected for review by a panel of aerospace medicine specialists. Using a rating scale, each rater was instructed to determine if SD was the probable cause of the accident. Agreement between the raters and agreement between the raters and the NTSB were evaluated by Kappa statistics. The raters agreed that 11 out of 20 (55%) accidents coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD (p less than 0.05). Agreement between the raters and the NTSB did not reach significance (p greater than 0.05). The 95% C.I. for the sampling population estimated that between 33-77% of cases that the NTSB identified as ACNM could be identified by aerospace medicine experts as SD. Aerospace medicine specialists agreed that some cases coded by the NTSB as ACNM were probably caused by SD. Consequently, a larger number of accidents may be caused by the pilot succumbing to SD than indicated in the NTSB database. This new information should encourage regulating agencies to insure that pilots receive SD recognition training, enabling them to take appropriate corrective actions during flight. This could lead to new training standards, ultimately saving lives among GA airplane pilots.

  15. Annoyance by aircraft noise and fear of overflying aircraft in relation to attitudes toward the environment and community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeb, M.; Moran, S. V.

    1977-01-01

    It has been suggested that expressions of annoyance attributable to aircraft noise may reflect in part fear of aircraft overflights and possible crashes. If this is true, then residents of areas where crashes have occurred should express more annoyance. To test this hypothesis, 50 residents of an Albany, New York area where an aircraft crash producing fatalities recently occurred and 50 residents of a comparable nearby area without such a history, were asked to respond to a 'Quality of Life Questionnaire.' Among the items were some designed to test annoyance by noise and fear of aircraft overflights. It was predicted that those in the crash area would express more fear and would more often identify aircraft as a noise source. These hypotheses were sustained. A near-replication was carried out in Louisville, Kentucky; results were much the same. Analyses indicated that for the crash-area groups, there was associating of aircraft fear and noise annoyance responses; this was true to an apparently lesser extent for non-crash groups. The greater annoyance of crash groups by aircraft community noise apparently does not carry over to situations in which aircraft noise is assessed in the laboratory.

  16. Fatal Spotted Fever Rickettsiosis, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Dumler, J. Stephen; Mafra, Cláudio Lísias; Calic, Simone Berger; Chamone, Chequer Buffe; Filho, Gracco Cesarino; Olano, Juan Pablo; Walker, David H.

    2003-01-01

    The emergence and reemergence of a serious infectious disease are often associated with a high case-fatality rate because of misdiagnosis and inappropriate or delayed treatment. The current reemergence of spotted fever rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii in Brazil has resulted in a high proportion of fatal cases. We describe two familial clusters of Brazilian spotted fever in the state of Minas Gerais, involving six children 9 months to 15 years of age; five died. Immunohistochemical investigation of tissues obtained at necropsy of a child in each location, Novo Cruzeiro and Coronel Fabriciano municipalities, established the diagnosis by demonstration of disseminated endothelial infection with spotted fever group rickettsiae. The diagnosis in the two fatal cases from Coronel Fabriciano and the surviving patient from Novo Cruzeiro was further supported by immunofluorescence serologic tests. PMID:14718082

  17. Body piercing with fatal consequences.

    PubMed

    Ranga, N; Jeffery, A J

    2011-01-25

    Body modifications such as piercings, tattoos and surgery have increased in popularity in recent times and have become more socially acceptable. The common complications of piercing different parts of the human anatomy are well-documented, including sepsis, allergic reactions and, more rarely, endocarditis and ischaemia. Deaths related to piercing complications are primarily septic in origin. In this case, a man in his 50s died due to complications of his multiple umbilical piercings. The cause of death was unusually linked to body modification; the umbilical piercings had ultimately led to a mesenteric infarction. Cases such as these are forensically important due to potential manslaughter charges that could be brought against a piercing establishment. More importantly, this case highlights another extreme complication of body modification. Fashion statements are always changing and impact upon many lives. It is important to highlight to people the potentially life-threatening complications of common piercing practices.

  18. Fatal poisoning from ingestion of Datura stramonium seeds.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Mitselou, Antigony; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2004-04-01

    A 19-y old male who intentionally ingested an unknown quantity of Datura stramonium seeds to experience its hallucinogenic effects was found dead. Hyoscyamine and scopolamine were detected in postmortem blood and urine. Blood concentrations of hyoscyamine and scopolamine were 1.1 and 0.2 microg/mL, respectively; in urine only hyoscyamine at 14.2 microg/mL was found. This fatality presents the highest blood concentrations ever reported and confirms that death was due to Datura Stramonium seed ingestion.

  19. [Fatal explosion injuries from blasting a cigarette machine].

    PubMed

    Madea, Burkhard; Ridwan, Hani; Längin, Volker; Doberentz, Elke

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, a growing number of cases have been reported in Germany in which vending machines have been blasted by criminals to get at the money. Thus, it was only a question of time for the first fatalities to occur as a consequence of such careless explosions. We report on the death of a 16-year-old boy who died after triggering an explosion by spraying a deodorant into the coin slot of a cigarette machine. Death was caused by severe craniocerebral trauma due to tertiary blast-related injuries when the front plate of the machine hit the victim's cerebral and facial skull.

  20. Fatal bilateral pneumothoraces complicating dyskeratosis congenita: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Dyskeratosis congenita is a rare genodermatosis, characterized by a triad of reticular skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia of mucous membranes. It is also associated with a variety of non-cutaneous abnormalities such as bone marrow failure, malignancy and pulmonary complications. Among its wide range of clinical manifestations, fatal pneumothorax has rarely been reported. Case presentation We report the case of a 31-year-old Lebanese woman with dyskeratosis congenita who succumbed to devastating bilateral pneumothoraces. Conclusion Careful surveillance of patients with dyskeratosis congenita is required as incipient respiratory failure due to pneumothorax may be successfully treated if detected at an early stage. PMID:19830116

  1. Forensic Nursing Provides Closure in Workplace Fatality.

    PubMed

    Harris, Colin

    The Workers' Compensation Board of British Columbia in Canada is the provincial agency mandated to investigate workplace injuries and fatalities. In 2012, the Fatal and Serious Injuries Investigation section of this organization initiated the integration of forensic nursing expertise into the investigation of workplace incidents. The goals were to improve investigative outcomes and aid in prevention initiatives by achieving a more accurate understanding of incident causation through the application of forensic nursing science. An unexpected outcome of the use of forensic nursing expertise was providing closure for families through a deeper understanding of their loved one's tragic workplace incident.

  2. Electrocution fatalities in military personnel in Ankara, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Tugcu, Harun; Ozsoy, Sait; Balandiz, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate various cases of death caused by electrical injuries among Turkish military personnel. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed fatality cases of military personnel between 1994 and 2013 at the Department of Forensic Medicine, Gulhane Military Medical Academy, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey, the only forensic medicine center for the Turkish Armed Forces. Medical records and autopsy reports of cases of electrical fatalities were reviewed and analyzed in terms of age and gender-specific incidence, voltage, contact details, body region distribution, location, and season of incident, site, and severity of injuries sustained, and histopathological and toxicological findings. Results: Sixteen (3.5%) out of the 450 autopsy cases involved electrocution. All deaths were accidental and most frequently occurred outdoors (75%). Eight (50%) died due to high voltage while 6 (37.5%) died due to low voltage. The entry and exit lesions were determined most frequently in cases with high voltage injury. The low voltage deaths commonly occurred at the scene of the event (66.6%), while almost all high voltage deaths occurred in the hospital (87.5%, p=0.03). Electrical burns were most commonly detected in the upper extremities (32.6%, n=14). Conclusion: The present study shows that deaths due to high voltage electrocution are more frequent than low voltage electrocution among military personnel. PMID:25630009

  3. Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ahlm, Kristin; Björnstig, Ulf; Oström, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  4. Propulsion controlled aircraft computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cogan, Bruce R. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A low-cost, easily retrofit Propulsion Controlled Aircraft (PCA) system for use on a wide range of commercial and military aircraft consists of an propulsion controlled aircraft computer that reads in aircraft data including aircraft state, pilot commands and other related data, calculates aircraft throttle position for a given maneuver commanded by the pilot, and then displays both current and calculated throttle position on a cockpit display to show the pilot where to move throttles to achieve the commanded maneuver, or is automatically sent digitally to command the engines directly.

  5. Seven fatalities associated with ethylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Maskell, P D; Smith, P R; Cole, R; Hikin, L; Morley, S R

    2016-08-01

    Ethylphenidate is a stimulant novel psychoactive substance that is an analogue of the prescription drug methylphenidate (Ritalin(®)). Methylphenidate is used commonly for the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Due to its stimulant effects ethylphenidate is being abused. There is a single case report of a death associated with ethylphenidate in Germany, and a case series of 19 deaths in the East of Scotland, but otherwise, the contribution of ethylphenidate to death is poorly documented. We report the analytical results of 7 cases (between February 2013 and January 2015) in which ethylphenidate was detected and quantitated with a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method (LC-MS/MS). The individuals (all male) ranged in age from 23 to 49 years (median 25 years). The concentration of ethylphenidate in the cases ranged from 0.026mg/L to 2.18mg/L in unpreserved post-mortem femoral blood. Only one case had ethylphenidate present as a sole drug. All other cases had at least 2 other drug classes present (benzodiazepines, heroin, methadone antipsychotics, other new psychoactive compounds). Ethylphenidate toxicity was the sole contribution to the cause of death in one case. Hanging was the cause of death in 2 cases, with the other 4 cases being reported as having occurred due to mixed drug toxicity. These data will further help with the interpretation of post-mortem ethylphenidate levels.

  6. The global role of natural disaster fatalities in decision-making: statistics, trends and analysis from 116 years of disaster data compared to fatality rates from other causes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann; McLennan, Amy; Daniell, Katherine; Kunz-Plapp, Tina; Khazai, Bijan; Schaefer, Andreas; Kunz, Michael; Girard, Trevor

    2016-04-01

    In this study, analysis is undertaken showing disaster fatalities trends from around the world using the CATDAT Natural Disaster and Socioeconomic Indicator databases from 1900-2015. Earthquakes have caused over 2.3 million fatalities since 1900; however absolute numbers of deaths caused by them have remained rather constant over time. However, floods have caused somewhere between 1.7 and 5.4 million fatalities, mostly in the earlier half of the 20th century (depending on the 1931 China floods). Storm and storm surges (ca. 1.3 million fatalities), on the other hand, have shown an opposite trend with increasing fatalities over the century (or a lack of records in the early 1900s). Earthquakes due to their sporadic nature, do not inspire investment pre-disaster. When looking at the investment in flood control vs. earthquakes, there is a marked difference in the total investment, which has resulted in a much larger reduction in fatalities. However, a key consideration for decision-makers in different countries around the world when choosing to implement disaster sensitive design is the risk of a natural disaster death, compared to other types of deaths in their country. The creation of empirical annualised ratios of earthquake, flood and storm fatalities from the year 1900 onwards vs. other methods of fatalities (cancer, diseases, accidents etc.) for each country using the CATDAT damaging natural disasters database is undertaken. On an annualised level, very few countries show earthquakes and other disaster types to be one of the highest probability methods for death. However, in particular years with large events, annual rates can easily exceed the total death count for a particular country. An example of this is Haiti, with the equivalent earthquake death rate in 2010 exceeding the total all-cause death rate in the country. Globally, fatality rates due to disasters are generally at least 1 order of magnitude lower than other causes such as heart disease. However, in

  7. Inadequate harnesses as a cause of death in two light aircraft accidents.

    PubMed

    Hill, I R

    1980-09-01

    In the two accidents described, both fatalities occurred because the victims were wearing only lap belts. One of the victims was piloting an aircraft. These were survivable aircraft accidents and illustrate the inadequacy of this type of harness. Recently promulgated legislation in the United Kingdom should mean that front seat incidents of this nature will become a rarity. The dangers will still exist for those in rear passenger seats, however, because they are not covered by the new laws.

  8. GaAs/Ge Solar Powered Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Scheiman, David A.; Brinker, David J.

    1998-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are being proposed for many applications for many applications including surveillance, mapping and atmospheric studies. These applications require a lightweight, low speed, medium to long duration aircraft. Due to the weight, speed, and altitude constraints imposed on such an aircraft, solar array generated electric power can be a viable alternative to air-breathing engines for certain missions. Development of such an aircraft is currently being funded under the Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology (ERAST) program. NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) has built a Solar Electric Airplane to demonstrate UAV technology. This aircraft utilizes high efficiency Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC) GaAs/Ge space solar cells. The cells have been provided by the Air Force through the ManTech Office.

  9. Can we reduce workplace fatalities by half?

    PubMed

    Koh, David Soo Quee

    2012-06-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world".

  10. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  11. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  12. Can We Reduce Workplace Fatalities by Half?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Singapore, an island republic of over 5 million inhabitants, has 3.1 million workers. Most are employed in the service, finance and tourist/transport industry. Significant numbers work in manufacturing, construction and heavy industry. Following a series of construction and shipyard accidents with multiple deaths in 2004, the government announced its intention to reduce workplace fatalities from 4.9 to 2.5 per 100,000 by 2015. There was strong political will to achieve this target. The strategic approaches were to build workplace safety and health (WSH) capabilities; implement legislative changes with enforcement; promote benefits of WSH and recognize best practices, and enhance partnership with stakeholders. The anticipated outcomes were to reduce workplace fatality and injury rates; have WSH as an integral part of business; and establish a progressive and pervasive WSH culture. With these measures, the workplace fatality rate declined from 4.9/100,000 in 2004, to 2.2/100,000 in 2010. However, other confounding factors could also account for this decline, and have to be considered. The next target, announced by Singapore's Prime Minister in 2008, is to further reduce the workplace fatality rate to 1.8/100,000 by 2018, and to have "one of the best workplace safety records in the world". PMID:22993714

  13. Non-Fatal Suicidal Behaviors in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jena, S.; Sidhartha, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the USA, suicide ranked as the third leading cause of death for adolescents in 1999. Non-fatal suicidal behaviours are suicidal thought, specific suicidal plan and suicide attempt. Prospective studies have emphasized the high subsequent suicide rates in clinically presenting suicide attempters. This study was planned to critically review the existing international literature on this area, and compare, if possible, with the Indian data. Both electronic and manual search for published and unpublished works was done for the review of this area. Both international and Indian studies on prevalence, risk factors, management, and prevention of non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents were collected, analysed and reviewed. The study concludes that professionals, like general practitioners, paediatricians, school teachers, school counselors, need to be trained in identifying non-fatal suicidal behaviours in adolescents, and know when to refer them to a mental health professional or mental health service for thorough assessment and effective management. Timely and efficient management of non-fatal suicidal behaviors can prevent future suicidal attempts and completed suicide in most of this highly vulnerable population. Indian studies are very few and without robust study design. Systematic studies in India on this important topic are required. PMID:21206789

  14. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Azorín, Daniel; Torrelo, Antonio; Lassaletta, Alvaro; de Prada, Inmaculada; Colmenero, Isabel; Contra, Trinidad; González-Mediero, Imelda

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma is a benign and self-limited disease which usually appears in the skin of children. Visceral involvement has been rarely reported, as has fatal outcome in some affected individuals. We report a case of systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma in a female newborn with mainly skin, bone marrow, and liver involvement, leading to death at the age of 2 months.

  15. Fatal Case of Listeria innocua Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient. PMID:14605191

  16. Fatal case of Listeria innocua bacteremia.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Monique; Bemer, Michel; Delamare, Catherine

    2003-11-01

    Listeria innocua is widespread in the environment and in food. This species has to date never been described in association with human disease. We report a case of fatal bacteremia caused by L. innocua in a 62-year-old patient.

  17. Fatal fat embolism during ritual initiation.

    PubMed Central

    Todd, N.

    1975-01-01

    A young Coast Salish Indian woman became fatally ill during ritual Initiation into the Native Winter Spirit Dancing Society. She died from massive fat emboli associated with subcutaneous bruises that appeared clinically unimportant and were not associated with fractures or other underlying injury. The liver showed extreme fatty metamorphosis. PMID:1139497

  18. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  19. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  20. 49 CFR 219.207 - Fatality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... authority (such as a coroner or medical examiner) of the fatality and the requirements of this subpart... telephone number of local authority contacted. (c) A coroner, medical examiner, pathologist, Aviation Medical Examiner, or other qualified professional is authorized to remove the required body fluid...

  1. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013.

    PubMed

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A; Gordillo-Perez, Guadalupe

    2016-05-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels.

  2. Review of aircraft noise propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, T. W.

    1975-01-01

    The current state of knowledge about the propagation of aircraft noise was reviewed. The literature on the subject is surveyed and methods for predicting the most important and best understood propagation effects are presented. Available empirical data are examined and the data's general validity is assessed. The methods used to determine the loss of acoustic energy due to uniform spherical spreading, absorption in a homogeneous atmosphere, and absorption due to ground cover are presented. A procedure for determining ground induced absorption as a function of elevation angle between source and receiver is recommended. Other factors that affect propagation, such as refraction and scattering due to turbulence, which were found to be less important for predicting the propagation of aircraft noise, are also evaluated.

  3. Patterns of Drug Use in Fatal Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Pollini, Robin A.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To characterize drug prevalence among fatally injured drivers, identify significant associations (i.e., day of week, time of day, age, gender), and compare findings with those for alcohol. Design Descriptive and logistic mixed-model regression analyses of Fatality Analysis Reporting System data. Setting U.S. states with drug test results for >80% of fatally injured drivers, 1998-2010. Participants Drivers killed in single-vehicle crashes on public roads who died at the scene of the crash (N=16,942). Measurements Drug test results, blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gender, age, and day and time of crash. Findings Overall, 45.1% of fatally injured drivers tested positive for alcohol (39.9% BAC>0.08) and 25.9% for drugs. The most common drugs present were stimulants (7.2%) and cannabinols (7.1%), followed by “other” drugs (4.1%), multiple drugs (4.1%), narcotics (2.1%), and depressants (1.5%). Drug-involved crashes occurred with relative uniformity throughout the day while alcohol-involved crashes were more common at night (p<.01). The odds of testing positive for drugs varied depending upon drug class, driver characteristics, time of day, and the presence of alcohol. Conclusions Fatal single vehicle crashes involving drugs are less common than those involving alcohol and the characteristics of drug-involved crashes differ depending upon drug class and whether alcohol is present. Concerns about drug-impaired driving should not detract from the current law enforcement focus on alcohol-impaired driving. PMID:23600629

  4. [Untreated hemothorax with fatal sequelae].

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, H

    1991-01-01

    A 52-years old woman fell downstairs at home and suffered fractures of the left 9. and 10. rib. She was admitted to hospital; a small subcutaneous emphysema was seen over the fractures. Primary radiograph of the chest showed no internal complication. The patient was observed over night on intensive care unit without abnormalities. Next morning she was transmitted to the regular ward; on this way a control chest-radiography was made. A large hematothorax was seen. The radiologist tried to telephone with the surgeon at the new ward, who was not available because of operating. The nurse at phone (novice) misunderstood the message or the correct message was wrong interpreted by the other nurses in the sense that they believed that the patient had a history of (treated) hematothorax, so that no acute treatment was necessary. The surgeon was not informed, when he came later; the patient was brought from the x-ray station and nothing more happened. About 10 hours later the woman died. The radiologist has been condemned by reason of killing due to carelessness; the fine was placed on probation. In the opinion of the court the radiologist--as the only person, who knew the acute and unexpected condition of the patient--rejected against his liability to guarantee the life of the patient, since he not maked quite sure that the woman really received the needful treatment.

  5. [Fatal alveolar haemorrhage following a "bang" of cannabis].

    PubMed

    Grassin, F; André, M; Rallec, B; Combes, E; Vinsonneau, U; Paleiron, N

    2011-09-01

    The new methods of cannabis consumption (home made water pipe or "bang") may be responsible for fatal respiratory complications. We present a case, with fatal outcome, of a man of 19 years with no previous history other than an addiction to cannabis using "bang". He was admitted to intensive care with acute dyspnoea. A CT scan showed bilateral, diffuse alveolar shadowing. He was anaemic with an Hb of 9.3g/l. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed massive alveolar haemorrhage. Investigations for infection and immunological disorder were negative and toxicology was negative except for cannabis. Antibiotic treatment was given and favourable progress allowed early discharge. Death occurred 15 days later due to alveolar haemorrhage following a further "bang" of cannabis. Autopsy showed toxic alveolar haemorrhage. The probable mechanism is pulmonary damage due to acid anhydrides released by the incomplete combustion of cannabis in contact with plastic. These acids have a double effect on the lungs: a direct toxicity with severe inflammation of the mucosa leading to alveolar haemorrhage and subsequently the acid anhydrides may lead to the syndrome of intra-alveolar haemorrhage and anaemia described in occupational lung diseases by Herbert in Oxford in 1979. It manifests itself by haemoptysis and intravascular haemolysis. We draw attention to the extremely serious potential consequences of new methods of using cannabis, particularly the use of "bang" in homemade plastic materials.

  6. Differences in Characteristics of Aviation Accidents During 1993-2012 Based on Aircraft Type

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2015-01-01

    Civilian aircraft are available in a variety of sizes, engine types, construction materials and instrumentation complexity. For the analysis reported here, eleven aircraft categories were developed based mostly on aircraft size and engine type, and these categories were applied to twenty consecutive years of civil aviation accidents. Differences in various factors were examined among these aircraft types, including accident severity, pilot characteristics and accident occurrence categories. In general, regional jets and very light sport aircraft had the lowest rates of adverse outcomes (injuries, fatal accidents, aircraft destruction, major accidents), while aircraft with twin (piston) engines or with a single (piston) engine and retractable landing gear carried the highest incidence of adverse outcomes. The accident categories of abnormal runway contact, runway excursions and non-powerplant system/component failures occur frequently within all but two or three aircraft types. In contrast, ground collisions, loss of control - on ground/water and powerplant system/component failure occur frequently within only one or two aircraft types. Although accidents in larger aircraft tend to have less severe outcomes, adverse outcome rates also differ among accident categories. It may be that the type of accident has as much or more influence on the outcome as the type of aircraft.

  7. Unmanned aircraft systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unmanned platforms have become increasingly more common in recent years for acquiring remotely sensed data. These aircraft are referred to as Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAV), Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA), Remotely Piloted Vehicles (RPV), or Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS), the official term used...

  8. 78 FR 38096 - Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Fatality Analysis Reporting System Information Collection... Reporting System (FARS) is a major system that acquires national fatality information directly from existing...: Request for public comment on proposed collection of information. SUMMARY: Before a Federal agency...

  9. Road traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander V; Nilssen, Odd; Lund, Johan; Grjibovski, Andrej M; Ytterstad, Børge

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated trends in traffic crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries in Arkhangelsk, Russia in 2005-2010. Data were obtained from the road police. Negative binomial regression with time regressor was used to investigate trends in monthly incidence rates (IRs) of crashes, fatalities, and non-fatal injuries. During the six-year period, the police registered 4955 crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries, which resulted in 217 fatalities and 5964 non-fatal injury cases. The IR of crashes with fatal and non-fatal injuries per total population showed no evident change, while the IR per increasing total number of motor vehicles decreased on average by 0.6% per month. Pedestrian crashes constituted 51.8% of studied crashes, and pedestrians constituted 54.6% of fatalities and 44.5% of non-fatal injuries. The IRs of pedestrian crashes and non-fatal pedestrian injuries per total population decreased on average by 0.3% per month, and these were the major trends in the data.

  10. Aircraft flight path angle display system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A display system for use in an aircraft control wheel steering system provides the pilot with a single, quickened flight path angle display to overcome poor handling qualities due to intrinsic flight path angle response lags, while avoiding multiple information display symbology. The control law for the flight path angle control system is designed such that the aircraft's actual flight path angle response lags the pilot's commanded flight path angle by a constant time lag .tau., independent of flight conditions. The synthesized display signal is produced as a predetermined function of the aircraft's actual flight path angle, the time lag .tau. and command inputs from the pilot's column.

  11. Effect of shear on aircraft landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.; Reeves, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to determine the effect of wind shear on aircraft landings. The landing of various type of commercial and military aircraft was digitally simulated starting from an initial altitude of 300 feet. Assuming no pilot feedback during descent, the deviation in touchdown point due to vertical profiles of wind shear was determined. The vertical profiles of wind shear are defined in terms of surface roughness, Z sub 0, and stability, L, parameters. The effects on touchdown due to Z sub 0 and L have been calculated for the different type aircraft. Comparisons were made between the following types of aircraft: (1) C-130E, (2) C-135A, (3) C-141, (4) DC-8, (5) Boeing 747, and (6) an augmentor-wing STOL. In addition, the wind shear effect on touchdown resulting from different locations of the center of gravity and gross weights was also analyzed.

  12. Evaluation of poly-drug use in methadone-related fatalities using segmental hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Marie Katrine Klose; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2015-03-01

    In Denmark, fatal poisoning among drug addicts is often related to methadone. The primary mechanism contributing to fatal methadone overdose is respiratory depression. Concurrent use of other central nervous system (CNS) depressants is suggested to heighten the potential for fatal methadone toxicity. Reduced tolerance due to a short-time abstinence period is also proposed to determine a risk for fatal overdose. The primary aims of this study were to investigate if concurrent use of CNS depressants or reduced tolerance were significant risk factors in methadone-related fatalities using segmental hair analysis. The study included 99 methadone-related fatalities collected in Denmark from 2008 to 2011, where both blood and hair were available. The cases were divided into three subgroups based on the cause of death; methadone poisoning (N=64), poly-drug poisoning (N=28) or methadone poisoning combined with fatal diseases (N=7). No significant differences between methadone concentrations in the subgroups were obtained in both blood and hair. The methadone blood concentrations were highly variable (0.015-5.3, median: 0.52mg/kg) and mainly within the concentration range detected in living methadone users. In hair, methadone was detected in 97 fatalities with concentrations ranging from 0.061 to 211ng/mg (median: 11ng/mg). In the remaining two cases, methadone was detected in blood but absent in hair specimens, suggesting that these two subjects were methadone-naive users. Extensive poly-drug use was observed in all three subgroups, both recently and within the last months prior to death. Especially, concurrent use of multiple benzodiazepines was prevalent among the deceased followed by the abuse of morphine, codeine, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine and ethanol. By including quantitative segmental hair analysis, additional information on poly-drug use was obtained. Especially, 6-acetylmorphine was detected more frequently in hair specimens, indicating that regular abuse of

  13. Aircraft landing gear systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, John A. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Topics presented include the laboratory simulation of landing gear pitch-plane dynamics, a summary of recent aircraft/ground vehicle friction measurement tests, some recent aircraft tire thermal studies, and an evaluation of critical speeds in high-speed aircraft. Also presented are a review of NASA antiskid braking research, titanium matrix composite landing gear development, the current methods and perspective of aircraft flotation analysis, the flow rate and trajectory of water spray produced by an aircraft tire, and spin-up studies of the Space Shuttle Orbiter main gear tire.

  14. A fatal case of peripartum cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ronny; Mallet, Thierry; Mirrer, Brooks; Loarte, Pablo; Gale, Michael; Kastell, Paul

    2014-06-01

    Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a life-threatening cardiac condition affecting pregnant women either late in pregnancy or early in the post-partum period. The latest studies show a dramatic improvement in the mortality rates of women affected with this disorder, which has been correlated with advances in medical therapy for heart failure. However, patients continue to die of this condition. The following case report describes a typical patient with peripartum cardiomyopathy diagnosed on clinical grounds, along with echocardiogram findings of severe systolic dysfunction and global hypokinesis consistent with dilated cardiomyopathy. Emergency cesarean delivery had to be performed for fetal distress. There was significant improvement of the patient's condition with standard pharmacological management for heart failure at the time of discharge. However, five weeks after discharge, fatal cardiac arrest occurred. It is hoped that this article will raise awareness about this rare but potentially fatal condition and promote understanding of its main clinical features, diagnostic criteria, and conventional pharmacological management.

  15. Mobile computed tomography for mass fatality investigations.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire; Jeffery, Amanda; Morgan, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    The use of computed tomography (CT) has received growing interest within the forensic world. To date, most publications have been related to the use of clinical or institutional sited scanners with few publications reporting on the actual, as opposed to the theoretical, use of mobile CT scanners in forensic practice. This review paper considers the use of mobile CT scanning for forensic investigations. It reviews the literature and presents the experience gained from a 6-month trial undertaken by the Forensic Pathology Unit, at the University of Leicester, UK of the use of CT for mass fatality investigation. Protocols for the use of mobile CT are discussed to assist other centres contemplating the use of mobile CT for mass fatality investigations.

