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Sample records for aircraft fire protection

  1. Study of aircraft crashworthiness for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, A.

    1981-01-01

    Impact-survivable postcrash fire accidents were surveyed. The data base developed includes foreign and domestic accidents involving airlines and jet aircraft. The emphasis was placed on domestic accidents, airlines, and jet aircraft due principally to availability of information. Only transport category aircraft in commercial service designed under FAR Part 25 were considered. A matrix was prepared to show the relationships between the accident characteristics and the fire fatalities. Typical postcrash fire scenaries were identified. Safety concepts were developed for three engineering categories: cabin interiors - cabin subsystems; power plant - engines and fuel systems; and structural mechanics - primary and secondary structures. The parameters identified for concept evaluation are cost, effectiveness, and societal concerns. Three concepts were selected for design definition and cost and effectiveness analysis: improved fire-resistant seat materials; anti-misting kerosene; and additional cabin emergency exits.

  2. Aircraft fire safety research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botteri, Benito P.

    1987-01-01

    During the past 15 years, very significant progress has been made toward enhancing aircraft fire safety in both normal and hostile (combat) operational environments. Most of the major aspects of the aircraft fire safety problem are touched upon here. The technology of aircraft fire protection, although not directly applicable in all cases to spacecraft fire scenarios, nevertheless does provide a solid foundation to build upon. This is particularly true of the extensive research and testing pertaining to aircraft interior fire safety and to onboard inert gas generation systems, both of which are still active areas of investigation.

  3. Evaluation of Materials and Concepts for Aircraft Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Price, J. O.; Mcclure, A. H.; Tustin, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Woven fiberglass fluted-core simulated aircraft interior panels were flame tested and structurally evaluated against the Boeing 747 present baseline interior panels. The NASA-defined panels, though inferior on a strength-to-weight basis, showed better structural integrity after flame testing, due to the woven fiberglass structure.

  4. Aircraft Instrument, Fire Protection, Warning, Communication, Navigation and Cabin Atmosphere Control System (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics 3 (Air Frame): 9067.04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to familiarize the student with manipulative skills and theoretical knowledge concerning aircraft instrument systems like major flight and engine instruments; fire protection and fire fighting systems; warning systems and navigation systems; aircraft cabin control systems, such as…

  5. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  6. Computational fire modeling for aircraft fire research

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.

    1996-11-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Federal Aviation Administration. The technical issues involved in fire modeling for aircraft fire research are identified, as well as computational fire tools for addressing those issues, and the research which is needed to advance those tools in order to address long-range needs. Fire field models are briefly reviewed, and the VULCAN model is selected for further evaluation. Calculations are performed with VULCAN to demonstrate its applicability to aircraft fire problems, and also to gain insight into the complex problem of fires involving aircraft. Simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of fire on an aircraft in a cross-wind. The interaction of the fuselage, wind, fire, and ground plane is investigated. Calculations are also performed utilizing a large eddy simulation (LES) capability to describe the large- scale turbulence instead of the more common k-{epsilon} turbulence model. Additional simulations are performed to investigate the static pressure and velocity distributions around a fuselage in a cross-wind, with and without fire. The results of these simulations provide qualitative insight into the complex interaction of a fuselage, fire, wind, and ground plane. Reasonable quantitative agreement is obtained in the few cases for which data or other modeling results exist Finally, VULCAN is used to quantify the impact of simplifying assumptions inherent in a risk assessment compatible fire model developed for open pool fire environments. The assumptions are seen to be of minor importance for the particular problem analyzed. This work demonstrates the utility of using a fire field model for assessing the limitations of simplified fire models. In conclusion, the application of computational fire modeling tools herein provides both qualitative and quantitative insights into the complex problem of aircraft in fires.

  7. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  8. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  9. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  10. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  11. 14 CFR 33.17 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 33.17 Section 33.17... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; General § 33.17 Fire protection. (a) The design and... fire during normal operation and failure conditions, and must minimize the effect of such a fire....

  12. Fires in P-3 Aircraft Oxygen Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Fires in three P3 aircraft oxygen systems have occurred: one in the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) in 1984 and two in the U.S. Navy in 1998 and 2003. All three fires started in the aluminum manifold and check valve (MCV) assembly and produced similar damages to the aircraft in which they occurred. This paper discusses a failure analysis conducted by the NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) Oxygen Hazards and Testing Team on the 2003 U.S. Navy VP62 fire. It was surmised that the fire started due to heat generated by an oxygen leak past a silicone check valve seal or possibly because of particle impact near the seat of one of the MCV assembly check valves. An additional analysis of fires in several check valve poppet seals from other aircraft is discussed. These burned poppet seals came from P3 oxygen systems that had been serviced at the Naval Air Station (NAS) in Jacksonville following standard fill procedures. It was concluded that these seal fires occurred due to the heat from compression heating, particle impact, or the heat generated by an oxygen leak past the silicone check valve seal. The fact that catastrophic fires did not occur in the case of each check valve seal fire was attributed to the protective nature of the aluminum oxide layer on the check valve poppets. To prevent future fires of this nature, the U.S. and Canadian fleets of P3 aircraft have been retrofitted with MCV assemblies with an upgraded design and more burn-resistant materials.

  13. The Cleveland Aircraft Fire Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenneman, James J.; Heine, Donald A.

    1968-01-01

    On June 30 and July 1, 1966, tests were conducted to evaluate high expansion foam's ability to extend the time for which an aircraft passenger cabin environment would remain survivable during a post-crash fire. While some results tend to confirm those of similar tests, others may shed new light on the problem.

  14. Lightning protection of aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, F. A.; Plumer, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    The current knowledge concerning potential lightning effects on aircraft and the means that are available to designers and operators to protect against these effects are summarized. The increased use of nonmetallic materials in the structure of aircraft and the constant trend toward using electronic equipment to handle flight-critical control and navigation functions have served as impetus for this study.

  15. Fire prevention on aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Fritz

    1931-01-01

    The following discussion is at first restricted to the light-oil engines now in use. We shall consider how far it is possible to reduce fire hazards by changes in the design of the engines and carburetors and in the arrangement of the fuel pipes.

  16. Fire Protection Program Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  17. Optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire blocking layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Ling, A. C.; Hovatter, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes work completed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration - for the Federal Aviation Administration Technical Center. The purpose of this work was to examine the potential of fire blocking mechanisms for aircraft seat cushions in order to provide an optimized seat configuration with adequate fire protection and minimum weight. Aluminized thermally stable fabrics were found to provide adequate fire protection when used in conjunction with urethane foams, while maintaining minimum weight and cost penalty.

  18. NASA Fire Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on fire protection operations and administration at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The presentation also lists innovative practices and recent improvements.

  19. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  20. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  1. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  2. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire zones. The following...

  3. Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, national Fire Protection Association Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard, along with other delineated criteria, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  4. Ames T-3 fire test facility - Aircraft crash fire simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1976-01-01

    There is a need to characterize the thermal response of materials exposed to aircraft fuel fires. Large scale open fire tests are costly and pollute the local environment. This paper describes the construction and operation of a subscale fire test that simulates the heat flux levels and thermochemistry of typical open pool fires. It has been termed the Ames T-3 Test and has been used extensively by NASA since 1969 to observe the behavior of materials exposed to JP-4 fuel fires.

  5. 14 CFR 29.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 29.859 Section 29.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.859 Combustion heater fire protection....

  6. 14 CFR 25.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 25.859 Section 25.859 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.859 Combustion heater fire protection....

  7. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with...

  8. Optimization of fire blocking layers for aircraft seating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Ablative materials are used to provide thermal protection for heat sensitive substrates against large jet fuel fires. The present investigation is concerned with the possibility to increase the available egress time for passengers, from a transport aircraft, in which the flexible polyurethane seating is exposed to the action of a large pool fire. Suitable approaches for providing sufficient ablative protection for polyurethane cushioning are considered. The efficiency of any fire blocking layer is defined as the ratio of the incident radiant heating rate, to the rate of production of combustible gas produced per unit area per second, generated by the pyrolysis of the substrate polyurethane foam. It is found that adequate fire blocking protection can be achieved through replacement of cotton batting slip covers with a wide variety of fire blocking layers. Metallized high temperature resistant char forming ablatives appear to provide optimum protection.

  9. Aircraft fires, smoke toxicity, and survival.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, A K; Sanders, D C

    1996-03-01

    In-flight fires in modern aircraft are rare, but post-crash fires do occur. Cabin occupants frequently survive initial forces of such crashes but are incapacitated from smoke inhalation. According to an international study, there were 95 fire-related civil passenger aircraft accidents worldwide over a 26-yr period, claiming approximately 2400 lives. Between 1985 and 1991, about 16% (32 accidents) of all U.S. transport aircraft accidents involved fire and 22% (140 fatalities) of the deaths in these accidents resulted from fire/smoke toxicity. Our laboratory analyses of postmortem blood samples (1967-93) indicate that 360 individuals in 134 fatal fire-related civil aircraft (air carrier and general aviation) accidents had carboxyhemoglobin saturation levels (> or = 20%), with or without blood cyanide, high enough to impair performance. Combustion toxicology is now moving from a descriptive to a mechanistic phase. Methods for gas analyses have been developed and combustion/animal-exposure assemblies have been constructed. Material/fire-retardant toxicity and interactions between smoke gases are being studied. Relationships between gas exposure concentrations, blood levels, and incapacitation onset are being established in animal models. Continuing basic research in smoke toxicity will be necessary to understand its complexities, and thus enhance aviation safety and fire survival chances. PMID:8775410

  10. Fire Protection Jacket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    NERAC, Inc., Tolland, CT, aided Paul Monroe Engineering, Orange, CA, in the development of their PC1200 Series Fire Protection Jacket that protects the oil conduit system on an offshore drilling platform from the intense hydrocarbon fires that cause buckling and could cause structural failure of the platform. The flame-proof jacketing, which can withstand temperatures of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit for four hours or more, was developed from a combination of ceramic cloth (similar to the ceramic in Space Shuttle tiles), and laminates used in space suits.

  11. Fire Protection Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Avco has drawn upon its heat shield experience to develop a number of widely-accepted commercial fire protection materials. Originating from NASA's space shuttle thermal protection system, one such material is Chartek 59 fireproofing, an intumescent epoxy coating specifically designed for outdoor use by industrial facilities dealing with highly flammable products such as oil refineries and chemical plants. The coating is applied usually by spray gun to exterior structural steel conduits, pipes and valves, offshore platforms and liquefied petroleum gas tanks. Fireproofing provides two types of protection: ablation or dissipation of heat by burn-off and "intumescence" or swelling; the coating swells to about five times its original size, forming a protective blanket of char which retards transfer of heat to the metal structure preventing loss of structural strength and possible collapse which would compound the fire fighting problem.

  12. Fire Protection in Educational Occupancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, Romeo P.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the origins of school fires and the components of the fire protection code called the Life Safety Code (LSC). Three of the following LSC requirements are described: means of egress; protection from hazards; and fire suppression and alarm systems. Information on who starts fires is highlighted along with preventive measures. (GR)

  13. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was performed of the conditions in which fires can result and be controlled within the bearing sump simulating that of a gas turbine engine; Esso 4040 Turbo Oil, Mobil Jet 2, and Monsanto MCS-2931 lubricants were used. Control variables include the oil inlet temperature, bearing temperature, oil inlet and scavenge rates, hot air inlet temperature and flow rate, and internal sump baffling. In addition to attempting spontaneous combustion, an electric spark and a rub (friction) mechanism were employed to ignite fires. Spontaneous combustion was not obtained; however, fires were readily ignited with the electric spark while using each of the three test lubricants. Fires were also ignited using the rub mechanism with the only test lubricant evaluated, Esso 4040. Major parameters controlling ignitions were: Sump configuration; Bearing and oil temperatures, hot air temperature and flow and bearing speed. Rubbing between stationary parts and rotating parts (eg. labyrinth seal and mating rub strip) is a very potent fire source suggesting that observed accidental fires in gas turbine sumps may well arise from this cause.

  14. Fire containment tests of aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Leon, H. A.; Williamson, R. B.; Hasegawa, H.; Fisher, F.; Draemel, R.; Marcussen, W. H.; Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental program carried out to evaluate a possible method for testing the fire-containment qualities of aircraft interior panels. The experimental apparatus consisted of a burner that simulates various fire loads under different ventilation conditions in an enclosure of approximately the same size as an aircraft lavatory module. Two fire-containment tests are discussed in which two adjoining walls of the enclosure were made from state-of-the-art composite panels; rats were exposed to the combustion products in order to evaluate the toxic threat posed by those products. The results show that the burner can be employed to represent various fire-load conditions and that the methodology developed for fire containment can be useful in evaluating the fire resistance of composite panels before conducting large-scale tests. It is concluded that elements of the fire-containment criteria include the temperature rise on the backface of the panels as a function of time, the flame burn-through by either decomposition or severe distortion of the material, and the toxicity of the combustion gases evolved.

  15. Fire Protection for Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevig, William A.

    Fire protection in rural Alaskan communities depends on individual home fire prevention and protection rather than on the services offered by a centralized fire department. Even when help is summoned to extinguish a blaze, aid does not come in the form of a cadre of highly trained firefighters; it comes instead from whomever happens to be in the…

  16. Fire Protection for Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Jane

    1972-01-01

    Reviews attack on fire safety in high rise buildings made by a group of experts representing the iron and steel industry at a recent conference. According to one expert, fire problems are people oriented, which calls for emphasis on fire prevention rather than reliance on fire suppression and for fire pretection to be built into a structure.…

  17. Fire detector response in aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiersma, S. J.; Mckee, R. G.

    1978-01-01

    Photoelectric, ionization, and gas sensors were used to detect the signatures from the radiant heat or flame of various aircraft materials. It was found that both ionization and photoelectric detectors are about equally capable of detecting products of pyrolysis and combustion of synthetic polymers, especially those containing fire-retardant additives. Ionization detectors alone appeared to be sensitive to combustion products of simple cellulosic materials. A gas sensor detector appeared to be insensitive to pyrolysis or combustion products of many of the materials.

  18. An analysis of aircraft accidents involving fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucha, G. V.; Robertson, M. A.; Schooley, F. A.

    1975-01-01

    All U. S. Air Carrier accidents between 1963 and 1974 were studied to assess the extent of total personnel and aircraft damage which occurred in accidents and in accidents involving fire. Published accident reports and NTSB investigators' factual backup files were the primary sources of data. Although it was frequently not possible to assess the relative extent of fire-caused damage versus impact damage using the available data, the study established upper and lower bounds for deaths and damage due specifically to fire. In 12 years there were 122 accidents which involved airframe fires. Eighty-seven percent of the fires occurred after impact, and fuel leakage from ruptured tanks or severed lines was the most frequently cited cause. A cost analysis was performed for 300 serious accidents, including 92 serious accidents which involved fire. Personal injury costs were outside the scope of the cost analysis, but data on personnel injury judgements as well as settlements received from the CAB are included for reference.

  19. Pool fires in a simulated aircraft cabin interior with ventilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.; Cho, Y. I.; Shakkottai, P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of experiments conducted at the JPL to evaluate aircraft postcrash fire hazards are presented. The experiments were carried out in a one-third scale simulated aircraft cabin geometry to study pool fire and ventilation flow interactions. It is shown that wind-induced ventilation may significantly affect fire plume orientation, smoke transport, and heat fluxes and thus will affect subsequent fire spread and the immediate survivability of the passengers.

  20. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester.

  1. Materials research for aircraft fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Bricker, R. W.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high-temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of the state-of-the-art and the advanced bismaleimide composites are detailed.

  2. Fire Protection. Honeywell Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honeywell, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    A general discussion of fire alarms and protection is provided by a manufacturer of automated monitoring and control systems. Background information describes old and new fire alarm systems, comparing system components, wage savings, and cost analysis. Different kinds of automatic systems are listed, including--(1) local system, (2) auxiliary…

  3. Fire protection for relocatable structures

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This standard supersedes DOE/EV-0043, ``Standard on Fire Protection for Portable Structures.`` It was revised to address the numerous types of relocatable structures, such as trailers, tension-supported structures, and tents being used by DOE and contractors.

  4. National Fire Protection Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... and standards Welcome to the Jungle With the marijuana industry poised for a rapid expansion, Colorado — epicenter ... more. See where fire codes intersect with the marijuana industry. Hazards of the trade As with any ...

  5. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  6. 14 CFR 27.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  7. 14 CFR 29.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 29.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  8. 14 CFR 27.861 - Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of structure, controls, and... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Fire Protection § 27.861 Fire protection of structure, controls, and other parts. Each part of the...

  9. Aircraft Engine Sump Fire Mitigation, Phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenlieb, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of changes in the input parameters (air leakage flow rate and temperature and lubricating oil inlet flow rate and temperature) over a specified range on the flammability conditions within an aircraft engine bearing sump was investigated. An analytical study was performed to determine the effect of various parameters on the generation rate of oil vapor from oil droplets in a hot air stream flowing in a cylindrical tube. The ignition of the vapor-air mixture by an ignition source was considered. The experimental investigation demonstrated that fires would be ignited by a spark ignitor over the full range of air and oil flow rates and air temperatures evaluated. However, no fires could be ignited when the oil inlet temperature was maintained below 41.7 K (290 F). The severity of the fires ignited were found to be directly proportional to the hot air flow rate. Reasonably good correlation was found between the mixture temperature in the sump at the ignitor location and the flammability limits as defined by flammability theory; thus a fairly reliable experimental method of determining flammable conditions within a sump was demonstrated. The computerized mathematical model shows that oil droplet size and air temperature have the greatest influence on the generation rate of oil vapor.

  10. Refurbishment of NASA aircraft with fire-retardant materials. [aircraft compartments of commercial aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Supkis, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    Selected fire-retardant materials for possible application to commercial aircraft are described. The results of flammability screening tests and information on the physical and chemical properties of both original and newly installed materials after extended use are presented in tabular form, with emphasis on wear properties, strength, puncture and tear resistances, and cleanability.

  11. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  14. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  15. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA...

  16. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Schutter, K. J.; Sieth, H. H.; Trabold, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Phase 3 study of the NASA 'Improved Fire Resistant Aircraft Seat Materials' involved fire tests of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a 'Design Guideline' for Fire Resistant Passenger Seats was written outlining general seat design considerations. Finally, a three-abreast 'Tourist Class' passenger seat assembly fabricated from the most advanced fire-resistant materials was delivered.

  17. Fire Protection for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortson-James, Judith

    1981-01-01

    This overview of preventive measures that can be taken to help minimize damage to library materials from fire discusses the advantages, disadvantages, dangers, and comparative costs of several types of sprinkler systems, including high-expansion foam, total-flooding, dry- and wet-pipe systems, and on-off sprinkler heads. Five references are…

  18. Mechanism of Start and Development of Aircraft Crash Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I. Irving; Preston, G. Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J.

    1952-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft crashes, devised to give surge fuel spillage and a high incidence of fire, were made to investigate the mechanism of the start and development of aircraft crash fires. The results are discussed. herein. This investigation revealed the characteristics of the ignition sources, the manner in which the combustibles spread., the mechanism of the union of the combustibles and ignition sources, and the pertinent factors governing the development of a crash fire as observed in this program.

  19. Fire resistant films for aircraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    Alternative sandwich panel decorative films were investigated as replacements for the polyvinyl fluoride currently used in aircraft interiors. Candidate films were studied for flammability, smoke emission, toxic gas emission, flame spread, and suitability as a printing surface for the decorative acrylic ink system. Several of the candidate films tested were flame modified polyvinyl fluoride, polyvinylidene fluoride, polyimide, polyamide, polysulfone, polyphenylsulfone, polyethersulfone, polybenzimidazole, polycarbonate, polyparabanic acid, polyphosphazene, polyetheretherketon, and polyester. The films were evaluated as pure films only, films silk-screened with an acrylic ink, and films adhered to a phenolic fiberglass substrate. Films which exhibited the highest fire resistant properties included PEEK polyetheretherketon, Aramid polyamide, and ISO-BPE polyester. Previously announced in STAR as N83-22320

  20. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  1. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  2. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  3. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  4. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular... prevent fire, installed inside the thermal dryer systems, and such sprays shall be designed to provide...

  5. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  6. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... exceed 100 feet. (ii) One 55-gallon open drum of water with two fire pails may be substituted for a fire...) Extinguishers and water drums, subject to freezing, shall be protected from freezing. (vi) A fire extinguisher... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  7. Mechanism of Start and Development of Aircraft Crash Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I. Irving; Preston, G. Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J.

    1952-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft crashes were made to investigate the mechanism of the start and development of aircraft crash fires. The results are discussed herein. This investigation revealed the characteristics of the ignition sources, the manner in which the combustibles spread, the mechanism of the union of the combustibles and ignition sources, and the pertinent factors governing the development of a crash fire as observed in this program.

  8. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  9. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  10. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section 25.854 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... disposal receptacle for towels, paper, or waste, located within the lavatory. The extinguisher must...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a...

  13. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.

    1978-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of flammability by the use of materials obtained from foamy polyimide resins is developed. The ability of these materials to provide fire protection is demonstrated. The development of processes for producing resilient cell foam for use in aircraft seating, thermal acoustical insulation, floor and wall panels, coated glass fabrics, and molded hardware.

  14. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...: (1) For portable fire extinguishers, the inspections, maintenance procedures and hydrostatic pressure... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification,...

  15. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  16. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  17. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  18. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  19. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire... and is returned to service in a reasonable period of time. (b) Access routes for movement of...

  20. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  1. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping COAST... Inspections § 115.810 Fire protection. (a) At each initial and subsequent inspection for certification,...

  2. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  3. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR... Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must... become fully shielded if a fire is detected. (b) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire control equipment must be scheduled so that a minimum of equipment is taken out of service at any one...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire control equipment must be scheduled so that a minimum of equipment is taken out of service at any one...

  6. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened for possible use wiith acrylic printing inks on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants were selected according to their physical properties and thermostabilities. Thermostabilities were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. A criterion was then established for selecting the more stable agent. Results show that some of the bromine-containing fire retardants are more thermostable than the acrylic ink, alone, used as a control. Also, the bromine-containing fire retardants yield even better limiting oxygen index values when tested after adding carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN) rubber.