  16. Fatal methanol poisoning: features of liver histopathology.

    PubMed

    Akhgari, Maryam; Panahianpour, Mohammad Hadi; Bazmi, Elham; Etemadi-Aleagha, Afshar; Mahdavi, Amirhosein; Nazari, Saeed Hashemi

    2013-03-01

    Methanol poisoning has become a considerable problem in Iran. Liver can show some features of poisoning after methanol ingestion. Therefore, our concern was to examine liver tissue histopathology in fatal methanol poisoning cases in Iranian population. In this study, 44 cases of fatal methanol poisoning were identified in a year. The histological changes of the liver were reviewed. The most striking features of liver damage by light microscopy were micro-vesicular steatosis, macro-vesicular steatosis, focal hepatocyte necrosis, mild intra-hepatocyte bile stasis, feathery degeneration and hydropic degeneration. Blood and vitreous humor methanol concentrations were examined to confirm the proposed history of methanol poisoning. The majority of cases were men (86.36%). In conclusion, methanol poisoning can cause histological changes in liver tissues. Most importantly in cases with mean blood and vitreous humor methanol levels greater than 127 ± 38.9 mg/dL more than one pathologic features were detected.

  17. Fatal Israeli spotted fever in children.

    PubMed

    Yagupsky, P; Wolach, B

    1993-11-01

    We describe three Israeli children with fatal spotted fever. Clinical disease was characterized by irreversible shock, encephalopathy, renal failure, bleeding tendency, and death within 24 hours of admission. None of the patients had a history of tick bite, and no tache noire was noted. One child presented without rash, and the other two did not have antibodies to spotted-fever-group rickettsiae. The disease was confirmed by isolation of Rickettsia conorii from the patients' blood and tissues in cell cultures or from susceptible laboratory animals inoculated with human specimens. The present cases demonstrate the existence of a severe form of Israeli spotted fever in this population that resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Because Israeli spotted fever may follow a quick, unpredictable, rapidly fatal clinical course, specific antimicrobial therapy should be promptly administered whenever the diagnosis is suspected.

  18. Fatal outbreak of botulism in Greenland.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Tóra Hedinsdottir; Jespersen, Sanne; Kanstrup, Jakob; Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie; Kjerulf, Anne; Gelvan, Allan

    2015-03-01

    Botulism commonly occurs when the anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium Clostridium botulinum, under suitable conditions, produces botulinum neurotoxins. Named A-F, these toxins are the immediate causative agent of the clinical symptoms of symmetrical, descending neurological deficits, including respiratory muscle paralysis. We present five cases of foodborne botulism occurring in Greenland, two with fatal outcome, caused by ingestion of tradionally preserved eider fowl. In the cases of the survivors, antitoxin and supportive care, including mechanical ventilation, were administered. In these cases recovery was complete. Microbiological assays, including toxin neutralization bioassay, demonstrated the presence of neurotoxin E in two survivors. The third survivor was shown by PCR to have the BoNT type E gene in faeces. This is the first report of cases of fatal botulism in Greenland. It underscores the importance of prompt coordinated case management effort in a geographically isolated area such as Greenland.

  19. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage during dental treatment.

    PubMed

    Massalha, R; Valdman, S; Farkash, P; Merkin, L; Herishanu, Y

    1996-09-01

    Although chronic arterial hypertension is the leading cause of intracranial hemorrhage, an abrupt rise in systemic arterial pressure in normotensive people may sometimes induce a hemorrhagic stroke. Dental treatment is rarely associated with such an event. We report here on two middle-aged women, apparently healthy, who suffered from a fatal intracerebral hemorrhage following a dental treatment. On admission, high levels of arterial hypertension were found. It seems that trigeminal manipulation during dental treatment as well as increased serum levels of induced epinephrine mainly by stress and pain, and the small amounts absorbed from the site of local anesthesia might produce abrupt elevation of blood pressure, subsequent increase in cerebral blood flow and severe, even fatal intracerebral hemorrhage. The addition of catecholamines to local anesthetics should be considered. We recommend the use of benzodiazepin as a premedication drug to reduce stress during dental treatment.

  20. Small transport aircraft technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, L. J.

    1983-01-01

    Information on commuter airline trends and aircraft developments is provided to upgrade the preliminary findings of a NASA-formed small transport aircraft technology (STAT) team, established to determine whether the agency's research and development programs could help commuter aircraft manufacturers solve technical problems related to passenger acceptance and use of 19- to 50-passenger aircraft. The results and conclusions of the full set of completed STAT studies are presented. These studies were performed by five airplane manufacturers, five engine manufacturers, and two propeller manufacturers. Those portions of NASA's overall aeronautics research and development programs which are applicable to commuter aircraft design are summarized. Areas of technology that might beneficially be expanded or initiated to aid the US commuter aircraft manufacturers in the evolution of improved aircraft for the market are suggested.

  1. Fatal disseminated toxoplasmosis during primary HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Signorini, Liana; Gulletta, Maurizio; Coppini, Davide; Donzelli, Carla; Stellini, Roberto; Manca, Nino; Carosi, Giampiero; Matteelli, Alberto

    2007-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a well recognized manifestation of AIDS, but the disseminated disease is a rare condition and it has not been associated to HIV seroconversion to our knowledge. We describe a fatal episode of disseminated T. gondii acute infection with massive organ involvement during primary HIV infection. The serological data demonstrate primary T. gondii infection. The avidity index for HIV antibodies supports recent HIV-1 infection.

  2. Cathelicidin Insufficiency in Patients with Fatal Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jin-na; Mannam, Praveen; Srivastava, Anup; Yao, Yi; Hacker, Kathryn P.; Raddassi, Khadir; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Shaw, Albert C.; Araújo, Guilherme C.; Nery, Nivison; Relman, David A.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Ko, Albert I.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10–50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors. In contrast, survivors generated strong adaptive immune signatures, including transcripts relevant to antigen presentation and immunoglobulin production. In an independent cohort (23 survivors, 22 deceased), fatal cases had higher bacterial loads (P = 0.0004) and lower anti-Leptospira antibody titers (P = 0.02) at the time of hospitalization, independent of the duration of illness. Low serum cathelicidin and RANTES levels during acute illness were independent risk factors for higher bacterial loads (P = 0.005) and death (P = 0.04), respectively. To investigate the mechanism of cathelicidin in patients surviving acute disease, we administered LL-37, the active peptide of cathelicidin, in a hamster model of lethal leptospirosis and found it significantly decreased bacterial loads and increased survival. Our findings indicate that the host immune response plays a central role in severe leptospirosis disease progression. While drawn from a limited study size, significant conclusions include that poor clinical outcomes are associated with high systemic bacterial loads, and a decreased antibody response. Furthermore, our data identified a key role for the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, in mounting an effective bactericidal response against the pathogen, which represents a valuable new therapeutic approach for leptospirosis. PMID:27812211

  3. Fatal cerebral haemorrhage in a hypertensive seven-year-old boy

    PubMed Central

    Brandtner, Herwig; Monticelli, Fabio C; Meyer, Harald J; Biebl, Ariane

    2016-01-01

    A seven-year-old boy died from autopsy-proven brain haemorrhage due to hypertensive vasculopathy. This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis and therapy of hypertension in children. Brain haemorrhage is a potentially fatal complication of paediatric hypertension. PMID:27688895

  4. Fatal Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis Caused by Acanthamoeba in a Patient With Kidney Transplant: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salameh, Ahmad; Bello, Nancy; Becker, Jennifer; Zangeneh, Tirdad

    2015-01-01

    Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) due to Acanthamoeba is almost a uniformly fatal infection in immune-compromised hosts despite multidrug combination therapy. We report a case of GAE in a female who received a deceased donor kidney graft. She was treated with a combination of miltefosine, pentamidine, sulfadiazine, fluconazole, flucytosine, and azithromycin. PMID:26280011

  5. A Fatal Case of Hepatic Portal Venous Gas Associated With Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Tahmina

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic portal venous gas is a rare cause of acute abdomen caused by leakage of air from the gastrointestinal tract to the portal venous system. The mortality is high, particularly when associated with intestinal ischemia or necrosis. We describe a fatal case of hepatic portal venous gas and pneumatosis intestinalis due to hemodialysis-related hypotension and severe atherosclerotic disease. PMID:27800516

  6. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Causing Fatal Purulent Pericarditis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vasudevan Anil; Nair, Nisha; Thachathodiyl, Rajesh; Nandakumar, Aswathy; Dinesh, Kavitha R; Thatcher, Eileen; Karim, Shamsul; Biswas, Raja

    2013-01-01

    Though pericardial disease is common in patients with renal disease, purulent pericarditis is very rare. We report a fatal case of purulent pericarditis and sepsis due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a 78-year-old male with systemic hypertension and renal disease along with the molecular characterization of its resistant mechanism. PMID:24701111

  7. Identification of Bordetella bronchseptica in fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection with Bordetella bronchiseptica is a common cause of tracheobronchitis and upper respiratory disease in dogs and cats, but it can also lead to fatal pneumonia. Identification of this pathogen is important due the risk of transmission to other animals, availability of vaccines and potential...

  8. Graduated driver licensing and teen traffic fatalities.

    PubMed

    Dee, Thomas S; Grabowski, David C; Morrisey, Michael A

    2005-05-01

    Over the last 8 years, nearly every state has introduced graduated driver licensing (GDL) for teens. These new licensing procedures require teen drivers to advance through distinct stages where they are subject to a variety of restrictions (e.g., adult supervision, daytime driving, passenger limits). In this study, we present evidence on whether these restrictions have been effective in reducing traffic fatalities among teens. These evaluations are based on state-by-year panel data from 1992 to 2002. We assess the reliability of our basic inferences in several ways including an examination of contemporaneous data for older cohorts who were not directly affected by these policies. Our results indicate that GDL regulations reduced traffic fatalities among 15-17-year-olds by at least 5.6%. We also find that the life-saving benefits of these regulations were plausibly related to their restrictiveness. And we find no evidence that these benefits were attenuated by an increase in fatality risks during the full-licensure period available to older teens.

  9. Recent trends in cyclist fatalities in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boufous, Soufiane; Olivier, Jake

    2016-08-01

    The study examines trends in bicycling fatalities reported to the Australian police between 1991 and 2013. Trends were estimated using Poisson regression modelling. Overall, cycling fatalities decreased by 1.9% annually between 1991 and 2013. However, while deaths following multivehicle crashes decreased at a rate of 2.9% per annum (95% CI -4.0% to -1.8%), deaths from single vehicle crashes increased by 5.8% per annum (95% CI 4.1% to 7.5%). Over the study period, the average age of cyclists who died in single vehicle crashes (45.3 years, 95% CI 41.5 to 49.1) was significantly higher than cyclists who died in multivehicle crashes (36.2 years, 95% CI 34.7 to 37.7). The average age of deceased cyclists increased significantly for both types of crashes. The observed increase in single vehicle crashes need to be closely monitored in Australia and internationally. In-depth studies are needed to investigate the circumstances of fatal single bicycle crashes in order to develop appropriate countermeasures.

  10. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    PubMed Central

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  11. Aircraft noise and quality of life around Frankfurt Airport.

    PubMed

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  12. Firearm fatalities. A preliminary study report from Iran.

    PubMed

    Amiri, A; Sanaei-Zadeh, H; Towfighi Zavarei, H; Rezvani Ardestani, F; Savoji, N

    2003-09-01

    During the one-year period from March 2002 to March 2003 there were 89 firearm fatalities investigated by the Legal Medicine Organization of Iran in Tehran. We determined the characteristics of these 89 firearm deaths which comprised 0.83% of all postmortem examinations. Of these, 60.7% were homicides, 30.3% suicides, 4.5% accidental, and 4.5% unclassifiable. Most victims were young male. Military rifles were responsible for almost all suicides, whereas in homicide handguns were the preferred weapons. The most common site of entrance wounds in suicides were the under the chin (37%) and chest (25.9%). In homicide group, 42.6% of entrance wounds were located in the head. The suicidal gunshots were fired from contact/near contact range in 84.6% while this was the case in only two cases of the homicides. All but one of the suicides were committed at the garrisons or police stations. The unique pattern of suicide that was found in this series was not similar to that reported in earlier studies. We believe our pattern of firearm fatalities must be in great part due to the Iran's strict gun control regulations and cultural background.

  13. [Fatal methadone poisoning: observations at the CHU of Liege].

    PubMed

    Denooz, R; Charlier, C

    2006-01-01

    All methadone-associated deaths from October 2002 to April 2005 are analysed. A regular increase in these fatal intoxications has been recorded, in Belgium as in other countries, due, in particular, to an intensified prescription of this product, of which illicit use as street dope becomes problematic. Over the 30 months period covered by the study, 26 deaths related to methadone were listed, of which 3 occurred in accidental circumstances. In the other 23 cases, methadone can be found, yet always associated with psychotropic substances, mainly benzodiazepines (18 cases), narcotics (15 cases) and finally alcohol (5 cases). Based upon the nature of the products combined with methadone, records have been divided in two groups: In the first group (17 observations), xenobiotics at (infra)therapeutic levels are detected. In the other group (6 observations), xenobiotics at high and toxic levels are detected. Blood methadone concentrations are not so different between the 2 groups of individuals since the median values and the extreme values are worth respectively 308, and 110-11300 microg/L, for the first group and 776 and 93-2080 microg/L for the second group. There is thus an important overlap between the therapeutic blood methadone concentrations (150-400 microg/L) and blood concentrations observed in fatalities.Thus, it is necessary that all information and post-mortem results must be examined in a critical way to identify and justify cause of the death.

  14. Flight dynamics and control modelling of damaged asymmetric aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunwa, T. T.; Abdullah, E. J.

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the use of a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller to assist commercial Boeing 747-200 aircraft regains its stability in the event of damage. Damages cause an aircraft to become asymmetric and in the case of damage to a fraction (33%) of its left wing or complete loss of its vertical stabilizer, the loss of stability may lead to a fatal crash. In this study, aircraft models for the two damage scenarios previously mentioned are constructed using stability derivatives. LQR controller is used as a direct adaptive control design technique for the observable and controllable system. Dynamic stability analysis is conducted in the time domain for all systems in this study.

  15. Toxicological results in a fatal and two non-fatal cases of scopolamine-facilitated robberies.

    PubMed

    Lusthof, K J; Bosman, I J; Kubat, B; Vincenten-van Maanen, M J

    2017-02-04

    The use of scopolamine as an incapacitating drug, in sexual crimes and robberies, has been known for many decades. However, blood concentrations and doses of scopolamine in those cases are largely unknown. Here we present the toxicological results of one fatal and two non-fatal cases in a series of scopolamine-facilitated robberies. In the fatal case, the concentration of scopolamine in heart blood was 0.30mg/L, about 3000 times higher than the average therapeutic level of 0.0001mg/L (for one dermal patch). In femoral blood, the concentration of scopolamine was much lower (0.0048mg/L), but still 50 times higher than therapeutic levels. The scopolamine concentration in the stomach was very high (20mg/kg) as compared to the heart blood and femoral blood, which explains the very high concentration in heart blood by postmortem leakage from the stomach. In the non-fatal case, the scopolamine concentration in serum, obtained 23h after the incident, was 0.00035mg/L. The estimated concentration of scopolamine at the time of the incident is 0.0035mg/L. In the other non-fatal case, scopolamine was detected in urine and in hair.

  16. Occupational Fatalities Among Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers in the United States, 2003–2008

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Guang X.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Wu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Background This study provides a national profile of occupational fatalities among truck drivers and driver-sales workers. Methods Data from the 2003–2008 Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries were used. Cases were extracted specifically for occupational subcategories included in the Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers occupational category: Driver/Sales Workers, Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers, and Light Truck or Delivery Services Drivers. Results In 2003–2008, the group Driver/Sales Workers and Truck Drivers had 5,568 occupational fatalities, representing 17% of all occupational fatalities in the United States. The majority of these fatalities were in the subgroup Heavy and Tractor-Trailer Truck Drivers (85%) and due to transportation incidents (80%). Older and male drivers had higher fatality rates than their counterparts. Conclusions Findings suggest a need for targeted interventions to reduce highway fatalities among heavy truck drivers. Better employment data are needed to separate the three occupational subcategories by worker characteristic and employment history for use in research and prevention efforts. PMID:24811905

  17. Aircraft-Assisted Pilot Suicides: Lessons to be Learned.

    PubMed

    Vuorio, Alpo; Laukkala, Tanja; Navathe, Pooshan; Budowle, Bruce; Eyre, Anne; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-08-01

    Aircraft assisted suicides were studied in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and Finland during 1956-2012 by means of literature search and accident case analysis. According to our study the frequency varied slightly between the studies. Overall, the new estimate of aircraft assisted suicides in the United States in a 20-yr period (1993-2012) is 0.33% (95% CI 0.21-0.49) (24/7244). In the detailed accident case analysis, it was found that in five out of the eight cases from the United States, someone knew of prior suicidal ideation before the aircraft assisted fatality. The caveats of standard medico-legal autopsy and accident investigation methods in investigation of suspected aircraft assisted suicides are discussed. It is suggested that a psychological autopsy should be performed in all such cases. Also the social context and possibilities of the prevention of aviation-related suicides were analyzed. In addition, some recent aircraft assisted suicides carried out using commercial aircraft during scheduled services and causing many casualties are discussed.

  18. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor's Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the car

  19. GIS based analysis of Intercity Fatal Road Traffic Accidents in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, A; Zare, M; Darparesh, M; Mohseni, S; Soleimani-Ahmadi, M

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic accidents including intercity car traffic accidents (ICTAs) are among the most important causes of morbidity and mortality due to the growing number of vehicles, risky behaviors, and changes in lifestyle of the general population. A sound knowledge of the geographical distribution of car traffic accidents can be considered as an approach towards the accident causation and it can be used as an administrative tool in allocating the sources for traffic accidents prevention. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution and the time trend of fatal intercity car traffic accidents in Iran. To conduct this descriptive study, all Iranian intercity road traffic mortality data were obtained from the Police reports in the Statistical Yearbook of the Governor’s Budget and Planning. The obtained data were for 17 complete Iranian calendar years from March 1997 to March 2012. The incidence rate (IR) of fatal ICTAs for each year was calculated as the total number of fatal ICTAs in every 100000 population in specified time intervals. Figures and maps indicating the trends and geographical distribution of fatal ICTAs were prepared while using Microsoft Excel and ArcGis9.2 software. The number of fatal car accidents showed a general increasing trend from 3000 in 1996 to 13500 in 2012. The incidence of fatal intercity car accidents has changed from six in 100000 population in 1996 to 18 in 100000 population in 2012. GIS based data showed that the incidence rate of ICTAs in different provinces of Iran was very divergent. The highest incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Semnan province (IR= 35.2), followed by North Khorasan (IR=22.7), and South Khorasan (IR=22). The least incidence of fatal ICTAs was in Tehran province (IR=2.4) followed by Khozestan (IR=6.5), and Eastern Azarbayejan (IR=6.6). The compensation cost of fatal ICTAs also showed an increasing trend during the studied period. Since an increasing amount of money was being paid yearly for the

  20. Raptors and aircraft

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.G.; Ellis, D.H.; Johnson, T.H.; Glinski, Richard L.; Pendleton, Beth Giron; Moss, Mary Beth; LeFranc, Maurice N.=; Millsap, Brian A.; Hoffman, Stephen W.

    1988-01-01

    Less than 5% of all bird strikes of aircraft are by raptor species, but damage to airframe structure or jet engine dysfunction are likely consequences. Beneficial aircraft-raptor interactions include the use of raptor species to frighten unwanted birds from airport areas and the use of aircraft to census raptor species. Many interactions, however, modify the raptor?s immediate behavior and some may decrease reproduction of sensitive species. Raptors may respond to aircraft stimuli by exhibiting alarm, increased heart rate, flushing or fleeing and occasionally by directly attacking intruding aircraft. To date, most studies reveal that raptor responses to aircraft are brief and do not limit reproduction; however, additional study is needed.

  1. The Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program's role in the prevention of occupational fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, D; Casini, V; Bost, P; Johnson, W; Rautiainen, R

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—The objective of the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program is to prevent traumatic occupational fatalities in the United States by identifying and investigating work situations at high risk for injury and formulating and disseminating prevention strategies to those who can intervene in the workplace. Setting—The FACE program is a research program located in the Division of Safety Research, a division of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH is an agency of the United States government and is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. NIOSH is responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for prevention of work related illnesses and injuries. FACE investigators conduct traumatic occupational fatality investigations throughout the United States and provide technical assistance to 15 state health or labor departments who have cooperative agreements with NIOSH to conduct traumatic fatality surveillance, targeted investigations, and prevention activities at the state level. Methods—Investigations are conducted at the worksite using the FACE model, an approach derived from the research conducted by William Haddon Jr. This approach reflects the public health perspective that the etiology of injuries is multifactorial and largely preventable. FACE investigators gather information on multiple factors that may have contributed to traumatic occupational fatalities. Information on factors associated with the agent (energy exchange, for example, thermal energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy), host (worker who died), and the environment (the physical and social aspects of the workplace), during the pre-event, event, and post-event time phases of the fatal incident are collected and analyzed. Organizational, behavioral, and environmental factors contributing to the death are detailed and prevention recommendations formulated and disseminated to help

  2. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraintsby Thomas Barth Inflatable restraint solutions have improved the survivability of commercial...Surviving an Aircraft Crash with Airbag Restraints by Thomas Barth Transport Aircraft Interiors The AmSafe Aviation Airbag entered service on commercial...all night.” Keithley also noted that, in his early days at BRL, Walt teamed up with a group of like-minded innovators, including Jim Foulk, Roland

  3. Lightning effects on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Direct and indirect effects of lightning on aircraft were examined in relation to aircraft design. Specific trends in design leading to more frequent lightning strikes were individually investigated. These trends included the increasing use of miniaturized, solid state components in aircraft electronics and electric power systems. A second trend studied was the increasing use of reinforced plastics and other nonconducting materials in place of aluminum skins, a practice that reduces the electromagnetic shielding furnished by a conductive skin.

  4. Structureborne noise in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clevenson, S. A.; Metcalf, V. L.

    1987-01-01

    The amount of noise reaching an aircraft's interior by structureborne paths, when high levels of other noises are present, involves the measurement of transfer functions between vibrating levels on the wing and interior noise. The magnitude of the structureborne noise transfer function is established by exciting the aircraft with an electrodynamic shaker; a second transfer function is measured using the same sensor locations with the aircraft engines operating. Attention is given to the case of a twin-turboprop OV-10A aircraft; the resulting transfer function values at the discrete frequencies corresponding to the propeller blade passage frequency and its first four harmonics are tabulated and illustrated.

  5. Disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma with fatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Silva, Gleiciere Maia; Silveira, Alice Rangel Cristiane; Betânia, Claudia Abreu Rodrigues; Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2013-10-01

    Disseminated fusariosis is an uncommon clinical condition in immunocompromised patients. We report a fatal case of disseminated fusariosis secondary to neuroblastoma in a male patient, 15 years old, who underwent a bone marrow transplant. The patient was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a public hospital in Recife-PE, Brazil, presenting bone marrow aplasia, severe leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. After 15 days, the patient developed right knee effusion. Synovial fluid and blood samples were analyzed at the Medical Mycology Laboratory of the Federal University of Pernambuco. Mycological diagnosis was based on the presence of hyaline septate hyphae on direct examination and the isolation of Fusarium oxysporum in culture, confirming the case of disseminated fusariosis. In vitro, the isolate showed fluconazole resistance and sensitivity to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, and voriconazole. Therapy with voriconazole in combination with liposomal amphotericin B led to an improved clinical response; however, due to underlying disease complications, the patient progressed to death.

  6. Fatal pyoderma gangrenosum with pathergy after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S

    2012-01-01

    Surgeons and others who perform invasive procedures should be aware of the possibility of pyoderma gangrenosum and the risk of pathergy in patients who have a history of unexplained skin ulcers or poor wound-healing. We report the case of a 70-year-old man in whom diffuse erythema over the anterior chest wall and marked leukocytosis developed after coronary artery bypass grafting. This prompted débridement and opening of the sternotomy wound. The cause of the erythema was pyoderma gangrenosum that expressed the pathergy phenomenon. The pyoderma gangrenosum subsequently involved the saphenous vein harvest site, a chest-tube site, and a previously healed abdominal scar. The patient died when an exposed saphenous vein graft was perforated. To our knowledge, this is the 9th reported case of pathergy due to pyoderma gangrenosum after coronary artery bypass grafting and the first with a fatal outcome.

  7. Fatal anaphylactic reaction to iron sucrose in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ajay; Dave, Nikhil; Viradiya, Kishor

    2013-01-01

    Iron-deficiency anemia in pregnancy can have serious deleterious effects for both mother and fetus. Parenteral iron therapy in iron-deficiency anemia is recommended in patients where oral iron therapy is ineffective due to malabsorption states and non-compliance. Compared to oral iron therapy, intravenous iron results in much more rapid resolution of iron-deficiency anemia with minimal adverse reactions. Iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile and is an alternative to other forms of parenteral iron therapy in correction of iron stores depletion. Immune mechanisms and iron agent releasing bioactive, partially unbound iron into the circulation, resulting in oxidative stress appears to cause severe adverse reactions. Although iron sucrose has a favorable safety profile in comparison to other parenteral iron preparations, this report highlights a fatal anaphylactic shock to iron sucrose in a pregnant woman with severe iron deficiency non-compliant to oral iron therapy.

  8. Case report of a fatal intoxication by Nucynta.

    PubMed

    Franco, Dori M; Ali, Zabiullah; Levine, Barry; Middleberg, Robert A; Fowler, David R

    2014-12-01

    Tapentadol (Nucynta) is a centrally acting opioid analgesic prescribed for the treatment of moderate to severe acute pain. Its efficacy is believed to be due to μ-opioid receptor agonist activity and inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake resulting in increased norepinephrine concentrations. There is only one other case in the literature relating to the toxicity of this agent or report of a fatality. This case report documents a case in which tapentadol was identified as the cause of death. The tapentadol concentration found in the heart blood submitted in this case was more than 20 times the upper limit of the therapeutic range. Possible mechanisms of death include respiratory depression, central nervous system depression, and serotonin syndrome. Based on the scene investigation and autopsy findings in this case, the medical examiner determined that the cause of death was narcotic (Nucynta) intoxication and the manner of death was undetermined.

  9. Pheniramine Maleate-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Aki: Is it Fatal?

    PubMed Central

    Venugopal, K; Reddy, M Mallikarjun; Bharathraj, M.Y; Jaligidad, Kadappa; Kushal, D.P

    2014-01-01

    Pheniramine maleate is an easily accessible, over-the-counterantihistaminic, which is frequently involved in overdoses. Pheniramine has antimuscarinic effect causing tachycardia, dilated pupils, urinary retention, and dry flushed skin, and decreased bowel sounds, confusion, mild increase in body temperature, cardiac arrhythmias, and seizures at lethal doses. It has not been implicated as an important cause of rhabdomyolysis and acute kidney injury (AKI). Rhabdomyolysis causing AKI is rarely reported in the literature. This case report emphasizes the occurrence of nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis in pheniramine maleate overdose which required hemodialysis. Since there is a lack of a specific antidote, treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive. We report a fatal case of a young male with a very high dose of consumption of pheniramine maleate (4.077 g), which was complicated by seizures, respiratory depression, nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis, and AKI. Despite hemodialysis, ventilator support, and other intensive supportive care, patient could not survive and death ensued due to multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. PMID:25948974

  10. [Influence of inhaling carbon monoxide-containing gas in fire fatalities--an investigation of forensic autopsy cases].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Tanaka, Sayaka; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Oritani, Shigeki; Ogawa, Masafumi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the influence of inhaling carbon monoxide (CO)-containing gases in fires, forensic autopsy cases of fire victims (n=193) were examined in comparison with control cases involving other causes of fatal CO intoxication (n=6 :COHb, 69.5-83.0%). Fire victims with blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels over 60% (n=76) showed a larger arterio-venous difference in blood COHb level compared with other fire victims and other fatal CO intoxication. However, biochemical findings for myocardial, cerebral damage or respiratory distress were milder in most cases, independent of blood cyanide levels, being similar to those in fatality due to inhalation of blast furnace gas with an extremely high concentration of CO (ca. 40%). These observations suggest that an acutely fatal factor in fires involves inhalation of gases containing high amounts of CO, which may induce peracute circulatory collapse before causing marked myocardial and cerebral damage or respiratory distress.

  11. Caffeine fatalities--four case reports.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Per; Nordén-Pettersson, Lotta; Ahlner, Johan

    2004-01-06

    Four cases of fatal intoxications with caffeine are described. Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different OTC-products, in many of them in combinations with other drugs like ephedrine. Caffeine is not as harmless as one might believe. An overdose of caffeine alone, intentional or not, might be deadly. It seems to be warranted to include caffeine in the drug-screening of forensic autopsy cases. It is not motivated from a medical point of view to sell pure caffeine over the counter.

  12. Sporadic Fatal Insomnia in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Blase, Jennifer L.; Cracco, Laura; Schonberger, Lawrence B.; Maddox, Ryan A.; Cohen, Yvonne; Cali, Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of sporadic prion disease among adolescents is extremely rare. A prion disease was confirmed in an adolescent with disease onset at 13 years of age. Genetic, neuropathologic, and biochemical analyses of the patient’s autopsy brain tissue were consistent with sporadic fatal insomnia, a type of sporadic prion disease. There was no evidence of an environmental source of infection, and this patient represents the youngest documented case of sporadic prion disease. Although rare, a prion disease diagnosis should not be discounted in adolescents exhibiting neurologic signs. Brain tissue testing is necessary for disease confirmation and is particularly beneficial in cases with an unusual clinical presentation. PMID:24488737

  13. Surveillance of Traumatic Firefighter Fatalities: An Assessment of Four Systems

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Chris R.; Marsh, Suzanne M.; Castillo, Dawn N.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Firefighters regularly respond to hazardous situations that put them at risk for fatal occupational injuries. Traumatic occupational fatality surveillance is a foundation for understanding the problem and developing prevention strategies. We assessed four surveillance systems for their utility in characterizing firefighter fatalities and informing prevention measures. Methods We examined three population-based systems (the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and systems maintained by the United States Fire Administration and the National Fire Protection Association) and one case-based system (data collected through the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation and Prevention Program). From each system, we selected traumatic fatalities among firefighters for 2003–2006. Then we compared case definitions, methods for case ascertainment, variables collected, and rate calculation methods. Results Overall magnitude of fatalities differed among systems. The population-based systems were effective in characterizing the circumstances of traumatic firefighter fatalities. The case-based surveillance system was effective in formulating detailed prevention recommendations, which could not be made based on the population-based data alone. Methods for estimating risk were disparate and limited fatality rate comparisons between firefighters and other workers. Conclusions The systems included in this study contribute toward a greater understanding of firefighter fatalities. Areas of improvement for these systems should continue to be identified as they are used to direct research and prevention efforts. PMID:21800748

  14. A collision risk model to predict avian fatalities at wind facilities: an example using golden eagles, Aquila chrysaetos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian A.; Otto, Mark C.; Runge, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  15. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos

    PubMed Central

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C.; Runge, Michael C.

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  16. A Collision Risk Model to Predict Avian Fatalities at Wind Facilities: An Example Using Golden Eagles, Aquila chrysaetos.

    PubMed

    New, Leslie; Bjerre, Emily; Millsap, Brian; Otto, Mark C; Runge, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Wind power is a major candidate in the search for clean, renewable energy. Beyond the technical and economic challenges of wind energy development are environmental issues that may restrict its growth. Avian fatalities due to collisions with rotating turbine blades are a leading concern and there is considerable uncertainty surrounding avian collision risk at wind facilities. This uncertainty is not reflected in many models currently used to predict the avian fatalities that would result from proposed wind developments. We introduce a method to predict fatalities at wind facilities, based on pre-construction monitoring. Our method can directly incorporate uncertainty into the estimates of avian fatalities and can be updated if information on the true number of fatalities becomes available from post-construction carcass monitoring. Our model considers only three parameters: hazardous footprint, bird exposure to turbines and collision probability. By using a Bayesian analytical framework we account for uncertainties in these values, which are then reflected in our predictions and can be reduced through subsequent data collection. The simplicity of our approach makes it accessible to ecologists concerned with the impact of wind development, as well as to managers, policy makers and industry interested in its implementation in real-world decision contexts. We demonstrate the utility of our method by predicting golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) fatalities at a wind installation in the United States. Using pre-construction data, we predicted 7.48 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.1, 19.81)). The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service uses the 80th quantile (11.0 eagle fatalities year-1) in their permitting process to ensure there is only a 20% chance a wind facility exceeds the authorized fatalities. Once data were available from two-years of post-construction monitoring, we updated the fatality estimate to 4.8 eagle fatalities year-1 (95% CI: (1.76, 9.4); 80th quantile, 6

  17. The potential for automatic crash notification systems to reduce road fatalities.

    PubMed

    Lahausse, Julie A; Fildes, Brian N; Page, Yves; Fitzharris, Michael P

    2008-10-01

    This predictive study investigated the effectiveness of Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems in reducing road fatalities, due to enabling faster emergency medical services (EMS) notification times, and therefore, the earlier provision of treatment. The cost-effectiveness associated with fleet installation of ACN systems in Australia was also evaluated. A range of data sources were used to identify the range of road fatalities that ACN systems could potentially mitigate, with urban and rural crashes analyzed separately, due to the average EMS notification time being slower for rural areas. It was established that ACN would provide an average crash-to-EMS notification time of one minute, which represented a three minute reduction in the total crash-to-hospital time for urban areas, with the corresponding reduction for rural areas being six minutes. Calculations revealed that these reductions would save an estimated 104 fatalities on Australian roads per annum (41 urban and 63 rural), assuming all vehicles were fitted with ACN. This corresponds to almost 11% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities. Despite the potential for ACN to significantly influence the Australian road toll, the benefit-cost-ratio analysis indicated that without government support, the systems are unlikely to be a cost-effective option for mandatory installation in all registered passenger vehicles. It was also recommended, however, that the benefits of ACN systems should be further investigated, in order to better establish their potential to increase road safety.

  18. Fatal and Near-Fatal Asthma in Children: the Critical Care Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Newth, Christopher J. L.; Meert, Kathleen L.; Clark, Amy E.; Moler, Frank W.; Zuppa, Athena F.; Berg, Robert A.; Pollack, Murray M.; Sward, Katherine A.; Berger, John T.; Wessel, David L.; Harrison, Rick E.; Reardon, Jean; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Holubkov, Richard; Dean, J. Michael; Doctor, Allan; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To characterize the clinical course, therapies, and outcomes of children with fatal and near-fatal asthma admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Study design Retrospective chart abstraction across the eight tertiary-care PICUs in the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network (CPCCRN). Inclusion criteria: children (1–18 years) admitted 2005 to 2009 (inclusive) for asthma receiving ventilation (near-fatal) or died (fatal). Data collected included medications, ventilator strategies, concomitant therapies, demographics and risk variables. Results Of 261 eligible children, 33 (13%) had no previous history of asthma, 218 (84%) survived with no known complications, and 32 (12%) had complications. Eleven (4%) died, 10 having had cardiac arrest before admission. Patients intubated outside the PICU had shorter ventilation (median 25 vs. 84 hours, p<0.001). African-Americans were disproportionately represented by numbers intubated and had shorter durations of intubation. Barotrauma occurred in 15 (6%) children before admission. Pharmacological therapies were highly variable with similar outcomes. Conclusions Of children ventilated in CPCCRN PICUs, 96% survived to hospital discharge. Most children who died experienced cardiac arrest prior to admission. Intubation outside the PICU was correlated with shorter ventilation duration. The complications of barotrauma and neuromyopathy were uncommon. Practice patterns varied widely between CPCCRN sites. PMID:22494876

  19. Coast Guard Aircraft: Transfer of Fixed-Wing C-27J Aircraft Is Complex and Further Fleet Purchases Should Coincide with Study Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    purchase a set of spare parts for each aircraft, but faces hurdles due to potential pricing issues and delivery delays from the manufacturer. Also...the 14th aircraft destined for the Coast Guard; (3) Coast Guard’s Aviation Logistics Center ; and (4) USASOC’s Pope Airfield. We also visited the...aircraft, including the fuel cost, spare parts, and wear and tear on the aircraft. The HC-144 and C-27J have a lower cost per flight hour than

  20. Evaluating the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M.P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  1. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines

    PubMed Central

    Arnett, Edward B.; Hein, Cris D.; Schirmacher, Michael R.; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Szewczak, Joseph M.

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21–51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ultrasonic Acoustic Deterrent for Reducing Bat Fatalities at Wind Turbines.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Edward B; Hein, Cris D; Schirmacher, Michael R; Huso, Manuela M P; Szewczak, Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Large numbers of bats are killed by wind turbines worldwide and minimizing fatalities is critically important to bat conservation and acceptance of wind energy development. We implemented a 2-year study testing the effectiveness of an ultrasonic acoustic deterrent for reducing bat fatalities at a wind energy facility in Pennsylvania. We randomly selected control and treatment turbines that were searched daily in summer and fall 2009 and 2010. Estimates of fatality, corrected for field biases, were compared between treatment and control turbines. In 2009, we estimated 21-51% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine than per control turbine. In 2010, we determined an approximate 9% inherent difference between treatment and control turbines and when factored into our analysis, variation increased and between 2% more and 64% fewer bats were killed per treatment turbine relative to control turbines. We estimated twice as many hoary bats were killed per control turbine than treatment turbine, and nearly twice as many silver-haired bats in 2009. In 2010, although we estimated nearly twice as many hoary bats and nearly 4 times as many silver-haired bats killed per control turbine than at treatment turbines during the treatment period, these only represented an approximate 20% increase in fatality relative to the pre-treatment period for these species when accounting for inherent differences between turbine sets. Our findings suggest broadband ultrasound broadcasts may reduce bat fatalities by discouraging bats from approaching sound sources. However, effectiveness of ultrasonic deterrents is limited by distance and area ultrasound can be broadcast, in part due to rapid attenuation in humid conditions. We caution that an operational deterrent device is not yet available and further modifications and experimentation are needed. Future efforts must also evaluate cost-effectiveness of deterrents in relation to curtailment strategies to allow a cost-benefit analysis for

  3. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  4. About morphological findings in fatal railway collisions.

    PubMed

    Driever, Frank; Schmidt, Peter; Madea, Burkhard

    2002-04-18

    The autopsy findings in fatal cases of railway collisions of the Bonn Institute of Legal Medicine in 1992-1999 were investigated and compared to the statements in the investigation files of the public prosecutor with regard to classification as accident or suicide as well as with regard to type and speed of collision. Of the 38 deaths, 10 were hit in an upright position, 11 fatal collisions affected persons lying outside the track and 13 were hit and overrun lying inside the track. According to the investigation classification 21 persons committed suicide (56%), while 10 died in an accident (26%). Our survey confirmed the leading role of being over-rolled in a lying position as an indication for suicides, while in accidents the upright hit was most important. With exception of the persons primarily affected between the rails in upright position and over-rolled consecutively an unequivocal assignment of injury patterns to the hit categories was possible. In cases of persons being primarily over-rolled in a lying position especially the criteria (i) opening of body cavities, (ii) organ injuries and (iii) loss of parts of the body allowed for careful conclusion on hit, respectively, overrunning speed.

  5. Quantitative thermal imaging of aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Howell, Patricia A.; Syed, Hazari I.

    1995-03-01

    Aircraft structural integrity is a major concern for airlines and airframe manufacturers. To remain economically competitive, airlines are looking at ways to retire older aircraft, not when some fixed number of flight hours or cycles has been reached, but when true structural need dictates. This philosophy is known as `retirement for cause.' The need to extend the life of commercial aircraft has increased the desire to develop nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques capable of detecting critical flaws such as disbonding and corrosion. These subsurface flaws are of major concern in bonded lap joints. Disbonding in such a joint can provide an avenue for moisture to enter the structure leading to corrosion. Significant material loss due to corrosion can substantially reduce the structural strength, load bearing capacity and ultimately reduce the life of the structure. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center has developed a thermal NDE system designed for application to disbonding and corrosion detection in aircraft skins. By injecting a small amount of heat into the front surface of an aircraft skin, and recording the time history of the resulting surface temperature variations using an infrared camera, quantitative images of both bond integrity and material loss due to corrosion can be produced. This paper presents a discussion of the development of the thermal imaging system as well as the techniques used to analyze the resulting thermal images. The analysis techniques presented represent a significant improvement in the information available over conventional thermal imaging due to the inclusion of data from both the heating and cooling portion of the thermal cycle. Results of laboratory experiments on fabricated disbond and material loss samples are presented to determine the limitations of the system. Additionally, the results of actual aircraft inspections are shown, which help to establish the field applicability for this

  6. Cable Tensiometer for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunnelee, Mark (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The invention is a cable tensiometer that can be used on aircraft for real-time, in-flight cable tension measurements. The invention can be used on any aircraft cables with high precision. The invention is extremely light-weight, hangs on the cable being tested and uses a dual bending beam design with a high mill-volt output to determine tension.

  7. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  8. Aircraft landing control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambregts, Antonius A. (Inventor); Hansen, Rolf (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Upon aircraft landing approach, flare path command signals of altitude, vertical velocity and vertical acceleration are generated as functions of aircraft position and velocity with respect to the ground. The command signals are compared with corresponding actual values to generate error signals which are used to control the flight path.

  9. Predicting Aircraft Availability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    ENS- GRP -13-J-2 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIR UNIVERSITY AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio...AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational...APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED AFIT-ENS- GRP -13-J-2 PREDICTING AIRCRAFT AVAILABILITY Mark A. Chapa

  10. NASA's Research in Aircraft Vulnerability Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Cheryl L.

    2005-01-01

    Since its inception in 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA) role in civil aeronautics has been to develop high-risk, high-payoff technologies to meet critical national aviation challenges. Following the events of Sept. 11, 2001, NASA recognized that it now shared the responsibility for improving homeland security. The NASA Strategic Plan was modified to include requirements to enable a more secure air transportation system by investing in technologies and collaborating with other agencies, industry, and academia. NASA is conducting research to develop and advance innovative and commercially viable technologies that will reduce the vulnerability of aircraft to threats or hostile actions, and identify and inform users of potential vulnerabilities in a timely manner. Presented in this paper are research plans and preliminary status for mitigating the effects of damage due to direct attacks on civil transport aircraft. The NASA approach to mitigation includes: preventing loss of an aircraft due to a hit from man-portable air defense systems; developing fuel system technologies that prevent or minimize in-flight vulnerability to small arms or other projectiles; providing protection from electromagnetic energy attacks by detecting directed energy threats to aircraft and on/off-board systems; and minimizing the damage due to high-energy attacks (explosions and fire) by developing advanced lightweight, damage-resistant composites and structural concepts. An approach to preventing aircraft from being used as weapons of mass destruction will also be discussed.

  11. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed

    Gratz, N G; Steffen, R; Cocksedge, W

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described.

  12. Why aircraft disinsection?

    PubMed Central

    Gratz, N. G.; Steffen, R.; Cocksedge, W.

    2000-01-01

    A serious problem is posed by the inadvertent transport of live mosquitoes aboard aircraft arriving from tropical countries where vector-borne diseases are endemic. Surveys at international airports have found many instances of live insects, particularly mosquitoes, aboard aircraft arriving from countries where malaria and arboviruses are endemic. In some instances mosquito species have been established in countries in which they have not previously been reported. A serious consequence of the transport of infected mosquitoes aboard aircraft has been the numerous cases of "airport malaria" reported from Europe, North America and elsewhere. There is an important on-going need for the disinsection of aircraft coming from airports in tropical disease endemic areas into nonendemic areas. The methods and materials available for use in aircraft disinsection and the WHO recommendations for their use are described. PMID:10994283

  13. Aircraft operations management manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The NASA aircraft operations program is a multifaceted, highly diverse entity that directly supports the agency mission in aeronautical research and development, space science and applications, space flight, astronaut readiness training, and related activities through research and development, program support, and mission management aircraft operations flights. Users of the program are interagency, inter-government, international, and the business community. This manual provides guidelines to establish policy for the management of NASA aircraft resources, aircraft operations, and related matters. This policy is an integral part of and must be followed when establishing field installation policy and procedures covering the management of NASA aircraft operations. Each operating location will develop appropriate local procedures that conform with the requirements of this handbook. This manual should be used in conjunction with other governing instructions, handbooks, and manuals.

  14. Hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulk, Tim; Chiarini, David; Hill, Kevin; Kunszt, Bob; Odgen, Chris; Truong, Bon

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual design of a hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft for the U.S. Navy is discussed. After eighteen weeks of work, a waverider design powered by two augmented turbofans was chosen. The aircraft was designed to be based on an aircraft carrier and to cruise 6,000 nautical miles at Mach 4;80,000 feet and above. As a result the size of the aircraft was only allowed to have a length of eighty feet, fifty-two feet in wingspan, and roughly 2,300 square feet in planform area. Since this is a mainly cruise aircraft, sixty percent of its 100,000 pound take-off weight is JP fuel. At cruise, the highest temperature that it will encounter is roughly 1,100 F, which can be handled through the use of a passive cooling system.

  15. Are hook turns a major obstacle to safe skydiving? A study of skydiving fatalities in the United States from 1992 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Vidovic, Martina; Rugai, Nick

    2007-12-01

    Landing errors account for most of the skydiving fatalities today in more experienced skydivers. The United States Parachute Association (USPA) states that this is due to a new generation of parachutes with higher wing loading. Using data on fatalities from 1992 to 2005 as reported by the USPA, hook turns were found to be a major cause of death but not significantly associated with higher wing loading. Fatalities caused by not having a functional parachute have decreased over the years, possibly due to introduction and widespread use of safety devices.

  16. Investigation of Cross Flow Fan Propulsion for Lightweight VTOL Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-01

    the aircraft longitudinal axis due to the total length of the unit. A total fan span of 20.6 inches is required to produce 690 lbf of thrust when...which are mounted parallel to the aircraft longitudinal axis and rest perpendicular, would be actuated as required to provide yaw control and aft

  17. Inertial Force Coupling to Nonlinear Aeroelasticity of Flexible Wing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Nhan T.; Ting, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the inertial force effect on nonlinear aeroelasticity of flexible wing aircraft. The geometric are nonlinearity due to rotational and tension stiffening. The effect of large bending deflection will also be investigated. Flutter analysis will be conducted for a truss-braced wing aircraft concept with tension stiffening and inertial force coupling.

  18. Daedalus Project's Light Eagle - Human powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    autopilot that could be used on high altitude or human powered aircraft, and determining the power required to fly the Daedalus aircraft. The research flights began in late December 1987 with a shake-down of the Light Eagle instrumentation and data transfer links. The first flight of the Daedalus 87 also occurred during this time. On February 7, 1988, the Daedalus 87 aircraft crashed on Rogers Dry Lakebed. The Daedalus 88, which later set the world record, was then shipped from MIT to replace the 87's research flights, and for general checkout procedures. Due to the accident, flight testing was extended four weeks and thus ended in mid-March 1988 after having achieved the major goals of the program; exploring the dynamics of low Reynolds number aircraft, and investigating the aeroelastic behavior of lightweight aircraft. The information obtained from this program had direct applications to the later design of many high-altitude, long endurance aircraft.

  19. Fractal aircraft trajectories and nonclassical turbulent exponents.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, S; Schertzer, D; Tuck, A F

    2004-09-01

    The dimension (D) of aircraft trajectories is fundamental in interpreting airborne data. To estimate D, we studied data from 18 trajectories of stratospheric aircraft flights 1600 km long taken during a "Mach cruise" (near constant Mach number) autopilot flight mode of the ER-2 research aircraft. Mach cruise implies correlated temperature and wind fluctuations so that DeltaZ approximately Deltax (H(z) ) where Z is the (fluctuating) vertical and x the horizontal coordinate of the aircraft. Over the range approximately 3-300 km , we found H(z) approximately 0.58+/-0.02 close to the theoretical 5/9=0.56 and implying D=1+ H(z) =14/9 , i.e., the trajectories are fractal. For distances <3 km aircraft inertia smooths the trajectories, for distances >300 km , D=1 again because of a rise of 1 m/km due to fuel consumption. In the fractal regime, the horizontal velocity and temperature exponents are close to the nonclassical value 1/2 (rather than 1/3 ). We discuss implications for aircraft measurements as well as for the structure of the atmosphere.

  20. Aircraft Loss of Control Causal Factors and Mitigation Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control is the leading cause of jet fatalities worldwide. Aside from their frequency of occurrence, accidents resulting from loss of aircraft control seize the public s attention by yielding a large number of fatalities in a single event. In response to the rising threat to aviation safety, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted a study of the loss of control problem. This study gathered four types of information pertaining to loss of control accidents: (1) statistical data; (2) individual accident reports that cite loss of control as a contributing factor; (3) previous meta-analyses of loss of control accidents; and (4) inputs solicited from aircraft manufacturers, air carriers, researchers, and other industry stakeholders. Using these information resources, the study team identified the causal factors that were cited in the greatest number of loss of control accidents, and which were emphasized most by industry stakeholders. This report describes the study approach, the key causal factors for aircraft loss of control, and recommended mitigation strategies to make near-term impacts, mid-term impacts, and Next Generation Air Transportation System impacts on the loss of control accident statistics

  1. Tuberculosis treatment adherence and fatality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The adherence to long tuberculosis (TB) treatment is a key factor in TB control programs. Always some patients abandon the treatment or die. The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with defaulting from or dying during antituberculosis treatment. Methods Prospective study of a large cohort of TB cases diagnosed during 2006-2007 by 61 members of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR). Predictive factors of completion outcome (cured plus completed treatment vs. defaulters plus lost to follow-up) and fatality (died vs. the rest of patients) were based on logistic regression, calculating odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of the 1490 patients included, 29.7% were foreign-born. The treatment outcomes were: cured 792 (53.2%), completed treatment 540 (36.2%), failure 2 (0.1%), transfer-out 33 (2.2%), default 27 (1.8%), death 27 (1.8%), lost to follow-up 65 (4.4%), other 4 (0.3%). Completion outcome reached 93.5% and poor adherence was associated with: being an immigrant (OR = 2.03; CI:1.06-3.88), living alone (OR = 2.35; CI:1.05-5.26), residents of confined institutions (OR = 4.79; CI:1.74-13.14), previous treatment (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98), being an injecting drug user (IDU) (OR = 9.51; CI:2.70-33.47) and treatment comprehension difficulties (OR = 2.93; CI:1.44-5.98). Case fatality was 1.8% and it was associated with the following variables: age 50 or over (OR = 10.88; CI:1.12-105.01), retired (OR = 12.26;CI:1.74-86.04), HIV-infected (OR = 9.93; CI:1.48-66.34), comprehension difficulties (OR = 4.07; CI:1.24-13.29), IDU (OR = 23.59; CI:2.46-225.99) and Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) (OR = 3.54; CI:1.07-11.77). Conclusion Immigrants, those living alone, residents of confined institutions, patients treated previously, those with treatment comprehension difficulties, and IDU patients have poor adherence and should be targeted for DOT. To reduce fatality rates, stricter monitoring is required

  2. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-01-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  3. Problems with aging wiring in Naval aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Frank J.

    1994-09-01

    The Navy is experiencing a severe aircraft electrical wiring maintenance problem as a result of the extensive use of an aromatic polyimide insulation that is deteriorating at a rate that was unexpected when this wire was initially selected. This problem has significantly affected readiness, reliability, and safety and has greatly increased the cost of ownership of Naval aircraft. Failures in wire harnesses have exhibited arcing and burning that will propagate drastically, to the interruption of many electrical circuits from a fault initiated by the failure of deteriorating wires. There is an urgent need for a capability to schedule aircraft rewiring in an orderly manner with a logically derived determination of which aircraft have aged to the point of absolute necessity. Excessive maintenance was demonstrated to result from the accelerated aging due to the parameters of moisture, temperature, and strain that exist in the Naval Aircraft environment. Laboratory studies have demonstrated that MIL-W-81381 wire insulation when aged at high humidities followed the classical Arrhenius thermal aging relationship. In an extension of the project a multifactor formula was developed that is now capable of predicting life under varying conditions of these service parameters. An automated test system has also been developed to analyze the degree of deterioration that has occurred in wires taken from an aircraft in order to obtain an assessment of remaining life. Since it is both physically and financially impossible to replace the wiring in all the Navy's aircraft at once, this system will permit expedient scheduling so that those aircraft that are most probable to have wiring failure problems can be overhauled first.

  4. When attempts at robbing prey turn fatal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejean, Alain; Corbara, Bruno; Azémar, Frédéric; Carpenter, James M.

    2012-07-01

    Because group-hunting arboreal ants spread-eagle insect prey for a long time before retrieving them, these prey can be coveted by predatory flying insects. Yet, attempting to rob these prey is risky if the ant species is also an effective predator. Here, we show that trying to rob prey from Azteca andreae workers is a fatal error as 268 out of 276 potential cleptobionts (97.1 %) were captured in turn. The ant workers hunt in a group and use the "Velcro®" principle to cling firmly to the leaves of their host tree, permitting them to capture very large prey. Exceptions were one social wasp, plus some Trigona spp. workers and flies that landed directly on the prey and were able to take off immediately when attacked. We conclude that in this situation, previously captured prey attract potential cleptobionts that are captured in turn in most of the cases.

  5. Fatal primary meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri.

    PubMed

    Shariq, Ali; Afridi, Faisal Iqbal; Farooqi, Badar Jahan; Ahmed, Sumaira; Hussain, Arif

    2014-07-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a free living parasite which habitats in fresh water reservoirs. It causes a fatal nervous system infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis by invading through cribriform plate of nose and gaining entry into brain. We report a case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri in Karachi, Pakistan, in a 42 years old male poultry farm worker having no history of swimming. Clinical course was fulminant and death occurred within one week of hospital admission. Naegleria fowleri was detected by wet mount technique in the sample of cerebrospinal fluid collected by lumbar puncture of patient. This is a serious problem and requires immediate steps to prevent general population to get affected by this lethal neurological infection.

  6. Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Ueda, K; Goto, Y; Yamazaki, S; Fujiwara, K

    1977-12-01

    A chronic pulmonary disease was encountered in nude mice of a barrier sustained colony, and Pneumocystis carinii was identified as the causative agent histopathologically as well as on impression smear preparations in the affected lungs. Fatal infection was seen only in old nude mice aged more than 6 months, while focal pulmonary lesions were developed without clinical signs in young adult nudes 2 to 3 months of age. The lesions produced in aged nude mice were characterized by propagation of mononuclear cells with the presence of foamy masses of P. carinii. Heterozygous littermates were much less susceptible to the infection but pneumocystic lesions could be produced readily by multiple treatment with immunosuppressants. The infection could be transmitted without immunosuppressant to non-infected nudes but not to heterozygous littermates after intranasal inoculation of affected tissue emulsion or by cage mating with severely affected nudes.

  7. Two fatal tiger attacks in zoos.

    PubMed

    Tantius, Britta; Wittschieber, Daniel; Schmidt, Sven; Rothschild, Markus A; Banaschak, Sibylle

    2016-01-01

    Two captive tiger attacks are presented that took place in Cologne and Münster zoos. Both attacks occurred when the handlers, intent on cleaning the enclosures, entered whilst the tigers accidently retained access to the location, and thus defended their territory against the perceived intruders. Both victims suffered fatal neck injuries from the bites. At Münster, colleagues managed to lure the tiger away from its victim to enable treatment, whilst the Cologne zoo tiger had to be shot in order to allow access to be gained. Whilst it was judged that human error led to the deaths of the experienced zookeepers, the investigation in Münster was closed as no third party was found to be at fault, whereas the Cologne zoo director was initially charged with being negligent. These charges were subsequently dismissed as safety regulations were found to be up to date.

  8. [An unusual case of fatal airbag injury].

    PubMed

    Usumoto, Yosuke; Hikiji, Wakako; Kudo, Keiko; Tsuji, Akiko; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2008-11-01

    We report an unusual case of fatal airbag injury. A woman in her forties was driving a light car when it was involved in an accident. When the car was found, the left front wheel had dropped into the gutter, the front bumper was dented and the airbag had deployed. Forensic autopsy revealed that the right subclavian artery and the left vertebral artery were ruptured and 1,570 ml and 360 ml of blood with clots were observed in the left and the right thoracic cavity, respectively. It was considered that the unusual collision produced by deployment of the airbag had caused these ruptures and massive hemorrhaging. Although an airbag is an effective tool for ensuring the safety of a driver and the passengers, it may injure and occasionally kill the occupants if they do not remain in the appropriate and restrained seating position.

  9. Fatal dog maulings associated with infant swings.

    PubMed

    Chu, Albert Y; Ripple, Mary G; Allan, Carol H; Thogmartin, Jon R; Fowler, David R

    2006-03-01

    We present three cases of fatal dog maulings of infants placed in mobile infant swings, a phenomenon not previously described in the literature. In each case, the victim was left in a mobile swing, unsupervised by an adult, and the attacking dog was a family pet. Case 1 involved an 18-day-old male infant attacked by a pit bull; Case 2 involved a 3-month-old male infant attacked by a Chow Chow and/or a Dachshund, and Case 3 involved an 18-day-old female infant attacked by a Labrador-pit bull mix. These cases not only underscore the importance of not leaving young children unattended in the presence of pet dogs, but also raise the possibility that mobile swings may trigger a predatory response in dogs and thus may represent an additional risk factor for dog attack.