  7. Heat shields for aircraft - A new concept to save lives in crash fires.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neel, C. B.; Parker, J. A.; Fish, R. H.; Henshaw, J.; Newland, J. H.; Tempesta, F. L.

    1971-01-01

    A passenger compartment surrounded by a fire-retardant shell, to protect the occupants long enough for the fire to burn out or for fire-fighting equipment to reach the aircraft and extinguish it, is proposed as a new concept for saving lives in crash fires. This concept is made possible by the recent development of two new fire-retardant materials: a very lightweight foam plastic, called polyisocyanurate foam, and an intumescent paint. Exposed to heat, the intumescent paint expands to many times its original thickness and insulates the surface underneath it. Demonstration tests are illustrated, described and discussed. However, some problems, such as preventing fuselage rupture and protecting windows, must be solved before such a system can be used.

  8. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection. 23.855 Section 23.855 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection...

  9. Fire-resistant materials for aircraft passenger seat construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Tesoro, G. C.; Moussa, A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The thermal response characteristics of fabric and fabric-foam assemblies are described. The various aspects of the ignition behavior of contemporary aircraft passenger seat upholstery fabric materials relative to fabric materials made from thermally stable polymers are evaluated. The role of the polymeric foam backing on the thermal response of the fabric-foam assembly is also ascertained. The optimum utilization of improved fire-resistant fabric and foam materials in the construction of aircraft passenger seats is suggested.

  10. DOE Standard: Fire protection design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1999-07-01

    The development of this Standard reflects the fact that national consensus standards and other design criteria do not comprehensively or, in some cases, adequately address fire protection issues at DOE facilities. This Standard provides supplemental fire protection guidance applicable to the design and construction of DOE facilities and site features (such as water distribution systems) that are also provided for fire protection. It is intended to be used in conjunction with the applicable building code, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards, and any other applicable DOE construction criteria. This Standard replaces certain mandatory fire protection requirements that were formerly in DOE 5480.7A, ``Fire Protection``, and DOE 6430.1A, ``General Design Criteria``. It also contains the fire protection guidelines from two (now canceled) draft standards: ``Glove Box Fire Protection`` and ``Filter Plenum Fire Protection``. (Note: This Standard does not supersede the requirements of DOE 5480.7A and DOE 6430.1A where these DOE Orders are currently applicable under existing contracts.) This Standard, along with the criteria delineated in Section 3, constitutes the basic criteria for satisfying DOE fire and life safety objectives for the design and construction or renovation of DOE facilities.

  11. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  12. Fire-retardant decorative inks for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Commercial and experimental fire retardants were screened as potential fire retardants for acrylic printing inks used on aircraft interior sandwich panels. The fire retardants are selected according to their physical properties and their thermostabilities. A criterion for selecting a more stable fire retardant is established. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to determine thermostabilities. Results show that the fire retardant formulations are more thermally stable than the acrylic ink control. It is determined that an ink formulation containing a brominated phenol and carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile which has been modified with a brominated polymeric additive (BPA), yields the highest limiting oxygen index (LOI) of all the compounds tested. All of the fire-retardant formulations have a higher oxygen index than the baseline acrylic ink.

  13. NASA Fire Protection Coordinators' Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Theodore

    2001-01-01

    Fire prevention activities at NASA's Stennis Space Center are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation. The Fire Prevention Office of the Fire Department at NASA Stennis conducts inspections and issues small appliance permits, while the Operations Section responds to emergencies.

  14. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the area. (iv) One or more fire extinguishers, rated not less than 2A, shall be provided on each floor... per minute, may be substituted for a fire extinguisher rated not more than 2A in the designated area... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150...

  16. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  17. 14 CFR 23.859 - Combustion heater fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Combustion heater fire protection. 23.859... Construction Fire Protection § 23.859 Combustion heater fire protection. (a) Combustion heater fire regions. The following combustion heater fire regions must be protected from fire in accordance with...

  18. Potential release of fibers from burning carbon composites. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental carbon fiber source program was conducted to determine the potential for the release of conductive carbon fibers from burning composites. Laboratory testing determined the relative importance of several parameters influencing the amounts of single fibers released, while large-scale aviation jet fuel pool fires provided realistic confirmation of the laboratory data. The dimensions and size distributions of fire-released carbon fibers were determined, not only for those of concern in an electrical sense, but also for those of potential interest from a health and environmental standpoint. Fire plume and chemistry studies were performed with large pool fires to provide an experimental input into an analytical modelling of simulated aircraft crash fires. A study of a high voltage spark system resulted in a promising device for the detection, counting, and sizing of electrically conductive fibers, for both active and passive modes of operation.

  19. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. E.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Large-scale aircraft lavatory and cargo compartment fire tests are described. Tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of these compartments to contain fire and smoke. Two tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1 involved a production Boeing 747 lavatory of the latest design installed in an enclosure outside the aircraft, to collect gases and expose animals to these gases. Results indicate that the interior of the lavatory was completely burned, evolving smoke and combustion products in the enclosure. Test 2 involved a simulated Douglas DC-10 cargo compartment retro-fitted with standard fiberglass liner. The fire caused excessive damage to the liner and burned through the ceiling in two areas. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed.

  20. Lightweight, fire-retardant, crashworthy aircraft seat cushioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslim, Leonard A.; Mcdonough, Paul T.

    1991-01-01

    A two page discussion of non-aerospace seating applications and the design of NASA's safety seat cushioning (SSC) is presented. The SSC was designed for both safety and comfort in order to replace polyurethane cushioning which is flammable and produces lethal fumes upon combustion. The SSC is composed of advanced fabric reinforced composites and is lightweight, fire-retardent, and crashworthy. The seat design consists of central elliptical tubular spring supports made of fire-resistant and fatigue-durable composites surrounded by a fire-blocking sheath. The cushioning is made crashworthy by incorporating energy-absorbing, viscoelastic layers between the nested, elliptical-hoop springs. The design is intended to provide comfortable seating that meets aircraft-loading requirements without using the conventional polyurethane materials. The designs of an aircraft seat and structural components of the SSC are also presented.

  1. 10 CFR 50.48 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection. 50.48 Section 50.48 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FACILITIES Standards for Licenses, Certifications, and Regulatory Approvals § 50.48 Fire protection. (a)(1) Each holder of an operating license issued under this part or a...

  2. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  3. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  4. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  5. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  6. 46 CFR 169.311 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 169.311 Section 169.311 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.311 Fire protection. (a) The general construction of the...

  7. Fire safety evaluation of aircraft lavatory and cargo compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Hilado, C. J.; Anderson, R. A.; Tustin, E.; Arnold, D. B.; Gaume, J. G.; Binding, A. T.; Mikeska, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A program of experimental fires has been carried out to assess fire containment and other fire hazards in lavatory and cargo compartments of wide-body jet aircraft by evaluation of ignition time, burn-through time, fire spread rate, smoke density, evolution of selected combustible and toxic gases, heat flux, and detector response. Two tests were conducted: one involving a standard Boeing 747 lavatory and one involving a simulated DC-10 cargo compartment. A production lavatory module was furnished with conventional materials and was installed in an enclosure. The ignition load was four polyethylene bags containing paper and plastic waste materials representive of a maximum flight cabin waste load. Standard aircraft ventilation conditions were utilized and the lavatory door was closed during the test. Lavatory wall and ceiling panels contained the fire spread during the 30-minute test. Smoke was driven into the enclosure primarily through the ventilation grille in the door and through the gaps between the bifold door and the jamb where the door distorted from the heat earlier in the test. The interior of the lavatory was almost completely destroyed by the fire.

  8. Fire blocking systems for aircraft seat cushions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A configuration and method for reducing the flammability of bodies of organic materials that thermally decompose to give flammable gases comprises covering the body with a flexible matrix that catalytically cracks the flammable gases to less flammable species. Optionally, the matrix is covered with a gas impermeable outer layer. In a preferred embodiment, the invention takes the form of an aircraft seat in which the body is a poly(urethane) seat cushion, the matrix is an aramid fabric or felt and the outer layer is an aluminum film.

  9. Selection and maintenance key to fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    Briese, B.L.

    1996-11-01

    Petroleum product and chemical storage terminals, because of the combustible products they handle, face severe fire exposure potentials. A fire at a terminal can grow rapidly and release damaging and deadly heat, threatening personnel, facilities, the adjoining environment and revenue. To combat this danger, terminals employ several types of fire protection systems, both fixed and mobile. All adhere to consensus codes and standards. Following installation of automatic fire protection equipment, its acceptance (sometimes referred to as commissioning) testing, ongoing maintenance and periodic inspection is vitally important to assure that it reliably functions when required.

  10. Research on antimisting fuel for suppression of postcrash aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarohia, V.; Parikh, P.; Yavrouian, A.; Matthys, E.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experimental results in the field of post-crash aircraft fire suppression are reviewed, with emphasis given to antimisting kerosene fuel (AMK). Findings in three major areas of study are presented, including: rheological studies (skin friction, and heat transfer); fuel breakup processes and nozzle spray combustion; and the development of inline blenders for production of AMK at the refueling point. An interpretation of the results of the FAA/NASA Controlled Impact Demonstration of AMK fuel is also presented. It is concluded that AMK is a sound concept and offers several advantages over conventional fuels in any crash scenario involving post-crash fires.

  11. Development of assembly techniques for fire resistant aircraft interior panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. C. S.

    1978-01-01

    Ten NASA Type A fire resistant aircraft interior panels were fabricated and tested to develop assembly techniques. These techiques were used in the construction of a full scale lavatory test structure for flame propagation testing. The Type A panel is of sandwich construction consisting of Nomex honeycomb filled with quinone dioxime foam, and bismaleimide/glass face sheets bonded to the core with polyimide film adhesive. The materials selected and the assembly techniques developed for the lavatory test structure were designed for obtaining maximum fire containment with minimum smoke and toxic emission.

  12. Fire-Retardant Decorative Inks For Aircraft Interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J. A.

    1988-01-01

    Report describes testing of commercial and experimental fire retardants for incorporation into acrylic printing inks used on aircraft-interior sandwich panels. Films of acrylic ink containing fire-retardant additives prepared by casting on glass plates. Solvent evaporated in vacuum, cast films cured at 80 to 100 degree C for 30 minutes in air-circulating oven. Thermochemical properties of films examined by thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Samples of inks cast on sheets of polyvinylfloride (PVF), and their limiting oxygen indices and smoke evolution measured.

  13. A computer simulation of aircraft evacuation with fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Middleton, V. E.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation was developed to assess passenger survival during the post-crash evacuation of a transport category aircraft when fire is a major threat. The computer code, FIREVAC, computes individual passenger exit paths and times to exit, taking into account delays and congestion caused by the interaction among the passengers and changing cabin conditions. Simple models for the physiological effects of the toxic cabin atmosphere are included with provision for including more sophisticated models as they become available. Both wide-body and standard-body aircraft may be simulated. Passenger characteristics are assigned stochastically from experimentally derived distributions. Results of simulations of evacuation trials and hypothetical evacuations under fire conditions are presented.

  14. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-01-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  15. Fire protection for launch facilities using machine vision fire detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Douglas B.

    1993-02-01

    Fire protection of critical space assets, including launch and fueling facilities and manned flight hardware, demands automatic sensors for continuous monitoring, and in certain high-threat areas, fast-reacting automatic suppression systems. Perhaps the most essential characteristic for these fire detection and suppression systems is high reliability; in other words, fire detectors should alarm only on actual fires and not be falsely activated by extraneous sources. Existing types of fire detectors have been greatly improved in the past decade; however, fundamental limitations of their method of operation leaves open a significant possibility of false alarms and restricts their usefulness. At the Civil Engineering Laboratory at Tyndall Air Force Base in Florida, a new type of fire detector is under development which 'sees' a fire visually, like a human being, and makes a reliable decision based on known visual characteristics of flames. Hardware prototypes of the Machine Vision (MV) Fire Detection System have undergone live fire tests and demonstrated extremely high accuracy in discriminating actual fires from false alarm sources. In fact, this technology promises to virtually eliminate false activations. This detector could be used to monitor fueling facilities, launch towers, clean rooms, and other high-value and high-risk areas. Applications can extend to space station and in-flight shuttle operations as well; fiber optics and remote camera heads enable the system to see around obstructed areas and crew compartments. The capability of the technology to distinguish fires means that fire detection can be provided even during maintenance operations, such as welding.

  16. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) For portable fire extinguishers, the inspections, maintenance procedures and hydrostatic pressure... fixed inert extinguishers must be tested or renewed as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.66. Water mist... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 115.810 Section 115.810 Shipping...

  17. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....65 in subchapter N of this chapter; and (7) Inspection and testing of all smoke and fire detection... 10 (incorporated by reference, 46 CFR 175.600) with the frequency specified by NFPA 10. In addition... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 176.810 Section 176.810 Shipping...

  18. Aircraft Data of the Rodeo/Chediski Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    New images of Arizona's Rodeo-Chediski wildfire, which according to news reports is the largest in the state's history, have been acquired by NASA's MODIS Airborne Simulator flying aboard the space agency's ER-2 aircraft. The images show the extent of the burn area-now more than 450,000 acres-and pinpoint areas of active burning as of the morning of July 1. The images below include both true-color images and false-color images designed to highlight the burned areas. They were acquired during a transit of the ER-2 aircraft from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. to Key West Naval Air Facility, Fla. in preparation for an upcoming field experiment. The newly acquired wildfire images will be used to validate rapid response wildfire maps produced by NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. They will also be provided to the U.S. Forest Service for potential use in post-fire damage assessments. The false-color image (top) shows the southern portion of the fire, and reveals that not all the terrain within the fire's perimeter burned to the same degree. Burned areas are red and remaining vegetation is green. In the center of the image, the bright orange pixels are actively burning fire, and the smoke drifting southward from the blaze appears blue. Burned area at the top of the true-color image (bottom) appears charcoal, and a smoke plume drifting southwest from the center of the image reveals the location of actively burning fire. See more images at MODIS Airborne Simulator Images of the Rodeo/Chediski Fire, Arizona and the Earth Observatory's Natural Hazards section. Images courtesy of MODIS Airborne Simulator ER-2 team, NASA GSFC and NASA Dryden Flight Research Center

  19. Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF) fire protection study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beller, R. C.; Burns, R. E.; Leonard, J. T.

    1989-07-01

    An analysis is presented to the effectiveness of various types of fire fighting agents in extinguishing the kinds of fires anticipated in Aviation Engine Test Facilities (AETF), otherwise known as Hush Houses. The agents considered include Aqueous Film-Forming Foam, Halon 1301, Halon 1211 and water. Previous test work has shown the rapidity with which aircraft, especially high performance aircraft, can be damaged by fire. Based on this, tentative criteria for this evaluation included a maximum time of 20 s from fire detection to extinguishment and a period of 30 min in which the agent would prevent reignition. Other issues examined included: toxicity, corrosivity, ease of personnel egress, system reliability, and cost effectiveness. The agents were evaluated for their performance in several fire scenarios, including: under frame fire, major engine fire, engine disintegration fire, high-volume pool fire with simultaneous spill fire, internal electrical fire, and runaway engine fire.

  20. Fire protection for inactive contaminated structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.M.

    1994-02-01

    In general industry and construction, destruction of an inactive/surplus facility by fire may be considered a blessing. However, in a decommissioned contaminated structure, where radiological and other hazardous materials exist, such a fire could be a major catastrophe. The losses from this type of fire are not only property (i.e., structure and its contents) but also the resulting environmental damage, required cleanup, offsite releases, and public relations and reactions. The purpose of this presentation is to (1) promote an awareness among the waste management community of fire protection engineering aspects that must be considered for inactive/surplus contaminated structures, and (2) present to the fire protection community an opportunity to become involved in the decommissioning process while promoting the DOE objectives to manage the risks associated with these structures.

  1. Evaluating and operationalizing unmanned aircraft for wildland fire use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, A.

    2015-12-01

    Many potential uses of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) related to wildland fire research and operations have been demonstrated, but the vast majority of these have been proof-of-concept or one-time flights. Scientists, practitioners, and firefighting agencies look forward to the widespread adoption of this powerful technology and its regular use. Similarly, the UAS industry awaits opportunities for commercialization. Our collaboration brings together UAS industry, research and management agencies, and universities in the USA and Canada to investigate the perceived effectiveness of UAS for wildland fire use, and the factors affecting their commercial-scale employment. Our current and future activities include market research, training and technology transfer, and deployment of UAS over fires to promote development of sensors as well as their safe integration into fire operations. We will present initial results, and as a part of our presentation we also invite participation of the AGU community for planned future project phases. We anticipate that the outcomes of our work will be useful to potential users who are unfamiliar with UAS, and to researchers and practitioners with experience or an interest in their use in fire and related natural-resource disciplines.

  2. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  3. Development of fire resistant, nontoxic aircraft interior materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, G.; Silverman, B.; Tajima, Y.

    1976-01-01

    All available newly developed nonmetallic polymers were examined for possible usage in developing fire resistant, nontoxic nonmetallic parts or assemblies for aircraft interiors. Specifically, feasibility for the development of clear films for new decorative laminates, compression moldings, injection molded parts, thermoformed plastic parts, and flexible foams were given primary considerations. Preliminary data on the flame resistant characteristics of the materials were obtained. Preliminary toxicity data were generated from samples of materials submitted from the contractor. Preliminary data on the physical characteristics of various thermoplastic materials to be considered for either compression molded, injection molded, or thermoformed parts were obtained.

  4. A composite system approach to aircraft cabin fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.; Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Lerner, N. R.; Hilado, C. J.; Labossiere, L. A.; Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemical and flammability characteristics of two polymeric composites currently in use and seven others being considered for use as aircraft interior panels are described. The properties studied included: (1) limiting oxygen index of the composite constituents; (2) fire containment capability of the composite; (3) smoke evolution from the composite; (4) thermogravimetric analysis; (5) composition of the volatile products of thermal degradation; and (6) relative toxicity of the volatile products of pyrolysis. The performance of high temperature laminating resins such as bismaleimides is compared with the performance of phenolics and epoxies. The relationship of increased fire safety with the use of polymers with high anaerobic char yield is shown. Processing parameters of one of the baremaleimide composites are detailed.

  5. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 77.1100 Fire protection; training and organization. Firefighting facilities and equipment shall be provided commensurate with the potential fire hazards at each...

  6. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire Protection A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1910..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. A Appendix A to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection § 1910.156Fire brigades. 1. Scope. This section...

  7. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  8. Development of lightweight fire retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, D. B.; Burnside, J. V.; Hajari, J. V.

    1976-01-01

    Fire resistance mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesives to Nomex honeycomb core. The test results were compared to proposed and current requirements for aircraft floor panel applications to demonstrate that the fire safety of the airplane could be improved without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels.

  9. Detecting the Onset of Fire in an Aircraft by Employing Correlation Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goswami, Kisholoy; Saxena, Indu; Egalon, Claudio; Mendoza, Edgar; Lieberman, Robert; Piltch, Nancy D.

    1999-01-01

    The cause of aircraft fire and locations of the fires are numerous. Worldwide, numerous in-flight fires have been passenger initiated, the prime location being the lavatory areas. Most in-flight fires in commercial carriers are of electrical origin and cigarettes. A cargo bay fire can be caused by a variety of reasons. The sheer number of different types of cargo makes it difficult to identify the origin, especially when the fire reaches the catastrophic level. The damage can be minimized, and fire can be suppressed effectively if a warning system for the onset of fire is available for onboard monitoring.

  10. Resistance after firing protected electric match

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, Arsenio P.

    1981-11-10

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  11. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  12. NASA safety manual. Volume 9: Fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Requirements are identified and guidelines are provided for implementing a comprehensive fire protection program. These requirements and guidelines are applicable to NASA headquarters and field installations. Portions also can be applied to NASA contractor operations within the scope of the contract.

  13. Bibliography on aircraft fire hazards and safety. Volume 2: Safety. Part 1: Key numbers 1 to 524

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelouch, J. J., Jr. (Compiler); Hacker, P. T. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    Bibliographic citations are presented to describe and define aircraft safety methods, equipment, and criteria. Some of the subjects discussed are: (1) fire and explosion suppression using whiffle balls, (2) ultraviolet flame detecting sensors, (3) evaluation of flame arrestor materials for aircraft fuel systems, (4) crash fire prevention system for supersonic commercial aircraft, and (5) fire suppression for aerospace vehicles.

  14. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Fire Protection Program is delineated in a number of source documents including; the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), DOE Policy Statements and Orders, DOE and national consensus standards (such as those promulgated by the National Fire Protection Association), and supplementary guidance, This Handbook is intended to bring together in one location as much of this material as possible to facilitate understanding and ease of use. The applicability of any of these directives to individual Maintenance and Operating Contractors or to given facilities and operations is governed by existing contracts. Questions regarding applicability should be directed to the DOE Authority Having Jurisdiction for fire safety. The information provided within includes copies of those DOE directives that are directly applicable to the implementation of a comprehensive fire protection program. They are delineated in the Table of Contents. The items marked with an asterisk (*) are included on the disks in WordPerfect 5.1 format, with the filename noted below. The items marked with double asterisks are provided as hard copies as well as on the disk. For those using MAC disks, the files are in Wordperfect 2.1 for MAC.

  15. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials, test series 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Bricker, R. W.; Kuminecz, J. F.; Supkis, D. E.

    1976-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft flammability tests in which the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials was evaluated by comparing their burning characteristics with those of other fire-resistant aircraft materials were described. New-fire-resistant materials that are more economical and better suited for aircraft use than the previously tested fire-resistant materials were tested. The fuel ignition source for one test was JP-4; a smokeless fuel was used for the other test. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. The results indicate that, similar to the fire-resistant materials tested previously, the new materials decompose rather than ignite and do not support fire propagation. Furthermore, the new materials did not produce a flash fire.

  16. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.E.