  10. Two Fatal Intoxications Involving Butyryl Fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Poklis, Justin; Poklis, Alphonse; Wolf, Carl; Hathaway, Cindie; Arbefeville, Elise; Chrostowski, Leszek; Devers, Kelly; Hair, Laura; Mainland, Mary; Merves, Michele; Pearson, Julia

    2016-10-01

    We present the case histories, autopsy findings and toxicology findings of two fatal intoxications involving the designer drug, butyryl fentanyl. The quantitative analysis of butyryl fentanyl in postmortem fluids and tissues was performed by an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method. In the first case, butyryl fentanyl was the only drug detected with concentrations of 99 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 220 ng/mL in heart blood, 32 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 590 ng/mL in gastric contents, 93 ng/g in brain, 41 ng/g in liver, 260 ng/mL in bile and 64 ng/mL in urine. The cause of death was ruled fatal intoxication by butyryl fentanyl. In the second case, butyryl fentanyl was detected along with acetyl fentanyl, alprazolam and ethanol. The butyryl fentanyl concentrations were 3.7 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 9.2 ng/mL in heart blood, 9.8 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 4,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 63 ng/g in brain, 39 ng/g in liver, 49 ng/mL in bile and 2 ng/mL in urine. The acetyl fentanyl concentrations were 21 ng/mL in peripheral blood, 95 ng/mL in heart blood, 68 ng/mL in vitreous humor, 28,000 ng/mL in gastric contents, 200 ng/g in brain, 160 ng/g in liver, 330 ng/mL in bile and 8 ng/mL in urine. In addition, the alprazolam concentration was 40 ng/mL and the ethanol concentration was 0.11 g/dL, both measured in peripheral blood. The cause of death in the second case was ruled a mixed drug intoxication. In both cases, the manner of death was accident.

  11. Predicting Visibility of Aircraft

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V.; Salud, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration. PMID:19462007

  12. Predicting visibility of aircraft.

    PubMed

    Watson, Andrew; Ramirez, Cesar V; Salud, Ellen

    2009-05-20

    Visual detection of aircraft by human observers is an important element of aviation safety. To assess and ensure safety, it would be useful to be able to be able to predict the visibility, to a human observer, of an aircraft of specified size, shape, distance, and coloration. Examples include assuring safe separation among aircraft and between aircraft and unmanned vehicles, design of airport control towers, and efforts to enhance or suppress the visibility of military and rescue vehicles. We have recently developed a simple metric of pattern visibility, the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO). In this report we examine whether the SSO can predict visibility of simulated aircraft images. We constructed a set of aircraft images from three-dimensional computer graphic models, and measured the luminance contrast threshold for each image from three human observers. The data were well predicted by the SSO. Finally, we show how to use the SSO to predict visibility range for aircraft of arbitrary size, shape, distance, and coloration.

  13. The Identification and Quantitation of Triamterene in Blood and Urine from a Fatal Aircraft Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-07-01

    high performance liquid chromatography were used to identify and quantitate triamterene in blood and urine. Triamterene is a strong absorber in the ultraviolet region and has an unusual UV spectrum, which simplifies the identification and quantitation of this substance by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  14. A comment on "Novel scavenger removal trials increase wind turbine-caused avian fatality estimates"

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huso, Manuela M.P.; Erickson, Wallace P.

    2013-01-01

    In a recent paper, Smallwood et al. (2010) conducted a study to compare their “novel” approach to conducting carcass removal trials with what they term the “conventional” approach and to evaluate the effects of the different methods on estimated avian fatality at a wind power facility in California. A quick glance at Table 3 that succinctly summarizes their results and provides estimated fatality rates and 80% confidence intervals calculated using the 2 methods reveals a surprising result. The confidence intervals of all of their estimates and most of the conventional estimates extend below 0. These results imply that wind turbines may have the capacity to create live birds. But a more likely interpretation is that a serious error occurred in the calculation of either the average fatality rate or its standard error or both. Further evaluation of their methods reveals that the scientific basis for concluding that “many estimates of scavenger removal rates prior to [their] study were likely biased low due to scavenger swamping” and “previously reported estimates of avian fatality rates … should be adjusted upwards” was not evident in their analysis and results. Their comparison to conventional approaches was not applicable, their statistical models were questionable, and the conclusions they drew were unsupported.

  15. Fatal intentional poisoning cases admitted to the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium from 1993 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Bruyndonckx, R B; Meulemans, A I; Sabbe, M B; Kumar, A A; Delooz, H H

    2002-09-01

    Between January 1993 and July 1996, a total of 2827 intentional cases of poisoning were registered in the University Hospitals of Leuven, Belgium. Ten of these cases were fatal. This study was set up to evaluate the substances involved, the circumstances, the features and the characteristics of the patients who died due to intentional poisoning. The male to female ratio of these fatal cases was 9 : 1. The median age was 43 years. Two groups of substances were revealed to be associated with fatal outcome. The first group consisted of chemicals (seven lethal cases): cholinesterase inhibitors ( =3), methanol ( =2) and paraquat ( =2). The second group consisted of benzodiazepines (three lethal cases). In the cases of poisoning with chemicals, death was directly related to product toxicity and the severity of the poisoning, whilst with benzodiazepines, which are considered to be relatively safe drugs even when taken in overdose, there was a clear relationship between a fatal outcome and a delay between ingestion and medical support. Product toxicity, complications and a delay in medical support may be considered as predictors for the effectiveness and efficacy of treatment and may influence which medical treatments need to be administered.

  16. News reports of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Srabstein, Jorge Carlos

    2013-05-01

    Bullying is a multifaceted and injurious form of maltreatment, prevalent across social settings and around the globe. Victims and perpetrators of bullying are at significant risk of suffering from an array of morbidity and dying young due to accidental injuries, suicide, and homicide. This study reviews news reports of nonfatal and fatal injuries linked to bullying throughout the Western Hemisphere during 12 months. News reports, obtained through a Google search, of episodes of fatal and nonfatal injuries related to school bullying and violence from July 2011 through June 2012 that affected children and adolescents (ages 5 to 19 years) throughout the Americas were analyzed. News reports were found of 82 cases of bullying-related fatal and nonfatal injuries, occurring in one year, across 24 countries and dependent territories in the Western Hemisphere, which have a combined total youth population of 225.5 million children and adolescents ages 5 to 19 years. Ninety-seven percent of the victims were between 10 and 19 years old; 60% of them were below age 15, with a male/female ratio of 2:1. News reports of fatal and nonfatal injurious events related to bullying and affecting children and adolescents in the Americas in one year represent the tip of the public health iceberg composing the unknown magnitude of injuries associated with this type of maltreatment. Data on the magnitude of mortality linked to bullying, which would be of the essence in developing public health policies for its prevention, have not been documented.

  17. CFD for applications to aircraft aeroelasticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guruswamy, Guru P.

    1989-01-01

    Strong interactions of structures and fluids are common in many engineering environments. Such interactions can give rise to physically important phenomena such as those occurring for aircraft due to aeroelasticity. Aeroelasticity can significantly influence the safe performance of aircraft. At present exact methods are available for making aeroelastic computations when flows are in either the linear subsonic or supersonic range. However, for complex flows containing shock waves, vortices and flow separations, computational methods are still under development. Several phenomena that can be dangerous and limit the performance of an aircraft occur due to the interaction of these complex flows with flexible aircraft components such as wings. For example, aircraft with highly swept wings experience vortex induced aeroelastic oscillations. Correct understanding of these complex aeroelastic phenomena requires direct coupling of fluids and structural equations. Here, a summary is presented of the development of such coupled methods and applications to aeroelasticity since about 1978 to present. The successful use of the transonic small perturbation theory (TSP) coupled with structures is discussed. This served as a major stepping stone for the current stage of aeroelasticity using computational fluid dynamics. The need for the use of more exact Euler/Navier-Stokes (ENS) equations for aeroelastic problems is explained. The current development of unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic procedures based on the ENS equations are discussed. Aeroelastic results computed using both TSP and ENS equations are discussed.

  18. Some fighter aircraft trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, L.

    1985-01-01

    Some basic trends in fighters are traced from the post World II era. Beginning with the first operational jet fighter, the P-80, the characteristics of subsequent fighter aircraft are examined for performance, mission capability, effectiveness, and cost. Characteristics presented include: power loading, wing loading, maximum speed, rate of climb, turn rate, weight and weight distribution, cost and cost distribution. The characteristics of some USSR aircraft are included for comparison. The trends indicate some of the rationale for certain fighter designs and some likely characteristics to be sought in future fighter aircraft designs.

  19. Loftin Collection - Boeing Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1933-01-01

    Either a F2B-1 or F3B-1, both aircraft were built by Boeing and both were powered by Pratt and Whitney Wasp engines. These fighters were intended for Navy shipboard use. Boeing F3B-1: While most Boeing F3B-1s served the U. S. Navy aircraft carriers the Lexington and the Saratoga, this example flew in NACA hands at the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory in the late 1920's. Also known as the Boeing Model 77, the aircraft was the next to last F3B-1 build in November 1928.

  20. Tropospheric sampling with aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Daum, P.H.; Springston, S.R.

    1991-03-01

    Aircraft constitute a unique environment which places stringent requirements on the instruments used to measure the concentrations of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. Some of these requirements such as minimization of size, weight, and power consumption are general; others are specific to individual techniques. This review presents the basic principles and considerations governing the deployment of trace gas and aerosol instrumentation on an aircraft. An overview of common instruments illustrates these points and provides guidelines for designing and using instruments on aircraft-based measurement programs.

  1. Microwave imaging of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Bernard D.

    1988-12-01

    Three methods of imaging aircraft from the ground with microwave radar with quality suitable for aircraft target recognition are described. The imaging methods are based on a self-calibration procedure called adaptive beamforming that compensates for the severe geometric distortion inherent in any imaging system that is large enough to achieve the high angular resolution necessary for two-dimensional target imaging. The signal processing algorithm is described and X-band (3-cm)-wavelength experiments demonstrate its success on commercial aircraft flying into Philadelphia International Airport.

  2. Aircraft compass characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Smith, Clyde W

    1937-01-01

    A description of the test methods used at the National Bureau of Standards for determining the characteristics of aircraft compasses is given. The methods described are particularly applicable to compasses in which mineral oil is used as the damping liquid. Data on the viscosity and density of certain mineral oils used in United States Navy aircraft compasses are presented. Characteristics of Navy aircraft compasses IV to IX and some other compasses are shown for the range of temperatures experienced in flight. Results of flight tests are presented. These results indicate that the characteristic most desired in a steering compass is a short period and, in a check compass, a low overswing.

  3. OVRhyp, Scramjet Test Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslan, J.; Bisard, T.; Dallinga, S.; Draper, K.; Hufford, G.; Peters, W.; Rogers, J.

    1990-01-01

    A preliminary design for an unmanned hypersonic research vehicle to test scramjet engines is presented. The aircraft will be launched from a carrier aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 feet at Mach 0.8. The vehicle will then accelerate to Mach 6 at an altitude of 100,000 feet. At this stage the prototype scramjet will be employed to accelerate the vehicle to Mach 10 and maintain Mach 10 flight for 2 minutes. The aircraft will then decelerate and safely land.

  4. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-11

    AD-A095 680 ARMY TEST AND EVALUATION COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GRO--ETC F/S 1/4 TESTING AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS .(U) FEB 81 CLASSIFIED TOP-6-3-013 ML I...Test and Evaluation Command -?Final 7, Ts .to .. eg----- ( -4_ Fia - / + I ORG REPORT STesting Aircraft Instruments , j P I- I. AUTHOR(es) S. CONTRACT...Identify by block number) This document presents information and procedures for testing aircraft flight and systems performance instruments in the functional

  5. Fatal Child Maltreatment in England, 2005-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidebotham, Peter; Bailey, Sue; Belderson, Pippa; Brandon, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comprehensive and up-to-date data covering 4 years of Serious Case Reviews into fatal child maltreatment in England. Methods: Information on all notified cases of fatal maltreatment between April 2005 and March 2009 was examined to obtain case characteristics related to a systemic classification of 5 broad groups of…

  6. Fatality Analysis Reporting System, General Estimates System: 2001 Data Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), which became operational in 1975, contains data on a census of fatal traffic crashes within the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The General Estimates System (GES), which began in 1988, provides data from a nationally representative probability sample selected from all…

  7. Hispanic employees in the workplace: higher rate of fatalities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shelly; Ostendorf, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the higher fatality and injury rates among the Hispanic population in the United States, whether legal immigrants, citizens, or illegal immigrants; reviews the current government and private industry regulations and safety programs; proposes additional legislation or programs; and describes the role of the occupational and environmental health nurse in reducing injuries and fatalities in this population.

  8. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... interventions. Table of Contents Introduction How many children die each year from child abuse or neglect? What groups of children are most vulnerable? How do these deaths occur? Who are the perpetrators? How do communities respond to child fatalities? How can these fatalities be prevented? ...

  9. [Secondary prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism: analysis of 49 fatal cases].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyńska, L; Hajduk, B; Vertun-Baranowska, B; Kober, J; Filipecki, S

    1998-01-01

    The analysis of 49 fatal cases of venous thromboembolism--VTE (15% of total ambulatory patients number during long observation was performed. The advanced age of patients, multiple risk factors, underlying circulatory and respiratory tract diseases, malignancies, previous episodes of VTE especially with secondary pulmonary hypertension were the most important factors determining fatal prognoses in those patients.

  10. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    PubMed

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities.

  11. Teenaged Drivers and Fatal Crash Responsibility. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Allan F.; Karpf, Ronald S.

    According to data obtained for the year 1978 from the Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS) and from state governments under contract to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, teenaged drivers (especially males) have much higher rates of fatal crash involvement than older drivers. In addition, teenaged drivers are more likely than…

  12. Influence of Appalachian Fatalism on Adolescent Identity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Tommy M.

    2007-01-01

    The influences of the fatalism frequently associated with Appalachian culture on adolescent identity processes were explored. The sample consisted of 91 Appalachian adolescents and 87 non-Appalachian adolescents. Participants completed measures of fatalism (operationalized in terms of higher hopelessness and lower optimism/efficacy scores) and…

  13. Bordetella bronchiseptica and fatal pneumonia of dogs and cats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bordetella bronchiseptica frequently causes nonfatal tracheobronchitis, but its role in fatal pneumonia is less well-studied. The objectives of this study were to identify the frequency of Bordetella bronchiseptica infection in fatal cases of bronchopneumonia in dogs and cats and to compare the diag...

  14. Temperature of aircraft cargo flame exposure during accidents involving fuel spills

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an evaluation of flame exposure temperatures of weapons contained in alert (parked) bombers due to accidents that involve aircraft fuel fires. The evaluation includes two types of accident, collisions into an alert aircraft by an aircraft that is on landing or take-off, and engine start accidents. Both the B-1B and B-52 alert aircraft are included in the evaluation.

  15. American Academy of Pediatrics. Policy statement--child fatality review.

    PubMed

    2010-09-01

    Injury remains the leading cause of pediatric mortality and requires public health approaches to reduce preventable deaths. Child fatality review teams, first established to review suspicious child deaths involving abuse or neglect, have expanded toward a public health model of prevention of child fatality through systematic review of child deaths from birth through adolescence. Approximately half of all states report reviewing child deaths from all causes, and the process of fatality review has identified effective local and state prevention strategies for reducing child deaths. This expanded approach can be a powerful tool in understanding the epidemiology and preventability of child death locally, regionally, and nationally; improving accuracy of vital statistics data; and identifying public health and legislative strategies for reducing preventable child fatalities. The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the development of federal and state legislation to enhance the child fatality review process and recommends that pediatricians become involved in local and state child death reviews.

  16. Uber and Metropolitan Traffic Fatalities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brazil, Noli; Kirk, David S

    2016-08-01

    Uber and similar rideshare services are rapidly dispersing in cities across the United States and beyond. Given the convenience and low cost, Uber has been characterized as a potential countermeasure for reducing the estimated 121 million episodes of drunk driving and the 10,000 resulting traffic fatalities that occur annually in the United States. We exploited differences in the timing of the deployment of Uber in US metropolitan counties from 2005 to 2014 to test the association between the availability of Uber's rideshare services and total, drunk driving-related, and weekend- and holiday-specific traffic fatalities in the 100 most populated metropolitan areas in the United States using negative binomial and Poisson regression models. We found that the deployment of Uber services in a given metropolitan county had no association with the number of subsequent traffic fatalities, whether measured in aggregate or specific to drunk-driving fatalities or fatalities during weekends and holidays.

  17. Toxic inhalation fatalities of US construction workers, 1990 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Forst, Linda; Conroy, Lorraine; Levy, Paul

    2002-07-01

    Construction workers account for a disproportionately large number of occupational fatalities. A small percentage of these deaths is attributable to poisoning. Risk factors for such deaths using national data have not been reported previously. Construction poisoning fatalities from 1990 to 1999 in the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Integrated Management and Information System data set were analyzed. Risk and risk factors were determined using Bureau of Labor Statistics and census data. Eighty-seven poisoning deaths of construction workers are characterized, all attributable to toxic inhalation. Cellular and simple asphyxiants accounted for the largest numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and utility line workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities in the construction industry are preventable. Extending the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's confined space standard could save lives, particularly among water, sewer, and utility line industry workers.

  18. A fatally mistaken fruit juice drink: an unordinary way of cocaine intoxication.

    PubMed

    García-Repetto, R; Giménez, M P; Martinez, M C; Soria, M L

    2010-11-01

    Cocaine is one of the drugs of abuse more frequently consumed in Spain. Furthermore, Spain due to its geographical position is used by trafficker's organizations as the port of entrance of cocaine in the European Union. We present here a case of a fatal intoxication caused by a mistake in the cocaine distribution net in our country. Cocaine was concealed in a tropical juice only sold by the Internet.

  19. A Fatal Outcome of Rhino-orbito-cerebral Mucormycosis Following Tooth Extraction: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Motaleb, Hesham Y Abdel; Mohamed, Mostafa S; Mobarak, Fahmy A

    2015-01-01

    Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon aggressive life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection that affects mainly the immunocompromised population with mortality rate up to 50%. Due to its aggressive nature, early detection and prompt management are of great importance for a good prognosis. Our report describes a fatal outcome of a case of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis following tooth extraction in an uncontrolled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patient after 14 days of admission. PMID:26225109

  20. A Fatal Outcome of Rhino-orbito-cerebral Mucormycosis Following Tooth Extraction: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Motaleb, Hesham Y Abdel; Mohamed, Mostafa S; Mobarak, Fahmy A

    2015-01-01

    Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis is an uncommon aggressive life-threatening opportunistic fungal infection that affects mainly the immunocompromised population with mortality rate up to 50%. Due to its aggressive nature, early detection and prompt management are of great importance for a good prognosis. Our report describes a fatal outcome of a case of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis following tooth extraction in an uncontrolled non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patient after 14 days of admission.

  1. Detection of herpesvirus DNA in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus; syn. Alopex lagopus) with fatal encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Widén, F; Sundström, E; Gavier-Widén, D; Berg, A L; Dillner, B; Berg, M

    2012-06-01

    A captive breeding programme for the Fennoscandian Arctic fox (Vulpes lagopus; syn. Alopex lagopus) failed due to fatal encephalitis. The aim of this study was to identify the causative agent. Viral nucleic acid was detected by PCR and in situ hybridization in the brain of affected foxes. The results suggest that a herpesvirus might be the causative agent. Whether this infection also occurs in free-living Arctic foxes is unknown.

  2. Solar thermal aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2007-09-18

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A heat engine, such as a Stirling engine, is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller. The heat engine has a thermal battery in thermal contact with it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  3. Aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.

    1987-01-01

    The aircraft parameter estimation problem is used to illustrate the utility of parameter estimation, which applies to many engineering and scientific fields. Maximum likelihood estimation has been used to extract stability and control derivatives from flight data for many years. This paper presents some of the basic concepts of aircraft parameter estimation and briefly surveys the literature in the field. The maximum likelihood estimator is discussed, and the basic concepts of minimization and estimation are examined for a simple simulated aircraft example. The cost functions that are to be minimized during estimation are defined and discussed. Graphic representations of the cost functions are given to illustrate the minimization process. Finally, the basic concepts are generalized, and estimation from flight data is discussed. Some of the major conclusions for the simulated example are also developed for the analysis of flight data from the F-14, highly maneuverable aircraft technology (HiMAT), and space shuttle vehicles.

  4. Laminar Flow Aircraft Certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Louis J. (Compiler)

    1986-01-01

    Various topics telative to laminar flow aircraft certification are discussed. Boundary layer stability, flaps for laminar flow airfoils, computational wing design studies, manufacturing requirements, windtunnel tests, and flow visualization are among the topics covered.

  5. Pollution reducing aircraft propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, R. M.

    1985-05-28

    Aircraft engine exhaust is mixed with air and fuel and recombusted. Air is drawn into the secondary combustion chamber from suction surfaces on wings. Exhaust of the secondary combustion chamber is blown over wing and fuselage surfaces.

  6. The Aircraft Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wlezien, R. W.; Horner, G. C.; McGowan, A. R.; Padula, S. L.; Scott, M. A.; Silcox, R. J.; Simpson, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest- payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  7. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  8. Aircraft Engine Emissions. [conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A conference on a aircraft engine emissions was held to present the results of recent and current work. Such diverse areas as components, controls, energy efficient engine designs, and noise and pollution reduction are discussed.

  9. Depreciation of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Edward P

    1922-01-01

    There is a widespread, and quite erroneous, impression to the effect that aircraft are essentially fragile and deteriorate with great rapidity when in service, so that the depreciation charges to be allowed on commercial or private operation are necessarily high.

  10. Aircraft Morphing program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wlezien, Richard W.; Horner, Garnett C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Padula, Sharon L.; Scott, Michael A.; Silcox, Richard J.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.

    1998-06-01

    In the last decade smart technologies have become enablers that cut across traditional boundaries in materials science and engineering. Here we define smart to mean embedded actuation, sensing, and control logic in a tightly coupled feedback loop. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart devices to real aircraft systems. The NASA Aircraft Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff aircraft applications. The program bridges research in seven individual disciplines and combines the effort into activities in three primary program thrusts. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft systems. In this paper we address the overall program goals and programmatic structure, and discuss the challenges associated with bringing the technologies to fruition.

  11. Advanced hypersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utzinger, Rob; Blank, Hans-Joachim; Cox, Craig; Harvey, Greg; Mckee, Mike; Molnar, Dave; Nagy, Greg; Petersen, Steve

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this design project is to develop the hypersonic reconnaissance aircraft to replace the SR-71 and to complement existing intelligence gathering devices. The initial design considerations were to create a manned vehicle which could complete its mission with at least two airborne refuelings. The aircraft must travel between Mach 4 and Mach 7 at an altitude of 80,000 feet for a maximum range of 12,000 nautical miles. The vehicle should have an air breathing propulsion system at cruise. With a crew of two, the aircraft should be able to take off and land on a 10,000 foot runway, and the yearly operational costs were not to exceed $300 million. Finally, the aircraft should exhibit stealth characteristics, including a minimized radar cross-section (RCS) and a reduced sonic boom. The technology used in this vehicle should allow for production between the years 1993 and 1995.

  12. Fatal train accidents on Europe's railways: 1980-2009.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of fatal train accident rates and trends on Europe's main line railways from 1980 to 2009. The paper uses a new set of data for the European Union together with Norway and Switzerland, assembled partly under the auspices of the European Railway Agency and partly on the author's own account. The estimated overall trend in the number of fatal train collisions and derailments per train-kilometre is -6.3% per year from 1990 to 2009, with a 95% confidence interval of -8.7% to -3.9%. The estimated accident rate in 2009 is 1.35 fatal collisions or derailments per billion train-kilometres, giving an estimated mean number of fatal accidents in 2009 of 6.0. The overall number of fatalities per fatal accident in 1990-2009 is 4.10, with no apparent long term change over time, giving an estimated mean of 24.6 fatalities per year in train collisions and derailments in 2009. There are statistically significant differences in the fatal train accident rates and trends between the different European countries, although the estimates of the rates and trends for many individual countries have wide confidence limits. The distribution of broad causes of accidents appears to have remained unchanged over the long term, so that safety improvements appear to have been across the board, and not focused on any specific cause. The most frequent cause of fatal train collisions and derailments is signals passed at danger. In contrast to fatal train collisions and derailments, the rate per train-kilometre of serious accidents at level crossings remained unchanged in 1990-2009. The immediate causes of most of the serious level crossing accidents are errors or violations by road users.

  13. Work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Jin, Kezhi; Courtney, Theodore K

    2009-07-01

    Over the past several decades, work-related fatal incident reporting in China has become faster, more publicly accessible and, hence, a potentially more valuable process in support of the decision-making and enforcement actions of the government and safety professionals. A study was conducted to examine the characteristics of work-related fatalities in the People's Republic of China (PRC) available from the State Work Accident Briefing (SWAB) system. Injury incident records related to industries other than coal mining were downloaded from the SWAB system (April 2001 to March 2003). The findings were compared with a previously published regional work fatality study in China, data from the U.S. Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, and estimates from the International Labor Organization (ILO). During the 2-year period, 1538 work-related events (7046 worker fatalities) were recorded. Collisions (25.6%), drownings (14.6%), and structural collapses (12.5%) were the most frequently reported fatal events. Collisions (24.5%) and falls (14.5%) were the most frequent causes of cited fatal events. Transportation (105.87 per 100 000); mining industries other than coal mining and quarrying (73.28); and electricity, gas, and water supply (14.88) were the industries with the highest estimated fatality rates. Generally, regions with lower economic activity reported more fatalities. The fatal injury rate estimated from the SWAB system was 4.80 per 100,000 (U.S. rate 4.00). ILO estimates for 1994 and 2002 were substantially higher than the estimates derived from the SWAB system. SWAB system differences with other data sources analyzed herein indicate that there remains room for system refinement.

  14. ANALYSIS OF AIRCRAFT MOTIONS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingrove, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed by Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the National Transportation Safety Board, as a technique for deriving time histories of an aircraft's motion from Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar records. This technique uses the radar range and azimuth data, along with the downlinked altitude data, to derive an expanded set of data which includes airspeed, lift, attitude angles (pitch, roll, and heading), etc. This technique should prove useful as a source of data in the investigation of commercial airline accidents and in the analysis of accidents involving aircraft which do not have onboard data recorders (e.g., military, short-haul, and general aviation). The technique used to determine the aircraft motions involves smoothing of raw radar data. These smoothed results, in combination with other available information (wind profiles and aircraft performance data), are used to derive the expanded set of data. This program uses a cubic least-square fit to smooth the raw data. This moving-arc procedure provides a smoothed time history of the aircraft position, the inertial velocities, and accelerations. Using known winds, these inertial data are transformed to aircraft stability axes to provide true airspeed, thrust-drag, lift, and roll angle. Further derivation, based on aircraft dependent performance data, can determine the aircraft angle of attack, pitch, and heading angle. Results of experimental tests indicate that values derived from ATC radar records using this technique agree favorably with airborne measurements. This program is written in FORTRAN IV to be executed in the batch mode, and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 series computer with a central memory requirement of 64k (octal) of 60 bit words.

  15. Aircraft Survivability. Spring 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    advancing and applying technology to predict, evaluate , and improve combat survivability of US flight vehicles. John graduated from the University of...support for most of the aircraft and anti-aircraft programs conducted to date under LFT&E statutory requirements. A number of these test and evaluation ...initiatives to improve the state-of-the-art of LFT&E, to place greater emphasis on the evaluation of human casualties, to integrate Battle Damage

  16. The Missouri child fatality study: underreporting of maltreatment fatalities among children younger than five years of age, 1983 through 1986.

    PubMed

    Ewigman, B; Kivlahan, C; Land, G

    1993-02-01

    Estimates of the incidence of child maltreatment fatalities vary widely; most experts believe they are underreported. To investigate the suspicion that fatal maltreatment was underreported in Missouri preschool children, a statewide, population-based study was conducted using nine data sources. The study cases included the 384 children younger than age 5 who died from 1983 through 1986 and whose death certificates were coded with an external cause (injury) or whose deaths were substantiated as abuse or neglect fatalities by the Missouri Division of Family Services. Each fatality was categorized as one of the following: definite maltreatment, probable maltreatment, possible maltreatment, non-maltreatment, or inadequate information. Of the 121 cases classified as definite maltreatment, only 47.9% had codes consistent with maltreatment on their death certificates. The Division of Family Services had substantiated 79.3% of definite maltreatment cases as abuse or neglect fatalities. The Federal Bureau of Investigation Uniform Crime Reports database reported only 38.8% of these cases as homicides. In 37.2% of the cases, there was at least one criminal conviction. Child maltreatment fatalities are drastically underreported as such in Missouri because of inadequate investigations, lack of information-sharing between investigators and agencies, and reporting systems that fail to capture the contribution of maltreatment as a cause of death. Missouri has created a statewide system of child fatality review panels and a child fatality surveillance system to address the problems documented in this study.

  17. 78 FR 14726 - Airworthiness Directives; Cessna Aircraft Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... ADDRESSES section. Include ``Docket No. FAA-2012-1052; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-014-AD'' at the... Aircraft Company: Docket No. FAA-2012-1052; Directorate Identifier 2012-CE-014-AD. (a) Comments Due Date...

  18. Aircraft as Research Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautical research usually begins with computers, wind tunnels, and flight simulators, but eventually the theories must fly. This is when flight research begins, and aircraft are the primary tools of the trade. Flight research involves doing precision maneuvers in either a specially built experimental aircraft or an existing production airplane that has been modified. For example, the AD-1 was a unique airplane made only for flight research, while the NASA F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) was a standard fighter aircraft that was transformed into a one-of-a-kind aircraft as it was fitted with new propulsion systems, flight controls, and scientific equipment. All research aircraft are able to perform scientific experiments because of the onboard instruments that record data about its systems, aerodynamics, and the outside environment. Since the 1970's, NASA flight research has become more comprehensive, with flights involving everything form Space Shuttles to ultralights. NASA now flies not only the fastest airplanes, but some of the slowest. Flying machines continue to evolve with new wing designs, propulsion systems, and flight controls. As always, a look at today's experimental research aircraft is a preview of the future.

  19. Automatic aircraft recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hmam, Hatem; Kim, Jijoong

    2002-08-01

    Automatic aircraft recognition is very complex because of clutter, shadows, clouds, self-occlusion and degraded imaging conditions. This paper presents an aircraft recognition system, which assumes from the start that the image is possibly degraded, and implements a number of strategies to overcome edge fragmentation and distortion. The current vision system employs a bottom up approach, where recognition begins by locating image primitives (e.g., lines and corners), which are then combined in an incremental fashion into larger sets of line groupings using knowledge about aircraft, as viewed from a generic viewpoint. Knowledge about aircraft is represented in the form of whole/part shape description and the connectedness property, and is embedded in production rules, which primarily aim at finding instances of the aircraft parts in the image and checking the connectedness property between the parts. Once a match is found, a confidence score is assigned and as evidence in support of an aircraft interpretation is accumulated, the score is increased proportionally. Finally a selection of the resulting image interpretations with the highest scores, is subjected to competition tests, and only non-ambiguous interpretations are allowed to survive. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the current recognition system are given.

  20. Pulsed Holographic Nondestructive Testing On Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagot, Hubert; Smigielski, Paul; Albe, Felix; Arnaud, Jean-Louis

    1983-06-01

    An holographic camera composed of two ruby lasers was built at ISL. It provides double exposure holograms with an adjustable time interval ranging from few ns to infinity. Various aircraft structures were first tested at ISL in laboratory conditions: honeycomb panels, wings ... The industrial tests on a military aircraft in maintenance checking were performed in a hangar of the SNIAS at Saint-Nazaire: wings, trap-door of the rear landing gear, air-brake... Electromechanical shocks were used to make the structure vibrate and to allow a fast trigger of the lasers. This avoids disturbance due to ambiant noises and vibrations.

  1. Are we there yet? Australian road safety targets and road traffic crash fatalities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Road safety targets are widely used and provide a basis for evaluating progress in road safety outcomes against a quantified goal. In Australia, a reduction in fatalities from road traffic crashes (RTCs) is a public policy objective: a national target of no more than 5.6 fatalities per 100,000 population by 2010 was set in 2001. The purpose of this paper is to examine the progress Australia and its states and territories have made in reducing RTC fatalities, and to estimate when the 2010 target may be reached by the jurisdictions. Methods Following a descriptive analysis, univariate time-series models estimate past trends in fatality rates over recent decades. Data for differing time periods are analysed and different trend specifications estimated. Preferred models were selected on the basis of statistical criteria and the period covered by the data. The results of preferred regressions are used to determine out-of-sample forecasts of when the national target may be attained by the jurisdictions. Though there are limitations with the time series approach used, inadequate data precluded the estimation of a full causal/structural model. Results Statistically significant reductions in fatality rates since 1971 were found for all jurisdictions with the national rate decreasing on average, 3% per year since 1992. However the gains have varied across time and space, with percent changes in fatality rates ranging from an 8% increase in New South Wales 1972-1981 to a 46% decrease in Queensland 1982-1991. Based on an estimate of past trends, it is possible that the target set for 2010 may not be reached nationally, until 2016. Unsurprisingly, the analysis indicated a range of outcomes for the respective state/territory jurisdictions though these results should be interpreted with caution due to different assumptions and length of data. Conclusions Results indicate that while Australia has been successful over recent decades in reducing RTC mortality, an

  2. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  3. Work-related fatal motor vehicle traffic crashes: Matching of 2010 data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries and the Fatality Analysis Reporting System.

    PubMed

    Byler, Christen; Kesy, Laura; Richardson, Scott; Pratt, Stephanie G; Rodríguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-07-01

    Motor vehicle traffic crashes (MVTCs) remain the leading cause of work-related fatal injuries in the United States, with crashes on public roadways accounting for 25% of all work-related deaths in 2012. In the United States, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI) provides accurate counts of fatal work injuries based on confirmation of work relationship from multiple sources, while the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) provides detailed data on fatal MVTCs based on police reports. Characterization of fatal work-related MVTCs is currently limited by data sources that lack either data on potential risk factors (CFOI) or work-relatedness confirmation and employment characteristics (FARS). BLS and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collaborated to analyze a merged data file created by BLS using CFOI and FARS data. A matching algorithm was created to link 2010 data from CFOI and FARS using date of incident and other case characteristics, allowing for flexibility in variables to address coding discrepancies. Using the matching algorithm, 953 of the 1044 CFOI "Highway" cases (91%) for 2010 were successfully linked to FARS. Further analysis revealed systematic differences between cases identified as work-related by both systems and by CFOI alone. Among cases identified as work-related by CFOI alone, the fatally-injured worker was considerably more likely to have been employed outside the transportation and warehousing industry or transportation-related occupations, and to have been the occupant of a vehicle other than a heavy truck. This study is the first step of a collaboration between BLS, NHTSA, and NIOSH to improve the completeness and quality of data on fatal work-related MVTCs. It has demonstrated the feasibility and value of matching data on fatal work-related traffic crashes from CFOI and FARS. The results will lead to

  4. More fatal all-terrain vehicle crashes occur on the roadway than off: increased risk-taking characterises roadway fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Denning, Gerene M; Harland, Karisa K; Ellis, David G; Jennissen, Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Background All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have steadily increased in popularity, size and speed, characteristics that likely contribute to the alarming rise in ATV-related fatalities. One potentially high-risk activity is riding on the road. Objectives To compare fatal ATV crashes that occur on the roadway and off, to more fully understand factors that contribute to fatalities at each location. Methods Fatality data from the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) were used for descriptive and comparative analyses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine relative risk. Results Over 60% of all fatalities (1985–2009) resulted from roadway crashes. After 1998, roadway fatalities increased at over twice the rate of off-road fatalities. Roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve multiple fatalities, carrying passengers, alcohol use, collisions and head injuries. Roadway victims were less likely to be helmeted than off-road victims. Passengers and operators with passengers were also less likely to be helmeted than operators riding alone. Helmeted victims were half as likely to suffer a head injury. Conclusions Fatal roadway crashes were more likely than off-road crashes to involve risk-taking behaviours (eg, carrying passengers) that could exacerbate the inherent difficulty of operating ATVs on roadway surfaces. Higher crash forces from greater speed, and lower use of protective equipment, may also have contributed to higher roadway mortality rates. Eliminating non-essential ATV road use may be an effective way to reduce ATV-related fatalities. This will likely require a substantial investment in rider education and better enforcement of ATV road use restriction laws. PMID:23257569

  5. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  6. [Fatal methadone poisoning of a child].

    PubMed

    Klupp, N; Risser, D; Stichenwirth, M; Hönigschnabl, S; Stimpfl, T; Bauer, G

    2000-04-21

    The substance methadone is used for substitution therapy since the 1960s in the U.S. Mainly because of the endemic spread of HIV-1 infections among intravenous drug abusers methadone was made legally available through medical prescription in Austria in 1987. Legal authorities today also allow the patient to take home the necessary daily consumption for weekends or public holidays. The drug is distributed as a watery solution in tiny bottles, which are fitted with an ordinary screw cap. This kind of distribution may, however, have fatal consequences. This is demonstrated in the following case of accidental poisoning of an infant: A two-year-old girl whose parents were both participating in the substitution scheme was found dead in her bed in Vienna in 1997. Forensic autopsy revealed a methadone concentration in the liver tissue of 640 ng/g. The criminal investigation determined that the girl had opened a bottle of methadone solution and subsequently had taken the drug. Considering the circumstances of this accident, from the medical point of view safety devices for the screw caps of the methadone bottles should be required by law, in order to avoid future accidental poisoning.

  7. Risk Factors for Fatal Hyperglycaemia Confirmed by Forensic Postmortem Examination - A Nationwide Cohort in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Walz, Lotta; Jönsson, Anna K.; Zilg, Brita; Östgren, Carl Johan; Druid, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis The aim of this study was to identify risk factors associated with confirmed fatal hyperglycaemia, which could predispose potentially preventable deaths in individuals on glucose lowering drugs. Methods A retrospective register-based case-control study conducted on a nationwide cohort with individuals who died due to hyperglycaemia as determined by forensic postmortem examination, in Sweden August 2006 to December 2012. Vitreous glucose was used to diagnose hyperglycaemia postmortem. The forensic findings stored in the National Forensic Medicine Database were linked to nationwide registers. Cases that died due to confirmed hyperglycemia with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were identified and living controls with dispensed glucose lowering drugs were randomly selected in the Swedish prescribed drug register and matched on age and sex. Information on comorbidities, dispensed pharmaceuticals, clinical data and socioeconomic factors were obtained for cases and controls. Adjusted multiple logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors associated with fatal hyperglycaemia. Results During the study period 322 individuals, mostly males (79%) with the mean age of 53.9 years (SD.± 14) died due to confirmed hyperglycaemia. Risk factors for fatal hyperglycaemia included; insulin treatment (OR = 4.40; 95%CI,1.96, 9.85), poor glycaemic control (OR = 2.00 95%CI,1.23, 3.27), inadequate refill-adherence before death (OR = 3.87; 95%CI,1.99, 7.53), microvascular disease (OR = 3.26; 95% CI, 1.84, 5.79), psychiatric illness (OR = 2.30; 95% CI,1.32, 4.01), substance abuse (OR = 8.85; 95%CI,2.34, 35.0) and/or living alone (OR = 2.25; 95%CI,1.21, 4.18). Conclusions/Interpretation Our results demonstrate the importance of clinical attention to poor glycaemic control in subjects with psychosocial problems since it may indicate serious non-adherence, which consequently could lead to fatal hyperglycaemia. PMID:27768720

  8. Infrared Signature Modeling and Analysis of Aircraft Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Arvind G.

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the survivability of an aircraft has been put to task more than ever before. One of the main reasons is the increase in the usage of Infrared (IR) guided Anti-Aircraft Missiles, especially due to the availability of Man Portable Air Defence System (MANPADS) with some terrorist groups. Thus, aircraft IR signatures are gaining more importance as compared to their radar, visual, acoustic, or any other signatures. The exhaust plume ejected from the aircraft is one of the important sources of IR signature in military aircraft that use low bypass turbofan engines for propulsion. The focus of the present work is modelling of spectral IR radiation emission from the exhaust jet of a typical military aircraft and to evaluate the aircraft susceptibility in terms of the aircraft lock-on range due to its plume emission, for a simple case against a typical Surface to Air Missile (SAM). The IR signature due to the aircraft plume is examined in a holistic manner. A comprehensive methodology of computing IR signatures and its affect on aircraft lock-on range is elaborated. Commercial CFD software has been used to predict the plume thermo-physical properties and subsequently an in-house developed code was used for evaluating the IR radiation emitted by the plume. The LOWTRAN code has been used for modeling the atmospheric IR characteristics. The results obtained from these models are in reasonable agreement with some available experimental data. The analysis carried out in this paper succinctly brings out the intricacy of the radiation emitted by various gaseous species in the plume and the role of atmospheric IR transmissivity in dictating the plume IR signature as perceived by an IR guided SAM.

  9. Indoor air quality investigation on commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Poon, C S; Li, X D; Luk, F

    1999-09-01

    Sixteen flights had been investigated for indoor air quality (IAQ) on Cathay Pacific aircraft from June 1996 to August 1997. In general, the air quality on Cathay Pacific aircraft was within relevant air quality standards because the average age of aircraft was less than 2 years. Carbon dioxide (CO2) levels on all flights measured were below the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) standard (30,000 ppm). The CO2 level was substantially higher during boarding and de-boarding than cruise due to low fresh air supply. Humidity on the aircraft was low, especially for long-haul flights. Minimum humidity during cruise was below the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) minimum humidity standard (20%). The average temperature was within a comfortable temperature range of 23 +/- 2 degrees C. The vertical temperature profile on aircraft was uniform and below the International Standard Organization (ISO) standard. Carbon monoxide levels were below the FAA standard (50 ppm). Trace amount of ozone detected ranged from undetectable to 90 ppb, which was below the FAA standard. Particulate level was low for most non-smoking flights, but peaks were observed during boarding and de-boarding. The average particulate level in smoking flights (138 micrograms/m3) was higher than non-smoking flights (7.6 micrograms/m3). The impact on IAQ by switching from low-mode to high-mode ventilation showed a reduction in CO2 levels, temperature, and relative humidity.

  10. Pilot disorientation during aircraft catapult launchings at night - Historical and experimental perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1992-01-01

    A review is presented of the investigations conducted into, and the recommendations made to avoid fatal A-7 Corsair II aircraft accidents during night carrier launchings in which the aircraft was apparently flown into the water. The investigating boards conjectured that the pilots were distracted from their normal cockpit procedures and that the distraction was of an insidious nature not previously experienced or expected in the night catapult/departure environment. A conference to discuss these accidents focused on aerodynamic and human factors analyses of the problem, with the goal of producing several recommendations for its resolution.

  11. Eight cases of fatal and non-fatal poisoning with Taxus baccata.

    PubMed

    Grobosch, Thomas; Schwarze, Bernd; Felgenhauer, Norbert; Riesselmann, Benno; Roscher, Sonja; Binscheck, Torsten

    2013-04-10

    This paper describes two fatalities, three non-fatal intentional and three accidental oral ingestions of yew (Taxus baccata) leaves. In all cases the post-mortem external examinations showed no signs of violence. Internal examinations revealed small green, needle-like particles on the tongue, in the esophagus and in the stomach. Yew leaves were also identified in the stomach contents, whereas Taxus leaves were cut into small pieces and then ingested in one case. The analytical method used was based on a liquid-liquid-extraction under alkaline conditions followed by LC-MS/MS analysis (QTRAP 5500). Chromatographic separation was achieved by HPLC on a Kinetex C18 2.6u (100×3) mm. The analytical method allows the simultaneous identification and quantification of the commercially available yew alkaloids taxoids (m/z): paclitaxel (854.2→105.0/286.1), 10-deacetyltaxol (10-DAT: 812.2→105.0/286.1), baccatin III (BAC III: 604.0→105.0/327.0), 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III: 562.1→105.0/327.0), cephalomannine [taxol B] (562.1→105.0/327.0) and of 3,5-dimethoxyphenol (3,5-DMP: 155.0→111.9/122.9) also encompassing the qualitative analysis of the alkaloidal diterpenoids (Q1→194.0/107.0); reference mass spectra obtained from a yew leaves extract: monoacetyltaxine (MAT: 568.4), taxine B (584.2), monohydroxydiacetyltaxine (MHDAT: 626.4), triacetyltaxine (TAT: 652.4), monohydroxytriacetyltaxine (MHTAT: 668.4). In both fatalities, paclitaxel, 10-DAT and cephalomannine were not identified in urine, cardiac and femoral blood but all taxoids and 3,5-DMP were present in stomach content and excreted into the bile. In urine, highest 3,5-DMP concentration was 7500 μg/L and 23,000 μg/L after enzymatic hydrolysis, respectively. In intentional and accidental poisonings, when electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations revealed ventricular tachycardia and/or prolonged QRS intervals, taxines were identified in plasma/serum, even after the ingestion of a few number of yew leaves

  12. Fatal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and necrotizing fasciitis with bacteraemia caused by Bacillus cereus in a patient with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ling; Shih, Sheng-Dong; Weng, Yu-Jong; Chen, Changhua; Liu, Chun-Eng

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and necrotizing fasciitis caused by Bacillus cereus in a cirrhotic patient without preceding disruption of skin or symptoms of gastroenteritis. This rapidly fatal infection due to B. cereus adds to the long list of aetiologies of infectious complications among patients with cirrhosis of the liver.

  13. Pilot Designed Aircraft Displays in General Aviation: An Exploratory Study and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, Cody R.

    From 2001-2011, the General Aviation (GA) fatal accident rate remained unchanged (Duquette & Dorr, 2014) with an overall stagnant accident rate between 2004 and 2013. The leading cause, loss of control in flight (NTSB, 2015b & 2015c) due to pilot inability to recognize approach to stall/spin conditions (NTSB, 2015b & 2016b). In 2013, there were 1,224 GA accidents in the U.S., accounting for 94% of all U.S. aviation accidents and 90% of all U.S. aviation fatalities that year (NTSB, 2015c). Aviation entails multiple challenges for pilots related to task management, procedural errors, perceptual distortions, and cognitive discrepancies. While machine errors in airplanes have continued to decrease over the years, human error still has not (NTSB, 2013). A preliminary analysis of a PC-based, Garmin G1000 flight deck was conducted with 3 professional pilots. Analyses revealed increased task load, opportunities for distraction, confusing perceptual ques, and hindered cognitive performance. Complex usage problems were deeply ingrained in the functionality of the system, forcing pilots to use fallible work arounds, add unnecessary steps, and memorize knob turns or button pushes. Modern computing now has the potential to free GA cockpit designs from knobs, soft keys, or limited display options. Dynamic digital displays might include changes in instrumentation or menu structuring depending on the phase of flight. Airspeed indicators could increase in size to become more salient during landing, simultaneously highlighting pitch angle on Attitude Indicators and automatically decluttering unnecessary information for landing. Likewise, Angle-of-Attack indicators demonstrate a great safety and performance advantage for pilots (Duquette & Dorr, 2014; NTSB, 2015b & 2016b), an instrument typically found in military platforms and now the Icon A5, light-sport aircraft (Icon, 2016). How does the design of pilots' environment---the cockpit---further influence their efficiency and

  14. AIRTV: Broadband Direct to Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbello, R.; Stone, R.; Bennett, S. B.; Bertenyi, E.

    2002-01-01

    over the poles. The system consists of a constellation of 4 geostationary satellites covering the earth and delivering its signals to the aircraft at S band (2.52 -2.67 GHz). The S-band spectrum is ideal for this application since it is allocated on a primary basis by the ITU for global broadcast service. The AirTV service is expected to begin in 2004 and should be unencumbered by adjacent satellite interference due to near completion of the ITU coordination process. Each satellite will deliver four 20 Mbps QPSK data streams consisting of multiplexed compressed digital video channels and IP data over the full global beam coverage. The 80 Mbps capacity of each satellite will provide approximately 60 video channels while still allocating 40 Mbits to data services. The combined constellation capacity of 320 Mbits will significantly exceed the capacity of any similar existing or currently planned global satellite system. In addition, the simplicity of the 4-satellite approach is the most cost effective means to deliver high bandwidth globally. Return links, which are required for internet service, will be provided through the existing Inmarsat Aero-H system already onboard virtually all long haul aircraft and will provide return data rates from the aircraft as high as 432 kbps. integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) assembly. The phased array antenna, a key technology element, is being developed by AirTV's strategic partner, CMC Electronics. This antenna is a scaled version of CMC's Inmarsat Aero H antenna and is capable of scanning to 5 degrees above the horizon. Wide angle scanning up to 85 degrees from zenith is necessary for aircraft traversing the northernmost latitudes on transoceanic routes. AirTV has designed both the satellite coverage and aircraft antenna performance to ensure that high signal quality is maintained along all non-polar airline routes. AirTV will be the future of aeronautical broadband delivery. It has been designed specifically for global services and

  15. Fatal Clostridium perfringens sepsis due to emphysematous gastritis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Sarvari, Karoly Peter; Vasas, Bela; Kiss, Ildiko; Lazar, Andrea; Horvath, Istvan; Simon, Marianna; Peto, Zoltan; Urban, Edit

    2016-08-01

    A 76-year-old female patient was admitted to the Level I Emergency Department of University of Szeged with severe abdominal pain and vomiting. The clinical assessment with laboratory tests and radiological investigations confirmed severe sepsis associated with intravascular hemolysis and multiorgan failure and acute pancreatitis. On the abdominal CT, besides of other abnormalities, the presence of gas bubbles in the stomach, small intestines and liver were seen. The gastric alterations pointed to emphysematous gastritis. Despite of the medical treatment, the patient's condition quickly deteriorated and eight hours after admission the patient died. The autopsy evaluation revealed systemic infection of abdominal origin caused by gas-producing Gram-positive bacteria, and the post-mortem microbiological cultures confirmed the presence of Cloctridium perfringens in many abdominal organs. Emphysematous gastritis seemed to be the primary infectious focus.

  16. U.S. Military Fatalities due to Neisseria Meningitidis: Case Reports and Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    meningococcal disease in the U.S. population as a whole has reached historic lows. Despite vaccination of all service members in basic military training...continued vigilance in military populations. *Department of Meningococcal Vaccines , Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 503 Robert Grant Road, Room...would lead the Army to develop a capsular polysaccha- ride vaccine . 15 Although the group B capsule was discovered to be poorly immunogenic, 16 from

  17. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in northern spotted owl

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, N.J.; Bunikis, J.; Barbour, A.G.; Wolcott, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  18. Fatal spirochetosis due to a relapsing fever-like Borrelia sp. in a northern spotted owl.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Nancy J; Bunikis, Jonas; Barbour, Alan G; Wolcott, Mark J

    2002-01-01

    Acute septicemic spirochetosis was diagnosed in an adult male northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) found dead in Kittitas County, Washington, USA. Gross necropsy findings included marked enlargement of the liver and spleen and serofibrinous deposits on the serous membranes lining the body cavities and the pericardial and perihepatic sacs. Microscopic observations included macrophage infiltration in the liver and spleen with mild thrombosis and multifocal necrosis, as well as hemorrhage and acute inflammation in the choroid plexus of the brain. No viruses or pathogenic bacteria were isolated from brain, liver, or spleen, and no parasites were found in blood smears or impression smears of the liver. Chlamydial culture attempts were unsuccessful and no chlamydial antibodies were detected in serum. In silver-stained microscopic sections and by transmission electron microscopy of liver, numerous long, thin, spiral-shaped bacteria were seen in the liver, spleen, cerebral ventricles, and within blood vessels in many organs. The organism was identified as a member of the Borrelia genus by sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene. The most closely related species is B. hermsii, an agent of relapsing fever in humans in the western United States. This is the first report of a relapsing fever-related Borrelia in a wild bird.

  19. Fatal acute babesiosis in captive grey wolves (Canis lupus) due to Babesia canis.

    PubMed

    Erdélyi, Károly; Mezősi, László; Vladov, Sztojkov; Földvári, Gábor

    2014-04-01

    Two adult male Eurasian grey wolves belonging to a group of 12 animals, kept in an open air 15,000-m(2) enclosure at the Bear Farm facility near Veresegyháza, Hungary, were found dead in September 2002. Another 2 wolves died during the same period, but laboratory examination of their carcasses was not possible. During necropsy both animals were found to be in a good body condition. Oral mucosa, conjunctiva, sclera, and subcutaneous tissues revealed severe jaundice. The liver, gall bladder, and spleen were enlarged. The kidneys were paler than normal, and petechial haemorrhages were also seen under their fascia. Small, round Babesia-like organisms, 1.5-2 μm in diameter, were demonstrated in large numbers in stained impression smears made from the spleens of both animals. PCR amplification and sequencing identified Babesia canis. There are very few reports on babesiosis in the grey wolf, and our findings draw attention to the potential threat posed by B. canis that will probably have to be taken into account in future ex situ and in situ wolf conservation efforts.

  20. High altitude reconnaissance aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yazdo, Renee Anna; Moller, David

    1990-01-01

    At the equator the ozone layer ranges from 65,000 to 130,000 plus feet, which is beyond the capabilities of the ER-2, NASA's current high altitude reconnaissance aircraft. The Universities Space Research Association, in cooperation with NASA, is sponsoring an undergraduate program which is geared to designing an aircraft that can study the ozone layer at the equator. This aircraft must be able to cruise at 130,000 feet for six hours at Mach 0.7, while carrying 3,000 lbs. of payload. In addition, the aircraft must have a minimum range of 6,000 miles. In consideration of the novel nature of this project, the pilot must be able to take control in the event of unforeseen difficulties. Three aircraft configurations were determined to be the most suitable - a joined-wing, a biplane, and a twin-boom conventional airplane. The performance of each configuration was analyzed to investigate the feasibility of the project.

  1. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    SciTech Connect

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    SciTech Connect

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-03-23

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7).

  3. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-02-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  4. Aircraft noise synthesis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccurdy, David A.; Grandle, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    A second-generation Aircraft Noise Synthesis System has been developed to provide test stimuli for studies of community annoyance to aircraft flyover noise. The computer-based system generates realistic, time-varying, audio simulations of aircraft flyover noise at a specified observer location on the ground. The synthesis takes into account the time-varying aircraft position relative to the observer; specified reference spectra consisting of broadband, narrowband, and pure-tone components; directivity patterns; Doppler shift; atmospheric effects; and ground effects. These parameters can be specified and controlled in such a way as to generate stimuli in which certain noise characteristics, such as duration or tonal content, are independently varied, while the remaining characteristics, such as broadband content, are held constant. The system can also generate simulations of the predicted noise characteristics of future aircraft. A description of the synthesis system and a discussion of the algorithms and methods used to generate the simulations are provided. An appendix describing the input data and providing user instructions is also included.

  5. Aircraft Operations Classification System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harlow, Charles; Zhu, Weihong

    2001-01-01

    Accurate data is important in the aviation planning process. In this project we consider systems for measuring aircraft activity at airports. This would include determining the type of aircraft such as jet, helicopter, single engine, and multiengine propeller. Some of the issues involved in deploying technologies for monitoring aircraft operations are cost, reliability, and accuracy. In addition, the system must be field portable and acceptable at airports. A comparison of technologies was conducted and it was decided that an aircraft monitoring system should be based upon acoustic technology. A multimedia relational database was established for the study. The information contained in the database consists of airport information, runway information, acoustic records, photographic records, a description of the event (takeoff, landing), aircraft type, and environmental information. We extracted features from the time signal and the frequency content of the signal. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network was chosen as the classifier. Training and testing results were obtained. We were able to obtain classification results of over 90 percent for training and testing for takeoff events.

  6. Aircraft icing instrumentation: Unfilled needs. [rotary wing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, P. F.

    1980-01-01

    A list of icing instrumentation requirements are presented. Because of the Army's helicopter orientation, many of the suggestions are specific to rotary wing aircraft; however, some of the instrumentation are also suitable for general aviation aircraft.

  7. Fatal intra-abdominal hemorrhage as a result of avulsion of the gallbladder: a postmortem case report

    PubMed Central

    Usui, Akihito; Kawasumi, Yusuke; Hosokai, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Haruo; Igari, Yui; Funayama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder injuries are extremely rare in blunt trauma, with a reported incidence of <2%. We report an autopsy case of fatal hemorrhagic shock due to intra-abdominal bleeding resulting from complete avulsion of the gallbladder associated with liver cirrhosis. Multiplanar images derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) performed as part of pre-autopsy screening showed complete avulsion of the gallbladder without any other associated intra-abdominal injuries, facilitating forensic autopsy planning. In this report, we discuss the role of MSCT in cases of fatal intra-abdominal bleeding caused by avulsion of the gallbladder and discuss the mechanism of this injury. PMID:23986858

  8. A case of fatal late vasospasm in a patient with a recurrent, supratentorial rhabdoid primitive neuroectodermal tumor: possible molecular implications.