    1991-12-31

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  17. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. ); Cushing, R. ); Driesen, G.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  18. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  19. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  20. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  4. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  5. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  10. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  11. 14 CFR 25.854 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.854 Lavatory fire protection. For airplanes with a passenger capacity of 20 or more: (a) Each lavatory must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 25.854 Section...

  12. 29 CFR 1926.24 - Fire protection and prevention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection and prevention. 1926.24 Section 1926.24... Provisions § 1926.24 Fire protection and prevention. The employer shall be responsible for the development and maintenance of an effective fire protection and prevention program at the job site throughout...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with 46 CFR subpart 193.15. (b) Portable fire extinguishers are required in accordance with Table 193... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping... Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom must be protected by a fixed automatic...

  15. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  16. 46 CFR 72.15-5 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Structural fire protection. 72.15-5 Section 72.15-5... ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 72.15-5 Structural fire protection. See § 72.05-50 for ventilation requirements pertaining to structural fire protection....

  17. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commandant (CG-ENG) approves the substitution of a dry chemical (D) type fire protection system for an A or B... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  18. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.210 Fire protection activities. (a)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  20. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  1. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  2. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  3. 14 CFR 23.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 23.863... Construction Fire Protection § 23.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the...

  4. Fabrics for fire resistant passenger seats in aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoro, G. C.

    1978-01-01

    The essential elements of the problem and of approaches to improved fire resistance in aircraft seats are reviewed. The performance requirements and availability of materials, delay in the ignition of upholstery fabric by a small source are considered a realistic objective. Results of experimental studies on the thermal response of fabrics and fabric/foam combinations suggest significant conclusions regarding: (1) the ignition behavior of a commercial 90/10 wool/nylon upholstery fabric relative to fabrics made from thermally stable polymers; (2) the role of the foam backing; (3) the behavior of seams. These results, coupled with data from other sources, also confirm the importance of materials' interactions in multicomponent assemblies, and the need for system testing prior to materials' selection. The use of an interlinear or thermal barrier between upholstery fabric and foam is a promising and viable approach to improved fire resistance of the seat assembly, but experimental evaluation of specific combinations of materials or systems is an essential part of the selection process.

  5. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  6. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  7. Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests of improved fire-resistant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuckey, R. N.; Surpkis, D. E.; Price, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    Full-scale aircraft cabin flammability tests to evaluate the effectiveness of new fire-resistant materials by comparing their burning characteristics with those of older aircraft materials are described. Three tests were conducted and are detailed. Test 1, using pre-1968 materials, was run to correlate the procedures and to compare the results with previous tests by other organizations. Test 2 included newer, improved fire-resistant materials. Test 3 was essentially a duplicate of test 2, but a smokeless fuel was used. Test objectives, methods, materials, and results are presented and discussed. Results indicate that the pre-1968 materials ignited easily, allowed the fire to spread, produced large amounts of smoke and toxic combustion products, and resulted in a flash fire and major fire damage. The newer fire-resistant materials did not allow the fire to spread. Furthermore, they produced less, lower concentrations of toxic combustion products, and lower temperatures. The newer materials did not produce a flash fire.

  8. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety. [clear air turbulence detectors, fire resistant materials, and crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    NASA's aviation safety technology program examines specific safety problems associated with atmospheric hazards, crash-fire survival, control of aircraft on runways, human factors, terminal area operations hazards, and accident factors simulation. While aircraft occupants are ultimately affected by any of these hazards, their well-being is immediately impacted by three specific events: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire and its effects, and crash impact. NASA research in the application of laser technology to the problem of clear air turbulence detection, the development of fire resistant materials for aircraft construction, and to the improvement of seats and restraint systems to reduce crash injuries are reviewed.

  9. CASAM: a European R&T project for the protection of commercial aircrafts in flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tholl, Hans Dieter; Vergnolle, Jean-Francois

    2008-10-01

    CASAM (Civil Aircraft Security Against Manpads) is a Framework Program 6 (FP 6) Project launched by the European Commission, DG Research-Aeronautics, binding together a group of 18 companies and research institutions from majors to SMEs. The global objective of the CASAM Project is to design, build, test and validate on ground a closed-loop laser-based DIRCM (Directed IR Countermeasure) equipment for jamming an infrared guided missile fired against a commercial airliner. The broad expertise of the CASAM team allows to address all technical, financial and legal matters dealing with the challenging topic of protecting civilian aircrafts against MANPADS. This paper reviews the main aspects of the projects.

  10. Modeling thermal protection outfits for fire exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Guowen

    2002-01-01

    A numerical model has been developed that successfully predicts heat transfer through thermally protective clothing materials and garments exposed to intense heat. The model considers the effect of fire exposure to the thermophysical properties of materials as well as the air layers between the clothing material and skin surface. These experiments involved characterizing the flash fire surrounding the manikin by measuring the temperature of the flame above each thermal sensor in the manikin surface. An estimation method is used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient for each thermal sensor in a 4 second exposure to an average heat flux of 2.00cal/cm2sec. A parameter estimation method was used to estimate heat induced change in fabric thermophysical properties. The skin-clothe air gap distribution of different garments was determined using three-dimensional body scanning technology. Multi-layer skin model and a burn prediction method were used to predict second and third degree burns. The integrated generalized model developed was validated using the "Pyroman" Thermal Protective Clothing Analysis System with Kevlar/PBIRTM and NomexRTMIIIA coverall garments with different configuration and exposure time. A parametric study conducted using this numerical model indicated the influencing parameters on garment thermal protective performance in terms of skin burn damage subjected to 4 second flash fire exposure. The importance of these parameters is analyzed and distinguished. These parameters includes fabric thermophysical properties, PyromanRTM chamber flash fire characteristics, garment shrinkage and fit factors, as well as garment initial and test ambient temperature. Different skin models and their influence on burn prediction were also investigated using this model.

  11. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  12. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  13. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  14. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  15. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  16. Progress in Protective Coatings for Aircraft Gas Turbines: A Review of NASA Sponsored Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merutka, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Problems associated with protective coatings for advanced aircraft gas turbines are reviewed. Metallic coatings for preventing titanium fires in compressors are identified. Coatings for turbine section are also considered, Ductile aluminide coatings for protecting internal turbine-blade cooling passage surface are also identified. Composite modified external overlay MCrAlY coatings deposited by low-pressure plasma spraying are found to be better in surface protection capability than vapor deposited MCrAlY coatings. Thermal barrier coating (TBC), studies are presented. The design of a turbine airfoil is integrated with a TBC, and computer-aided manufacturing technology is applied.

  17. Conference on the Development of Fire-Resistant Aircraft Passenger Seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Kourtides, D. A.; Rosser, R. W.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Papers are presented dealing with the development of aircraft seats with the minimum fire risk. Criteria examined include: flame spread, heat release, and smoke and/or toxic fumes. Materials and performance specifications of all seat material options are provided.

  18. Environmental protection agency aircraft emissions standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kittredge, G. D.

    1977-01-01

    Emissions of air pollutants from aircraft were investigated in order to determine: (1) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States; and (2) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions. The basic information supporting the need for aircraft emissions standards is summarized. The EPA ambient air quality standards are presented. Only the primary (health related) standards are shown. Of the six pollutants, only the first three, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), and nitrogen oxides, are influenced significantly by aircraft.

  19. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  20. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 122.612 Section 122.612... Required § 122.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  1. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... department of a municipality, county, fire district, or State; and (2) is engaged in the prevention, control... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  2. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  3. 46 CFR 122.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 122.612 Section 122.612... Required § 122.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous place at or near each pull box...

  4. 46 CFR 185.612 - Fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection equipment. 185.612 Section 185.612... TONS) OPERATIONS Markings Required § 185.612 Fire protection equipment. (a) Complete but simple instructions for the operation of a fixed gas fire extinguishing system must be located in a conspicuous...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  6. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  7. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  8. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  9. 14 CFR 23.1451 - Fire protection for oxygen equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection for oxygen equipment. 23... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1451 Fire protection for oxygen equipment. Oxygen equipment and lines... in, or escape from, any designated fire zone. (c) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot come...

  10. Flight Controller Software Protects Lightweight Flexible Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Lightweight flexible aircraft may be the future of aviation, but a major problem is their susceptibility to flutter-uncontrollable vibrations that can destroy wings. Armstrong Flight Research Center awarded SBIR funding to Minneapolis, Minnesota-based MUSYN Inc. to develop software that helps program flight controllers to suppress flutter. The technology is now available for aircraft manufacturers and other industries that use equipment with automated controls.

  11. Terrestrial EVA Suit = Fire Fighter's Protective Clothing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foley, Tico; Brown, Robert G.; Burrell, Eddie; DelRosso, Dominic; Krishen, Kumar; Moffitt, Harold; Orndoff, Evelyne; Santos, Beatrice; Butzer, Melissa; Dasgupta, Rajib

    1999-01-01

    Firefighters want to go to work, do their job well, and go home alive and uninjured. For their most important job, saving lives, firefighters want protective equipment that will allow more extended and effective time at fire scenes in order to perform victim search and rescue. A team, including engineers at NASA JSC and firefighters from Houston, has developed a list of problem areas for which NASA technology and know-how can recommend improvements for firefighter suits and gear. Prototypes for solutions have been developed and are being evaluated. This effort will spin back to NASA as improvements for lunar and planetary suits.

  12. 75 FR 66725 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To...: Notice. SUMMARY: The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) proposes to revise some of its safety... INFORMATION: Background The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) develops building, fire,...

  13. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  14. 46 CFR 194.20-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.20-7 Section 194.20-7 Shipping..., AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemical Stores and/or Storerooms § 194.20-7 Fire protection. (a) Each chemical storeroom shall be protected by a fixed automatic carbon...

  15. An assessment of the crash fire hazard of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The crash fire hazards of liquid hydrogen fueled aircraft relative to those of mission equivalent aircraft fueled either with conventional fuel or with liquefied methane were evaluated. The aircraft evaluated were based on Lockheed Corporation design for 400 passenger, Mach 0.85, 5500 n. mile aircraft. Four crash scenarios were considered ranging from a minor incident causing some loss of fuel system integrity to a catastrophic crash. Major tasks included a review of hazardous properties of the alternate fuels and of historic crash fire data; a comparative hazard evluation for each of the three fuels under four crash scenarios a comprehensive review and analysis and an identification of areas further development work. The conclusion was that the crash fire hazards are not significantly different when compared in general for the three fuels, although some fuels showed minor advantages in one respect or another.

  16. A Study of Aircraft Fire Hazards Related to Natural Electrical Phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kester, Frank L.; Gerstein, Melvin; Plumer, J. A.

    1960-01-01

    The problems of natural electrical phenomena as a fire hazard to aircraft are evaluated. Assessment of the hazard is made over the range of low level electrical discharges, such as static sparks, to high level discharges, such as lightning strikes to aircraft. In addition, some fundamental work is presented on the problem of flame propagation in aircraft fuel vent systems. This study consists of a laboratory investigation in five parts: (1) a study of the ignition energies and flame propagation rates of kerosene-air and JP-6-air foams, (2) a study of the rate of flame propagation of n-heptane, n-octane, n-nonane, and n-decane in aircraft vent ducts, (3) a study of the damage to aluminum, titanium, and stainless steel aircraft skin materials by lightning strikes, (4) a study of fuel ignition by lightning strikes to aircraft skins, and (5) a study of lightning induced flame propagation in an aircraft vent system.

  17. F-200(TM): The new solution for fire protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, Alfred J.; Walter, Gerald J.

    1995-01-01

    For more than two decades, halon 1301 has been protecting personnel and valuable aircraft and aerospace equipment from the hazards of fire. Only halon 1301 offered the advantages of being clean, odorless, colorless, electrically non-conductive and safe for occupied areas. However, concerns about the depletion of stratospheric ozone and the resulting Montreal Protocol mandated the production phase-out of halon 1301 on December 31, 1993. Prior to this phase-out, Great Lakes Chemical Corporation, the world's leading manufacturer of halon, directed substantial research efforts toward the rapid development of a safe, clean, and effective halon replacement. Some of the criteria for the development of a clean agent included: that it be an effective fire extinguisher; that it be safe for personnel; that it be safe for the environment; that it be safe for valuable assets; that it be cost effective; and that it be able to withstand the rigors of independent approvals. As the result of this research, Great Lakes developed FM-200(TM) is 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3-hepta-fluoropropane. This paper discusses the physical properties of FM-200(TM) and its efficiency as an extinguishant.

  18. Factors Controlling Vegetation Fires in Protected and Non-Protected Areas of Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Sumalika; Vadrevu, Krishna Prasad; Lwin, Zin Mar; Lasko, Kristofer; Justice, Christopher O.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is an important disturbance agent in Myanmar impacting several ecosystems. In this study, we quantify the factors impacting vegetation fires in protected and non-protected areas of Myanmar. Satellite datasets in conjunction with biophysical and anthropogenic factors were used in a spatial framework to map the causative factors of fires. Specifically, we used the frequency ratio method to assess the contribution of each causative factor to overall fire susceptibility at a 1km scale. Results suggested the mean fire density in non-protected areas was two times higher than the protected areas. Fire-land cover partition analysis suggested dominant fire occurrences in the savannas (protected areas) and woody savannas (non-protected areas). The five major fire causative factors in protected areas in descending order include population density, land cover, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city and temperature. In contrast, the causative factors in non-protected areas were population density, tree cover percent, travel time from nearest city, temperature and elevation. The fire susceptibility analysis showed distinct spatial patterns with central Myanmar as a hot spot of vegetation fires. Results from propensity score matching suggested that forests within protected areas have 11% less fires than non-protected areas. Overall, our results identify important causative factors of fire useful to address broad scale fire risk concerns at a landscape scale in Myanmar. PMID:25909632

  19. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  20. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  1. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  2. 49 CFR 176.315 - Fire protection requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and water spray nozzle. (c) The pressure must be maintained in the vessel's fire mains during the... CFR 95.50), dry chemical (45.4 kg (100 pounds) minimum capacity) or equivalent fire extinguisher, or a... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection requirements. 176.315 Section...

  3. Consistent approach to describing aircraft HIRF protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rimbey, P. R.; Walen, D. B.

    1995-01-01

    The high intensity radiated fields (HIRF) certification process as currently implemented is comprised of an inconsistent combination of factors that tend to emphasize worst case scenarios in assessing commercial airplane certification requirements. By examining these factors which include the process definition, the external HIRF environment, the aircraft coupling and corresponding internal fields, and methods of measuring equipment susceptibilities, activities leading to an approach to appraising airplane vulnerability to HIRF are proposed. This approach utilizes technically based criteria to evaluate the nature of the threat, including the probability of encountering the external HIRF environment. No single test or analytic method comprehensively addresses the full HIRF threat frequency spectrum. Additional tools such as statistical methods must be adopted to arrive at more realistic requirements to reflect commercial aircraft vulnerability to the HIRF threat. Test and analytic data are provided to support the conclusions of this report. This work was performed under NASA contract NAS1-19360, Task 52.

  4. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety.

  5. The optimization of aircraft seat cushion fire-blocking layers. Full Scale: Test description and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutter, K. J.; Duskin, F. E.

    1982-01-01

    Full-scale burn tests were conducted on thirteen different seat cushion configurations in a cabin fire simulator. The fire source used was a quartz lamp radiant energy panel with a propane pilot flame. During each test, data were recorded for cushion temperatures, radiant heat flux, rate of weight loss of test specimens, and cabin temperatures. When compared to existing passenger aircraft seat cushions, the test specimens incorporating a fire barrier and those fabricated from advance materials, using improved construction methods, exhibited significantly greater fire resistance.

  6. Fire resistivity and toxicity studies of candidate aircraft passenger seat materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fewell, L. L.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire resistivity studies were conducted on a wide range of candidate nonmetallic materials being considered for the construction of improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seats. These materials were evaluated on the basis of FAA airworthiness burn and smoke generation tests, colorfastness, limiting oxygen index, and animal toxicity tests. Physical, mechanical, and aesthetic properties were also assessed. Candidate seat materials that have significantly improved thermal response to various thermal loads corresponding to reasonable fire threats as they relate to in-flight fire situations, are identified.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE, NON-HALOGEN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the phaseout of halon production, two alternative technologies - water misting and low-residue particulates - have come to the fire protection forefront. These technologies use water or dry chemicals in reduced quantities to provide acceptable fire protection. A review and a...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  9. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  10. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  11. 30 CFR 77.1100 - Fire protection; training and organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire protection; training and organization. 77.1100 Section 77.1100 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection §...

  12. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  13. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  14. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  16. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  19. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  20. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  1. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  2. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  3. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  4. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  5. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  6. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  7. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  8. 14 CFR 29.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 29.863... § 29.863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1723 - Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. 25... Systems (EWIS) § 25.1723 Flammable fluid fire protection: EWIS. EWIS components located in each area where flammable fluid or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system must be considered a potential...

  10. 14 CFR 27.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 27.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  11. 14 CFR 25.863 - Flammable fluid fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammable fluid fire protection. 25.863....863 Flammable fluid fire protection. (a) In each area where flammable fluids or vapors might escape by leakage of a fluid system, there must be means to minimize the probability of ignition of the fluids...

  12. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  13. Fire protection program fiscal year 1997 site support program plan - Hanford fire department

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fires Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford Site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. this includes response to surrounding fire department districts under mutual aids agreements and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System) and various commercial entities operating on site. the fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing, and maintenance, respiratory protection services, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention and education.

  14. Lightning protection technology for small general aviation composite material aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumer, J. A.; Setzer, T. E.; Siddiqi, S.

    1993-01-01

    An on going NASA (Small Business Innovative Research) SBIR Phase II design and development program will produce the first lightning protected, fiberglass, General Aviation aircraft that is available as a kit. The results obtained so far in development testing of typical components of the aircraft kit, such as the wing and fuselage panels indicate that the lightning protection design methodology and materials chosen are capable of protecting such small composite airframes from lightning puncture and structural damage associated with severe threat lightning strikes. The primary objective of the program has been to develop a lightening protection design for full scale test airframe and verify its adequacy with full scale laboratory testing, thus enabling production and sale of owner-built, lightning-protected, Stoddard-Hamilton Aircraft, Inc. Glasair II airplanes. A second objective has been to provide lightning protection design guidelines for the General Aviation industry, and to enable these airplanes to meet lightening protection requirements for certification of small airplanes. This paper describes the protection design approaches and development testing results obtained thus far in the program, together with design methodology which can achieve the design goals listed above. The presentation of this paper will also include results of some of the full scale verification tests, which will have been completed by the time of this conference.

  15. Full-scale flammability test data for validation of aircraft fire mathematical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Bricker, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-five large scale aircraft flammability tests were conducted in a Boeing 737 fuselage at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The objective of this test program was to provide a data base on the propagation of large scale aircraft fires to support the validation of aircraft fire mathematical models. Variables in the test program included cabin volume, amount of fuel, fuel pan area, fire location, airflow rate, and cabin materials. A number of tests were conducted with jet A-1 fuel only, while others were conducted with various Boeing 747 type cabin materials. These included urethane foam seats, passenger service units, stowage bins, and wall and ceiling panels. Two tests were also included using special urethane foam and polyimide foam seats. Tests were conducted with each cabin material individually, with various combinations of these materials, and finally, with all materials in the cabin. The data include information obtained from approximately 160 locations inside the fuselage.

  16. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)(2)—Semiportable and Fixed Fire Extinguishing...

  17. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)(2)—Semiportable and Fixed Fire Extinguishing...

  18. MANPADS protection for civil aircraft using an expendable decoy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walmsley, Roy H.; Friede, Johan; Millwood, Nicolas; Butters, Brian

    2009-09-01

    With the ever present threat of MANPADS throughout the world the protection of civil aircraft is a desirable capability that has special requirements in terms of certification, safety, logistics, affordability, environmental impact and exportability. The Civil Aircraft Missile Protection System (CAMPS), which includes the CIV-IR (infrared) leaf-based pyrophoric (not pyrotechnic) expendable countermeasure, is a system designed to meet these requirements. This paper presents the operating aspects of the decoy, including discussion of design features necessary to ensure safety both on the ground and in flight and assure successful deployment. The characteristics of the CIV-IR have been measured, both on static single leaves in the laboratory and on deployed packs in field tests and aircraft trials. These measured properties have been used in engagement modelling and simulation to assess the level of protection that can be afforded to commercial airliners against generation 1 and 2 MANPADS threats. Aircraft flight trials with ground based seekers have also been carried out to validate the modelling work. These combine to define the deployment patterns necessary for a successful seduction of the MANPAD.

  19. Modelling Fire Frequency in a Cerrado Savanna Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C.; Oliveira, Sofia L. J.; Pereira, José M. C.; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world’s most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997–2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  20. Modelling fire frequency in a Cerrado savanna protected area.

    PubMed

    Pereira Júnior, Alfredo C; Oliveira, Sofia L J; Pereira, José M C; Turkman, Maria Antónia Amaral

    2014-01-01

    Covering almost a quarter of Brazil, the Cerrado is the world's most biologically rich tropical savanna. Fire is an integral part of the Cerrado but current land use and agricultural practices have been changing fire regimes, with undesirable consequences for the preservation of biodiversity. In this study, fire frequency and fire return intervals were modelled over a 12-year time series (1997-2008) for the Jalapão State Park, a protected area in the north of the Cerrado, based on burned area maps derived from Landsat imagery. Burned areas were classified using object based image analysis. Fire data were modelled with the discrete lognormal model and the estimated parameters were used to calculate fire interval, fire survival and hazard of burning distributions, for seven major land cover types. Over the study period, an area equivalent to four times the size of Jalapão State Park burned and the mean annual area burned was 34%. Median fire intervals were generally short, ranging from three to six years. Shrub savannas had the shortest fire intervals, and dense woodlands the longest. Because fires in the Cerrado are strongly responsive to fuel age in the first three to four years following a fire, early dry season patch mosaic burning may be used to reduce the extent of area burned and the severity of fire effects. PMID:25054540

  1. Measurements of the response of transport aircraft ceiling panels to fuel pool fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Back, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    Tests were performed to characterize the responses of various aircraft ceiling panel configurations to a simulated post-crash fire. Attention was given to one currently used and four new ceiling configurations exposed to a fuel pool fire in a circulated air enclosure. The tests were controlled to accurately represent conditions in a real fire. The panels were constructed of fiberglass-epoxy, graphite-phenolic resin, fiberglass-phenolic resin, Kevlar-epoxy, and Kevlar-phenolic resin materials. The phenolic resin-backed sheets performed the best under the circumstances, except when combined with Kevlar, which became porous when charred.

  2. New fire retardant foams and intumescents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of fire retardant foams and intumescent paints for protection of commercial aircraft passengers in the event of fire is discussed. Recommended materials and methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the materials are presented. Typical problems resulting from aircraft fires and the basic protective mechanisms to cope with these problems are examined.

  3. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...; (3) Operation of the fire main system and checking of the pressure at the most remote and highest outlets; (4) Testing of each fire hose to a test pressure equivalent to its maximum service pressure; (5..., maintenance procedures, and hydrostatic pressure tests. Table 176.810(b)—Semiportable and Fixed...

  4. Video-based cargo fire verification system with fuzzy inference engine for commercial aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadok, Mokhtar; Zakrzewski, Radek; Zeliff, Bob

    2005-02-01

    Conventional smoke detection systems currently installed onboard aircraft are often subject to high rates of false alarms. Under current procedures, whenever an alarm is issued the pilot is obliged to release fire extinguishers and to divert to the nearest airport. Aircraft diversions are costly and dangerous in some situations. A reliable detection system that minimizes false-alarm rate and allows continuous monitoring of cargo compartments is highly desirable. A video-based system has been recently developed by Goodrich Corporation to address this problem. The Cargo Fire Verification System (CFVS) is a multi camera system designed to provide live stream video to the cockpit crew and to perform hotspot, fire, and smoke detection in aircraft cargo bays. In addition to video frames, the CFVS uses other sensor readings to discriminate between genuine events such as fire or smoke and nuisance alarms such as fog or dust. A Mamdani-type fuzzy inference engine is developed to provide approximate reasoning for decision making. In one implementation, Gaussian membership functions for frame intensity-based features, relative humidity, and temperature are constructed using experimental data to form the system inference engine. The CFVS performed better than conventional aircraft smoke detectors in all standardized tests.

  5. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  6. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  7. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  8. 33 CFR 154.820 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation... Systems § 154.820 Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. (a) A vapor control system with a single... oxygen analyzer that samples the vapor concentration continuously at a point not more than 6 meters...

  9. Reserves Protect against Deforestation Fires in the Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Adeney, J. Marion; Christensen, Norman L.; Pimm, Stuart L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Reserves are the principal means to conserve forests and biodiversity, but the question of whether reserves work is still debated. In the Amazon, fires are closely linked to deforestation, and thus can be used as a proxy for reserve effectiveness in protecting forest cover. We ask whether reserves in the Brazilian Amazon provide effective protection against deforestation and consequently fires, whether that protection is because of their location or their legal status, and whether some reserve types are more effective than others. Methodology/Principal Findings Previous work has shown that most Amazonian fires occur close to roads and are more frequent in El Niño years. We quantified these relationships for reserves and unprotected areas by examining satellite-detected hot pixels regressed against road distance across the entire Brazilian Amazon and for a decade with 2 El Niño-related droughts. Deforestation fires, as measured by hot pixels, declined exponentially with increasing distance from roads in all areas. Fewer deforestation fires occurred within protected areas than outside and the difference between protected and unprotected areas was greatest near roads. Thus, reserves were especially effective at preventing these fires where they are known to be most likely to burn; but they did not provide absolute protection. Even within reserves, at a given distance from roads, there were more deforestation fires in regions with high human impact than in those with low impact. The effect of El Niño on deforestation fires was greatest outside of reserves and near roads. Indigenous reserves, limited-use reserves, and fully protected reserves all had fewer fires than outside areas and did not appear to differ in their effectiveness. Conclusions/Significance Taking time, regional factors, and climate into account, our results show that reserves are an effective tool for curbing destructive burning in the Amazon. PMID:19352423

  10. 22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Fire Protection Water Pump (low pressure), view to the southwest. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  11. 14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Generator Fire Protection for Unit 5 (low pressure), view to the southeast. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  12. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  13. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  14. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  15. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-04-25

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  17. Application of the relative energy release criteria to enclosure fire testing. [aircraft compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschke, E. J.; Coulbert, C. D.

    1979-01-01

    The five relative energy release criteria (RERC) which are a first step towards formulating a unified concept that can be applied to the development of fires in enclosures, place upper bounds on the rate and amount of energy released during a fire. They are independent, calculated readily, and may be applied generally to any enclosure regardless of size. They are useful in pretest planning and for interpreting experimental data. Data from several specific fire test programs were examined to evaluate the potential use of RERC to provide test planning guidelines. The RERC were compared with experimental data obtained in full-scale enclosures. These results confirm that in general the RERC do identify the proper limiting constraints on enclosure fire development and determine the bounds of the fire development envelope. Plotting actual fire data against the RERC reveals new valid insights into fire behavior and reveals the controlling constraints in fire development. The RERC were calculated and plotted for several descrpitions of full-scale fires in various aircraft compartments.

  18. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    SciTech Connect

    Six, D E

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described.

  19. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  20. Fire protection review, Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, Idaho Falls, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.

    1990-10-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Westinghouse Idaho Nuclear Company, INC., Idaho Falls, Idaho, on April 24--27, April 30--May 4, June 4--8, and June 11--15, 1990. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility's fire protection program and to make recommendations according to the following criteria established by the Department of Energy: (1) Recommendations which would be made as the result of an improved risk or Highly Protected Risk (HPR) fire inspection of an industrial insured facility. (2) Identification of areas which are presently not protected or are inadequately protected where provision of automatic protection would reduce a fire or explosion loss to less than $1 million. (3) Identification of areas where loss potentials exceed $50 million assuming a failure of automatic protection systems and subsequent reliance only on separation and fire walls. (4) Evaluation of adequacy of compliance with recommendations made in prior surveys. Findings and recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the operation and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event that a loss were to occur.

  1. Origin and Prevention of Crash Fires in Turbojet Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Weiss, Solomon; Preston, G Merritt; Pesman, Gerard J

    1957-01-01

    The manner in which the jet engine may start a crash fire was explored in test-stand and full-scale crash studies. On the basis of these studies, a method was devised for inserting and cooling the engine parts that may serve as ignition sources in crash. This method was tried successfully in full-scale crashes of jet-powered airplanes carrying engines in pod nacelles and engines buried within the airplane structure.

  2. Aircraft surface coatings for drag reduction/erosion protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreitinger, R. L.; Middleton, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    The laboratory testing of a large number of films and liquid coatings for aircraft drag reduction and erosion protection has led to the identification of elastomeric polyurethanes, which fulfil smoothness, durability and protection requirements while being easily applied to large, compound-curvature areas with standard spray equipment. It was found that an epoxy primer produced a stronger bond between coating and substrate than a wash primer. A drag-reduction value of 0.2% was achieved with a commercially-available elastomeric polyurethane.

  3. Development of fire-resistant, low smoke generating, thermally stable end items for aircraft and spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gagliani, J.; Sorathia, U. A. K.; Wilcoxson, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Materials were developed to improve aircraft interior materials by modifying existing polymer structures, refining the process parameters, and by the use of mechanical configurations designed to overcome specific deficiencies. The optimization, selection, and fabrication of five fire resistant, low smoke emitting open cell foams are described for five different types of aircraft cabin structures. These include: resilient foams, laminate floor and wall paneling, thermal/acoustical insulation, molded shapes, and coated fabrics. All five have been produced from essentially the same polyimide precursor and have resulted in significant benefits from transfer of technology between the various tasks.

  4. Study of thermal stability and degradation of fire resistant candidate polymers for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, M. T. S.

    1976-01-01

    The thermochemistry of bismaleimide resins and phenolphthalein polycarbonate was studied. Both materials are fire-resistant polymers and may be suitable for aircraft interiors. The chemical composition of the polymers has been determined by nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared spectroscopy and by elemental analysis. Thermal properties of these polymers have been characterized by thermogravimetric analyses. Qualitative evaluation of the volatile products formed in pyrolysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions has been made using infrared spectrometry. The residues after pyrolysis were analyzed by elemental analysis. The thermal stability of composite panel and thermoplastic materials for aircraft interiors was studied by thermogravimetric analyses.

  5. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  6. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 417 - Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft... Appendix B to Part 417—Flight Hazard Area Analysis for Aircraft and Ship Protection B417.1Scope This... launch site hazard area analysis that protects the public, aircraft, and ships from the...

  7. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... on fixed carbon dioxide systems must be tested or renewed, as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65... by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65 or 147.67. Note that Halon 1301 system approvals have expired, but...

  8. 46 CFR 115.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (7) Inspection and testing of smoke and fire detecting systems (including sensors and alarms) and... on fixed carbon dioxide systems must be tested or renewed, as required by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65... by 46 CFR 147.60 and 147.65 or 147.67. Note that Halon 1301 system approvals have expired, but...

  9. 46 CFR 176.810 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....65 in subchapter N of this chapter; and (7) Inspection and testing of all smoke and fire detection... 10 (incorporated by reference, 46 CFR 175.600) with the frequency specified by NFPA 10. In addition... inspections and tests required by Table 176.810(b)(2), in addition to the tests required by 46 CFR 147.60,...

  10. Preliminary analysis of University of North Dakota aircraft data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the progress and performance by the University of North Dakota under NASA Research Award NAG-1-1351, 'Preliminary Analysis of University of North Dakota Aircraft Data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-II,' for the period October 15, 1992 to April 14, 1993. Included is a summary of the data archival status and preliminary analysis efforts. During this reporting period, data archival efforts were directed toward providing reduced data for the FIRE data archive and fulfilling special requests for reduced and valued and value-added data.

  11. Audit Report, "Fire Protection Deficiencies at Los Alamos National Laboratory"

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-01

    The Department of Energy's Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos) maintains some of the Nation's most important national security assets, including nuclear materials. Many of Los Alamos' facilities are located in close proximity to one another, are occupied by large numbers of contract and Federal employees, and support activities ranging from nuclear weapons design to science-related activities. Safeguarding against fires, regardless of origin, is essential to protecting employees, surrounding communities, and national security assets. On June 1, 2006, Los Alamos National Security, LLC (LANS), became the managing and operating contractor for Los Alamos, under contract with the Department's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In preparation for assuming its management responsibilities at Los Alamos, LANS conducted walk-downs of the Laboratory's facilities to identify pre-existing deficiencies that could give rise to liability, obligation, loss or damage. The walk-downs, which identified 812 pre-existing fire protection deficiencies, were conducted by subject matter professionals, including fire protection experts. While the Los Alamos Site Office has overall responsibility for the effectiveness of the fire protection program, LANS, as the Laboratory's operating contractor, has a major, day-to-day role in minimizing fire-related risks. The issue of fire protection at Los Alamos is more than theoretical. In May 2000, the 'Cerro Grande' fire burned about 43,000 acres, including 7,700 acres of Laboratory property. Due to the risk posed by fire to the Laboratory's facilities, workforce, and surrounding communities, we initiated this audit to determine whether pre-existing fire protection deficiencies had been addressed. Our review disclosed that LANS had not resolved many of the fire protection deficiencies that had been identified in early 2006: (1) Of the 296 pre-existing deficiencies we selected for audit, 174 (59 percent) had not been corrected

  12. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trabold, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The procurement and testing of a wide range of candidate materials is reported. Improved fire resistant nonmetallic materials were subjected to tests to evaluate their thermal characteristics, such as burn, smoke generation, heat release rate and toxicity. In addition, candidate materials were evaluated for mechanical, physical and aesthetic properties. Other properties considered included safety, comfort, durability and maintainability. The fiscal year 1977 and the projected 1980 cost data were obtained for aircraft seat materials.

  13. Statistical aspects of carbon fiber risk assessment modeling. [fire accidents involving aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, D.; Miller, D. R.; Soland, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The probabilistic and statistical aspects of the carbon fiber risk assessment modeling of fire accidents involving commercial aircraft are examined. Three major sources of uncertainty in the modeling effort are identified. These are: (1) imprecise knowledge in establishing the model; (2) parameter estimation; and (3)Monte Carlo sampling error. All three sources of uncertainty are treated and statistical procedures are utilized and/or developed to control them wherever possible.

  14. Development of lightweight, fire-retardant, low-smoke, high-strength, thermally stable aircraft floor paneling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Ougland, R. M.; Karch, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    Extensive fire resistance and mechanical property tests were conducted on sandwich configurations composed of resin-fiberglass laminates bonded with adhesive to Nomex honeycomb and foam core. The test results were used to select a combination of materials that would improve the fire safety of the airplane without sacrificing mechanical performance of the aircraft floor panels. A test panel is being service evaluated in a commercial aircraft.

  15. Ikhana: Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions. Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., obtained a civil version of the General Atomics MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system and modified it for research purposes. Proposed missions included support of Earth science research, development of advanced aeronautical technology, and improving the utility of unmanned aerial systems in general. The project team named the aircraft Ikhana a Native American Choctaw word meaning intelligent, conscious, or aware in order to best represent NASA research goals. Building on experience with these and other unmanned aircraft, NASA scientists developed plans to use the Ikhana for a series of missions to map wildfires in the western United States and supply the resulting data to firefighters in near-real time. A team at NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., developed a multispectral scanner that was key to the success of what became known as the Western States Fire Missions. Carried out by team members from NASA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Interagency Fire Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., these flights represented an historic achievement in the field of unmanned aircraft technology.

  16. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  17. Flight envelope protection of aircraft using adaptive neural network and online linearisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hohyun; Kim, Youdan

    2016-03-01

    Flight envelope protection algorithm is proposed to improve the safety of an aircraft. Flight envelope protection systems find the control inputs to prevent an aircraft from exceeding structure/aerodynamic limits and maximum control surface deflections. The future values of state variables are predicted using the current states and control inputs based on linearised aircraft model. To apply the envelope protection algorithm for the wide envelope of the aircraft, online linearisation is adopted. Finally, the flight envelope protection system is designed using adaptive neural network and least-squares method. Numerical simulations are conducted to verify the performance of the proposed scheme.

  18. Resistance after firing protected electric match. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Montoya, A.P.

    1980-03-20

    An electric match having electrical leads embedded in flame-producing compound is protected against an accidental resistance across the leads after firing by a length of heat-shrinkable tubing encircling the match body and having a skirt portion extending beyond the leads. The heat of the burning match and an adjacent thermal battery causes the tubing to fold over the end of the match body, covering the ends of the leads and protecting them from molten pieces of the battery.

  19. 49 CFR 193.2717 - Training: fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training: fire protection. 193.2717 Section 193.2717 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY...

  20. 6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Fire Protection (high pressure), view to the east. Located on the pipe floor between Unit 3 and Unit 4, the high pressure CO2 tanks are connected to the generator barrel of all four units. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  1. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section 121.253 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  2. 14 CFR 121.253 - Powerplant fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Powerplant fire protection. 121.253 Section 121.253 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Airworthiness Requirements §...

  3. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  4. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  5. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  6. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  7. 46 CFR 194.15-7 - Fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 194.15-7 Section 194.15-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS HANDLING, USE, AND CONTROL OF EXPLOSIVES AND OTHER HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Chemistry Laboratory and Scientific...

  8. Fire Protection System for an Atrium Satisfies Code Intent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehmer, Donald J.; Jensen, Rolf

    1975-01-01

    The Civic Center in Scarborough, Ontario, has an open interior design that incorporates an atrium. Fire protection elements include automatic sprinklers, provisions for efficient exiting of building occupants, and smoke evacuation by gravity exhaust. (Available from 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020, $15.00 annually.) (Author/MLF)

  9. 14 CFR 121.308 - Lavatory fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lavatory fire protection. 121.308 Section 121.308 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS OPERATING REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND...

  10. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General structural fire protection. 28.380 Section 28.380 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Requirements for Vessels Which Have Their Keel Laid or Are at a Similar Stage of Construction on or After or...

  11. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507...

  12. 33 CFR 154.2105 - Fire, explosion, and detonation protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fire, explosion, and detonation protection. 154.2105 Section 154.2105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Marine Vapor Control Systems Transfer...

  13. Fire Propagation Performance of Intumescent Fire Protective Coatings Using Eggshells as a Novel Biofiller

    PubMed Central

    Yew, M. C.; Ramli Sulong, N. H.; Yew, M. K.; Amalina, M. A.; Johan, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  14. Fire propagation performance of intumescent fire protective coatings using eggshells as a novel biofiller.

    PubMed

    Yew, M C; Ramli Sulong, N H; Yew, M K; Amalina, M A; Johan, M R

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to synthesize and characterize an effective intumescent fire protective coating that incorporates eggshell powder as a novel biofiller. The performances of thermal stability, char formation, fire propagation, water resistance, and adhesion strength of coatings have been evaluated. A few intumescent flame-retardant coatings based on these three ecofriendly fire retardant additives ammonium polyphosphate phase II, pentaerythritol and melamine mixed together with flame-retardant fillers, and acrylic binder have been prepared and designed for steel. The fire performance of the coatings has conducted employing BS 476: Part 6-Fire propagation test. The foam structures of the intumescent coatings have been observed using field emission scanning electron microscopy. On exposure, the coated specimens' B, C, and D had been certified to be Class 0 due to the fact that their fire propagation indexes were less than 12. Incorporation of ecofriendly eggshell, biofiller into formulation D led to excellent performance in fire stopping (index value, (I) = 4.3) and antioxidation of intumescent coating. The coating is also found to be quite effective in water repellency, uniform foam structure, and adhesion strength. PMID:25136687

  15. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  16. 33 CFR 149.420 - What are the fire protection requirements for escape routes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the cargo area by steel construction, in accordance with 46 CFR 108.133, or equivalent protection is... Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting Requirements § 149.420 What are the fire...

  17. Fire protection covering for small diameter missiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Sawko, P. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Flexible intumescent protection sheeting of unusually uniform thickness were prepared from epoxy-polysulfide compositions, containing microfibers and the ammonium salt of 1,4-nitroaniline-2-sulfonic acid, as disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,663,464, except that an ammonium salt particle size in the order of 5 to 8 microns and a fiber size of about 1/128th inch in length and 3 to 5 microns in diameter were found critical to obtain the required density of 1.46 to 1.50 g/cc. The insulation sheeting was prepared by a continuous process involving vacuum mixing, calendering, and curing under very strict conditions which depend to some extent upon the thickness of the sheet produced.

  18. Zero Gravity Aircraft Testing of a Prototype Portable Fire Extinguisher for Use in Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butz, J.; Carriere, T.; Abbud-Madrid, A.; Easton, J.

    2012-01-01

    For the past five years ADA Technologies has been developing a portable fire extinguisher (PFE) for use in microgravity environments. This technology uses fine water mist (FWM) to effectively and efficiently extinguish fires representative of spacecraft hazards. Recently the FWM PFE was flown on a Zero-G (reduced gravity) aircraft to validate the performance of the technology in a microgravity environment. Test results demonstrated that droplet size distributions generated in the reduced gravity environment were in the same size range as data collected during normal gravity (1-g) discharges from the prototype PFE. Data taken in an obscured test configuration showed that the mist behind the obstacle was more dense in the low-g environment when compared to 1-g discharges. The mist behind the obstacle tended to smaller droplet sizes in both the low-g and 1-g test conditions.

  19. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  20. 33 CFR 149.401 - What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for firefighting and fire protection equipment? 149.401 Section 149.401 Navigation and Navigable..., CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment § 149.401 What are the general requirements for firefighting and fire protection equipment? Each deepwater port must comply with...

  1. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  2. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  4. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  5. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  6. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  7. 46 CFR 116.430 - Insulation other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insulation other than for structural fire protection... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.430 Insulation other than for structural fire protection. (a) Combustible insulation may be used for pipe and machinery covering or lagging within...

  8. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  9. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Insulation, other than for structural fire protection... VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-40 Insulation, other than for structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including...

  10. 76 FR 70413 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for... notice on behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the availability of and...: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished its mission by...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  16. 14 CFR 23.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls, engine... COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Fire Protection § 23.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Flight controls, engine mounts, and other...

  17. 14 CFR 25.865 - Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Design and Construction Fire Protection § 25.865 Fire protection of flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structure. Essential flight controls, engine mounts, and other flight structures located in... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection of flight controls,...

  18. Seek alternative to halon for gas-turbine fire protection

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This article describes fine water-spray technology which recasts use of water for fixed fire-suppression systems. Technology differs from common sprinkler system. Since the 1987 Montreal Protocol governing use and production of chemicals that are suspected of depleting the upper atmospheric ozone layer, fire-protection manufacturers have explored alternatives to halon 1301, a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) used extensively in powerplant applications. One particularly challenging application is the gas-turbine enclosure, because of its high operating temperature and range of potential fire hazards--pools of leaking lube oil, oil-soaked insulation, ruptured high-pressure natural-gas lines, and so on. One alternative racing toward commercialization is fine water spray produced by the so-called twin-fluid atomizing nozzle. The technology, developed and tested in Europe, combines water and compressed air--or nitrogen--to direct precisely sized water droplets to the base of a fire. According to david Kipley, Vectra Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL, the system can rapidly extinguish large, intense fires using limited quantities of water.

  19. GLOVEBOX WINDOWS, FIRE PROTECTION AND VOICES FROM THE PAST

    SciTech Connect

    Till, W

    2009-04-15

    'Study the past--what is past is prologue'. These words appear as the motto on a pair of statues at the National Archives Building in Washington DC. They are also the opening sentence in the preface of a document written in August of 1956 entitled 'A Summary of Accidents and Incidents Involving Radiation in Atomic Energy Activities--June 1945 thru December 1955'. This document, one of several written by D.F. Hayes of the Safety and Fire Protection Branch, Division of Organization and Personnel, U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in Washington DC, and many others are often forgotten even though they contain valuable glovebox fire protection lessons for us today.