    PubMed

    Miscusi, Massimo; Martino, Luca De; Antonelli, Manila; Mangino, Giorgio; Ricciardi, Luca; Spinelli, Gianpaolo; Forcato, Stefano; Calogero, Antonella; Petrozza, Vincenzo; Ragona, Giuseppe; Raco, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 44-year-old man who experienced a fatal and untreatable delayed vasospasm after resection of a recurrent temporal IV grade primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). The histological analysis demonstrated a rare rhabdoid variant of the tumor with a diffuse myxoid degeneration; molecular investigations demonstrated an upregulation of IL-1β and IL-6 expression in the recurrence. We reviewed the pathophysiology of the vasospasm that occurs after tumors resection, and due to the rarity of case, we speculated on the possibility that specific histological and molecular features of the tumor could have contributed to the delayed and fatal complication.

  9. Aircraft interior noise reduction by alternate resonance tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bliss, Donald B.; Gottwald, James A.; Srinivasan, Ramakrishna; Gustaveson, Mark B.

    1990-01-01

    Existing interior noise reduction techniques for aircraft fuselages perform reasonably well at higher frequencies, but are inadequate at lower frequencies, particularly with respect to the low blade passage harmonics with high forcing levels found in propeller aircraft. A method is being studied which considers aircraft fuselage lined with panels alternately tuned to frequencies above and below the frequency that must be attenuated. Adjacent panels would oscillate at equal amplitude, to give equal source strength, but with opposite phase. Provided these adjacent panels are acoustically compact, the resulting cancellation causes the interior acoustic modes to become cutoff, and therefore be non-propagating and evanescent. This interior noise reduction method, called Alternate Resonance Tuning (ART), is currently being investigated both theoretically and experimentally. This new concept has potential application to reducing interior noise due to the propellers in advanced turboprop aircraft as well as for existing aircraft configurations.

  10. Circular saw-related fatalities: A rare case report, review of the literature, and forensic implications.

    PubMed

    Janík, Martin; Straka, Ľubomír; Novomeský, František; Krajčovič, Jozef; Hejna, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Fatalities attributed to powered circular saws appear to be vanishingly rare events with highly wounding and rapidly incapacitating effects. When they do occur, they are mainly self-inflicted in nature. We report the suicide committed by a 79-year-old man using a self-made circular table saw. Autopsy confirmed that the man received multiple heterogeneously distributed saw-type impacts to the head and neck resulting in complete amputation of the upper skull and partial beheading. Homemade or modified commercial sawing instruments and the resultant injuries pose a number of forensic challenges starting from the death scene investigation, continuing with technical examinations, and concluding with determining the manner of death. As with all deaths due to sharp force injuries, fatalities involving power tools such as chainsaws, circular, and band saws warrant a high degree of suspicion of criminal activity and require diligence during all phases of the death investigation.

  11. [Two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia with Bacillus cereus bacteremia resulting in fatal intracranial hemorrhage].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, H; Moriyama, Y; Tatekawa, T; Tominaga, N; Teshima, H; Hiraoka, A; Masaoka, T; Yoshinaga, T

    1993-12-01

    This manuscript reports Bacillus cereus sepsis in two cases with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who suffered complications of fatal intracranial hemorrhage during remission induction therapy. The first case was 43-year-old male with AML (M0) receiving first consolidation chemotherapy who developed sudden diarrhea, abdominal pain and spiking fever. Two days later, he died of intracranial hemorrhage. The second case was 15-year-old male with AML (M5b) who was receiving first induction chemotherapy. He developed headache and vomiting following spiking fever and diarrhea. He died of subarachnoid hemorrhage the next day. In both cases, Bacillus cereus was isolated from blood culture. Fatal intracranial hemorrhage due to severe bleeding tendency caused rapid to death in both cases. These bleeding tendencies might have been induced by B. cereus sepsis. In addition, we should not overlook B. cereus as contamination, but rather consider it as a potential pathogen, when isolated from blood culture.

  12. Forensic issues in cases of water birth fatalities.

    PubMed

    Byard, Roger W; Zuccollo, Jane M

    2010-09-01

    Birth under water has become a widely disseminated technique that is promoted to improve the quality of labor. The case of a 42-week gestation male infant is reported who died of respiratory and multiorgan failure secondary to florid pneumonia and sepsis due Pseudomonas aeruginosa following a water birth. Other infants who have been delivered underwater have drowned or have had near-drowning episodes with significant hyponatremia and water intoxication. Local and disseminated sepsis has been reported, with respiratory distress, fevers, hypoxic brain damage, and seizures. There have also been episodes of cord rupture with hemorrhage. The postmortem investigation of such cases requires a complete autopsy of the infant, with examination of the placenta. Full details of the pregnancy and delivery and inspection of the birthing unit are also needed. A septic workup of the infant and placenta should be undertaken along with sampling of water from the birthing unit and microbiological swabbing of the equipment. Vitreous sodium levels may reveal electrolyte disturbances. While fatal cases appear rare, this may change if water births gain in popularity.

  13. Fatal aconitine intoxication or thyroid storm? A case report.

    PubMed

    Arlt, E M; Keller, T; Wittmann, H; Monticelli, F

    2012-05-01

    The case of a female in the latter half of her teens found dead in her father's apartment is reported. A glass containing liquid and plant remnants was found at the death scene. There were no indications of any intervention or the application of force by a third party. Autopsy showed unremarkable findings. Toxicological investigations revealed lethal doses of aconitine, a highly poisonous alkaloid and the major active compound of Aconitum napellus, in all specimens. Plant remnants were identified as A. napellus leaves by a botanist and toxicological examination of the liquid in the glass on site showed extremely high concentrations of aconitine. Additionally, laboratory results revealed that the young female was suffering from thyrotoxicosis factitia, an uncommon form of hyperthyroidism caused by misuse or overdosing of thyroid hormones in order to loose weight. A rare but serious and often fatal complication of hyperthyroidism is thyroid storm. Eventually the condition of thyroid storm due to thyrotoxicosis factitia could have contributed to the woman's death from aconitine poisoning.

  14. Hiker Fatality From Severe Hyponatremia in Grand Canyon National Park.

    PubMed

    Myers, Thomas M; Hoffman, Martin D

    2015-09-01

    We present the case of a hiker who died of severe hyponatremia at Grand Canyon National Park. The woman collapsed on the rim shortly after finishing a 5-hour hike into the Canyon during which she was reported to have consumed large quantities of water. First responders transported her to the nearest hospital. En route, she became unresponsive, and subsequent treatment included intravenous normal saline. Imaging and laboratory data at the hospital confirmed hypervolemic hyponatremia with encephalopathy. She never regained consciousness and died of severe cerebral edema less than 24 hours later. We believe this is the first report of a fatality due to acute hyponatremia associated with hiking in a wilderness setting. This case demonstrates the typical pathophysiology, which includes overconsumption of fluids, and demonstrates the challenges of diagnosis and the importance of appropriate acute management. Current treatment guidelines indicate that symptomatic exercise-associated hyponatremia should be acutely managed with hypertonic saline and can be done so without concern over central pontine myelinolysis, whereas treatment with high volumes of isotonic fluids may delay recovery and has even resulted in deaths.

  15. Fatal Intoxication with α-PVP, a Synthetic Cathinone Derivative.

    PubMed

    Potocka-Banaś, Barbara; Janus, Tomasz; Majdanik, Sławomir; Banaś, Tomasz; Dembińska, Teresa; Borowiak, Krzysztof

    2016-12-28

    This study presents the fatal case of a young man who was admitted to the ICAU due to sudden cardiac arrest. An interview revealed that the patient had taken some unspecified crystals. From the moment of admission, his condition deteriorated dramatically as a result of increasing circulatory insufficiency. After a few hours, sudden cardiac arrest occurred again and the patient was pronounced dead. In the course of a medicolegal autopsy, samples of biological material were preserved for toxicology tests and histopathological examination. The analysis of samples using the LC-MS/MS technique revealed the presence of α-PVP in the following concentrations: blood-174 ng/mL, urine-401 ng/mL, brain-292 ng/g, liver-190 ng/g, kidney-122 ng/g, gastric contents-606 ng/g. The study also presents findings from the parallel histopathological examination. Based on these findings, cardiac arrest secondary to intoxication with alpha-PVP was determined as the direct cause of the patient's death.

  16. The effects of aircraft on climate and pollution. Part II: 20-year impacts of exhaust from all commercial aircraft worldwide treated individually at the subgrid scale.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M Z; Wilkerson, J T; Naiman, A D; Lele, S K

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the 20-year impacts of emissions from all commercial aircraft flights worldwide on climate, cloudiness, and atmospheric composition. Aircraft emissions from each individual flight worldwide were modeled to evolve from the subgrid to grid scale with the global model described and evaluated in Part I of this study. Simulations with and without aircraft emissions were run for 20 years. Aircraft emissions were found to be responsible for -6% of Arctic surface global warming to date, -1.3% of total surface global warming, and -4% of global upper tropospheric warming. Arctic warming due to aircraft slightly decreased Arctic sea ice area. Longer simulations should result in more warming due to the further increase in CO2. Aircraft increased atmospheric stability below cruise altitude and decreased it above cruise altitude. The increase in stability decreased cumulus convection in favor of increased stratiform cloudiness. Aircraft increased total cloud fraction on average. Aircraft increased surface and upper tropospheric ozone by -0.4% and -2.5%, respectively and surface and upper-tropospheric peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) by -0.1% and -5%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased tropospheric OH, decreasing column CO and CH4 by -1.7% and -0.9%, respectively. Aircraft emissions increased human mortality worldwide by -620 (-240 to 4770) deaths per year, with half due to ozone and the rest to particulate matter less than 2.5 micrometers in diameter (PM2.5).

  17. Molecular pathology of pulmonary edema in forensic autopsy cases with special regard to fatal hyperthermia and hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-05-10

    Fatalities due to an extreme ambient temperature might present with poor or nonspecific pathologies; thus, the diagnosis of the cause of death in such cases is one of the most difficult tasks in forensic pathology. The present study investigated the molecular pathology of alveolar damage involving pulmonary edema with special regard to hyperthermia (heatstroke) and hypothermia (cold exposure) in forensic autopsy cases (total, n=122; within 48 h postmortem). Intrapulmonary mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), claudin-5 (CLDN-5) and aquaporins (AQPs) were examined. Relative mRNA quantification using Taqman real-time PCR assay demonstrated higher expressions of all markers except for AQP-5 in fatal hyperthermia, and higher expression of MMP-9 in fatal hypothermia. Acute cardiac death, mechanical asphyxiation, fire fatality and intoxication did not present any characteristic findings. In immunostaining, only MMPs showed evident differences among the causes of death: MMP-9 was intensely positive in most cases of hyperthermia and hypothermia, but MMP-2 expression was evident only in hyperthermia. These findings suggest alveolar damage involving pulmonary edema, characteristic of fatal hyperthermia and hypothermia. Systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR might be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation.

  18. The relationship of different socioeconomic variables and alcohol consumption with nighttime fatal traffic crashes in Spain: 1978-1993.

    PubMed

    González-Luque, J C; Rodríguez-Artalejo, F

    2000-01-01

    This paper identifies the variables associated with alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes (AFTC) in Spain. In addition, and for the first time in this country, these variables are used to describe the trend in AFTC, and to study the relationship between AFTC and alcohol consumption over the period 1976-1993. To this end, official data were obtained from the Traffic Department (Dirección General de Tráfico), the National Statistics Institute (Instituto Nacional de Estadística), and from international publications on trends in alcohol consumption. Nighttime fatal crashes (NFC) and male-driver single-vehicle nighttime fatal crashes (MNFC) were strongly associated with AFTC rates in Spain. A further finding was the decrease in NFC and MNFC rates during the period 1978-1993, though this decrease proved of a lower magnitude than that observed for daytime crashes. No relationship was observed between alcohol consumption at the population level and NFC or MNFC rates. The fatal crash rate, particularly the daytime rate, showed a rise with wealth level, as measured by gross domestic product and national private consumption, and an inverse relationship with the unemployment rate. The relationship between the fatal crash rate and economic variables was due, in most part, to changes in vehicle-km travelled.

  19. Commercial aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. J.

    The history of aircraft noise control development is traced with an eye to forecasting the future. Noise control became imperative with the advent of the first generation of commercial jet aircraft, which were extremely loud. The steady increases in the size of turbofans have nearly matched the progress in noise reduction capabilities in recent years. Only 5 dB of reduction in fleet noise has been achieved since early standards were met. Current engine design is concentrated on increasing fuel efficiency rather than lowering noise emissions. Further difficulties exist because of continued flights with older aircraft. Gains in noise reduction have been made mainly by decreasing exhaust velocities from 600-700 m/sec to 300-400 m/sec. New techniques being explored comprise mixing the core and bypass flows, interaction tone control, reduction of broadband sources, development of acoustic liner technology and alterations in the number of fan blades and stage spacing.

  20. Transport aircraft accident dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1982-01-01

    A study was carried out of 112 impact survivable jet transport aircraft accidents (world wide) of 27,700 kg (60,000 lb.) aircraft and up extending over the last 20 years. This study centered on the effect of impact and the follow-on events on aircraft structures and was confined to the approach, landing and takeoff segments of the flight. The significant characteristics, frequency of occurrence and the effect on the occupants of the above data base were studied and categorized with a view to establishing typical impact scenarios for use as a basis of verifying the effectiveness of potential safety concepts. Studies were also carried out of related subjects such as: (1) assessment of advanced materials; (2) human tolerance to impact; (3) merit functions for safety concepts; and (4) impact analysis and test methods.

  1. Alternative aircraft fuels technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1976-01-01

    NASA is studying the characteristics of future aircraft fuels produced from either petroleum or nonpetroleum sources such as oil shale or coal. These future hydrocarbon based fuels may have chemical and physical properties that are different from present aviation turbine fuels. This research is aimed at determining what those characteristics may be, how present aircraft and engine components and materials would be affected by fuel specification changes, and what changes in both aircraft and engine design would be required to utilize these future fuels without sacrificing performance, reliability, or safety. This fuels technology program was organized to include both in-house and contract research on the synthesis and characterization of fuels, component evaluations of combustors, turbines, and fuel systems, and, eventually, full-scale engine demonstrations. A review of the various elements of the program and significant results obtained so far are presented.

  2. Aircraft Design Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The helicopter pictured is the twin-turbine S-76, produced by Sikorsky Aircraft division of United Technologies, Stratford, Connecticut. It is the first transport helicopter ever dey n e d purely as a commercial vehicle rather than an adaptation of a military design. Being built in large numbers for customers in 16 countries, the S-76 is intended for offshore oil rig support, executive transportation and general utility service. The craft carries 12 passengers plus a crew of two and has a range of more than 450 miles-yet it weighs less than 10,000 pounds. Significant weight reduction was achieved by use of composite materials, which are generally lighter but stronger than conventional aircraft materials. NASA composite technology played a part in development of the S-76. Under contract with NASA's Langley Research Center, Sikorsky Aircraft designed and flight-tested a helicopter airframe of advanced composite materials.

  3. [Fatal poisoning caused by aconite monk's hood (Aconitum napellus)].

    PubMed

    Feldkamp, A; Köster, B; Weber, H P

    1991-06-01

    Severe intoxications after ingestion of monk's hood are rare in childhood. We report a case of fatal intoxication in a 20 months old child. There is no specific therapy available. A review of the literature is added.

  4. Cold Water Fatalities: An Overview of Physiological Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernhartsen, J. C.; Schlenker, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Cold water fatalities are described and defined, including drownings, trauma, hydrocution and hypothermia. The levels of hypothermia are outlined, and symptoms and steps to stop and reverse hypothermia are described. (DS)

  5. Vehicle travel speeds and the incidence of fatal pedestrian crashes.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R W; McLean, A J; Farmer, M J; Lee, B H; Brooks, C G

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the likely effect of reduced travel speeds on the incidence of pedestrian fatalities in Adelaide, Australia. The study was based on the results of detailed investigations of 176 fatal pedestrian crashes in the Adelaide area between 1983 and 1991. The method developed to estimate the effect of reduced travelling speed is described and supported by references to the published literature. A reduction in the speed limit from 60 to 50 km/h was one of four speed reduction scenarios considered. The smallest estimated reduction in fatal pedestrian collisions in the selection presented was 13%, for a scenario in which all drivers obeyed the existing speed limit. The largest estimated reduction was 48% for a scenario in which all drivers were travelling 10 km/h slower. The estimated reductions in fatalities obtained in this study are compared with those observed in places where the urban area speed limit has been lowered.

  6. Drug Might Help Some Babies with Rare, Fatal Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Might Help Some Babies With Rare, Fatal Disease Spinal muscular atrophy is typically lethal within 2 years, but new ... promise, researchers report. There is no treatment for spinal muscular atrophy type 1 (SMA-1), a degenerative neuromuscular disease ...

  7. The Effect of State Regulations on Truck-Crash Fatalities

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Lilliard E.

    2009-01-01

    To improve traffic safety, states limit truck length and weight, and some set lower speed limits for trucks than for other vehicles. We examined the impact of truck-specific restrictions and general traffic-safety policies on fatality rates from crashes involving large trucks. We used state-level data from 1991 to 2005 with a cross-sectional time-series model that controlled for several policy measures. We found that higher speed limits for cars and trucks contributed to higher fatality rates, but differential speed limits by vehicle type had no significant impact. Truck-length limitations reduced fatalities in crashes involving large trucks. Our model estimates suggested that if all states had adopted a speed limit of 55 miles per hour for all vehicles in 2005, an additional 561 fatalities would have been averted. PMID:19150907

  8. Aerococcus urinae: Severe and Fatal Bloodstream Infections and Endocarditis▿

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Margriet F. C.; Soetekouw, Robin; ten Kate, Reinier W.; Veenendaal, Dick

    2010-01-01

    Aerococcus urinae is a pathogen that rarely causes severe or fatal infections. We describe four cases of severe A. urinae bloodstream infections. All patients had underlying urologic conditions. Urine cultures, however, were negative. PMID:20660216

  9. Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline

    MedlinePlus

    ... 162675.html Where Medical Pot Is Legal, Fatal Car Crashes Often Decline It's possible that these state ... and Human Services. More Health News on: Marijuana Motor Vehicle Safety Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health ...

  10. Fatal Bacillus cereus bacteremia in a patient with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Orrett, F A

    2000-04-01

    This report describes a fatal case of Bacillus cereus septicemia in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes and re-emphasizes the potential seriousness of Bacillus infections in patients with compromised immune function.

  11. A strategic planning methodology for aircraft redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romli, Fairuz Izzuddin

    Due to a progressive market shift to a customer-driven environment, the influence of engineering changes on the product's market success is becoming more prominent. This situation affects many long lead-time product industries including aircraft manufacturing. Derivative development has been the key strategy for many aircraft manufacturers to survive the competitive market and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Within this environment of design adaptation and variation, the main market advantages are often gained by the fastest aircraft manufacturers to develop and produce their range of market offerings without any costly mistakes. This realization creates an emphasis on the efficiency of the redesign process, particularly on the handling of engineering changes. However, most activities involved in the redesign process are supported either inefficiently or not at all by the current design methods and tools, primarily because they have been mostly developed to improve original product development. In view of this, the main goal of this research is to propose an aircraft redesign methodology that will act as a decision-making aid for aircraft designers in the change implementation planning of derivative developments. The proposed method, known as Strategic Planning of Engineering Changes (SPEC), combines the key elements of the product redesign planning and change management processes. Its application is aimed at reducing the redesign risks of derivative aircraft development, improving the detection of possible change effects propagation, increasing the efficiency of the change implementation planning and also reducing the costs and the time delays due to the redesign process. To address these challenges, four research areas have been identified: baseline assessment, change propagation prediction, change impact analysis and change implementation planning. Based on the established requirements for the redesign planning process, several methods and

  12. Pathfinder aircraft flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pathfinder research aircraft's wing structure is clearly defined as it soars under a clear blue sky during a test flight from Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, in November of 1996. Pathfinder was a lightweight, solar-powered, remotely piloted flying wing aircraft used to demonstrate the use of solar power for long-duration, high-altitude flight. Its name denotes its mission as the 'Pathfinder' or first in a series of solar-powered aircraft that will be able to remain airborne for weeks or months on scientific sampling and imaging missions. Solar arrays covered most of the upper wing surface of the Pathfinder aircraft. These arrays provided up to 8,000 watts of power at high noon on a clear summer day. That power fed the aircraft's six electric motors as well as its avionics, communications, and other electrical systems. Pathfinder also had a backup battery system that could provide power for two to five hours, allowing for limited-duration flight after dark. Pathfinder flew at airspeeds of only 15 to 20 mph. Pitch control was maintained by using tiny elevators on the trailing edge of the wing while turns and yaw control were accomplished by slowing down or speeding up the motors on the outboard sections of the wing. On September 11, 1995, Pathfinder set a new altitude record for solar-powered aircraft of 50,567 feet above Edwards Air Force Base, California, on a 12-hour flight. On July 7, 1997, it set another, unofficial record of 71,500 feet at the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Kauai, Hawaii. In 1998, Pathfinder was modified into the longer-winged Pathfinder Plus configuration. (See the Pathfinder Plus photos and project description.)

  13. Identification of aerodynamic models for maneuvering aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Suei; Lan, C. Edward

    1990-01-01

    Due to the requirement of increased performance and maneuverability, the flight envelope of a modern fighter is frequently extended to the high angle-of-attack regime. Vehicles maneuvering in this regime are subjected to nonlinear aerodynamic loads. The nonlinearities are due mainly to three-dimensional separated flow and concentrated vortex flow that occur at large angles of attack. Accurate prediction of these nonlinear airloads is of great importance in the analysis of a vehicle's flight motion and in the design of its flight control system. A satisfactory evaluation of the performance envelope of the aircraft may require a large number of coupled computations, one for each change in initial conditions. To avoid the disadvantage of solving the coupled flow-field equations and aircraft's motion equations, an alternate approach is to use a mathematical modeling to describe the steady and unsteady aerodynamics for the aircraft equations of motion. Aerodynamic forces and moments acting on a rapidly maneuvering aircraft are, in general, nonlinear functions of motion variables, their time rate of change, and the history of maneuvering. A numerical method was developed to analyze the nonlinear and time-dependent aerodynamic response to establish the generalized indicial function in terms of motion variables and their time rates of change.

  14. Optical communications for transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Optical communications for transport aircraft are discussed. The problem involves: increasing demand for radio-frequency bands from an enlarging pool of users (aircraft, ground and sea vehicles, fleet operators, traffic control centers, and commercial radio and television); desirability of providing high-bandwidth dedicated communications to and from every aircraft in the National Airspace System; need to support communications, navigation, and surveillance for a growing number of aircraft; and improved meteorological observations by use of probe aircraft. The solution involves: optical signal transmission support very high data rates; optical transmission of signals between aircraft, orbiting satellites, and ground stations, where unobstructed line-of-sight is available; conventional radio transmissions of signals between aircraft and ground stations, where optical line-of-sight is unavailable; and radio priority given to aircraft in weather.

  15. Non-fatal acute fatty liver of pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    Bernuau, J; Degott, C; Nouel, O; Rueff, B; Benhamou, J P

    1983-01-01

    Four patients are described, admitted during a three-year period, who recovered from acute fatty liver of pregnancy; vomiting and jaundice were the main manifestations of the disease; coma and anuria were absent. During the same period, we observed one patient who died of acute fatty liver of pregnancy. This experience suggests that the non-fatal form of the disorder may be much commoner than the fatal form. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6832629

  16. The role of tourism in alcohol-related highway fatalities.

    PubMed

    Colón, I

    1985-04-01

    Tourism and fatal single motor vehicle accidents, an index of alcohol-related motor accidents, are examined in a cross-sectional analysis of the 50 states of the Union and the District of Columbia. A multiple regression model is employed in which average mileage driven, percent of metropolitan residents, and number of licensed drivers are statistically controlled. Tourism is found to be positively associated with the single motor vehicle fatality rate. Further research and policy implications are discussed.

  17. Fatal Dengue Myocarditis despite the Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is an important mosquitoes-borne viral disease which is endemic in tropics and subtropics region. Rapid spreading of disease to previously unaffected region was found in recent years. Atypical manifestations, such as myocarditis, were reported during large outbreak. There is a wide range of clinical manifestations of cardiac involvement in dengue, but rarely fatal. Here we reported a case of fulminant dengue myocarditis in fatal outcome despite cardiac mechanical support. PMID:28018687

  18. Atmospheric Electricity - Aircraft Interaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    flux may leak inside the aircraft through apertures such as windows , radomes. canopies, seams, and joints. Other fields may arise inside the aircraft...fields of other origins are considered. The third type of c-"pling involves electric fields passing directly through aper- tures, such as windows or...Transistors Microwave Diodes Low Power Transistors 0.001 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 Damage Constant. K Damage Constant. K Figure 29 - Ranges

  19. Aircraft Laminar Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joslin, Ronald D.

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft laminar flow control (LFC) from the 1930's through the 1990's is reviewed and the current status of the technology is assessed. Examples are provided to demonstrate the benefits of LFC for subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Early studies related to the laminar boundary-layer flow physics, manufacturing tolerances for laminar flow, and insect-contamination avoidance are discussed. LFC concept studies in wind-tunnel and flight experiments are the major focus of the paper. LFC design tools are briefly outlined for completeness.

  20. Combat aircraft noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgarbozza, M.; Depitre, A.

    1992-04-01

    A discussion of the characteristics and the noise levels of combat aircraft and of a transport aircraft in taking off and landing are presented. Some methods of noise reduction are discussed, including the following: operational anti-noise procedures; and concepts of future engines (silent post-combustion and variable cycle). Some measurement results concerning the noise generated in flight at great speeds and low altitude will also be examined. Finally, the protection of the environment of French air bases against noise will be described and the possibilities of regulation examined.

  1. Aircraft surface coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Liquid, spray on elastomeric polyurethanes are selected and investigated as best candidates for aircraft external protective coatings. Flight tests are conducted to measure drag effects of these coatings compared to paints and a bare metal surface. The durability of two elastometric polyurethanes are assessed in airline flight service evaluations. Laboratory tests are performed to determine corrosion protection properties, compatibility with aircraft thermal anti-icing systems, the effect of coating thickness on erosion durability, and the erosion characteristics of composite leading edges-bare and coated. A cost and benefits assessment is made to determine the economic value of various coating configurations to the airlines.

  2. Alternative aircraft fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longwell, J. P.; Grobman, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel, and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. The effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications are discussed.

  3. Aircraft Flutter Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Wilmer Reed gained international recognition for his innovative research, contributions and patented ideas relating to flutter and aeroelasticity of aerospace vehicles at Langley Research Center. In the early 1980's, Reed retired from Langley and joined the engineering staff of Dynamic Engineering Inc. While at DEI, Reed conceived and patented the DEI Flutter Exciter, now used world-wide in flight flutter testing of new or modified aircraft designs. When activated, the DEI Flutter Exciter alternately deflects the airstream upward and downward in a rapid manner, creating a force similar to that produced by an oscillating trailing edge flap. The DEI Flutter Exciter is readily adaptable to a variety of aircraft.

  4. Aircraft engines. II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the design features and prospective performance gains of ultrahigh bypass subsonic propulsion configurations and various candidate supersonic commercial aircraft powerplants. The supersonic types, whose enhanced thermodynamic cycle efficiency is considered critical to the economic viability of a second-generation SST, are the variable-cycle engine, the variable stream control engine, the turbine-bypass engine, and the supersonic-throughflow fan. Also noted is the turboramjet concept, which will be applicable to hypersonic aircraft whose airframe structure materials can withstand the severe aerothermodynamic conditions of this flight regime.

  5. Aircraft engine pollution reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudey, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The effect of engine operation on the types and levels of the major aircraft engine pollutants is described and the major factors governing the formation of these pollutants during the burning of hydrocarbon fuel are discussed. Methods which are being explored to reduce these pollutants are discussed and their application to several experimental research programs are pointed out. Results showing significant reductions in the levels of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen obtained from experimental combustion research programs are presented and discussed to point out potential application to aircraft engines.

  6. Solar powered aircraft

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, W.H.

    1983-11-15

    A cruciform wing structure for a solar powered aircraft is disclosed. Solar cells are mounted on horizontal wing surfaces. Wing surfaces with spanwise axis perpendicular to surfaces maintain these surfaces normal to the sun's rays by allowing aircraft to be flown in a controlled pattern at a large bank angle. The solar airplane may be of conventional design with respect to fuselage, propeller and tail, or may be constructed around a core and driven by propeller mechanisms attached near the tips of the airfoils.