  20. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. A study of marine stratocumulus using lidar and other FIRE aircraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Jorgen B.; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) airborne infrared lidar system (NAILS) used in the 1987 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) off the coast of California is a 10.6 microns wavelength carbon dioxide lidar system constructed by Ron Schwiesow and co-workers at NCAR. The lidar is particularly well suited for detailed observations of cloud shapes; i.e., height of cloud top (when flying above cloud and looking down) and cloud base (when flying below cloud and looking up) along the flight path. A brief summary of the lidar design characteristics is given. The lidar height resolution of plus or minus 3 m allows for the distance between the aircraft and cloud edge to be determined with this accuracy; however, the duration of the emitted pulse is approximately 3 microseconds, which corresponds to a 500 m pulse length. Therefore, variations in backscatter intensities within the clouds can normally not be resolved. Hence the main parameter obtainable from the lidar is distance to cloud; in some cases the cloud depth can also be determined. During FIRE the lidar was operational on 7 of the 10 Electra flights, and data were taken when the distance between cloud and aircraft (minimum range) was at least 500 m. The lidar was usually operated at 8 Hz, which at a flight speed of 100 m s(-1) translates into a horizontal resolution of about 12 m. The backscatter as function of time (equivalent to distance) for each laser pulse is stored in digital form on magnetic tape. Currently, three independent variables are available to the investigators on the FIRE Electra data tapes: lidar range to cloud, strength of return (relative power), and pulse width of return, which is related to penetration depth.

  2. Protective Breathing Apparatus. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-6-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on protective breathing apparatus is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 10-hour unit is to enable the fire fighter to perform routine fire fighting and rescue…

  3. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety, health, and fire....235-71 Safety, health, and fire protection. As prescribed in 2035.70(a)(2), the contracting officer..., Health, and Fire Protection (JAN 1993) The contractor shall take all reasonable precautions in...

  4. 76 FR 70414 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To Revise Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Proposes To... behalf of the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) to announce the NFPA's proposal to revise some of its fire safety codes and standards and requests proposals from the public to amend existing...

  5. 75 FR 66735 - National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for Comments on NFPA's Codes and Standards

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Using an Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter. NFPA 275 Standard Method of P Fire Tests for the Evaluation of... National Institute of Standards and Technology National Fire Protection Association (NFPA): Request for.... ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Since 1896, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has accomplished...

  6. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with carbon fibers released from commercial aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Rosenfield, D.; Richardson, D. L.; Hagopian, J.

    1980-01-01

    The risks associated with electrical effects arising from carbon fibers released from commercial aviation aircraft fires were estimated for 1993. The expected annual losses were estimated to be about $470 (1977 dollars) in 1993. The chances of total losses from electrical effects exceeding $100,000 (1977 dollars) in 1993 were established to be about one in ten thousand.

  7. The next generation in aircraft protection against advanced MANPADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses the advanced and novel technologies and underlying systems capabilities that Selex ES has applied during the development, test and evaluation of the twin head Miysis DIRCM System in order to ensure that it provides the requisite levels of protection against the latest, sophisticated all-aspect IR MANPADS. The importance of key performance parameters, including the fundamental need for "spherical" coverage, rapid time to energy-on-target, laser tracking performance and radiant intensity on seeker dome is covered. It also addresses the approach necessary to ensure that the equipment is suited to all air platforms from the smallest helicopters to large transports, while also ensuring that it achieves an inherent high reliability and an ease of manufacture and repair such that a step change in through-life cost in comparison to previous generation systems can be achieved. The benefits and issues associated with open architecture design are also considered. Finally, the need for extensive test and evaluation at every stage, including simulation, laboratory testing, platform and target dynamic testing in a System Integration Laboratory (SIL), flight trial, missile live-fire, environmental testing and reliability testing is also described.

  8. Survey of Fire Detection Technologies and System Evaluation/Certification Methodologies and Their Suitability for Aircraft Cargo Compartments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleary, T.; Grosshandler, W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated program on global civil aviation, NIST is assisting Federal Aviation Administration in its research to improve fire detection in aircraft cargo compartments. Aircraft cargo compartment detection certification methods have been reviewed. The Fire Emulator-Detector Evaluator (FE/DE) has been designed to evaluate fire detection technologies such as new sensors, multi-element detectors, and detectors that employ complex algorithms. The FE/DE is a flow tunnel that can reproduce velocity, temperature, smoke, and Combustion gas levels to which a detector might be exposed during a fire. A scientific literature survey and patent search have been conducted relating to existing and emerging fire detection technologies, and the potential use of new fire detection strategies in cargo compartment areas has been assessed. In the near term, improved detector signal processing and multi-sensor detectors based on combinations of smoke measurements, combustion gases and temperature are envisioned as significantly impacting detector system performance.

  9. Recent developments in aircraft protection systems for laser guide star operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Murphy, Thomas W.; Campbell, Randy

    2012-07-01

    The astronomical community's use of high power laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) systems presents a potential hazard to aviation. Historically, the most common and trusted means of protecting aircraft and their occupants has been the use of safety observers (aka spotters) armed with shut-off switches. These safety observers watch for aircraft at risk and terminate laser propagation before the aircraft can be adversely affected by the laser. Efforts to develop safer and more cost-effective automated aircraft protection systems for use by the astronomical community have been inhibited by both technological and regulatory challenges. This paper discusses recent developments in these two areas. Specifically, with regard to regulation and guidance we discuss the 2011 release of AS-6029 by the SAE as well as the potential impact of RTCA DO-278A. With regard to the recent developments in the technology used to protect aircraft from laser illumination, we discuss the novel Transponder Based Aircraft Detection (TBAD) system being installed at W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO). Finally, we discuss our strategy for evaluating TBAD compliance with the regulations and for seeking appropriate approvals for LGS operations at WMKO using a fully automated, flexibly configured, multi-tier aircraft protection system incorporating this new technology.

  10. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a..., spread, and suppression, meeting one of the following criteria: (a) An engineer having an...

  11. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... qualified fire protection engineer? A qualified fire protection engineer is defined as an individual with a..., spread, and suppression, meeting one of the following criteria: (a) An engineer having an...

  12. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  13. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  14. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1916 - Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking § 77.1916 Welding, cutting, and soldering; fire protection. (a) One portable fire extinguisher shall be provided where welding, cutting, or soldering...

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of passive fire protections in road LPG transportation.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-02-01

    The cost-benefit evaluation of passive fire protection adoption in the road transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was investigated. In a previous study, mathematical simulations of real scale fire scenarios proved the effectiveness of passive fire protections in preventing the "fired" boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE), thus providing a significant risk reduction. In the present study the economical aspects of the adoption of fire protections are analyzed and an approach to cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is proposed. The CBA model is based on the comparison of the risk reduction due to fire protections (expressed in monetary terms by the value of a statistical life) and the cost of the application of fire protections to a fleet of tankers. Different types of fire protections were considered, as well as the possibility to apply protections to the entire fleet or only to a part of it. The application of the proposed model to a real-life case study is presented and discussed. Results demonstrate that the adoption of passive fire protections on road tankers, though not compulsory in Europe, can be economically feasible, thus representing a concrete measure to achieve control of the "major hazard accidents" cited by the European legislation. PMID:21762459

  18. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  19. Retrieval of cirrus cloud properties from comparative analyses of aircraft and satellite measurements made during the 1986 FIRE IFO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Philip D.; Valero, Francisco P. J.; Kinne, Stefan; Hein, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented of a comparison of cirrus cloud properties obtained from aircraft measurements made during the FIRE Intensive Field Observations and Landsat 5 and NOAA-9 observations carried out during several near coincident overpasses by these satellites. Results of the analyses of these measurements and a comparison between measurements and model calculations were used to determine particle sizes within cirrus clouds and the IR optical depths.

  20. Vertical velocities within a Cirrus cloud from Doppler lidar and aircraft measurements during FIRE: Implications for particle growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew J.

    1990-01-01

    A large and comprehensive data set taken by the NOAA CO2 Doppler lidar, the NCAR King Air, and rawinsondes on 31 October 1986 during the FIRE (First ISCCP Regional Experiment) field program which took place in Wisconsin are presented. Vertical velocities are determined from the Doppler lidar data, and are compared with velocities derived from the aircraft microphysical data. The data are used for discussion of particle growth and dynamical processes operative within the cloud.

  1. Development of aircraft lavatory compartments with improved fire resistance characteristics, phase 1: Fire containment test of a wide body aircraft lavatory module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Arnold, D. B.; Johnson, G. A.; Tustin, E. A.

    1978-01-01

    A test was conducted to evaluate the fire containment characteristics of a Boeing 747 lavatory module. Results showed that the fire was contained within the lavatory during the 30-minute test period with the door closed. The resistance of the lavatory wall and ceiling panels and general lavatory construction to burn-through under the test conditions was demonstrated.

  2. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  3. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  4. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  5. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  6. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...″, longitude 82°33′02.44″; and thence to a point on the shore line of MacDill Air Force Base at latitude...

  7. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, B.D.; Lissaman, P.B.S.; Morgan, W.R.; Radkey, R.L.

    1998-09-22

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing`s top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gases for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well. 31 figs.

  8. Aircraft

    DOEpatents

    Hibbs, Bart D.; Lissaman, Peter B. S.; Morgan, Walter R.; Radkey, Robert L.

    1998-01-01

    This disclosure provides a solar rechargeable aircraft that is inexpensive to produce, is steerable, and can remain airborne almost indefinitely. The preferred aircraft is a span-loaded flying wing, having no fuselage or rudder. Travelling at relatively slow speeds, and having a two-hundred foot wingspan that mounts photovoltaic cells on most all of the wing's top surface, the aircraft uses only differential thrust of its eight propellers to turn. Each of five sections of the wing has one or more engines and photovoltaic arrays, and produces its own lift independent of the other sections, to avoid loading them. Five two-sided photovoltaic arrays, in all, are mounted on the wing, and receive photovoltaic energy both incident on top of the wing, and which is incident also from below, through a bottom, transparent surface. The aircraft is capable of a top speed of about ninety miles per hour, which enables the aircraft to attain and can continuously maintain altitudes of up to sixty-five thousand feet. Regenerative fuel cells in the wing store excess electricity for use at night, such that the aircraft can sustain its elevation indefinitely. A main spar of the wing doubles as a pressure vessel that houses hydrogen and oxygen gasses for use in the regenerative fuel cell. The aircraft has a wide variety of applications, which include weather monitoring and atmospheric testing, communications, surveillance, and other applications as well.

  9. LLNL Fire Protection Engineering Standard 5.8 Facility Survey Program

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2012-01-04

    This standard describes the LLNL Fire Protection Facility Survey Program. The purpose of this standard is to describe the type of facility surveys required to fulfill the requirements of DOE Order 420.1B, Facility Safety. Nothing in this standard is intended to prevent the development of a FHA using alternative approaches. Alternate approaches, including formatting, will be by exception only, and approved by the Fire Marshal/Fire Protection Engineering Subject Matter Expert in advance of their use.

  10. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fire Protection References For Further Information C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Fire Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C...

  11. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  12. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  13. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section 1915.507 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment §...

  14. 29 CFR 1915.507 - Land-side fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... by an OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory, meeting the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.7, for... Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-based Fire Protection Systems, (incorporated by reference, see... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Land-side fire protection systems. 1915.507 Section...

  15. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... Register notice Date Brief description 69 FR 33684 June 16, 2004 Describes the initial interim Enforcement Policy on fire protection. 70 FR 2662 January 14, 2005 Revises the submittal date for licensees to receive enforcement discretion for existing identified fire protection program noncompliant issues. 71...

  16. 46 CFR 28.825 - Excess fire detection and protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excess fire detection and protection equipment. 28.825 Section 28.825 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY UNINSPECTED VESSELS REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.825 Excess fire detection and protection equipment. Instead of meeting...

  17. Aircraft measurements of the mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds during FIRE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Kloesel, Kevin A.; Moyer, Kerry A.; Nucciarone, Jefferey J.; Young, George

    1990-01-01

    The mean and turbulent structure of marine stratocumulus clouds is defined from data that were collected from 10 flights made with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Electra during the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE). The number of cases sampled is sufficiently large that researchers can compare the boundary layer structure obtained (1) for solid and broken cloud conditions, (2) for light and strong surface wind conditions, (3) for different sea-surface temperatures, and (4) on day and night flights. Researchers will describe the cloud and synoptic conditions present at the time of the Electra flights and show how those flights were coordinated with the operations of other aircraft and with satellite overpasses. Mean thermodynamic and wind profiles and the heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes obtained from data collected during these flights will be compared. Variations in the cloud-top structure will be quantified using LIDAR data collected during several of the Electra flights. The spatial structure of cloud-top height and the cloud-base height will be compared with the turbulent structure in the boundary layer as defined by spectra and cospectra of the wind, temperature, and moisture.

  18. FIRE aircraft observations of horizontal and vertical transport in marine stratocumulus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paluch, Ilga R.; Lenschow, Donald H.

    1990-01-01

    A major goal of research on marine stratocumulus is to try to understand the processes that generate and dissipate them. One approach to studying this problem is to investigate the boundary layer structure in the vicinity of a transition from a cloudy to a cloud-free region to document the differences in structure on each side of the transition. Since stratiform clouds have a major impact on the radiation divergence in the boundary layer, the transition from a cloudy to a clear boundary layer is a region of large horizontal inhomogeneity in air temperature and turbulence intensity. This leads to a considerable difference in horizontal and vertical transports between the cloudy and cloud-free regions. Measurements are used from the NCAR Electra aircraft during flights 5 (7 July 1987) and 10 (18 July 1987) of FIRE for this purpose. Flight 5 coincided with a LANDSAT overflight, and was designed to investigate the transition across a well-defined N-S cloud boundary, since the LANDSAT image can document the cloud cover in considerable detail. Turbulence legs were flown about 60 km on both sides of the cloud boundary. Flight 10 was flown at night in an area of scattered small cumuli and broken cloud patches.

  19. Fire Protection Program fiscal year 1996, site support program plan Hanford Fire Department. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1995-09-01

    The mission of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD) is to support the safe and timely cleanup of the Hanford site by providing fire suppression, fire prevention, emergency rescue, emergency medical service, and hazardous materials response; and to be capable of dealing with and terminating emergency situations which could threaten the operations, employees, or interest of the US Department of Energy operated Hanford Site. This includes response to surrounding fire departments/districts under a mutual aid agreement and contractual fire fighting, hazardous materials, and ambulance support to Washington Public Power Supply System (Supply System). The fire department also provides site fire marshal overview authority, fire system testing and maintenance, self-contained breathing apparatus maintenance, building tours and inspections, ignitable and reactive waste site inspections, prefire planning, and employee fire prevention education. This report gives a program overview, technical program baselines, and cost and schedule baseline.

  20. Crew Exploration Vehicle Environmental Control and Life Support Fire Protection Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, John F.; Barido, Richard; Tuan, George C.

    2007-01-01

    As part of preparing for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) worked on developing the requirements to manage the fire risk. The new CEV poses unique challenges to current fire protection systems. The size and configuration of the vehicle resembles the Apollo capsule instead of the current Space Shuttle or the International Space Station. The smaller free air volume and fully cold plated avionic bays of the CEV requires a different approach in fire protection than the ones currently utilized. The fire protection approach discussed in this paper incorporates historical lessons learned and fire detection and suppression system design philosophy spanning from Apollo to the International Space Station. Working with NASA fire and materials experts, this approach outlines the best requirements for both the closed out area of the vehicle, such as the avionics bay, and the crew cabin area to address the unique challenges due to the size and configuration of the CEV.

  1. NASA technical advances in aircraft occupant safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    A NASA program to improve aircraft safety is discussed in terms of three areas of concentration: unexpected turbulence encounters, fire, and crash impact. To provide warning of clear air turbulence (CAT) so that the pilot can take evasive action, a laser Doppler system is described, which functions by measuring backscatter frequency radiation occurring in aerosols ahead of the aircraft. The system was found able to detect CAT, but at shorter than optimal ranges (10 km as opposed to 32 km). Fire safety has focused on both the early detection of fires through improved sensing methods, and on the development of fire-retardant materials, i.e., intumescent char-forming protective coatings. Crashworthiness is discussed in terms of the development of a survivable crash envelope and improved seat and restraint systems. To evaluate an aircraft for crashworthiness, finite-element computer programs are currently being developed which analyze both aircraft structural configurations and the intrinsic strength of aircraft materials.

  2. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  3. Protection against fire in the mountainous forests of Greece case study: forest complex of W. Nestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Stergiadou, Anastasia; Karagiannis, Evaggelos; Doukas, Aristotelis-Kosmas G.

    2014-08-01

    Forest fires are an ancient phenomenon. Appear, however, with devastating frequency and intensity over the last 30 years. In our country, the climatic conditions in combination with the intense relief, favor their rapid spread. Considering the fact that environmental conditions provided for decades even worse (increased temperature, drought and vegetation), then the problem of forest fires in our country, is expected to become more intense. The work focuses on the optimization model of the opening up of the forest mountain areas taking into account the prevention and suppression of forest fires. Research area is the mountain forest complex of W. Nestos of Drama Prefecture. The percentage of forest protection area is examined under the light whether the total hose length corresponds to the actual operational capacity to reach a fire source. For this reason are decided to present a three case study concerning area of the forest being protected by fire extinguishing vehicles. The first one corresponds to a fire suppression bandwidth (buffer zone) with a capacity radius of 150m uphill and 250m downhill from the origin point where the fire extinguishing vehicle stands. The second one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 200m uphill and 400m downhill and the third one corresponds to a fire suppression capacity of 300m uphill and 500m downhill. The most important forest technical infrastructures to prevent fire are roads network (opening up) for fire protection and buffer zones. Patrols of small and agile 4 × 4 appropriately equipped (pipe length of 500 meters and putting pressure on uphill to 300 meters) for the first attack of the fire in the summer months coupled with early warning of fire observatories adequately cover the forest protection of W. Nestos complex. But spatial distribution needed improvements to a road density of the optimum economic Dec, both forest protection and for better management (skidding) of woody capital.

  4. Numerical modeling of runback water on ice protected aircraft surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Khalil, Kamel M.; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Dewitt, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    A numerical simulation for 'running wet' aircraft anti-icing systems is developed. The model includes breakup of the water film, which exists in regions of direct impingement, into individual rivulets. The wetness factor distribution resulting from the film breakup and the rivulet configuration on the surface are predicted in the numerical solution procedure. The solid wall is modeled as a multilayer structure and the anti-icing system used is of the thermal type utilizing hot air and/or electrical heating elements embedded with the layers. Details of the calculation procedure and the methods used are presented.

  5. Spacecraft Fire Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margle, Janice M. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Fire detection, fire standards and testing, fire extinguishment, inerting and atmospheres, fire-related medical science, aircraft fire safety, Space Station safety concerns, microgravity combustion, spacecraft material flammability testing, and metal combustion are among the topics considered.

  6. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks I, II, & III, 17-2. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the first three blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: fire protection objectives and responsibilities (fire protection and occupational safety, extinguishing agents, principles and theory of combustion, natural…

  7. Protecting civil aircraft from the MANPAD threat: is this a practical scenario?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, William

    2005-11-01

    This paper has been written as a key note address and backdrop to the 2005 SPIE Technologies for Optical Countermeasures II Conference. The paper uses as a topic the problem of protecting civil aircraft from the Man Portable Air Defence missile Systems (MANPADS). The paper examines the economic background of the airline industry and the effects such a successful attack could have. It then addresses the various motives, means, and opportunities that the terrorists have to use MANPADS to progress attacks against civil aircraft. In reviewing the various mitigation options available to defeat or deny MANPAD engagements, the paper identifies key technology areas available for exploitation. It then focuses on the optical countermeasure technologies used in providing aircraft platform self protection. Finally, the paper summarises and concludes that whilst a lot has and can be done to militate against the MANPAD threat there is not yet an exportable, affordable and robust countermeasures technology for large scale commercial systems and operations.

  8. Fire protection research for DOE facilities: FY 83 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.; Stagge, K.

    1984-08-02

    We summarize our research in FY 83 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies of energy technology facilities in order to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are currently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to fusion energy facilities, (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet the negate hazards, and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  9. Fire-protection research for DOE facilities: FY 82 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Priante, S.J.; Foote, K.L.

    1983-09-02

    We summarize our research in FY 82 for the DOE-sponsored project, Fire Protection Research for DOE Facilities. This research program was initiated in 1977 to advance fire-protection strategies for energy technology facilities to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that develop along with energy technology research. Since 1977, the program has broadened its original scope, as reflected in previous year-end reports. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Using these experiments as models for methodology development, we are concurrently advancing three major task areas: (1) the identification of fire hazards unique to current fusion energy facilities; (2) the evaluation of accepted fire-management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) the performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  10. Fire-Protection Research for Energy-Technology Projects: FY 1981 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska-Quinn, A.E.; Beason, D.G.; Foote, K.L.; Priante, S.J.

    1982-07-20

    This report summarizes research conducted in fiscal year 1981 for the DOE-supported project, Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. Initiated in 1977, this ongoing research program was conceived to advance fire protection strategies for Energy Technology Projects to keep abreast of the unique fire problems that are developing with the complexity of energy technology research. We are developing an analytical methodology through detailed study of fusion energy experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Employing these facilities as models for methodology development, we are simultaneously advancing three major task areas: (1) determination of unique fire hazards of current fusion energy facilities; (2) evaluation of the ability of accepted fire management measures to meet and negate hazards; and (3) performance of unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire-growth and damage-assessment models.

  11. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest.

  12. A NASA/University/Industry Consortium for Research on Aircraft Ice Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumwalt, Glen W.

    1989-01-01

    From 1982 through 1987, an unique consortium was functioning which involved government (NASA), academia (Wichita State Univ.) and twelve industries. The purpose was the development of a better ice protection systems for aircraft. The circumstances which brought about this activity are described, the formation and operation recounted, and the effectiveness of the ventue evaluated.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  14. Study to develop improved fire resistant aircraft passenger seat materials, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duskin, F. E.; Shook, W. H.; Trabold, E. L.; Spieth, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Fire tests are reported of improved materials in multilayered combinations representative of cushion configurations. Tests were conducted to determine their thermal, smoke, and fire resistance characteristics. Additionally, a source fire consisting of one and one-half pounds of newspaper in a tented configuration was developed. Finally, a preliminary seat specification was written based upon materials data and general seat design criteria.

  15. A comparison of vertical velocity in cirrus obtained from aircraft and lidar divergence measurements during FIRE. [First ISCCP Regional Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, A. J.; Lenschow, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques are presented to obtain vertical velocity in cirrus clouds from in situ aircraft lateral wind measurements and from ground-based remote Doppler lidar measurements. The approach used is to calculate w from the integral of the divergence of the horizontal velocity around a closed path. Divergence measurements from both aircraft and Doppler lidar are discussed. The principal errors in the calculation of w from aircraft lateral wind measurements are bias in the lateral wind, ground speed errors, and error due to vertical shear of the horizontal wind. For Doppler lidar measurements the principal errors are in the estimate of mean terminal velocity and the zeroth order coefficients of the Fourier series that is fitted to the data. The technique is applied to a cirrus cloud investigated during the FIRE (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Regional Experiment) Cirrus Intensive Field Observation Program. The results indicate that the error in w is about + or - 14 cm/s from the aircraft technique; this can be reduced to about + or - 2 to 3 cm/s with technical improvements in both ground speed and lateral velocity measurements. The error in w from Doppler lidar measurements, which is about + or - 8 cm/s, can be reduced to about + or - 5 cm/s by improvements in the Doppler velocity measurements with technology that is currently available.

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...

  17. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.135 Who is a... safety engineering, plus a minimum of 4 years work experience in fire protection engineering. (b)...

  18. 78 FR 55765 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... (78 FR 45573) a request for public comment on NUREG/CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG/CR, reopening of comment...

  19. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of NFPA 17 or 17A and must be listed by an independent laboratory. (c) A vessel 79 feet (24 meters) or more... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Galley hood and other fire protection equipment....

  20. Development of a protective decorative fire resistant low smoke emitting, thermally stable coating material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The development of suitable electrocoatings and subsequent application to nonconductive substrates are discussed. Substrates investigated were plastics or resin-treated materials such as FX-resin (phenolic-type resin) impregnated fiberglass mat, polyphenylene sulfide, polyether sulfone and polyimide-impregnated unidirectional fiberglass. Efforts were aimed at formulating a fire-resistant, low smoke emitting, thermally stable, easily cleaned coating material. The coating is to be used for covering substrate panels, such as aluminum, silicate foam, polymeric structural entities, etc., all of which are applied in the aircraft cabin interior and thus subject to the spillages, scuffing, spotting and the general contaminants which prevail in aircraft passenger compartments.

  1. End-to-end testing. [to verify electrical equipment failure due to carbon fibers released in aircraft-fuel fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The principle objective of the kinds of demonstration tests that are discussed is to try to verify whether or not carbon fibers that are released by burning composite parts in an aircraft-fuel fires can produce failures in electrical equipment. A secondary objective discussed is to experimentally validate the analytical models for some of the key elements in the risk analysis. The approach to this demonstration testing is twofold: limited end-to-end test are to be conducted in a shock tube; and planning for some large outdoor burn tests is being done.

  2. On the reverse flow ceiling jet in pool fire-ventilation crossflow interactions in a simulated aircraft cabin interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwack, E. Y.; Bankston, C. P.; Shakkottai, P.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    The behavior of the reverse flow ceiling jet against the ventilation flow from 0.58 to 0.87 m/s was investigated in a 1/3 scale model of a wide body aircraft interior. For all tests, strong reverse-flow ceiling jets of hot gases were detected well upstream of the fire. Both thicknesses of the reverse-flow ceiling jet and the smoke layer increased with the fire-crossflow parameter. The thickness of the smoke layer where the smoke flows along the main flow below the reverse-flow ceiling jet was almost twice that of the reverse-flow ceiling jet. Detailed spatial and time-varying temperatures of the gas in the test section were measured, and velocity profiles were also measured using a temperature compensated hot film.

  3. 46 CFR 72.05-40 - Insulation, other than for structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... structural fire protection. (a) Any insulation installed for heat and comfort, refrigeration (including air conditioning), or for any other purpose, and all material incidental to its installation, shall be...

  4. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Service regulations under 30 CFR 250.803; or (2) The fire main system under § 149.415. (b) If the water... requirements for fire mains in 46 CFR 108.415 through 108.429. ...: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Firefighting and Fire Protection Equipment Firefighting...

  5. Fire protection research for energy technology projects; FY 79 year-end report

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa, H.K.; Alvares, N.J.; Lipska, A.E.; Ford, H.; Beason, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes work performed in fiscal year 1979, on a DOE funded study entitled Fire Protection Research for Energy Technology Projects. The primary goal of this program is to ensure that fire protection measures for Fusion Energy Experiments (FEE) evolve concurrently with the complexity of FEE. Ultimately, it is planned that the detailed study of fusion experiments will provide an analytical methodology which can be applied to the full range of energy technology projects. We attempt to achieve this objective by coordinately advancing 3 (three) major task areas; (a) determine the fire hazards of current FEE facilities (b) assess the ability of accepted fire management strategies to meet and negate the hazard, (c) perform unique research into problem areas we have identified to provide input into analytical fire growth and damage assessment models.

  6. Large-scale fiber release and equipment exposure experiments. [aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pride, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    Outdoor tests were conducted to determine the amount of fiber released in a full scale fire and trace its dissemination away from the fire. Equipment vulnerability to fire released fibers was assessed through shock tests. The greatest fiber release was observed in the shock tube where the composite was burned with a continuous agitation to total consumption. The largest average fiber length obtained outdoors was 5 mm.

  7. Risk reduction in road and rail LPG transportation by passive fire protection.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, Nicola; Landucci, Gabriele; Molag, Menso; Bonvicini, Sarah; Spadoni, Gigliola; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-08-15

    The potential reduction of risk in LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) road transport due to the adoption of passive fire protections was investigated. Experimental data available for small scale vessels fully engulfed by a fire were extended to real scale road and rail tankers through a finite elements model. The results of mathematical simulations of real scale fire engulfment scenarios that may follow accidents involving LPG tankers proved the effectiveness of the thermal protections in preventing the "fired" BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) scenario. The presence of a thermal coating greatly increases the "time to failure", providing a time lapse that in the European experience may be considered sufficient to allow the start of effective mitigation actions by fire brigades. The results obtained were used to calculate the expected reduction of individual and societal risk due to LPG transportation in real case scenarios. The analysis confirmed that the introduction of passive fire protections turns out in a significant reduction of risk, up to an order of magnitude in the case of individual risk and of about 50% if the expectation value is considered. Thus, the adoption of passive fire protections, not compulsory in European regulations, may be an effective technical measure for risk reduction, and may contribute to achieve the control of "major accidents hazards" cited by the European legislation. PMID:19188020

  8. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  9. 14 CFR 25.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 25.1181 Section 25.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1181 Designated fire zones;...

  10. Large Unmanned Aircraft System Operations in the National Airspace System - the NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Gregory P.; Howell, Kathleen M.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) Ikhana (ee-kah-nah) project executed the 2007 Western States Fire Missions over several of the western United States using an MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system (UAS) in partnership with the NASA Ames Research Center, the United States Forest Service, and the National Interagency Fire Center. The missions were intended to supply infrared imagery of wildfires to firefighters on the ground within 10 minutes of data acquisition. For each of the eight missions, the NASA DFRC notified the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of specific flight plans within three or fewer days of the flight. The FAA Certificate of Waiver or Authorization (commonly referred to as a COA ) process was used to obtain access to the United States National Airspace System. Significant time and resources were necessary to develop the COA application, perform mission planning, and define and approve emergency landing sites. Unique aspects of flying unmanned aircraft created challenges to mission operations. Close coordination with FAA headquarters and air traffic control resulted in safe and successful missions that assisted firefighters by providing near-real-time imagery of selected wildfires.

  11. Penetrating Fire Extinguisher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    When Feecon Corporation, a manufacturer of fire protection systems, needed a piercing nozzle for larger aircraft, they were assisted by Kennedy Space Center who provided the company with a fire extinguisher with a hard pointed tip that had been developed in case of an orbiter crash landing. The nozzle can penetrate metal skins of aircraft, trains, etc. Feecon obtained a license and now markets its cobra ram piercing nozzle to airport firefighters. Its primary advantage is that the nozzle can be held in one spot during repeated blows of the ram. *This product has been discontinued and is no longer commercially available.

  12. Fire protection of safe shutdown capability at commercial nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, K.

    1993-07-01

    The comprehensive industrial safety standards and codes that exist today have evolved from lessons learned through past experience, research results, and improvements in technological capabilities. The current requirements for fire safety features of commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US are a notable example of this practice. Although fire protection has always been an important design requirement, from the aftermath of a serious fire that occurred in 1975 at the Browns Ferry plant, it was learned that the life safety and property protection concerns of the major fire insurance underwriters may not sufficiently encompass nuclear safety issues, particularly with regard to the potential for fire damage to result in the common mode failure of redundant trains of systems, and components important to the safe shutdown of the reactor. Following its investigations into the Browns Ferry fire, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated guidance documents, which ultimately developed into mandatory regulations, necessary to assure the implementation of a fire protection program that would address nuclear safety concerns. The new criteria that evolved, contain prescriptive design features, as well as personnel and administrative requirements the Commission determined to be necessary to provide a defense-in-depth level of protection against the hazards of fire and its associated effects on safety related equipment. These criteria are primarily contained in Appendix R of Title 10 to the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR 50). Since 1983, various members of the Department of Nuclear Energy (DNE) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) have provided technical assistance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in support of its evaluations of fire protection features implemented at commercial nuclear power stations operated in the US. This paper presents a discussion of the insights gained by the author during his active participation in this area.

  13. Evaluating the compliance of Keck's LGSAO automated aircraft protection system with FAA adopted criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stomski, Paul J.; Campbell, Randy; Murphy, Thomas W.

    2014-07-01

    The W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) applied for and received a determination of no-objection from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) operations using an automated aircraft protection system (APS) in late 2013. WMKO's APS, named AIRSAFE, uses transponder based aircraft detection (TBAD) to replace human aircraft spotters. The FAA required WMKO to self-certify AIRSAFE compliance with SAE Aerospace Standard 6029A: "Performance Criteria for Laser Control Measures Used for Aviation Safety"[1] (AS- 6029A). AS-6029A prescribes performance and administrative criteria for an APS; essentially, requiring AIRSAFE to adequately protect all types of aircraft, traveling at any speed, altitude, distance and direction reasonably expected in the operating environment. A description of the analysis that comprises this compliance evaluation is the main focus of this paper. Also discussed is the AIRSAFE compliance with AS-6029A administrative criteria that includes characterization of site specific air traffic, failure modes, limitations, operating procedures, preventative maintenance procedures, and periodic system test procedures.

  14. Modeling heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during flash fire exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitrphiromsri, Patirop; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a model of heat and moisture transport in firefighter protective clothing during a flash fire exposure is presented. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of coupled heat and moisture transport on the protective performance of the garment. Computational results show the distribution of temperature and moisture content in the fabric during the exposure to the flash fire as well as during the cool-down period. Moreover, the duration of the exposure during which the garment protects the firefighter from getting second and third degree burns from the flash fire exposure is numerically predicted. A complete model for the fire-fabric-air gap-skin system is presented.

  15. A study of the behaviour of a protected vessel containing LPG during pool fire engulfment.

    PubMed

    Shebeko, Y N; Bolodian, I A; Filippov, V N; Navzenya, V Y; Kostyuhin, A K; Tokarev, P M; Zamishevski, E D

    2000-10-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods for protection against fires of vessels containing liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) (safety relief valves, intumescent fire retardant coatings, thermal isolation) have been carried out. A simple mathematical model has been proposed, which describes dependences of various parameters on time. These parameters are temperature, pressure and mass of LPG, temperatures of the vessel's walls and thermal protection layer. The case of total fire engulfment of the vessel with LPG was considered. Experiments have been executed, which were aimed on the investigation of the behaviour of vessels with LPG (50 l), equipped with protective devices during total fire engulfment. It was found out that the safety valve prevented an explosion of the vessels without any other protective measures. The presence of the intumescent fire retardant coating caused a significant delay in operation of the safety valve. A rather good agreement between the theoretical and experimental data was obtained. It has been revealed that the considered methods for protection of LPG vessels are promising in regard to prevention of explosions in these vessels at the fire engulfment. PMID:10946118

  16. An assessment of the risk arising from electrical effects associated with the release of carbon fibers from general aviation aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfield, D.; Fiksel, J.

    1980-01-01

    A Poisson type model was developed and exercised to estimate the risk of economic losses through 1993 due to potential electric effects of carbon fibers released from United States general aviation aircraft in the aftermath of a fire. Of the expected 354 annual general aviation aircraft accidents with fire projected for 1993, approximately 88 could involve carbon fibers. The average annual loss was estimated to be about $250 (1977 dollars) and the likelihood of exceeding $107,000 (1977 dollars) in annual loss in any one year was estimated to be at most one in ten thousand.

  17. Fire Protection in Various Types of Wooden Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gašpercová, Stanislava; Makovická Osvaldová, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Design of new modern systems for low energy efficient construction in a passive, zero standard or energy-autonomous buildings, as well as the increased popularity of solid wood construction means intervention into the very structure of its statics, building physics, but also fire properties. Some prototype design solutions are not verified whether the tests, by good computational analysis or verification of long-term use of the building. In the context of changing standards in building design, new approaches are needed. If in wooden buildings the potential risk of fire is higher than other buildings, we need special methods, materials and practical skills.

  18. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  19. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  20. 46 CFR 28.380 - General structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....16) in 16 CFR part 1632, subpart A, applies to each mattress. (i) Fiber reinforced plastic. When the... reinforced plastic, the resin used must be fire retardant. (j) Cooking areas. Vertical or horizontal surfaces within 0.9144 meters (3 feet) of cooking appliances must be composed of noncombustible material...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... defined as the ratio of the contaminant concentrations outside of the respirator to the contaminant... workplaces, pose a greater hazard to employees; they can produce greater exposure to quantities of smoke... necessary to abandon fire fighting efforts. In recognition of the degree of hazard present in the two...

  2. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  3. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  4. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  5. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  6. 46 CFR 177.410 - Structural fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an ASTM E-84 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600) flame spread rating of not more than 75... accordance with ABYC P-1 (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). (3) Fire detection and... NPFC MIL-R-21607E(SH) (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600). Resin systems that have not...

  7. The Influence of Management on the Cost of Fire Protection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Amy K.

    2004-01-01

    An important and unresolved issue central to the study of government performance is how the actions of managers and the nature of organizations affect the cost of public services. This paper presents an empirical analysis of fire departments that estimates the influence of managerial choices on per capita spending within a simultaneous public…

  8. 14 CFR 125.175 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components... Requirements § 125.175 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle...

  9. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  10. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  11. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  12. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  14. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  15. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection References For Further Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY... Protection Pt. 1910, Subpt. L, App. C Appendix C to Subpart L of Part 1910—Fire Protection References For... be helpful in understanding the requirements contained in all of the sections of subpart L: A....

  16. 14 CFR 121.277 - Protection of other airplane components against fire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Protection of other airplane components....277 Protection of other airplane components against fire. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all airplane surfaces aft of the nacelles in the area of one nacelle diameter on...

  17. Risks, designs, and research for fire safety in spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert; Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Urban, David

    1991-01-01

    Current fire protection for spacecraft relies mainly on fire prevention through the use of nonflammable materials and strict storage controls of other materials. The Shuttle also has smoke detectors and fire extinguishers, using technology similar to aircraft practices. While experience has shown that the current fire protection is adequate, future improvements in fire safety technology to meet the challenges of long duration space missions, such as the Space Station Freedom, are essential. All spacecraft fire protection systems, however, must deal with the unusual combustion characteristics and operational problems in the low gravity environment. The features of low gravity combustion that affect spacecraft fire safety, and the issues in fire protection for Freedom that must be addressed eventually to provide effective and conservative fire protection systems are discussed.

  18. Carbon fiber plume sampling for large scale fire tests at Dugway Proving Ground. [fiber release during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chovit, A. R.; Lieberman, P.; Freeman, D. E.; Beggs, W. C.; Millavec, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon fiber sampling instruments were developed: passive collectors made of sticky bridal veil mesh, and active instruments using a light emitting diode (LED) source. These instruments measured the number or number rate of carbon fibers released from carbon/graphite composite material when the material was burned in a 10.7 m (35 ft) dia JP-4 pool fire for approximately 20 minutes. The instruments were placed in an array suspended from a 305 m by 305 m (1000 ft by 1000 ft) Jacob's Ladder net held vertically aloft by balloons and oriented crosswind approximately 140 meters downwind of the pool fire. Three tests were conducted during which released carbon fiber data were acquired. These data were reduced and analyzed to obtain the characteristics of the released fibers including their spatial and size distributions and estimates of the number and total mass of fibers released. The results of the data analyses showed that 2.5 to 3.5 x 10 to the 8th power single carbon fibers were released during the 20 minute burn of 30 to 50 kg mass of initial, unburned carbon fiber material. The mass released as single carbon fibers was estimated to be between 0.1 and 0.2% of the initial, unburned fiber mass.

  19. Effectiveness of protected areas in mitigating fire within their boundaries: case study of Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, María Rosa; Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi

    2006-08-01

    Since the severe 1982-1983 El Niño drought, recurrent burning has been reported inside tropical protected areas (TPAs). Despite the key role of fire in habitat degradation, little is known about the effectiveness of TPAs in mitigating fire incidence and burned areas. We used a GPS fire database (1995-2005) (n=3590 forest fires) obtained from the National Forest Commission to compare fire incidence (number of fires) and burned areas inside TPAs and their surrounding adjacent buffer areas in Southern Mexico (Chiapas). Burned areas inside parks ranged from 2% (Palenque) to 45% (Lagunas de Montebello) of a park's area, and the amount burned was influenced by two severe El Niño events (1998 and 2003). These two years together resulted in 67% and 46% of the total area burned in TPAs and buffers, respectively during the period under analysis. Larger burned areas in TPAs than in their buffers were exclusively related to the extent of natural habitats (flammable area excluding agrarian and pasture lands). Higher fuel loads together with access and extinction difficulties were likely behind this trend. A higher incidence of fire in TPAs than in their buffers was exclusively related to anthropogenic factors such as higher road densities and agrarian extensions. Our results suggest that TPAs are failing to mitigate fire impacts, with both fire incidence and total burned areas being significantly higher in the reserves than in adjacent buffer areas. Management plans should consider those factors that facilitate fires in TPAs: anthropogenic origin of fires, sensitivity of TPAs to El Niñio-droughts, large fuel loads and fuel continuity inside parks, and limited financial resources. Consideration of these factors favors lines of action such as alternatives to the use of fire (e.g., mucuna-maize system), climatic prediction to follow the evolution of El Niño, fuel management strategies that favor extinction practices, and the strengthening of local communities and ecotourism

  20. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  1. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  2. Fire activity inside and outside protected areas in Sub-Saharan Africa: a continental analysis of fire and its implications for biodiversity and land management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Ilaria; Gregoire, Jean-Marie; Simonetti, Dario; Punga, Mihkel; Dubois, Gregoire

    2010-05-01

    Fire is an important ecological factor in many natural ecosystems. Without doubt one of the biomes with the highest fire activity in the world is the African savannah. Savannahs have evolved with fires since climate in these regions is characterized by definite dry and wet seasons that create the conditions for burning. During the wet months the herbaceous vegetation shows a quick growth, followed by a long dry period during which the abundant build-up of fine materials becomes highly flammable and most of fires occur. Animals and plants are adapted to these conditions and their lives depend on recurrent fires. In this context fire becomes an essential element to promote biodiversity and nature conservation. Park managers are using programmed fires as a tool to maintain the habitats and favorable conditions to the animal communities. Satellite products like burned areas and active fire maps are a valuable mean to analyze the fire activity and provide support to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. In the framework of the Digital Observatory for Protected Areas (DOPA), the MONDE group (Monitoring Natural Resources for Development) of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission is using satellite products to analyze the fire occurrence and its effects on protected areas located in sub-Saharan Africa. Information on the fire activity was derived from the MODIS fire products (active fires and burned areas) and allows the DOPA to provide support to park managers as well as to experts working for conservation and natural resource management. We assessed 741 protected areas classified by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) with a level of protection between class I and IV. The MODIS datasets are available since the year 2000 and were used to characterize the spatio-temporal distribution of fires over a period of 10 years. Information on fire activity was extracted for the protected areas and a 25km buffer zone

  3. Risk and Protective Factors for Fires, Burns, and Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in U.S. Households

    PubMed Central

    Runyan, Carol W.; Johnson, Renee M.; Yang, Jingzhen; Waller, Anna E.; Perkis, David; Marshall, Stephen W.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; McGee, Kara S.