  7. Estimating transport fatality risk from past accident data.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew W

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines the statistical properties of estimates of fatal accident rates, mean fatalities per accident, and fatality rates when these estimates are based on past accident data. The statistical properties are illustrated by two long-term transport fatal accident datasets from Great Britain, the principal one for railways and the other for roads, chosen to provide a statistical contrast. In both modes, the accident rates have fallen substantially over the long term. Two statistical estimates of current accident and fatality rates are presented for each dataset, one based only on recent data and the other based on estimates of long-term trends. The trend-based estimate is preferred for train accidents because this makes maximum use of the limited and variable data; the recent data are preferred for road accidents because this avoids unnecessary dependence on modelling the trends. For train accidents, the estimated fatality rate based on past accidents is compared with an estimate produced by the railway industry using a risk model. The statistical estimate is less than half the industry's estimate, and the paper concludes that the statistical estimate is to be preferred.

  8. An empirical model for global earthquake fatality estimation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed mortality rates of earthquakes worldwide and developed a country/region-specific empirical model for earthquake fatality estimation within the U. S. Geological Survey's Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system. The earthquake fatality rate is defined as total killed divided by total population exposed at specific shaking intensity level. The total fatalities for a given earthquake are estimated by multiplying the number of people exposed at each shaking intensity level by the fatality rates for that level and then summing them at all relevant shaking intensities. The fatality rate is expressed in terms of a two-parameter lognormal cumulative distribution function of shaking intensity. The parameters are obtained for each country or a region by minimizing the residual error in hindcasting the total shaking-related deaths from earthquakes recorded between 1973 and 2007. A new global regionalization scheme is used to combine the fatality data across different countries with similar vulnerability traits. [DOI: 10.1193/1.3480331

  9. Aircraft Fuel Systems Career Ladder.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    type fittings remove and install fuel cells clean work areas inspect aircraft for safety pin installation purge tanks or cells using blow purge method...INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 84 H254 PURGE TANKS OR CELLS USING BLOW PURGE METHOD 83 H227 CHECK AIRCRAFT FOR LIQUID OXYGEN (LOX...H243 INSPECT AIRCRAFT FOR SAFETY PIN INSTALLATION 52 M483 MIX SEALANTS BY HAND 48 K372 CONNECT OR DISCONNECT WIGGINS TYPE FITTINGS 48 H236 DISCONNECT

  10. Aircraft community noise impact studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to: (1) conduct a program to determine the community noise impact of advanced technology engines when installed in a supersonic aircraft, (2) determine the potential reduction of community noise by flight operational techniques for the study aircraft, (3) estimate the community noise impact of the study aircraft powered by suppressed turbojet engines and by advanced duct heating turbofan engines, and (4) compare the impact of the two supersonic designs with that of conventional commercial DC-8 aircraft.

  11. The Sonic Altimeter for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, C S

    1937-01-01

    Discussed here are results already achieved with sonic altimeters in light of the theoretical possibilities of such instruments. From the information gained in this investigation, a procedure is outlined to determine whether or not a further development program is justified by the value of the sonic altimeter as an aircraft instrument. The information available in the literature is reviewed and condensed into a summary of sonic altimeter developments. Various methods of receiving the echo and timing the interval between the signal and the echo are considered. A theoretical discussion is given of sonic altimeter errors due to uncertainties in timing, variations in sound velocity, aircraft speed, location of the sending and receiving units, and inclinations of the flight path with respect to the ground surface. Plots are included which summarize the results in each case. An analysis is given of the effect of an inclined flight path on the frequency of the echo. A brief study of the acoustical phases of the sonic altimeter problem is carried through. The results of this analysis are used to predict approximately the maximum operating altitudes of a reasonably designed sonic altimeter under very good and very bad conditions. A final comparison is made between the estimated and experimental maximum operating altitudes which shows good agreement where quantitative information is available.

  12. Human factors in aircraft incidents - Results of a 7-year study (Andre Allard Memorial Lecture)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Reynard, W. D.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that nearly all fatal aircraft accidents are preventable, and that most such accidents are due to human error. The present discussion is concerned with the results of a seven-year study of the data collected by the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS). The Aviation Safety Reporting System was designed to stimulate as large a flow as possible of information regarding errors and operational problems in the conduct of air operations. It was implemented in April, 1976. In the following 7.5 years, 35,000 reports have been received from pilots, controllers, and the armed forces. Human errors are found in more than 80 percent of these reports. Attention is given to the types of events reported, possible causal factors in incidents, the relationship of incidents and accidents, and sources of error in the data. ASRS reports include sufficient detail to permit authorities to institute changes in the national aviation system designed to minimize the likelihood of human error, and to insulate the system against the effects of errors.

  13. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  14. Multimission Aircraft Design Study, Payload

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-03-01

    number MC2A Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft MC2A-X Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft Experiment MIDS Multifunctional Information and...reconnaissance (ISR) fleet. The MMA is alternately designated as the Multisensor Command and Control Aircraft (MC2A) as indicated in this text. Figure

  15. Bibliography for aircraft parameter estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Maine, Richard E.

    1986-01-01

    An extensive bibliography in the field of aircraft parameter estimation has been compiled. This list contains definitive works related to most aircraft parameter estimation approaches. Theoretical studies as well as practical applications are included. Many of these publications are pertinent to subjects peripherally related to parameter estimation, such as aircraft maneuver design or instrumentation considerations.

  16. Using speeding detections and numbers of fatalities to estimate relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists and car drivers.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Richard

    2013-10-01

    Precise estimation of the relative risk of motorcyclists being involved in a fatal accident compared to car drivers is difficult. Simple estimates based on the proportions of licenced drivers or riders that are killed in a fatal accident are biased as they do not take into account the exposure to risk. However, exposure is difficult to quantify. Here we adapt the ideas behind the well known induced exposure methods and use available summary data on speeding detections and fatalities for motorcycle riders and car drivers to estimate the relative risk of a fatality for motorcyclists compared to car drivers under mild assumptions. The method is applied to data on motorcycle riders and car drivers in Victoria, Australia in 2010 and a small simulation study is conducted.

  17. Aircraft to Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video discusses how the technology of computer modeling can improve the design and durability of artificial joints for human joint replacement surgery. Also, ultrasound, originally used to detect structural flaws in aircraft, can also be used to quickly assess the severity of a burn patient's injuries, thus aiding the healing process.

  18. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  19. Counterrotating aircraft propulsor blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Joey L. (Inventor); Elston, III, Sidney B. (Inventor); Tseng, Wu-Yang (Inventor); Hemsworth, Martin C. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A propulsor blade for an aircraft engine includes an airfoil section formed in the shape of a scimitar. A metallic blade spar is interposed between opposed surfaces of the blade and is bonded to the surfaces to establish structural integrity of the blade. The metallic blade spar includes a root end allowing attachment of the blade to the engine.

  20. Robots for Aircraft Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center charged USBI (now Pratt & Whitney) with the task of developing an advanced stripping system based on hydroblasting to strip paint and thermal protection material from Space Shuttle solid rocket boosters. A robot, mounted on a transportable platform, controls the waterjet angle, water pressure and flow rate. This technology, now known as ARMS, has found commercial applications in the removal of coatings from jet engine components. The system is significantly faster than manual procedures and uses only minimal labor. Because the amount of "substrate" lost is minimal, the life of the component is extended. The need for toxic chemicals is reduced, as is waste disposal and human protection equipment. Users of the ARMS work cell include Delta Air Lines and the Air Force, which later contracted with USBI for development of a Large Aircraft Paint Stripping system (LARPS). LARPS' advantages are similar to ARMS, and it has enormous potential in military and civil aircraft maintenance. The technology may also be adapted to aircraft painting, aircraft inspection techniques and paint stripping of large objects like ships and railcars.

  1. Aircraft noise prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippone, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    This contribution addresses the state-of-the-art in the field of aircraft noise prediction, simulation and minimisation. The point of view taken in this context is that of comprehensive models that couple the various aircraft systems with the acoustic sources, the propagation and the flight trajectories. After an exhaustive review of the present predictive technologies in the relevant fields (airframe, propulsion, propagation, aircraft operations, trajectory optimisation), the paper addresses items for further research and development. Examples are shown for several airplanes, including the Airbus A319-100 (CFM engines), the Bombardier Dash8-Q400 (PW150 engines, Dowty R408 propellers) and the Boeing B737-800 (CFM engines). Predictions are done with the flight mechanics code FLIGHT. The transfer function between flight mechanics and the noise prediction is discussed in some details, along with the numerical procedures for validation and verification. Some code-to-code comparisons are shown. It is contended that the field of aircraft noise prediction has not yet reached a sufficient level of maturity. In particular, some parametric effects cannot be investigated, issues of accuracy are not currently addressed, and validation standards are still lacking.

  2. Aircraft adaptive learning control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, P. S. T.; Vanlandingham, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    The optimal control theory of stochastic linear systems is discussed in terms of the advantages of distributed-control systems, and the control of randomly-sampled systems. An optimal solution to longitudinal control is derived and applied to the F-8 DFBW aircraft. A randomly-sampled linear process model with additive process and noise is developed.

  3. Aircraft Wheel Life Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-07-01

    responsible for a significant amount of aircraft dam - age. Many such wheel failures have been catastrophic, resulting in a sudden loss of tire inflation...Fatigue Crack Growth," Fatigue and Fracture in Engineering Materials and Structures, Vol. 10, 419-428, 1987. Cox, B. N., Pardee , W., and Morris, W. L

  4. Fatal and near-fatal autoerotic asphyxial episodes in women. Characteristic features based on a review of nine cases.

    PubMed

    Byard, R W; Hucker, S J; Hazelwood, R R

    1993-03-01

    As asphyxial episodes during autoerotic activity are rarely reported in women, a review of eight fatal cases and one near-fatal case was conducted to delineate more clearly the characteristics of this syndrome in women. Six cases involved characteristic fatal autoerotic asphyxial activity. The remaining two fatal cases were atypical in that the apparatus that was used for sexual purposes was not intended to cause asphyxia in one case and did not directly cause asphyxial death in the second case. The final case was not fatal. Significantly, the majority of women did not use unusual clothing, props, or devices to augment their activity, for example, five were completely naked and only one was found with elaborate clothing and extra ligatures. Six of the fatal cases had objective evidence of sexual activity, three had used neck padding to prevent chafing, and eight had failed self-rescue mechanisms. Of note, the initial impression in four cases (44%) was homicide (two), attempted suicide (one), and accidental death during sexual activity with a partner (one). These results support the assertion that the manifestations of female autoerotic asphyxial activity reported to date may be initially misleading to investigators. Our purpose in presenting these findings, therefore, is to increase awareness of the more subtle features of this syndrome in women in an attempt to reduce the potential for underdiagnosis or confusion with nonaccidental death in future cases.

  5. Community sensitivity to changes in aircraft noise exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fidell, S.; Horonjeff, R.; Teffeteller, S.; Pearsons, K.

    1981-01-01

    Interviews were conducted in the vicinity of Burbank Airport during a four month period during which a counterbalanced series of changes in aircraft noise exposure occurred due to runway repairs. Another interview was undertaken approximately one year after completion of the initial runway repairs. Noise measurements were made in conjunction with administration of a brief questionnaire to a near exhaustive sample of residents in four airport neighborhoods. The magnitude and direction of change of annoyance with aircraft noise exposure corresponded closely to the actual changes in physical exposure. Estimates were made of time constants for the rate of change of attitudes toward aircraft noise.

  6. Fatal Eurasian Brown Bear Attacks-Two Swedish Fatalities in Modern Times.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Torfinn; Eriksson, Anders

    2015-11-01

    Fatal bear attacks on humans are uncommon with only one reported case in Sweden since 1902. The bear population is, however, growing and the frequency of confrontations is likely to increase. Case I-A 40-year-old hunter and his dog were found dead near a bear's den. Autopsy showed that a large portion of the face, facial skeleton, and anterior portion of the brain was missing. Autopsy of the bear showed two nonfatal gunshot wounds. Case II-A 61-year-old man and his dog were found dead outside a hunting lodge. Autopsy revealed numerous wounds, including partial evisceration of the intestines. The victim's blood ethanol concentration was 0.27%. These cases confirm the presence of risk factors identified by the Scandinavian Brown Bear Research Project, that is, provocation by a dog, encountering an injured bear, and appearing close to its den. An additional possible factor in case II was ethanol intoxication.

  7. Fatal Hemorrhagic Shock and Acetate Solutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    trauma victims occur within 1 hourvOf injury and are due to rapid hemorrhage or CNS trauma . We developed a rapid hemorrhage model in unanesthetized swine...UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGErmUen Data Enteed) q g ABSTRACT One-half of deaths among trauma victims occur within 1 hour of injury and...are due to rapid hemorrhage or CNS trauma . We developed a rapid hemorrhage model in unanesthetized swine to simulate human exsanguination. We compared

  8. [Fatal transmural colitis caused by Entamoeba histolytica. Differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and colon cancer].

    PubMed

    Hansen, C R; Louw, P

    1993-09-13

    Perforation of the colon is a rare but frequently fatal complication of amoebiasis. We report a case of a 53 year-old male, with no history of travel abroad, who was admitted to hospital with haematochezia. A tumor of the rectum was diagnosed clinically. Due to acute intestinal obstruction, laparotomy was performed, revealing multiple perforations of the large bowel and severe peritonitis leading to subtotal colectomy. The histological examinations revealed transmural amoebic colitis. The patient died due to multi-organ failure.

  9. Fatal methadone toxicity: potential role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Richards-Waugh, Lauren L; Primerano, Donald A; Dementieva, Yulia; Kraner, James C; Rankin, Gary O

    2014-10-01

    Methadone is difficult to administer as a therapeutic agent because of a wide range of interindividual pharmacokinetics, likely due to genetic variability of the CYP450 enzymes responsible for metabolism to its principal metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP). CYP3A4 is one of the primary CYP450 isoforms responsible for the metabolism of methadone to EDDP in humans. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of CYP3A4 genetic polymorphisms in accidental methadone fatalities. A study cohort consisting of 136 methadone-only and 92 combined methadone/benzodiazepine fatalities was selected from cases investigated at the West Virginia and Kentucky Offices of the Chief Medical Examiner. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped within the CYP3A4 gene. Observed allelic and genotypic frequencies were compared with expected frequencies obtained from The National Center for Biotechnology Information dbSNP database. SNPs rs2242480 and rs2740574 demonstrated an apparent enrichment within the methadone-only overdose fatalities compared with the control group and the general population. This enrichment was not apparent in the methadone/benzodiazepine cases for these two SNPs. Our findings indicate that there may be two or more SNPs on the CYP3A4 gene that cause or contribute to the methadone poor metabolizer phenotype.

  10. What makes a feline fatal in Toxoplasma gondii's fatal feline attraction? Infected rats choose wild cats.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, M; Knowles, S C L; Webster, J P

    2014-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an indirectly transmitted protozoan parasite, of which members of the cat family (Felidae) are the only definitive hosts and small mammals such as rats serve as intermediate hosts. The innate aversion of rodents to cat odor provides an obstacle for the parasite against successful predation by the feline definitive host. Previous research has demonstrated that T. gondii appears to alter a rat's perception of the risk of being preyed upon by cats. Although uninfected rats display normal aversion to cat odor, infected rats show no avoidance and in some cases even show attraction to cat odor, which we originally termed the "Fatal Feline Attraction." In this study, we tested for the first time whether the "Fatal Feline Attraction" of T. gondii-infected rats differed according to the type of feline odor used, specifically whether it came from domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) or wild cats-cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) or pumas (Felis concolor). In two-choice odor trials, where wild and domestic cat odors were competed against one another, consistent with previous findings we demonstrated that infected rats spent more time in feline odor zones compared with uninfected rats. However, we further demonstrated that all cat odors are not equal: infected rats had a stronger preference for wild cat odor over that of domestic cats, an effect that did not differ significantly according to the type of wild cat odor used (cheetah or puma). We discuss these results in terms of the potential mechanism of action and their implications for the current and evolutionary role of wild, in addition to domestic, cats in transmission of T. gondii.

  11. Advanced ATC: An aircraft perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Credeur, Leonard; Williams, David H.; Howell, William E.; Spitzer, Cary R.

    1986-01-01

    The principal operational improvements desired by commercial aircraft operators in the United States are efficient aircraft operations and delay reductions at the major terminals. Efforts underway within the Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program at the Langley Research Center to provide a technology basis for reducing delay while improving aircraft efficiency are discussed. The principal thrust is the development of time-based traffic control concepts which could be used within the framework of the upgraded National Airspace System and which would allow conventionally equipped aircraft to operate in a manner compatible with advanced aircraft.

  12. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  13. Brazilian Road Traffic Fatalities: A Spatial and Environmental Analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Andrade, Luciano; Vissoci, João Ricardo Nickenig; Rodrigues, Clarissa Garcia; Finato, Karen; Carvalho, Elias; Pietrobon, Ricardo; de Souza, Eniuce Menezes; Nihei, Oscar Kenji; Lynch, Catherine; de Barros Carvalho, Maria Dalva

    2014-01-01

    Background Road traffic injuries (RTI) are a major public health epidemic killing thousands of people daily. Low and middle-income countries, such as Brazil, have the highest annual rates of road traffic fatalities. In order to improve road safety, this study mapped road traffic fatalities on a Brazilian highway to determine the main environmental factors affecting road traffic fatalities. Methods and Findings Four techniques were utilized to identify and analyze RTI hotspots. We used spatial analysis by points by applying kernel density estimator, and wavelet analysis to identify the main hot regions. Additionally, built environment analysis, and principal component analysis were conducted to verify patterns contributing to crash occurrence in the hotspots. Between 2007 and 2009, 379 crashes were notified, with 466 fatalities on BR277. Higher incidence of crashes occurred on sections of highway with double lanes (ratio 2∶1). The hotspot analysis demonstrated that both the eastern and western regions had higher incidences of crashes when compared to the central region. Through the built environment analysis, we have identified five different patterns, demonstrating that specific environmental characteristics are associated with different types of fatal crashes. Patterns 2 and 4 are constituted mainly by predominantly urban characteristics and have frequent fatal pedestrian crashes. Patterns 1, 3 and 5 display mainly rural characteristics and have higher prevalence of vehicular collisions. In the built environment analysis, the variables length of road in urban area, limited lighting, double lanes roadways, and less auxiliary lanes were associated with a higher incidence of fatal crashes. Conclusions By combining different techniques of analyses, we have identified numerous hotspots and environmental characteristics, which governmental or regulatory agencies could make use to plan strategies to reduce RTI and support life-saving policies. PMID:24498051

  14. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings in polytrauma fatalities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to determine if differences in clinical diagnosis versus autopsy findings concerning the cause of death in polytrauma fatalities would be detected in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma from a Level 1 trauma centre. Methods Clinical diagnoses determining the cause of death in 19 cases of fatal polytrauma (2007 - 2008) from a Level 1 trauma centre were correlated with autopsy findings. Results In 13 cases (68%), the clinical cause of death and the cause of death as determined by autopsy were congruent. Marginal differences occurred in three (16%) patients while obvious differences in interpreting the cause of death were found in another three (16%) cases. Five fatalities (three with obvious differences and two with marginal differences) were remarked as early death (1-4 h after trauma) and one fatality with marginal differences as late death (>1 week after trauma). Obvious and marginal discrepancies mostly occurred in the early phase of treatment, especially when severely injured patients were admitted to the emergency room undergoing continued cardiopulmonary resuscitation, i. e. limiting diagnostic procedures, and thus the clinical cause of death was essentially determined by basic emergency diagnostics. Conclusions Autopsy as golden standard to define the cause of death in fatal polytrauma varies from the clinical point of view, depending on the patient's pre-existing condition, mechanism of polytrauma, necessity of traumatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation, survival time, and thus the possibility to perform emergency diagnostics. An autopsy should be performed at least in cases of early fatal polytrauma to help establishing the definite cause of death. Moreover, autopsy data should be included in trauma registries as a quality assessment tool. PMID:20977732

  15. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports.

    PubMed

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers' Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized.

  16. Noise as an explanatory factor in work-related fatality reports

    PubMed Central

    Deshaies, Pierre; Martin, Richard; Belzile, Danny; Fortier, Pauline; Laroche, Chantal; Leroux, Tony; Nélisse, Hugues; Girard, Serge-André; Arcand, Robert; Poulin, Maurice; Picard, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Noise exposure in the workplace is a common reality in Québec, Canada as it is elsewhere. However, the extent to which noise acts as a causal or contributive factor in industrial work-related accidents has not been studied thoroughly despite its plausibility. This article aims to describe the importance or potential importance, during investigations looking into the specific causes of each work-related fatal accident, of noise as an explanatory factor. The written information contained in the accident reports pertaining to contextual and technical elements were used. The study used multiple case qualitative content analysis. This descriptive study was based on the content analysis of the 788 reports from the Commission de la santé et de la sécurité du travail du Québec [Workers’ Compensation Board (WCB)] investigating the fatal work-related accidents between 1990 and 2005. The study was descriptive (number and percentages). Noise was explicitly stated as one of the explanatory factors for the fatal outcome in 2.2% (17/788) of the fatal accidents, particularly when the work involved vehicular movement or the need to communicate between workers. Noise was not typically considered a unique cause in the accident, notably because the investigators considered that the accident would have probably occurred due to other risk factors (for example, disregard of safety rules, shortcomings in work methods, and inadequate training). Noise is an important risk factor when communication is involved in work. Since noise is ubiquitous and may also interfere with vigilance and other risk factors for accidents, it may be a much more important contributing factor to accidents than is currently recognized. PMID:26356371

  17. Flight-deck display of neighboring aircraft wake vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holforty, Wendy L.

    Over the coming decades, aviation operations are predicted to rise steadily, increasing the burden on already congested and constrained airspace. A major factor governing the safe minimum separation distance between aircraft is the hazard generated by the wake of neighboring aircraft. Unaware of their proximity to other traffic, aircraft have encountered the wake turbulence of neighboring aircraft tens of miles ahead of them with serious or fatal consequences. The wake display described herein is a perspective view, synthetic vision, flight deck display that enables flight crews to "see" neighboring aircraft, as well as their wakes via a predictive algorithm. Capable of enhancing the situational awareness with respect to the wake-vortex encounter hazard by enabling the flight crew to see the relative position of their aircraft with respect to the wake hazard, the display may allow for a decrease in the standard aircraft spacing to those now used in VFR conditions and an increase in airport and airspace capacity. At present, there is no mechanism in place in the National Airspace System that warns pilots of potential wake vortex encounters. The concept of a wake vortex display addresses the need for a real-time wake vortex avoidance scheme available directly to the pilot. The wake display has been evaluated under both simulated and actual flight conditions. Thirteen pilots with flight experience ranging from a student pilot to commercial airline and military pilots served as pilot test subjects evaluating the display under simulated conditions. The pilot test subjects completed a survey concerning their knowledge and understanding of wake vortices prior to the simulation data trials and, after the trials, they completed a pilot evaluation and postflight survey rating their experience and providing feedback for the display design. One test pilot and four guest pilots flew the display during the in-flight evaluations incorporating three wake encounter scenarios. They

  18. Microzonation of Seismic Hazards and Estimation of Human Fatality for Scenario Earthquakes in Chianan Area, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K. S.; Chiang, C. L.; Ho, T. T.; Tsai, Y. B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we assess seismic hazards in the 57 administration districts of Chianan area, Taiwan in the form of ShakeMaps as well as to estimate potential human fatalities from scenario earthquakes on the three Type I active faults in this area. As a result, it is noted that two regions with high MMI intensity greater than IX in the map of maximum ground motion. One is in the Chiayi area around Minsyong, Dalin and Meishan due to presence of the Meishan fault and large site amplification factors which can reach as high as 2.38 and 2.09 for PGA and PGV, respectively, in Minsyong. The other is in the Tainan area around Jiali, Madou, Siaying, Syuejia, Jiangjyun and Yanshuei due to a disastrous earthquake occurred near the border between Jiali and Madou with a magnitude of Mw 6.83 in 1862 and large site amplification factors which can reach as high as 2.89 and 2.97 for PGA and PGV, respectively, in Madou. In addition, the probabilities in 10, 30, and 50-year periods with seismic intensity exceeding MMII VIII in above areas are greater than 45%, 80% and 95%, respectively. Moreover, from the distribution of probabilities, high values of greater than 95% over a 10 year period with seismic intensity corresponding to CWBI V and MMI VI are found in central and northern Chiayi and northern Tainan. At last, from estimation of human fatalities for scenario earthquakes on three active faults in Chianan area, it is noted that the numbers of fatalities increase rapidly for people above age 45. Compared to the 1946 Hsinhua earthquake, the number of fatality estimated from the scenario earthquake on the Hsinhua active fault is significantly high. However, the higher number of fatality in this case is reasonable after considering the probably reasons. Hence, we urge local and the central governments to pay special attention on seismic hazard mitigation in this highly urbanized area with large number of old buildings.

  19. Light weight escape capsule for fighter aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robert, James A.

    1988-01-01

    Emergency crew escape capabilities have been less than adequate for fighter aircraft since before WW II. From the over-the-side bailout of those days through the current ejection seat with a rocket catapult, escaping from a disabled aircraft has been risky at best. Current efforts are underway toward developing a high-tech, smart ejection seat that will give fighter pilots more room to live in the sky, but an escape capsule is needed to meet current and future fighter envelopes. Escape capsules have a bad reputation due to past examples of high weight, poor performance and great complexity. However, the advantages available demand that a capsule be developed. This capsule concept will minimize the inherent disavantages and incorporate the benefits while integrating all aspects of crew station design. The resulting design is appropriate for a crew station of the year 2010 and includes improved combat acceleration protection, chemical or biological combat capability, improved aircraft to escape system interaction, and the highest level of escape performance achievable. The capsule is compact, which can allow a reduced aircraft size and weighs only 1200 lb. The escape system weight penalty is only 120 lb higher than that for the next ejection seat and the capsule has a corresponding increase in performance.

  20. Natural hazard fatalities in Switzerland from 1946 to 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badoux, Alexandre; Andres, Norina; Techel, Frank; Hegg, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    A database of fatalities caused by natural hazard processes in Switzerland was compiled for the period between 1946 and 2015. Using information from the Swiss flood and landslide damage database and the Swiss destructive avalanche database, the data set was extended back in time and more hazard processes were added by conducting an in-depth search of newspaper reports. The new database now covers all natural hazards common in Switzerland, categorised into seven process types: flood, landslide, rockfall, lightning, windstorm, avalanche and other processes (e.g. ice avalanches, earthquakes). Included were all fatal accidents associated with natural hazard processes in which victims did not expose themselves to an important danger on purpose. The database contains information on 635 natural hazard events causing 1023 fatalities, which corresponds to a mean of 14.6 victims per year. The most common causes of death were snow avalanches (37 %), followed by lightning (16 %), floods (12 %), windstorms (10 %), rockfall (8 %), landslides (7 %) and other processes (9 %). About 50 % of all victims died in one of the 507 single-fatality events; the other half were killed in the 128 multi-fatality events. The number of natural hazard fatalities that occurred annually during our 70-year study period ranged from 2 to 112 and exhibited a distinct decrease over time. While the number of victims in the first three decades (until 1975) ranged from 191 to 269 per decade, it ranged from 47 to 109 in the four following decades. This overall decrease was mainly driven by a considerable decline in the number of avalanche and lightning fatalities. About 75 % of victims were males in all natural hazard events considered together, and this ratio was roughly maintained in all individual process categories except landslides (lower) and other processes (higher). The ratio of male to female victims was most likely to be balanced when deaths occurred at home (in or near a building), a situation

  1. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  2. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  3. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  4. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  5. 19 CFR 10.183 - Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Duty-free entry of civil aircraft, aircraft engines, ground flight simulators, parts, components, and... aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including their parts, components, and... United States Coast Guard, aircraft, aircraft engines, and ground flight simulators, including...

  6. General Matrix Inversion Technique for the Calibration of Electric Field Sensor Arrays on Aircraft Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mach, D. M.; Koshak, W. J.

    2007-01-01

    A matrix calibration procedure has been developed that uniquely relates the electric fields measured at the aircraft with the external vector electric field and net aircraft charge. The calibration method can be generalized to any reasonable combination of electric field measurements and aircraft. A calibration matrix is determined for each aircraft that represents the individual instrument responses to the external electric field. The aircraft geometry and configuration of field mills (FMs) uniquely define the matrix. The matrix can then be inverted to determine the external electric field and net aircraft charge from the FM outputs. A distinct advantage of the method is that if one or more FMs need to be eliminated or deemphasized [e.g., due to a malfunction), it is a simple matter to reinvert the matrix without the malfunctioning FMs. To demonstrate the calibration technique, data are presented from several aircraft programs (ER-2, DC-8, Altus, and Citation).