    2011-01-01

    Background More needs to be known about the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning in U.S. households. Methods A random-digit-dial survey was conducted about home safety with 1003 respondents representing households in the continental United States. Descriptive statistics assess the prevalence of risk and protective factors for fires, burns, and carbon monoxide overall, and by demographic characteristics, household structure, region, and residential tenure. The data were weighted to adjust for nonresponse and to reflect the U.S. population. Results Although most respondents reported having a smoke alarm (97%), and 80% reported having one on each level of their home, <20% reported checking the alarm at least every 3 months. Seventy-one percent reported having a fire extinguisher, 29% had a carbon monoxide detector, and 51% of those living with at least one other person had a fire escape plan. Few could report the temperature of their hot water at the tap (9%), or the setting on the hot water heater (25%). Only 6% had an antiscald device. Conclusions Results suggest that there is much room for improvement regarding adoption of measures to prevent fires, burns, and carbon monoxide poisoning. Further investigations of the efficacy of carbon monoxide detectors, fire extinguishers, and escape plans, as well as effectiveness studies of fire and burn-prevention efforts are needed. PMID:15626564

  4. Forest construction infrastructures for the prevision, suppression, and protection before and after forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drosos, Vasileios C.; Giannoulas, Vasileios J.; Daoutis, Christodoulos

    2014-08-01

    Climatic changes cause temperature rise and thus increase the risk of forest fires. In Greece the forests with the greatest risk to fire are usually those located near residential and tourist areas where there are major pressures on land use changes, while there are no currently guaranteed cadastral maps and defined title deeds because of the lack of National and Forest Cadastre. In these areas the deliberate causes of forest fires are at a percentage more than 50%. This study focuses on the forest opening up model concerning both the prevention and suppression of forest fires. The most urgent interventions that can be done after the fire destructions is also studied in relation to soil protection constructions, in order to minimize the erosion and the torrential conditions. Digital orthophotos were used in order to produce and analyze spatial data using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Initially, Digital Elevation Models were generated, based on photogrammetry and forest areas as well as the forest road network were mapped. Road density, road distance, skidding distance and the opening up percentage were accurately measured for a forest complex. Finally, conclusions and suggestions have been drawn about the environmental compatibility of forest protection and wood harvesting works. In particular the contribution of modern technologies such as digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems is very important, allowing reliable, effective and fast process of spatial analysis contributing to a successful planning of opening up works and fire protection.

  5. Advanced risk assessment of the effects of graphite fibers on electronic and electric equipment, phase 1. [simulating vulnerability to airports and communities from fibers released during aircraft fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pocinki, L. S.; Kaplan, L. D.; Cornell, M. E.; Greenstone, R.

    1979-01-01

    A model was developed to generate quantitative estimates of the risk associated with the release of graphite fibers during fires involving commercial aircraft constructed with graphite fiber composite materials. The model was used to estimate the risk associated with accidents at several U.S. airports. These results were then combined to provide an estimate of the total risk to the nation.

  6. Assessment of crash fire hazard of LH sub 2 fueled aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D.; Wittlin, G.; Versaw, E. F.; Parmley, R.; Cima, R.; Walther, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The relative safety of passengers in LH2 - fueled aircraft, as well as the safety of people in areas surrounding a crash scene, has been evaluated in an analytical study. Four representative circumstances were postulated involving a transport aircraft in which varying degrees of severity of damage were sustained. Potential hazard to the passengers and to the surroundings posed by the spilled fuel was evaluated for each circumstance. Corresponding aircraft fueled with liquid methane, Jet A, and JP-4 were also studied in order to make comparisons of the relative safety. The four scenarios which were used to provide a basis for the evaluation included: (1) a small fuel leak internal to the aircraft, (2) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in a radial pattern as a result of impact with a stationary object while taxiing at fairly low speed, (3) a survivable crash in which a significant quantity of fuel is spilled in an axial pattern as a result of impact during landing, and (4) a non-survivable crash in which a massive fuel spill occurs instantaneously.

  7. A Combined Water-Bromotrifluoromethane Crash-Fire Protection System for a T-56 Turbopropeller Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John A.; Busch, Arthur M.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system is described which will suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbo-propeller engine. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame, means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine ingested fuel, and means for blanketing with bromotrifluoromethane massive metal parts that may reheat after the engine stops rotating. Combustion-chamber flames were rapidly extinguished at the engine fuel nozzles by a fuel shutoff and drain valve. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 42 pounds of water discharged at seven engine stations. Massive metal parts that could reheat were inerted with 10 pounds of bromotrifluoromethane discharged at two engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire protection system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, actuating the crash-fire protection system, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  8. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  9. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  10. 29 CFR Appendix A to Subpart L of... - Fire Protection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... which provide protection against flame, cut, and puncture. It is suggested that protective gloves... permissible modified version of Federal Test Method 191, Method 5903, (paragraph (3) of appendix E) for flame resistance when gloves, rather than glove material, are tested for flame resistance. (E) Head, eye, and...

  11. Fires

    MedlinePlus

    Whether a fire happens in your home or in the wild, it can be very dangerous. Fire spreads quickly. There is no time to gather ... a phone call. In just two minutes, a fire can become life-threatening. In five minutes, a ...

  12. DOE Fire Protection Handbook, Volume II. Fire effects and electrical and electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-18

    Electrical and electronic equipment, including computers, are used at critical facilities throughout the Department of Energy (DOE). Hughes Associates, Inc. was tasked to evaluate the potential thermal and nonthermal effects of a fire on the electrical and electronic equipment and methods to analyze, evaluate, and assist in controlling the potential effects. This report is a result of a literature review and analysis on the effects of fire on electrical equipment. It is directed at three objectives: (1) Provide a state-of-the-art review and analysis of thermal and nonthermal damage to electrical and electronic equipment; (2) Develop a procedure for estimating thermal and nonthermal damage considerations using current knowledge; and (3) Develop an R&D/T&E program to fill gaps in the current knowledge needed to further perfect the procedure. The literature review was performed utilizing existing electronic databases. Sources searched included scientific and engineering databases including Dialog, NTIS, SciSearch and NIST BFRL literature. Incorporated in the analysis is unpublished literature and conversations with members of the ASTM E-5.21, Smoke Corrosivity, and researchers in the electronics field. This report does not consider the effects of fire suppression systems or efforts. Further analysis of the potential impact is required in the future.

  13. Fire protection for power plants: past, present and future. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Corcoran, J.R.

    1985-05-01

    Major power stations are divided into two categories, fossil-fueled and nuclear. Fossil stations - coal, oil, natural gas, and dual fuel - are described as are the hazards and protective features unique to each type. Commonalities are highlighted and boiler controls, boiler auxiliaries, turbine-generator systems, electrical equipment and auxiliary systems are reviewed. The history of nuclear power stations, the impact of the Brown's Ferry fire and the resultant regulation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are discussed. The importance of utilizing fire protection engineers is underscored.

  14. Fire protection review revisit No. 2, Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, P.H.; Keller, D.R.; Treece, S.D.

    1990-02-01

    A fire protection survey was conducted for the Department of Energy at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky, from October 30--November 4, November 6--10, and December 4--8, 1989. The purpose of the survey was to review the facility fire protection program and to make recommendations. Surveys of other facilities resulted in a classification system for buildings which provide an indication of the importance of the building to the fulfillment of the mission of the facility. Recommendations in this report reflect to some degree the relative importance of the facility and the time to restore it to useful condition in the event a loss were to occur.

  15. Development of a Minimum Performance Standard for Hand-Held Fire Extinguishers as a Replacement for Halon 1211 on Civilian Transport Category Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Harry

    2002-08-01

    One or more Halon 1211 hand-held fire extinguishers are specified in Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 25.851 as a requirement on transport category aircraft with 31 or more seats. Halon 1211 has been linked to the destruction of the ozone layer and production of new Halon 1211 has been halted per the Montreal Protocol in 1993. The phase out of Halon 1211, as the hand-held firefighting agent of choice, for civilian transport category aircraft has necessitated the development of a Minimum Performance Standard (MPS) to evaluate replacement agents. The purpose of the MPS is to insure that there is no reduction in safety, both in terms of effectiveness in fighting onboard fires and toxicity to the passengers and crew. The MPS specifies two new tests that replacement agents must pass in addition to requiring national certifications such as provided by Underwriters Laboratories. The first test evaluates the "flooding" characteristics of the agent against a hidden in-flight fire. This test determines the ability of a streaming agent to function as a flooding agent. The second test evaluates the performance of the agent in fighting a terrorist fire scenario and the associated toxicity hazard. This test measures the agent's ability to extinguish a triple-seat fire in an aircraft cabin under in-flight conditions and the toxicity characteristics of both the neat agent and the products of decomposition. This MPS will insure that the replacement agents will meet or exceed the performance of Halon 1211 both in fighting fires and maintaining a safe breathing environment in aircraft cabins.

  16. The relative fire resistance of select thermoplastic materials. [for aircraft interiors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The relative thermal stability, flammability, and related thermochemical properties of some thermoplastic materials currently used in aircraft interiors as well as of some candidate thermoplastics were investigated. Currently used materials that were evaluated include acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, bisphenol A polycarbonate, polyphenylene oxide, and polyvinyl fluoride. Candidate thermoplastic materials evaluated include: 9,9-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)fluorene polycarbonate-poly(dimethylsiloxane) block polymer, chlorinated polyvinylchloride homopolymer, phenolphthalein polycarbonate, polyethersulfone, polyphenylene sulfide, polyarylsulfone, and polyvinylidene fluoride.

  17. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND...

  18. 33 CFR 149.419 - Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Can the water supply for the helicopter deck fire protection system be part of a fire water system? 149.419 Section 149.419 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND...

  19. Preliminary analysis of University of North Dakota aircraft data from the FIRE Cirrus IFO-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poellot, Michael R.

    1995-01-01

    The stated goals of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment (FIRE) are 'to promote the development of improved cloud and radiation parameterization for use in climate models, and to provide for assessment and improvement of ISCCP projects'. FIRE Phase 2 has focused on the formation, maintenance and dissipation of cirrus and marine stratocumulus cloud systems. These objectives have been approached through a combination of modeling, extended-time observations and intensive field observation (IFO) periods. The work under this grant was associated with the FIRE Cirrus IFO 2. This field measurement program was conducted to obtain observations of cirrus cloud systems on a range of scales from the synoptic to the microscale, utilizing simultaneous measurements from a variety of ground-based, satellite and airborne platforms. By combining these remote and in situ measurements a more complete picture of cirrus systems can be obtained. The role of the University of North Dakota in Phase 2 was three-fold: to collect in situ microphysical data during the Cirrus IFO 2; to process and archive these data; and to collaborate in analyses of IFO data. This report will summarize the activities and findings of the work performed under this grant; detailed description of the data sets available and of the analyses are contained in the Semi-annual Status Reports submitted to NASA.

  20. 76 FR 3178 - Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR 55355). Signed at Washington, DC, on January 13, 2011. David Michaels... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard; Extension of the... collection requirements specified in its Fire Protection in Shipyard Employment Standard (29 CFR...

  1. 46 CFR 28.385 - Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with more than 49 individuals on board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with... Individuals on Board § 28.385 Structural fire protection for vessels that operate with more than 49...) Construction. The hull, structural bulkheads, columns and stanchions must be composed of steel....

  2. Shrapnel protection testing in support of the proposed Site 300 Contained Firing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pastrnak, J W; Baker, C F; Simmons, L F

    1992-08-04

    In preparation for the planned Contained Firing Facility at LLNL's Site 300, various multi-layered shrapnel protection schemes were investigated with the intent of minimizing the amount of material used in the shielding. As a result of testing, it was found that two pieces of 1-in.-thick mild steel plate provide adequate general-purpose protection from shrapnel generated by normal hydrodynamic and cylinder shots at Bunker 801. 8 refs.

  3. Flexible fire retardant polyisocyanate modified neoprene foam. [for thermal protective devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, J. A.; Riccitiello, S. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Lightweight, fire resistant foams have been developed through the modification of conventional neoprene-isocyanate foams by the addition of an alkyl halide polymer. Extensive tests have shown that the modified/neoprene-isocyanate foams are much superior in heat protection properties than the foams heretofore employed both for ballistic and ablative purposes.

  4. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education. Fire Protection Specialist, CDC 57150, 17-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This five-volume course is designed to provide the student with information about fire protection, first aid and rescue, and special situation firefighting techniques. The course is one of number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian setting. The course…

  5. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Safety, health, and fire protection. 2052.235-71 Section 2052.235-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 2052.235-71 Safety, health, and...

  6. 41 CFR 102-80.135 - Who is a qualified fire protection engineer?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Who is a qualified fire protection engineer? 102-80.135 Section 102-80.135 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident...

  7. 46 CFR 28.330 - Galley hood and other fire protection equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... protection equipment. (a) Each vessel must be fitted with a grease extraction hood complying with UL 710 above each grill, broiler, and deep fat fryer. (b) Each grease extraction hood must be equipped with a pre-engineered dry or wet chemical fire extinguishing system meeting the applicable sections of...

  8. 33 CFR 149.640 - What are the requirements for fire protection systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for fire protection systems? 149.640 Section 149.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural...

  9. 33 CFR 149.640 - What are the requirements for fire protection systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for fire protection systems? 149.640 Section 149.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND EQUIPMENT Design and Equipment Structural...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of fire zones. (a) There must be complete drainage of each part... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drainage and ventilation of fire zones....

  11. Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Fire-Protective Coatings Deformable upon Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudzinsky, V. P.; Garashchenko, A. N.

    2016-02-01

    Numerical studies of heat transfer in fire-protective coatings deformable (intumescent) upon heating have been conducted. The optimum combination of the computation-scheme parameters providing stability, convergence and satisfactory accuracy of solutions has been determined. An effect of basic characteristics of materials in real range of their change that made it possible to estimate the degree of influence of properties on the fire-protective efficiency of coatings and the level of warm-up (flame resistance) of structures to be protected with them has been studied. The possibility of using developed models and techniques to estimate and provide the required level of fire safety of polymer-based materials (in particular, elastomers and structures and products on their basis) is considered. The results of estimating the mass rate of evolving gaseous thermal-decomposition products that determine, in a considerable extent, the material combustibility have been presented. The numerical analysis results have demonstrated the potentiality of reducing the combustibility of such materials and increasing limits of their fire resistance at the expense of organizing the intumescence of a material upon heating by means of modification of their initial formulations as well as with the aid of an additional layer made of the intumescent coating compatible with an elastomer.

  12. A parametric study on the use of passive fire protection in FPSO topside module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebe, Martin; Jang, Beom-Seon; Jim, Yanlin

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a continuous threat to FPSO topside modules as large amounts of oil and gas are passing through the modules. As a conventional measure to mitigate structural failure under fire, passive fire protection (PFP) coatings are widely used on main structural members. However, an excessive use of PFP coatings can cause considerable cost for material purchase, installation, inspection and maintenance. Long installation time can be a risk since the work should be done nearly at the last fabrication stage. Thus, the minimal use of PFP can be beneficial to the reduction of construction cost and the avoidance of schedule delay. This paper presents a few case studies on how different applications of PFP have influence on collapse time of a FPSO module structure. A series of heat analysis and thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis are performed for different PFP coatings and the resultant collapse time and the amount of PFP coatings are compared with each other.

  13. Foam composite structures. [for fire retardant airframe materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, C. B.; Milligan, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The need to include fire resistant foams into state of the art aircraft interior paneling to increase passenger safety in aircraft fires was studied. Present efforts were directed toward mechanical and fire testing of panels with foam inclusions. Skinned foam filled honeycomb and PBI structural foams were the two constructions investigated with attention being directed toward weight/performance/cost trade-off. All of the new panels demonstrated improved performance in fire and some were lighter weight but not as strong as the presently used paneling. Continued efforts should result in improved paneling for passenger safety. In particular the simple partial filling (fire side) of state-of-the-art honeycomb with fire resistant foams with little sacrifice in weight would result in panels with increased fire resistance. More important may be the retarded rate of toxic gas evolution in the fire due to the protection of the honeycomb by the foam.

  14. Cosmic radiation in aviation: radiological protection of Air France aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, G

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic radiation in aviation has been a concern since the 1960s, and measurements have been taken for several decades by Air France. Results show that aircraft crew generally receive 3-4 mSv y(-1) for 750 boarding hours. Compliance with the trigger level of 6 mSv y(-1) is achieved by route selection. Work schedules can be developed for pregnant pilots to enable the dose to the fetus to be kept below 1 mSv. Crew members are informed of their exposition and the potential health impact. The upcoming International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) report on cosmic radiation in aviation will provide an updated guidance. A graded approach proportionate with the time of exposure is recommended to implement the optimisation principle. The objective is to keep exposures of the most exposed aircraft members to reasonable levels. ICRP also recommends that information about cosmic radiation be disseminated, and that awareness about cosmic radiation be raised in order to favour informed decision-making by all concerned stakeholders. PMID:27044363

  15. 14 CFR 23.1181 - Designated fire zones; regions included.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Designated fire zones; regions included. 23.1181 Section 23.1181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection §...

  16. Fuel containment, lightning protection and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Charles F.; James, Arthur M.

    1985-01-01

    The damage-tolerance characteristics of high strain-to-failure graphite fibers and toughened resins were evaluated. Test results show that conventional fuel tank sealing techniques are applicable to composite structures. Techniques were developed to prevent fuel leaks due to low-energy impact damage. For wing panels subjected to swept stroke lightning strikes, a surface protection of graphite/aluminum wire fabric and a fastener treatment proved effective in eliminating internal sparking and reducing structural damage. The technology features developed were incorporated and demonstrated in a test panel designed to meet the strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance requirements of a large commercial transport aircraft. The panel test results exceeded design requirements for all test conditions. Wing surfaces constructed with composites offer large weight savings if design allowable strains for compression can be increased from current levels.

  17. Evaluation of the propensity of replacements for halon 1301 to induce stress-corrosion cracking in alloys used in aircraft fire-suppressant storage and distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoudt, M. R.; Fink, J. L.; Ricker, R. E.

    1996-08-01

    The fire-suppressant agents halon 1301 and halon 1211 have both been determined to possess sufficient ozone layer depletion potential to warrant strict limitations on their production and use. The service conditions aboard jet aircraft subject engine fire-suppressant storage vessels to the agents for long durations at elevated temperatures and pressures. Stress-corrosion cracking (SCC) of the materials of the vessel wall and/or rupture disk assembly (agent release valve) could prevent proper operation. Therefore, the compatibility of potential replacements with the materials used in the fire-suppressant storage and distribution systems is a serious concern. An evaluation of the relative SCC propensity of 12 halon replacement candidates was conducted to enable the selection of three of these compounds for further study. The slow-strain-rate (SSR) tensile test was selected, and a statistical method was developed for ranking the relative susceptibility of each alloy in each agent from the SSR test results. The results revealed that most agents had little tendency to cause SCC, but that some agent/alloy combinations were undesirable. The statistical technique allowed relative comparison, ranking, and combination of these results with other types of tests for the identification of three agents suitable for development and evaluation as aircraft fire suppressants.

  18. Modeling of the Thermal Protection of a Multilayer Material Under Fire Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. A.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    On the basis of the theoretical and known experimental results, a refined mathematical model of the thermochemical destruction of a multilayer heat-shield coating has been developed. Account of the flow across the body has made it possible to forecast more exactly the state of the protected structure under fire conditions. A comparison between the results of numerical calculations and the known data has been made.

  19. Modeling of the Thermal Protection of a Multilayer Material Under Fire Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, V. A.; Yakimov, A. S.

    2016-06-01

    On the basis of the theoretical and known experimental results, a refined mathematical model of the thermochemical destruction of a multilayer heat-shield coating has been developed. Account of the flow across the body has made it possible to forecast more exactly the state of the protected structure under fire conditions. A comparison between the results of numerical calculations and the known data has been made.

  20. Linking management effectiveness indicators to observed effects of protected areas on fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Christoph; Agrawal, Arun

    2013-02-01

    Management-effectiveness scores are used widely by donors and implementers of conservation projects to prioritize, track, and evaluate investments in protected areas. However, there is little evidence that these scores actually reflect the capacity of protected areas to deliver conservation outcomes. We examined the relation between indicators of management effectiveness in protected areas and the effectiveness of protected areas in reducing fire occurrence in the Amazon rainforest. We used data collected with the Management Effectiveness Tracking Tool (METT) scorecard, adopted by some of the world's largest conservation organizations to track management characteristics believed to be crucial for protected-area effectiveness. We used the occurrence of forest fires from 2000 through 2010 as a measure of the effect of protected areas on undesired land-cover change in the Amazon basin. We used matching to compare the estimated effect of protected areas with low versus high METT scores on fire occurrence. We also estimated effects of individual protected areas on fire occurrence and explored the relation between these effects and METT scores. The relations between METT scores and effects of protected areas on fire occurrence were weak. Protected areas with higher METT scores in 2005 did not seem to have performed better than protected areas with lower METT scores at reducing fire occurrence over the last 10 years. Further research into the relations between management-effectiveness indicators and conservation outcomes in protected areas seems necessary, and our results show that the careful application of matching methods can be a suitable method for that purpose. PMID:23009052

  1. Rotor burst protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine failures that occurred in commercial aviation during 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Mangano, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program to develop criteria for the design of devices that will be used on aircraft to protect passengers and the aircraft structure from the lethal and devastating fragments generated by the disintegration of a gas turbine engine rotor is discussed. Statistics on gas rotor turbine failures that have occurred in commercial aviation in 1971 are presented. It is shown that 124 rotor failures occurred and 35 of these were uncontained. This figure is considered significantly high to justify continuation of the development program.

  2. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    SciTech Connect

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L.; Weaver, W.A.

    1996-02-01

    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  3. Oriented clay nanopaper from biobased components--mechanisms for superior fire protection properties.