  7. Characteristics of schools in which fatal shootings occur.

    PubMed

    de Apodaca, Roberto Flores; Brighton, Lauren M; Perkins, Ashley N; Jackson, Kiana N; Steege, Jessica R

    2012-04-01

    School-based violence, and fatal school shootings in particular, have gained increased attention in the media and psychological literature. Most reports have focused on the characteristics of perpetrators, but there is a growing awareness that school-related factors may also influence the occurrence of fatal school shootings. The current study examined several key characteristics of all schools where random (38) and targeted (96) fatal shootings occurred in the United States between 1966 and 2009. These were compared with a group (138) of schools randomly selected to represent the population of all schools in the United States. The size of a school's enrollment, urban or suburban locale, public funding, and predominantly non-white enrollment were positively associated with fatal shootings. Universities and colleges were disproportionately associated with random shootings and high schools with targeted ones. It was proposed that characteristics of schools that allow feelings of anonymity or alienation among students may help create environmental conditions associated with fatal school shootings. Implications for future research and interventions are considered.

  8. Unintentional fatal injuries arising from unpaid work at home

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, T; Mitchell, R; Hendrie, A; Healey, S; Mandryk, J; Hull, B

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Unpaid work in and around the home is a common and potentially high risk activity, yet there is limited information about the circumstances surrounding resulting injuries. This study aimed to describe circumstances surrounding fatal injuries resulting from home duties activities, in order to identify and prioritise areas for prevention. Design and setting: Coroners' reports on all unintentional deaths in Australia from 1989–92 inclusive were inspected to identify deaths of interest. Rates were calculated using population data and incorporating measures of time engaged in particular home duties activities. Results: There were 296 home duties deaths over the four year period. Most (83%) deaths were of males, and males had 10 times the risk of fatal injury compared with females. The most common activities resulting in fatal injuries were home repairs, gardening, and car care. The highest risk activities (deaths per million persons per year per hour of activity) were home repairs (49), car care (20), home improvements (18), and gardening (16). Being hit by inadequately braced vehicles during car maintenance, falls from inadequately braced ladders, contact with fire and flames while cooking, and contact with electricity during maintenance were the most common injury scenarios. Conclusions: Fatal injury of persons engaged in unpaid domestic work activities is a significant cause of death. Use of activity specific denominator data allows appropriate assessment of the degree of risk associated with each activity. The recurrence of similar circumstances surrounding many independent fatal incidents indicates areas where preventative interventions might be usefully targeted. PMID:12642552

  9. Motor vehicle fatalities among oil and gas extraction workers.

    PubMed

    Retzer, Kyla D; Hill, Ryan D; Pratt, Stephanie G

    2013-03-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of work-related fatality in the U.S. as well as in the oil and gas extraction industry. This study describes the characteristics of motor vehicle-related fatalities in the oil and gas extraction industry using data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries. It compares the risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash in this industry to other major industries and among different types and sizes of oil and gas extraction companies. There were 202 oil and gas extraction workers who died in a work-related motor vehicle crash from 2003 to 2009. The motor vehicle fatality rate for workers in this industry was 8.5 times that of all private wage and salary workers (7.6 vs. 0.9, p<.0001). Workers from small oil and gas establishments (<20 workers) and workers from well-servicing companies were at greatest risk of dying in a motor vehicle crash. Pick-up trucks were the most frequent type of vehicle occupied by the fatally injured worker (n=104, 51.5%). Safety belt non-use was identified in 38.1% (n=77) of the cases. Increased focus on motor vehicle safety in this industry is needed, in particular among small establishments. Extraction workers who drive light duty vehicles need to be a specific focus.

  10. Fatal diving accidents in western Norway 1983-2007.

    PubMed

    Ramnefjell, M P; Morild, I; Mørk, S J; Lilleng, P K

    2012-11-30

    Despite efforts to reduce their number, fatal diving accidents still occur. The circumstances and post-mortem findings in 40 fatal diving accidents in western Norway from 1983 through 2007 were investigated. Diving experience, medical history and toxicology reports were retrieved. The material consisted of recreational divers, professional saturation divers and professional divers without experience with saturation. In 33 cases the diving equipment was examined as part of the forensic investigation. In 27 cases defects in the diving equipment were found. For six divers such defects were responsible for the fatal accidents. Eighteen divers died on the surface or less than 10 m below surface. Five divers reached below 100 msw, and two of them died at this depth. The fatalities were not season-dependent. However, wave-height and strength of currents were influential factors in some cases. Twelve divers were diving alone. Twenty divers had one buddy, 9 of these divers were alone at the time of death. The cause of death was drowning in 31 out of 40 divers; one of them had a high blood-ethanol concentration, in two other divers ethanol was found in the urine, indicating previous ethanol consumption. Nine divers died from sudden decompression, pulmonary barotraumas, underwater trauma and natural causes. The study shows that most of the fatal diving accidents could be avoided if adequate diving safety procedures had been followed.

  11. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  12. Fatal accidents in the Icelandic fishing fleet 1980-2005.

    PubMed

    Petursdottir, Gudrun; Hjoervar, Tryggvi; Snorrason, Hilmar

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes how the Icelandic fleet increased from 1980 to 2005, as well as the number of fishermen employed in the various sections of the fleet. All categories of the fleet have increased considerably in tonnage, while the number of fishermen has declined. At the same time the catch per man-year at sea has increased, rendering the Icelandic fisheries among the most efficient in the world in terms of catch and value per manpower. The number of fatalities in the Icelandic fisheries has declined steadily in this period. In absolute numbers these accidents are most common on decked vessels under 45m, but when weighed against man-years, fishermen on open boats are in greatest danger of losing their lives. The most common cause of fatalities is foundering of the vessel, which may cause multiple fatalities, then is man-over-board, followed by drowning in harbour and miscellaneous accidents. The reduction in the number of fatal accidents at sea may have several reasons. Mandatory safety and survival training of all fishermen, improved working conditions at sea, better telecommunications, constant VMS surveillance and a 24hr availability of airborne rescue teams have all helped to reduce fatalities in the Icelandic fishing fleet from 1980 until 2005.

  13. Killer crashes: fatal road traffic accidents in the UK.

    PubMed

    Clarke, David D; Ward, Patrick; Bartle, Craig; Truman, Wendy

    2010-03-01

    Road traffic accidents are responsible for over 3000 deaths per year in the UK, according to Department for Transport (2004a) figures. Although progress is being made in a number of areas, vehicle occupant fatalities have not been falling in line with casualty reduction targets for the year 2010. A sample of 1185 fatal vehicle occupant cases was considered, from ten UK police forces, from the years 1994-2005 inclusive. The main findings were: (1) over 65% of the accidents examined involved driving at excessive speed, a driver in excess of the legal alcohol limit, or the failure to wear a seat belt by a fatality, or some combination of these. (2) Young drivers have the great majority of their accidents by losing control on bends or curves, typically at night in rural areas and/or while driving for 'leisure' purposes. These accidents show high levels of speeding, alcohol involvement and recklessness. (3) Older drivers had fewer accidents, but those fatalities they were involved in tended to involve misjudgement and perceptual errors in 'right of way' collisions, typically in the daytime on rural rather than urban roads. Blameworthy right of way errors were notably high for drivers aged over 65 years, as a proportion of total fatal accidents in that age group.

  14. Fatal Occupational Injuries among Non-governmental Employees in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abas, Adinegara bin Lutfi; Mohd Said, Datuk Abd. Razzak B.; Aziz Mohammed, Mohammed Azman B.; Sathiakumar, Nalini

    2012-01-01

    Background In Malaysia, surveillance of fatal occupational injuries is fragmented. We therefore analyzed an alternative data source from Malaysia’s Social Security organization, the PERKESO. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the PERKESO database comprised of 7 million employees from 2002 to 2006. Results Overall, the average annual incidence was 9.2 fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 workers. During the five-year period, there was a decrease in the absolute number of fatal injuries by 16% and the incidence by 34%. The transportation sector reported the highest incidence of fatal injuries (35.1/100,000), followed by agriculture (30.5/100,000) and construction (19.3/100,000) sectors. Persons of Indian ethnicity were more likely to sustain fatal injuries compared to other ethnic groups. Conclusions Government and industry should develop rigorous strategies to detect hazards in the workplace, especially in sectors that continuously record high injury rates. Targeted interventions emphasizing worker empowerment coupled with systematic monitoring and evaluation is critical to ensure success in prevention and control measures. PMID:22544443

  15. Patterns of death among avalanche fatalities: a 21-year review

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Jeff; Haegeli, Pascal; Abu-Laban, Riyad B.; Shuster, Michael; Butt, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Avalanches are a significant cause of winter recreational fatalities in mountain regions. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of trauma and asphyxia to avalanche deaths. Methods We reviewed all avalanche fatalities between 1984 and 2005 that had been investigated by the offices of the British Columbia Coroners Service and the Chief Medical Examiner of Alberta. In addition, we searched the database of the Canadian Avalanche Centre for fatal avalanche details. We calculated injury severity scores for all victims who underwent autopsy. Results There were 204 avalanche fatalities with mortality information over the 21-year study period. Of these, 117 victims underwent autopsy, and 87 underwent forensic external examination. Asphyxia caused 154 (75%) deaths. Trauma caused 48 (24%) deaths, with the rate of death from trauma ranging from 9% (4/44) for snowmobilers to 42% (5/12) for ice climbers. In addition, 13% (12/92) of the asphyxia victims who underwent autopsy had major trauma, defined as an injury severity score of greater than 15. Only 48% (23/48) of victims for whom trauma was the primary cause of death had been completely buried. Interpretation Asphyxia and severe trauma caused most avalanche fatalities in western Canada. The relative rates differed between snowmobilers and those engaged in other mountain activities. Our findings should guide recommendations for safety devices, safety measures and resuscitation. PMID:19213801

  16. 2009 H1N1 fatalities: the New Mexico experience.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Erin G; Bryce, Clare H; Avery, Catherine; Smelser, Chad; Thompson, Deborah; Nolte, Kurt B

    2012-11-01

    Histopathologic features of New Mexico 2009 H1N1 fatalities have not been representative of those reported nationwide. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of all New Mexico 2009 pandemic influenza A (pH1N1) fatalities (n = 50). In cases in which autopsy was performed (n = 12), histologic sections and culture results were examined. In contrast to previously published studies, the majority of our fatalities did not have diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) (2/12; 16.7%). Common findings included pulmonary interstitial inflammation and edema, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Two cases had significant extra-pulmonary manifestations: myocarditis and cerebral edema with herniation. The majority had a rapid disease course: range from 1 to 12 days (median, 2 days), and Native Americans were disproportionately represented among fatalities. These findings suggest that New Mexico H1N1 fatalities generally did not survive long enough to develop the classic picture of DAD. Pathologists should be aware that H1N1 may cause extra-pulmonary pathology and perform postmortem cultures and histologic sampling accordingly.

  17. Multi-drug intoxication fatality involving atorvastatin: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cibickova, Lubica; Caran, Tomas; Dobias, Martin; Ondra, Peter; Vorisek, Viktor; Cibicek, Norbert

    2015-12-01

    Mixed antihypertensive drug intoxication poses a significant risk for patient mortality. In tandem to antihypertensives, hypolipidemic medicines (especially statins) are often prescribed. Among their well-known adverse effects belongs rhabdomyolysis. We report a case of fatal multi-drug overdose in a 65-year-old female alcoholic. The patient was unconscious at admission. Empty blister packs indicated the abuse of 250 tablets of urapidil, 42 tablets of verapamil/trandolapril, 50 tablets of moxonidin, 80 tablets of atorvastatin and 80 tablets of diacerein. Standard measures (gastric lavage, activated charcoal, mechanical ventilation, massive doses of vasopressors, volume expansion, diuretics and alkalinization) failed to provide sufficient drug elimination and hemodynamic support and the sufferer deceased on the fourth day. Dramatic elevations of serum myoglobin (34,020 μg/L) and creatine kinase (219 μkat/L) were accompanied by rise in cardiac troponin I and creatinine. Gas chromatography revealed ethanol 1.17 g/kg (blood) and 2.81 g/kg (urine). Thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography of gastric content and urine verified verapamil, moxonidin and urapidil fragment (diacerein method was unavailable). Atorvastatin and trandolapril concentrations (LC-MS(n)) equaled 277.7 μg/L and 57.5 μg/L, resp. (serum) and 8.15 μg/L and 602.3 μg/L, resp. (urine). Histology confirmed precipitates of myoglobin with acute necrosis of proximal renal tubules in association with striated muscle rhabdomyolysis and myocardial dystrophy. Cardiogenic-distributive shock in conjunction with acute renal failure due to the combined self-poisoning with vasoactive agents and atorvastatin were determined to be this decedent's immediate cause of death. The manner of death was assigned to be suicidal.

  18. Cardiac echinococcosis with fatal intracerebral embolism.

    PubMed Central

    Byard, R W; Bourne, A J

    1991-01-01

    A previously well 7 year old boy presented with sudden loss of consciousness and fitting. No evidence of trauma or space occupying lesion was identified. Death occurred the next day due to cerebral infarction caused by embolised fragments from a ruptured left ventricular hydatid cyst that was found at necropsy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1994846

  19. Autonomous aircraft initiative study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hewett, Marle D.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a consulting effort to aid NASA Ames-Dryden in defining a new initiative in aircraft automation are described. The initiative described is a multi-year, multi-center technology development and flight demonstration program. The initiative features the further development of technologies in aircraft automation already being pursued at multiple NASA centers and Department of Defense (DoD) research and Development (R and D) facilities. The proposed initiative involves the development of technologies in intelligent systems, guidance, control, software development, airborne computing, navigation, communications, sensors, unmanned vehicles, and air traffic control. It involves the integration and implementation of these technologies to the extent necessary to conduct selected and incremental flight demonstrations.

  20. Air pollution from aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heywood, J. B.; Fay, J. A.; Chigier, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Forty-one annotated abstracts of reports generated at MIT and the University of Sheffield are presented along with summaries of the technical projects undertaken. Work completed includes: (1) an analysis of the soot formation and oxidation rates in gas turbine combustors, (2) modelling the nitric oxide formation process in gas turbine combustors, (3) a study of the mechanisms causing high carbon monoxide emissions from gas turbines at low power, (4) an analysis of the dispersion of pollutants from aircraft both around large airports and from the wakes of subsonic and supersonic aircraft, (5) a study of the combustion and flow characteristics of the swirl can modular combustor and the development and verification of NO sub x and CO emissions models, (6) an analysis of the influence of fuel atomizer characteristics on the fuel-air mixing process in liquid fuel spray flames, and (7) the development of models which predict the stability limits of fully and partially premixed fuel-air mixtures.

  1. Aircraft turbofan noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groeneweg, J. F.; Rice, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    Turbofan noise generation and suppression in aircraft engines are reviewed. The chain of physical processes which connect unsteady flow interactions with fan blades to far field noise is addressed. Mechanism identification and description, duct propagation, radiation and acoustic suppression are discussed. The experimental technique of fan inflow static tests are discussed. Rotor blade surface pressure and wake velocity measurements aid in the determination of the types and strengths of the generation mechanisms. Approaches to predicting or measuring acoustic mode content, optimizing treatment impedance to maximize attenuation, translating impedance into porous wall structure and interpreting far field directivity patterns are illustrated by comparisons of analytical and experimental results. The interdependence of source and acoustic treatment design to minimize far field noise is emphasized. Area requiring further research are discussed and the relevance of aircraft turbofan results to quieting other turbomachinery installations is addressed.

  2. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are: (1) engine component improvement, directed at current engines, (2) energy efficient engine, directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) advanced turboprops, directed at technology for advanced turboprop-powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  3. Energy efficient aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, R.; Miller, B.

    1979-01-01

    The three engine programs that constitute the propulsion portion of NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program are described, their status indicated, and anticipated improvements in SFC discussed. The three engine programs are (1) Engine Component Improvement--directed at current engines, (2) Energy Efficiency Engine directed at new turbofan engines, and (3) Advanced Turboprops--directed at technology for advanced turboprop--powered aircraft with cruise speeds to Mach 0.8. Unique propulsion system interactive ties to the airframe resulting from engine design features to reduce fuel consumption are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the advanced turboprop since it offers the largest potential fuel savings of the three propulsion programs and also has the strongest interactive ties to the airframe.

  4. Aircraft Survivability. Fall 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) Short Course was held 17-20 May at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. 52 students attended the...Postgraduate School where he earned his MBA in Financial Management. Jimmy earned his BS in General Science from the United States Naval Academy...Answering these questions requires credible threat models supported by high -fidelity test characterizations of the MANPADS missile threat. Based on

  5. X-29: Research Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary look at the Ames Dryden Flight Research Center in the context of the X-29 aircraft is provided. The uses of the X-29's 30 deg forward swept wing are examined. The video highlights the historical development of the forward swept wing, and its unique blend of speed, agility, and slow flight potential. The central optimization of the wing, the forward canard, and the rear flaps by an onboard flight computer is also described.

  6. Aircraft Survivability. Summer 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Survivability Program Office SUMMER 2011 craShworthineSS & personnel casualties Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Aircraft Survivability is published three times a year by the Joint...and stroking seats. The knowledge gained from studying Vietnam crash data was consolidated into the Crash Survival Design Guide (CSDG), which

  7. Electrical Thermometers for Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John B; Womack, S H J

    1937-01-01

    Electrical thermometers commonly used on aircraft are the thermoelectric type for measuring engine-cylinder temperatures, the resistance type for measuring air temperatures, and the superheat meters of thermoelectric and resistance types for use on airships. These instruments are described and their advantages and disadvantages enumerated. Methods of testing these instruments and the performance to be expected from each are discussed. The field testing of engine-cylinder thermometers is treated in detail.

  8. Aircraft EMP Isolation Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    also influence the formation of streamers. If electrons are swept away from the electrode surface , additional electrons must leave the surface , if...presented. The dielectric materials to be used in the proposed solutions are discussed. In order to simulate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) of a nuclear...structure. Therefore, the flashover to ground of the aircraft structure (at the point of the sharp projection) depends on the amplitude and pulse shape of the

  9. Slotted Aircraft Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLean, James D. (Inventor); Witkowski, David P. (Inventor); Campbell, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A swept aircraft wing includes a leading airfoil element and a trailing airfoil element. At least one full-span slot is defined by the wing during at least one transonic condition of the wing. The full-span slot allows a portion of the air flowing along the lower surface of the leading airfoil element to split and flow over the upper surface of the trailing airfoil element so as to achieve a performance improvement in the transonic condition.

  10. Review of evolving trends in blended wing body aircraft design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okonkwo, Paul; Smith, Howard

    2016-04-01

    The desire to produce environmentally friendly aircraft that is aerodynamically efficient and capable of conveying large number of passengers over long ranges at reduced direct operating cost led aircraft designers to develop the Blended Wing Body (BWB) aircraft concept. The BWB aircraft represents a paradigm shift in the design of aircraft. The design provides aerodynamics and environmental benefits and is suitable for the integration of advanced systems and concepts like laminar flow technology, jet flaps and distributed propulsion. However, despite these benefits, the BWB is yet to be developed for commercial air transport due to several challenges. This paper reviews emerging trends in BWB aircraft design highlighting design challenges that have hindered the development of a BWB passenger transport aircraft. The study finds that in order to harness the advantages and reduce the deficiencies of a tightly coupled configuration like the BWB, a multidisciplinary design synthesis optimisation should be conducted with good handling and ride quality as objective functions within acceptable direct operating cost and noise bounds.

  11. The role of mobile computed tomography in mass fatality incidents.

    PubMed

    Rutty, Guy N; Robinson, Claire E; BouHaidar, Ralph; Jeffery, Amanda J; Morgan, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    Mobile multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) scanners are potentially available to temporary mortuaries and can be operational within 20 min of arrival. We describe, to our knowledge, the first use of mobile MDCT for a mass fatality incident. A mobile MDCT scanner attended the disaster mortuary after a five vehicle road traffic incident. Five out of six bodies were successfully imaged by MDCT in c. 15 min per body. Subsequent full radiological analysis took c. 1 h per case. The results were compared to the autopsy examinations. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of imaging with mobile MDCT in relation to mass fatality work, illustrating the body pathway process, and its role in the identification of the pathology, personal effects, and health and safety hazards. We propose that the adoption of a single modality of mobile MDCT could replace the current use of multiple radiological sources within a mass fatality mortuary.

  12. Risk of fatal pulmonary embolism with oral contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Poulter, N R

    2000-06-17

    This commentary addresses the New Zealand study (case report) of a fatal pulmonary embolism (PE) associated with oral contraceptive (OC) use by L. Parkin and colleagues. The study significantly adds to the knowledge on the relationship between fatal PE and OC use, because most of the evidence up to now has related to nonfatal venous thromboembolic events (VTE). Several areas of the study, however, are criticized. These include the method used, definition, and the adjustment of data. However, these criticisms have been offered explanations in this commentary. It is noted that data from the study indicated that OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene are associated with higher risks of fatal PE than are those containing levonorgestrel. This is consistent with most previous studies comparing the effects of second-generation progestogens on VTE. Overall, data support previous pragmatic recommendations that second-generation pills, which contain levonorgestrel, are the combined OCs of choice.

  13. Fatal occupational injuries of women, Texas 1975-84.

    PubMed

    Davis, H; Honchar, P A; Suarez, L

    1987-12-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 348 cases of fatal occupational injuries of civilian females. Homicides accounted for 53 per cent and motor vehicle-related injuries accounted for 26 per cent of the deaths. Injuries from firearms caused 70 per cent of the homicides. One hundred thirty-three deaths occurred to women employed in the retail trade industry; of these, 77 per cent resulted from homicide. Women workers in gasoline service stations, food-bakery-and-dairy stores, and eating-and-drinking places had especially high risks of homicide. Texas female heavy-truck drivers had the highest fatal-injury rate, with motor-vehicle-related injuries causing 89 per cent of their deaths. These results indicate that effective strategies to prevent fatal occupational injuries of Texas women will need to address the problems of workplace violence and the hazards posed by motor vehicles.

  14. Amphetamines as potential inducers of fatalities: a review in the district of Ghent from 1976-2004.

    PubMed

    De Letter, Els A; Piette, Michel H A; Lambert, Willy E; Cordonnier, Jan A C M

    2006-01-01

    Abuse of amphetamine (AMP) and its derivatives, such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'Ecstasy'), 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA, MDE), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) is an important public issue. Fatalities following ingestion of these substances are not infrequent in current forensic practice. The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, considering the wide range of blood levels reported in fatalities, to provide insight into the interpretation of a quantified blood level and, secondly, to examine and discuss possible causes, mechanisms and manners of death. All the medico-legal files between January 1976 and December 2004 were skimmed through to investigate whether amphetamine and/or derivatives were involved in the fatal outcome. Particularly, in addition to overdose cases due to or including amphetamines, all amphetamines-related fatalities were examined. In addition to AMP, MDMA, MDEA, and MDA, two other amphetamine derivatives, namely 4-methylthioamphetamine (4-MTA) and para-methoxyamphetamine (PMA) were considered. In 34 fatalities, amphetamines were involved and the majority were men, under the age of 25 years. A wide range of blood levels was found: e.g. MDMA blood concentrations in cases of 'pure' intoxication were found between 0.27 and 13.51 microg/ml. The age and sex distribution as well as the broad range of quantified amphetamines blood levels were in line with those reported in the literature. In our study group, 'pure' intoxications with amphetamines, polydrug overdoses, and the combination of amphetamines use and polytrauma were the most prominent causes of death. Considering the manner of death in these fatalities, unintentional overdoses were most frequent, though suicides, traffic accidents, and criminal offences associated with amphetamines use also accounted for significant percentages. Acute to subacute cardiopulmonary failure was the most frequent mechanism of death, followed by (poly)trauma, mechanical

  15. Investigation of the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, J. Holland, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Aircraft Misfueling Detection Project was developed by the Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility at Wallops Island, Virginia. Its purpose was to investigate the misfueling of reciprocating piston aircraft engines by the inadvertent introduction of jet fuel in lieu of or as a contaminant of aviation gasoline. The final objective was the development of a device(s) that will satisfactorily detect misfueling and provide pilots with sufficient warning to avoid injury, fatality, or equipment damage. Two devices have been developed and successfully tested: one, a small contamination detection kit, for use by the pilot, and a second, more sensitive, modified gas chromatograph for use by the fixed-base operator. The gas chromatograph, in addition to providing excellent quality control of the fixed-base operator's fuel handling, is a very good backup for the detection kit in the event it produces negative results. Design parameters were developed to the extent that they may be applied easily to commercial production by the aircraft industry.

  16. Fatal Pulmonary Tumor Embolic Microangiopathy in Young Lady without Known Primary Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azem, M. Ali; Hanafy, Ahmed; Nakkar, Talal

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Malignancy, prolonged recumbence, and chemotherapy are renowned risk factors for development of clinically significant PE. Cancer exerts a multitude of pathophysiological processes, for example, hypercoagulability and abnormal vessels with sluggish circulation that can lead to PE. One of the peculiar characteristics of tumor cells is their ability to reach the circulation and behave as blood clot—not a metastasis-occluding the pulmonary circulation. We present a case of fatal pulmonary embolism diagnosed histologically to be due to tumor cell embolism. PMID:25478243

  17. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS determination of zuclopenthixol in a fatal intoxication during psychiatric therapy.

    PubMed

    Kollroser, M; Henning, G; Gatternig, R; Schober, C

    2001-12-01

    The first non-suicidal fatality due to intramuscular administration of Cisordinol (zuclopenthixol, ZPT) is described. A new, rapid, and sensitive method for the determination of ZPT in postmortem specimens has been developed. High performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was employed for drug confirmation and quantitation. Sample clean up was performed using a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure. The postmortem concentration of ZPT in heart blood was 0.68 microg/ml. Furthermore, zotepine, carbamazepine, and chlorprotixene were detected in body fluids. The proposed method enables the unambiguous identification and quantitation of ZPT and other neuroleptic drugs in clinical and forensic specimens.

  18. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  19. Fatal child neglect: characteristics, causation, and strategies for prevention.

    PubMed

    Welch, Ginger L; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    Research in child fatalities because of abuse and neglect has continued to increase, yet the mechanisms of the death incident and risk factors for these deaths remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine the types of neglect that resulted in children's deaths as determined by child welfare and a child death review board. This case review study reviewed 22 years of data (n=372) of child fatalities attributed solely to neglect taken from a larger sample (N=754) of abuse and neglect death cases spanning the years 1987-2008. The file information reviewed was provided by the Oklahoma Child Death Review Board (CDRB) and the Oklahoma Department of Human Services (DHS) Division of Children and Family Services. Variables of interest were child age, ethnicity, and birth order; parental age and ethnicity; cause of death as determined by child protective services (CPS); and involvement with DHS at the time of the fatal event. Three categories of fatal neglect--supervisory neglect, deprivation of needs, and medical neglect--were identified and analyzed. Results found an overwhelming presence of supervisory neglect in child neglect fatalities and indicated no significant differences between children living in rural and urban settings. Young children and male children comprised the majority of fatalities, and African American and Native American children were over-represented in the sample when compared to the state population. This study underscores the critical need for prevention and educational programming related to appropriate adult supervision and adequate safety measures to prevent a child's death because of neglect.

  20. Interaction of Aircraft Wakes From Laterally Spaced Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.

    2009-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulations are used to examine wake interactions from aircraft on closely spaced parallel paths. Two sets of experiments are conducted, with the first set examining wake interactions out of ground effect (OGE) and the second set for in ground effect (IGE). The initial wake field for each aircraft represents a rolled-up wake vortex pair generated by a B-747. Parametric sets include wake interactions from aircraft pairs with lateral separations of 400, 500, 600, and 750 ft. The simulation of a wake from a single aircraft is used as baseline. The study shows that wake vortices from either a pair or a formation of B-747 s that fly with very close lateral spacing, last longer than those from an isolated B-747. For OGE, the inner vortices between the pair of aircraft, ascend, link and quickly dissipate, leaving the outer vortices to decay and descend slowly. For the IGE scenario, the inner vortices ascend and last longer, while the outer vortices decay from ground interaction at a rate similar to that expected from an isolated aircraft. Both OGE and IGE scenarios produce longer-lasting wakes for aircraft with separations less than 600 ft. The results are significant because concepts to increase airport capacity have been proposed that assume either aircraft formations and/or aircraft pairs landing on very closely spaced runways.