    PubMed

    Carosio, F; Kochumalayil, J; Cuttica, F; Camino, G; Berglund, L

    2015-03-18

    The toxicity of the most efficient fire retardant additives is a major problem for polymeric materials. Cellulose nanofiber (CNF)/clay nanocomposites, with unique brick-and-mortar structure and prepared by simple filtration, are characterized from the morphological point of view by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites have superior fire protection properties to other clay nanocomposites and fiber composites. The corresponding mechanisms are evaluated in terms of flammability (reaction to a flame) and cone calorimetry (exposure to heat flux). These two tests provide a wide spectrum characterization of fire protection properties in CNF/montmorrilonite (MTM) materials. The morphology of the collected residues after flammability testing is investigated. In addition, thermal and thermo-oxidative stability are evaluated by thermogravimetric analyses performed in inert (nitrogen) and oxidative (air) atmospheres. Physical and chemical mechanisms are identified and related to the unique nanostructure and its low thermal conductivity, high gas barrier properties and CNF/MTM interactions for char formation. PMID:25723913

  4. Effect of aluminized fabrics on radiant protective performance of fire proximity suit materials.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Park, Pyoung Kyu; Hong, Kyoung A; Yoon, Kee Jong

    2015-03-01

    Radiant heat may be a significant component of heat exposure in the case of proximity firefighting. To combat high levels of radiant heat, fire proximity suits made of aluminized fabrics (Al-Fb) are commonly used due to their proven radiant protective performance (RPP). In this study RPP of various Al-Fb prepared using different aluminized films (Al-Fl) such as double-sided aluminized film and single-sided aluminized film and different base fabrics such as woven, knit, and nonwoven fabrics are compared. The effect of flexing on RPP and flame protective performance (FPP) of Al-Fb is also examined. The results show that RPP of Al-Fl is affected by the protective film to protect against mechanical or physical damages, and also by their structure such as whether the second reflective aluminum layer is present or not. In addition RPP of Al-Fb is also influenced by the base fabric, especially its surface roughness. The increased surface roughness combined with the damage caused to the aluminum layer after flexing result in reduction of RPP of Al-Fb. The contribution of Al-Fl to FPP of Al-Fb is not as significant as to RPP. Finally, based on the results, some points that may be important in developing and designing fire proximity suits are recommended. PMID:25324564

  5. Protection forest resilience after a fire event: a case study in Vallis, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergani, Chiara; Werlen, Mario; Schwarz, Massimiliano

    2016-04-01

    Forests are well known to protect against natural hazards such as landslides, rockfall and floods. Nevertheless, they are dynamic ecosystems which are exposed to a variety of disturbances such as windstorms, fires, bark beetle and pathogen outbreaks. Catastrophic disturbances like windstorms and fires usually remove large portions of the canopy, starting a succession process which lead to a complete stand regeneration. Disturbances belong to the natural dynamic of forests, however they are highly undesirable in the case where forest protect infrastructure or settlements. Quantifying the decay and recovery of the protection effect of forests after disturbances is therefore important to evaluate risks and implement appropriate management techniques, when needed. This work analyzes the dynamic of a Scots Pine (Pinus silvestris) protection forests near Visp (Vallis) after a fire event, focusing on root reinforcement, which is the key factor in preventing shallow landslides. Forest cover, root distribution and root mechanical properties were analyzed 4 years after the fire event, and the root reinforcement has been quantified. Furthermore, the contribution of natural regeneration has been evaluated. Results show that the root reinforcement of Scots pine has declined massively in the forest fire area. At a distance of 1.5 m from the tree stem there is a reduction of 60% compared with the live stand. With increasing distance from the stem, the reduction in the reinforcement is even bigger. At a distance of 2.5 meters it is 12% and at 3.5 meters, only 5% of the original root reinforcement. This decrease is due to the decomposition of roots and associated change in the mechanical properties of the wood. The reinforcement of the dead roots in the forest area is estimated between 0.36 kPa and 2.64 kPa. The contribution of the emerging regeneration is estimated on average 0.01 kPa. Overall the stand provides a reinforcement between 0.37 kPa and 2.65 kPa. From the results it

  6. A feasibility study: California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection utilization of infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Britten, R. A.; Parks, G. S.; Voss, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's JPL has completed a feasibility study using infrared technologies for wildland fire suppression and management. The study surveyed user needs, examined available technologies, matched the user needs with technologies, and defined an integrated infrared wildland fire mapping concept system configuration. System component trade-offs were presented for evaluation in the concept system configuration. The economic benefits of using infrared technologies in fire suppression and management were examined. Follow-on concept system configuration development and implementation were proposed.

  7. Lightning protection guidelines and test data for adhesively bonded aircraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryzby, J. E.; Plumer, J. A.

    1984-01-01

    The highly competitive marketplace and increasing cost of energy has motivated manufacturers of general aviation aircraft to utilize composite materials and metal-to-metal bonding in place of conventional fasteners and rivets to reduce weight, obtain smoother outside surfaces and reduce drag. The purpose of this program is protection of these new structures from hazardous lightning effects. The program began with a survey of advance-technology materials and fabrication methods under consideration for future designs. Sub-element specimens were subjected to simulated lightning voltages and currents. Measurements of bond line voltages, electrical sparking, and mechanical strength degradation were made to comprise a data base of electrical properties for new technology materials and basic structural configurations. The second hase of the program involved tests on full scale wing structures which contained integral fuel tanks and which were representative of examples of new technology structures and fuel systems. The purpose of these tests was to provide a comparison between full scale structural measurements and those obtained from the sub-element specimens.

  8. Integrator Windup Protection-Techniques and a STOVL Aircraft Engine Controller Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    KrishnaKumar, K.; Narayanaswamy, S.

    1997-01-01

    Integrators are included in the feedback loop of a control system to eliminate the steady state errors in the commanded variables. The integrator windup problem arises if the control actuators encounter operational limits before the steady state errors are driven to zero by the integrator. The typical effects of windup are large system oscillations, high steady state error, and a delayed system response following the windup. In this study, methods to prevent the integrator windup are examined to provide Integrator Windup Protection (IW) for an engine controller of a Short Take-Off and Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft. An unified performance index is defined to optimize the performance of the Conventional Anti-Windup (CAW) and the Modified Anti-Windup (MAW) methods. A modified Genetic Algorithm search procedure with stochastic parameter encoding is implemented to obtain the optimal parameters of the CAW scheme. The advantages and drawbacks of the CAW and MAW techniques are discussed and recommendations are made for the choice of the IWP scheme, given some characteristics of the system.

  9. GIS Fuzzy Expert System for the assessment of ecosystems vulnerability to fire in managing Mediterranean natural protected areas.

    PubMed

    Semeraro, Teodoro; Mastroleo, Giovanni; Aretano, Roberta; Facchinetti, Gisella; Zurlini, Giovanni; Petrosillo, Irene

    2016-03-01

    A significant threat to the natural and cultural heritage of Mediterranean natural protected areas (NPAs) is related to uncontrolled fires that can cause potential damages related to the loss or a reduction of ecosystems. The assessment and mapping of the vulnerability to fire can be useful to reduce landscape damages and to establish priority areas where it is necessary to plan measures to reduce the fire vulnerability. To this aim, a methodology based on an interactive computer-based system has been proposed in order to support NPA's management authority for the identification of vulnerable hotspots to fire through the selection of suitable indicators that allow discriminating different levels of sensitivity (e.g. Habitat relevance, Fragmentation, Fire behavior, Ecosystem Services, Vegetation recovery after fire) and stresses (agriculture, tourism, urbanization). In particular, a multi-criteria analysis based on Fuzzy Expert System (FES) integrated in a GIS environment has been developed in order to identify and map potential "hotspots" of fire vulnerability, where fire protection measures can be undertaken in advance. In order to test the effectiveness of this approach, this approach has been applied to the NPA of Torre Guaceto (Apulia Region, southern Italy). The most fire vulnerable areas are the patch of century-old forest characterized by high sensitivity and stress, and the wetlands and century-old olive groves due to their high sensitivity. The GIS fuzzy expert system provides evidence of its potential usefulness for the effective management of natural protected areas and can help conservation managers to plan and intervene in order to mitigate the fire vulnerability in accordance with conservation goals. PMID:26696610

  10. Evaluation of the thermal performance of fire fighter protective clothing with the addition of phase change material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Lee K.

    Fire fighters rely on fire fighter protective clothing (FFPC) to provide adequate protection in the various hazardous environments they may encounter during operations. FFPC has seen significant advancement in technology over the past few decades. The addition of phase change material (PCM) to FFPC is a new technology with potential to enhance the thermal protection provided by the FFPC. To explore this technology, data from bench-scale experiments involving FFPC with PCMs are compared with a theoretical finite difference heat transfer model. The results demonstrate an effective method to mathematically model the heat transfer and provide insight into the effectiveness of improving the thermal protection of FFPC. The experiments confirm that the latent heat absorbed during the phase change reduces temperatures that might be experienced at the fire fighter's skin surface, advancing the high temperature performance of FFPC.

  11. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  12. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  13. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  14. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-2 - Types of fire-protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., but not be limited to, automatic fire and smoke detecting systems, manual fire alarm systems, sample...) Automatic fire detecting systems. For the purpose of this subpart, automatic fire and smoke detecting... unit, fire detectors, smoke detectors, and audible and visual alarms distinct in both respects from...

  16. Crash-Fire Protection System for T-56 Turbopropeller Engine Using Water as Cooling and Inerting Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busch, Arthur M.; Campbell, John A.

    1959-01-01

    A crash-fire protection system to suppress the ignition of crash-spilled fuel that may be ingested by a T-56 turbopropeller engine is described. This system includes means for rapidly extinguishing the combustor flame and means for cooling and inerting with water the hot engine parts likely to ignite engine-ingested fuel. Combustion-chamber flames were extinguished in 0.07 second at the engine fuel manifold. Hot engine parts were inerted and cooled by 52 pounds of water discharged at ten engine stations. Performance trials of the crash-fire prevention system were conducted by bringing the engine up to takeoff temperature, stopping the normal fuel flow to the engine, starting the water discharge, and then spraying fuel into the engine to simulate crash-ingested fuel. No fires occurred during these trials, although fuel was sprayed into the engine from 0.3 second to 15 minutes after actuating the crash-fire protection system.

  17. The performance of lightweight plastic foams developed for fire safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fish, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    The use of a low density, polyurethane based foam to suppress a fire and to provide protection for the structure of an aircraft or spacecraft is discussed. The mechanism by which foams provide protection from heat and create a nonflammable surface is described. Various materials and their application to specific types of structures are examined.

  18. Standard on fire protection for self-propelled and mobile surface mining equipment. 2001 ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2001-07-01

    Safeguard life and property against fire and related hazards in mines with the latest requirements in NFPA 121. This 2001 edition covers fire detection, suppression, ignition sources, fire risk assessment and maintenance of mining equipment systems. 4 apps.

  19. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  20. 14 CFR 23.855 - Cargo and baggage compartment fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... it must be equipped with a smoke or fire detector system to give a warning at the pilots' station... the contents of a hand held fire extinguisher, or (2) Be equipped with a smoke or fire detector...

  1. An assessment of tailoring of lightning protection design requirements for a composite wing structure on a metallic aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwood, T. L.

    1991-01-01

    The Navy A-6E aircraft is presently being modified with a new wing which uses graphite/epoxy structures and substructures around a titanium load-bearing structure. The ability of composites to conduct electricity is less than that of aluminum. This is cause for concern when the wing may be required to conduct large lightning currents. The manufacturer attempted to solve lightning protection issues by performing a risk assessment based on a statistical approach which allows relaxation of the wing lightning protection design levels over certain locations of the composite wing. A sensitivity study is presented designed to define the total risk of relaxation of the design levels.

  2. Model example of natural ventilation for protected escape route type Ap in the fire of a block of flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkáč, J.

    2011-03-01

    Ventilation methods for protected escape route type Ap are defined and given technically and by typology in current legislation [1] and [5]. The simulation of the growth of a fire and movement of smoke was modelled on a stairway in a block of flats with 9 aboveground storeys and one underground storey (the most used type of stairway in blocks of flats in the Slovak Republic). The initiation, dynamics and movement of smoke are influenced by the efficiency of the natural ventilation. The dangerous products of fire, smoke, visibility and temperature influence safe evacuations and human behaviour. The selected model was verified by an actual fire.

  3. Fire-Retardant, Decorative Inks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D.; Nir, Z.; Mikroyannidis, J.

    1987-01-01

    Effectiveness of fire-retardant additives evaluated. Fire retardance of decorative acrylic printing inks for aircraft interiors enhanced by certain commercial and experimental fire-retardant additives, according to study.

  4. The second X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrives at

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The second of three X-43A hypersonic research aircraft, shown here in its protective shipping jig, arrived at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, on January 31, 2001. The arrival of the second X-43A from its manufacturer, MicroCraft, Inc., of Tullahoma, Tenn., followed by only a few days the mating of the first X-43A and its specially-designed adapter to the first stage of a modified Pegasus booster rocket. The booster, built by Orbital Sciences Corp., Dulles, Va., will accelerate the 12-foot-long, unpiloted research aircraft to a predetermined altitude and speed after the X-43A/booster 'stack' is air-launched from NASA's venerable NB-52 mothership. The X-43A will then separate from the rocket and fly a pre-programmed trajectory, conducting aerodynamic and propulsion experiments until it impacts into the Pacific Ocean. Three research flights are planned, two at Mach 7 and one at Mach 10 (seven and 10 times the speed of sound respectively) with the first tentatively scheduled for early summer, 2001. The X-43A is powered by a revolutionary supersonic-combustion ramjet ('scramjet') engine, and will use the underbody of the aircraft to form critical elements of the engine. The forebody shape helps compress the intake airflow, while the aft section acts as a nozzle to direct thrust. The X-43A flights will be the first actual flight tests of an aircraft powered by an air-breathing scramjet engine.

  5. Fire response test methods for aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1978-01-01

    Fire response methods which may be suitable for materials intended for aircraft and aerospace applications are presented. They address ignitability, smolder susceptibility, oxygen requirement, flash fire propensity, fire spread, heat release, fire containment, smoke evolution, and toxic gas evolution.

  6. Effects of weathering on performance of intumescent coatings for structure fire protection in the wildland-urban interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrani, Babak

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of weathering on the performance of intumescent fire-retardant coatings on wooden products. The weathering effects included primary (solar irradiation, moisture, and temperature) and secondary (environmental contaminants) parameters at various time intervals. Wildland urban interface (WUI) fires have been an increasing threat to lives and properties. Existing solutions to mitigate the damages caused by WUI fires include protecting the structures from ignition and minimizing the fire spread from one structure to another. These solutions can be divided into two general categories: active fire protection systems and passive fire protection systems. Passive systems are either using pre-applied wetting agents (water, gel, or foam) or adding an extra layer (composite wraps or coatings). Fire-retardant coating treatment methods can be divided into impregnated (penetrant) and intumescent categories. Intumescent coatings are easy to apply, economical, and have a better appearance in comparison to other passive fire protection methods, and are the main focus of this study. There have been limited studies conducted on the application of intumescent coatings on wooden structures and their performance after long-term weathering exposure. The main concerns of weathering effects are: 1) the reduction of ignition resistance of the coating layer after weathering; and 2) the fire properties of coatings after weathering since coatings might contribute as a combustible fuel and assist the fire growth after ignition. Three intumescent coatings were selected and exposed to natural weathering conditions in three different time intervals. Two types of tests were performed on the specimens: a combustibility test consisted of a bench-scale performance evaluation using a Cone Calorimeter, and a thermal decomposition test using Simultaneous Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) method (also known

  7. 14 CFR 25.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drainage and ventilation of fire zones. 25.1187 Section 25.1187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 25.1187 Drainage and ventilation of...

  8. 14 CFR 29.1187 - Drainage and ventilation of fire zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drainage and ventilation of fire zones. 29.1187 Section 29.1187 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Powerplant Fire Protection § 29.1187 Drainage and ventilation of...

  9. Risks and issues in fire safety on the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A fire in the inhabited portion of a spacecraft is a greatly feared hazard, but fire protection in space operations is complicated by two factors. First, the spacecraft cabin is an enclosed volume, which limits the resources for fire fighting and the options for crew escape. Second, an orbiting spacecraft experiences a balance of forces, creating a near-zero-gravity (microgravity) environment that profoundly affects the characteristics of fire initiation, spread, and suppression. The current Shuttle Orbiter is protected by a fire-detection and suppression system whose requirements are derived of necessity from accepted terrestrial and aircraft standards. While experience has shown that Shuttle fire safety is adequate, designers recognize that improved systems to respond specifically to microgravity fire characteristics are highly desirable. Innovative technology is particularly advisable for the Space Station, a forthcoming space community with a complex configuration and long-duration orbital missions, in which the effectiveness of current fire-protection systems is unpredictable. The development of risk assessments to evaluate the probabilities and consequences of fire incidents in spacecraft are briefly reviewed. It further discusses the important unresolved issues and needs for improved fire safety in the Space Station, including those of material selection, spacecraft atmospheres, fire detection, fire suppression, and post-fire restoration.

  10. Moderate Livestock Grazing Protects Sagebrush Plant Communities From Post-fire Cheatgrass Invasion.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing and fire are common disturbances on sagebrush rangelands. However, little is known about the influence of pre-fire grazing on post-fire plant community recovery. We evaluated the impacts of long-term grazing compared to not grazing prior to fire on sagebrush rangeland. We found ...

  11. Effectiveness of strict vs. multiple use protected areas in reducing tropical forest fires: a global analysis using matching methods.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  12. Effectiveness of Strict vs. Multiple Use Protected Areas in Reducing Tropical Forest Fires: A Global Analysis Using Matching Methods

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Andrew; Chomitz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas (PAs) cover a quarter of the tropical forest estate. Yet there is debate over the effectiveness of PAs in reducing deforestation, especially when local people have rights to use the forest. A key analytic problem is the likely placement of PAs on marginal lands with low pressure for deforestation, biasing comparisons between protected and unprotected areas. Using matching techniques to control for this bias, this paper analyzes the global tropical forest biome using forest fires as a high resolution proxy for deforestation; disaggregates impacts by remoteness, a proxy for deforestation pressure; and compares strictly protected vs. multiple use PAs vs indigenous areas. Fire activity was overlaid on a 1 km map of tropical forest extent in 2000; land use change was inferred for any point experiencing one or more fires. Sampled points in pre-2000 PAs were matched with randomly selected never-protected points in the same country. Matching criteria included distance to road network, distance to major cities, elevation and slope, and rainfall. In Latin America and Asia, strict PAs substantially reduced fire incidence, but multi-use PAs were even more effective. In Latin America, where there is data on indigenous areas, these areas reduce forest fire incidence by 16 percentage points, over two and a half times as much as naïve (unmatched) comparison with unprotected areas would suggest. In Africa, more recently established strict PAs appear to be effective, but multi-use tropical forest protected areas yield few sample points, and their impacts are not robustly estimated. These results suggest that forest protection can contribute both to biodiversity conservation and CO2 mitigation goals, with particular relevance to the REDD agenda. Encouragingly, indigenous areas and multi-use protected areas can help to accomplish these goals, suggesting some compatibility between global environmental goals and support for local livelihoods. PMID:21857950

  13. 49 CFR 175.9 - Special aircraft operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aircraft. Operators must have all applicable requirements prescribed in 14 CFR Part 133 approved by the FAA... preservation and protection, fire fighting and prevention, flood control, or avalanche control purposes, when... detonators and detonator assemblies) and detonators or detonator assemblies are carried for avalanche...

  14. Remote sensing of thermal radiation from an aircraft - An analysis and evaluation of crop-freeze protection methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutherland, R. A.; Hannah, H. E.; Cook, A. F.; Martsolf, J. D.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal images from an aircraft-mounted scanner are used to evaluate the effectiveness of crop-freeze protection devices. Data from flights made while using fuel oil heaters, a wind machine and an undercanopy irrigation system are compared. Results show that the overall protection provided by irrigation (at approximately 2 C) is comparable to the less energy-efficient heater-wind machine combination. Protection provided by the wind machine alone (at approximately 1 C) was found to decrease linearly with distance from the machine by approximately 1 C/100 m. The flights were made over a 1.5 hectare citrus grove at an altitude of 450 m with an 8-14 micron detector. General meteorological conditions during the experiments, conducted during the nighttime, were cold (at approximately -6 C) and calm with clear skies.

  15. Providing accurate near real-time fire alerts for Protected Areas through NASA FIRMS: Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilavajhala, S.; Davies, D.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Wong, M.; Murphy, K. J.

    2013-12-01

    The NASA Fire Information for Resource Management System (FIRMS) is at the forefront of providing global near real-time (NRT) MODIS thermal anomalies / hotspot location data to end-users . FIRMS serves the data via an interactive Web GIS named Web Fire Mapper, downloads of NRT active fire, archive data downloads for MODIS hotspots dating back to 1999 and a hotspot email alert system The FIRMS Email Alerts system has been successfully alerting users of fires in their area of interest in near real-time and/or via daily and weekly email summaries, with an option to receive MODIS hotspot data as a text file (CSV) attachment. Currently, there are more than 7000 email alert subscriptions from more than 100 countries. Specifically, the email alerts system is designed to generate and send an email alert for any region or area on the globe, with a special focus on providing alerts for protected areas worldwide. For many protected areas, email alerts are particularly useful for early fire detection, monitoring on going fires, as well as allocating resources to protect wildlife and natural resources of particular value. For protected areas, FIRMS uses the World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA) supplied by United Nations Environment Program - World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC). Maintaining the most up-to-date, accurate boundary geometry for the protected areas for the email alerts is a challenge as the WDPA is continuously updated due to changing boundaries, merging or delisting of certain protected areas. Because of this dynamic nature of the protected areas database, the FIRMS protected areas database is frequently out-of-date with the most current version of WDPA database. To maintain the most up-to-date boundary information for protected areas and to be in compliance with the WDPA terms and conditions, FIRMS needs to constantly update its database of protected areas. Currently, FIRMS strives to keep its database up to date by downloading the most recent

  16. Fire Protection Specialist, Blocks IV and V, 17-3. Military Curriculum Materials for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    This military-developed text contains the fourth and fifth blocks of a five-block course for use in training fire protection specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are the following topics: structural firefighting (operation and maintenance of hydrants, emergency response activities, structural pumpers, vehicle positioning and relay, hose…

  17. 78 FR 24997 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Listing of Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances-Fire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... stratospheric ozone layer. This action will provide users that need specialized fire protection applications... History On March 18, 1994, EPA published the original rulemaking (59 FR 13044) which established the... preamble to the rule initially implementing the SNAP program in the Federal Register at 59 FR 13044...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix R to Part 50 - Fire Protection Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... areas important to safety, with the following objectives: • To prevent fires from starting; • To detect... protection in the work activity procedure. 5. Govern the use of ignition sources by use of a flame permit system to control welding, flame cutting, brazing, or soldering operations. A separate permit shall...